Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

8/13/2012

Milk requires more than good nutrition*

What they are fed How they are fed


* A good nutritionist does more than look at a computer Bill Weiss Dept of Animal Sciences Wooster OH

Water Facilities Grouping Environment

Where they are fed

What is Limiting Milk Production


(or health, or repro )

A good diet will not produce milk if good water is limited

1. Genetics ? 2. Nutrition ? 3. Facilities ? 4. Labor ? 5. Climate ? 6. . . .

Fix the weakest link first

Milk is 87.5% water

A good diet will not produce milk if cows cannot get to it

8/13/2012

Over heated cows CANNOT produce more milk regardless of the diet

Feed Cost Control


1. Herd Structure 2. Ingredient selection 3. Feed wastage and shrink

In 1 day , 100 average Holsteins produce the heat equal to burning: 102 gal of gasoline

4. Ration formulation specs

Ingredient Selection: Rule #1 Dairy cows do not require feeds They require nutrients

Economic Evaluation of Feeds


Value a feed = value of its nutrients +/- other stuff Most of the value of a feed for a dairy cow is a function of: Net energy Metabolizable protein Effective fiber

Feeds are just packages of nutrients

http://dairy.osu.edu
Click here

Economic Evaluation of Feeds


Nutrient NEL, $/Mcal MP, $/lb eNDF, $/lb neNDF, $/lb 6 yr Avg 0.10 0.28 0.033 -0.09 July 12 0.22 0.30 -0.06 -0.12

Nutrient Prices from SESAME (central OH) available here

See:http://dairy.osu.edu(Buckeyedairynews)

8/13/2012

Under ideal conditions, 15% of forage harvested as hay or silage is lost. Shrink can exceed 50%
Spoiled Value of corn plants(35% DM) = $50/ton Shrink 15% 20% 30% Cost of silage eaten $59/ton $63/ton $71/ton

Spoiled

Factors Affecting Diet Specifications


1. Requirements of average cow 2. Group composition 3. Milk/feed price 4. Ingredient consistency 5. Feeding management 6. Facilities/general management

Cheap Feed + Expensive Milk Potential Benefit >>> Potential cost


+++Overformulation

TwoFeeds Avg CP=28%


SD=1.0

Variability increases risk Over formulation reduces risk of lost milk

Expensive Feed + Cheap Milk Potential Benefit > Potential cost


+Overformulation

SD=2.2

8/13/2012

Farm A
CS 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 5 Day 10 HCS Mix

NDF
65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 0

Farm B
CS HCS Mix

Feeding Quality Control


Monitor feed DM Multiple source of nutrients Monitor mixing/ particle size

Proper use of mixer Trained workers


5 Day 10 15

Frequent sampling

Feeding Quality Control


Monitor feed DM

WITHIN farm ranges in forage DM%


Feeds were sampled over a 12 month period and were fed at least 5 months on a farm
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

The more confident you Multiple source are inofwhat is being fed nutrients the less you have to over formulate

Monitor mixing/ particle size

Min Mean Max

DM

Variability increases risk


Frequent sampling

Proper use of mixer Trained workers

Corn Sil

Legume Sil

SG sil

Straw

Farms

48

38

15

WITHIN farm ranges in forage NDF%


Feeds were sampled over a 12 month period and were fed at least 5 months on a farm
25

WITHIN farm ranges in concentrate NDF%


Feeds were sampled over a 12 month period and were fed at least 5 months on a farm
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Min
20 15 10 5 0

Mean

Max

NDF

NDF

Min

Mean

Max

Corn Sil

Legume Sil

SG sil

Straw

Corn

HM corn

DDGS

Wet Brew

Farms

48

38

15

Farms

27

23

12

11

8/13/2012

MajorFactorsAffectingRequirements
1. 2. 3. 4. Milkyield BW Milkcomposition Everythingelse
400kg 45 40 35
Mcal ordg/day

Distribution of Milk Yields in One Pen of Holstein Cows


110 Cows Avg = 34 kg/d

650kg

25kgMilk

45kgMilk

BW

Milk

(30 kg/d)

(550 kg)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Pen Feeding

Avg BW (breed avg) Herd avg milk comp How much milk ? ? ?

NEL

MP

NEL

MP

What Milk Yield Should be Used for a Group of Cows ?


More Milk = Requirements and Feed intake

Distribution of Milk Yields in One Pen of Holstein Cows


If all cows past peak DMI, avg diet would meet or exceed requirements for 76% of cows

For Cows > ~Peak Intake Diet for Avg Cow adequate for 1.2 X avg If average = 34 kg/d Diet will support 30 x 1.2 = 41 kg/d

Avg = 34 kg

Distribution of Milk Yields in One Pen of Holstein Cows


If cows past peak DMI, avg diet x 1.15 would Avg = 34 kg/d meet or exceed requirements for 98% of cows

Milk and DMI (>1 Lactation)


CP intake: 700 g: Milk CP: + 90 g
50 45 40
Kg/d

But 84% of the cows are overfed Avg = 34 Balance:39 kg

35 30 25 20 15 10 0 20 40

DMI Milk

2.12

Milk/DMI 1.77
60 80 100 120 140 Days in Milk

Weiss,2009

8/13/2012

Distribution of Lactation Stage in One Pen of Holstein Cows


Avg DIM = 178 (6 months)

Grouping Strategies
For Cow Management Fresh cows (~1 week): easy observation Breeding group Pregnant group For Optimal Nutrition Early lactation group (3 to 4 wks) Peak cow group Peak 2 year old group Late lactation/fat cow group

<

Early Lactation Group (< 25 DIM)


Primary Goal: Maximize DM Intake 1. High CP (high quality plant protein) 2. Limit fat (< 5%) 3. Moderate NDF (~30%) and starch (~24%) 4. Highly digestible NDF 5. Lots of bunk space (65-75 cm)
(25-30 inches)

Ration Specifications for Groups


Rumen Degradable Protein (RDP) - Important for optimal rumen function - Relatively inexpensive - Excess may impair repro ForAllGroups BasedonpenaverageDMI,feed~1.05XNRC(g/d) (10.5to11%ofDM)

This will NOT provide enough energy for long term high milk yields: limit to ~25 DIM

Ration Specifications for Groups


Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) - Important for high milk yields - Very expensive ForMixedGroup(allstages) BasedonpenaverageDMI,formulatefor1.25X* actualmilkyield * Reduce when high feed /low milk price

Example: RUP
Pen has all stages of lactation Actual pen average DMI: 22 kg/d Actual pen average milk: 30 kg/d At 22 kg DMI and 30 kg milk: 4.9% of DM as RUP (NRC) Balance at 22 kg DMI but 1.25 x 30 = 38 kg Requires 5.8% RUP

8/13/2012

Ration Specifications for Groups


Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) ForEarlyGroup BasedonpenaverageDMI,formulatefor1.3X actualmilkyield ForHighGroup(>25DIM) BasedonpenaverageDMI,formulatefor1.15X actualmilkyield

Ration Specifications for Groups


Net Energy Lactation EarlyLactation Notimportant,balancecarbohydrates,limitfat HighGroup(>25DIM) 1.UsepenaverageDMI,formulatetoprovide about1.1XNRCrequirement(Mcal/day) 2.Watchbodyconditionandlactationpeaks andpersistency

Cows have to rest to produce milk


41 farms: Fed exactly the same

What they are fed How they are fed Where they are fed

Water Facilities Grouping Environment 2.6 lbs/day


Bach et al., 2008

Non-diet Factors Affecting Milk Yield


Milk yield, kg/d = 28.4 + 5.9 X Stalls/cow - 0.26 X Age at first calving + 0.64 If feed is left at 22 hr + 1.2 If feed is pushed up during the day

Farm 1
Not crowded (1 stall/cow) 24 month 1st calf Feed left Feed pushed up 30.0 kg/d

Farm 2
Crowded (0.6 stall/cow) 27 month 1st calf No feed left Not pushed up 24.9 kg/d

Bach et al., 2008

~5 kg/day

8/13/2012

Summary
1. Pay attention to herd structure 2. Group lactating cows correctly 3. Formulate to correct specifications -Production potential -Group structure 4. Shop for ingredients 5. Control waste/shrink 6. Pay attention to non-diet factors

Questions http://dairy.osu.edu