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INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS (MEASURING INSTRUMENTS) What is the purpose of measuring instruments The measuring instruments are used to compare the any two quantities What are the types of electrical measuring instruments Electrical measuring instruments are mainly classified as: (1) Indicating instruments (2) Integrating instruments (3) Recording instruments What are the applications of indicating instruments Indicating instruments are used to measure the unknown electrical quantities at a particular instant of time. Ex: voltmeter, ammeter What are the applications of integrating instruments These instruments are used to measure the total quantity of electricity delivered over period of time. Ex: energymeter What are the applications of recording instruments These instruments used to give a continuous record of the given electrical quantity which is being measured over a specific period. Ex: voltmeters used in substation level. What are the essential requirements of measuring instruments For satisfactory operation of measuring instrument, following systems must be present in a instrument (1) Deflecting system producing deflecting torque (2) Controlling system producing controlling torque (3) Damping system producing damping torque What is the purpose of deflecting torque in measuring instrument The deflecting torque is used to deflects the pointer from initial zero position What are the effects used to produce the deflecting torque The deflecting system uses one of the following effects produced by current or voltage, to produce deflecting torque (1) Magnetic effect (2) Thermal effect (3) Electrostatic effect (4) Induction effect (5) Hall effect How the magnetic effect is used to produce the deflecting torque When a current carrying conductor is placed in uniform magnetic field, it experience a force which causes to move it. This effect is mainly used in MI type & PMMC type instruments. How the thermal effect is used to produce the deflecting torque The current to be measured is passed through a small element which heats it to cause rise in temperature which is converted to an e.m.f. by a thermocouple attached to it. What is thermocouple When two dissimilar metals are connected end to end form a closed loop and the two junctions formed are maintained at different temperatures, then e.m.f. is induced which causes the flow of current through the closed circuit which is called a thermocouple

How the electrostatic effect is used to produce the deflecting torque

When two plates are charged, there is a force exerted between them, which moves one of the plates. This effect is used in electrostatic instruments which are normally voltmeters. How the induction effect is used to produce the deflecting torque When a non-magnetic conducting disc is placed in a magnetic field produced by electromagnets which are excited by alternating currents, an e.m.f. is induced in it. How the hall effect is used to produce the deflecting torque If a bar of semiconducting material is placed in uniform magnetic field and if the bar carries current, then am e.m.f. is produced between two edges of conductor. What are the functions of controlling torque in measuring instrument The important functions of this system are, (1) It produces a force equal and opposite to the deflecting force in order to make the deflection of pointer at a definite magnitude. (2) It brings the moving system back to zero when the force which causes the movement of the moving system is removed. What are the methods used to produce the controlling torque Gravity control & spring control methods What is the controlling torque equation for gravity control method

Tc = Wsin x L
What are advantages of gravity control method (1) Its operation is not the time dependent (2) It is simple and cheap (3) Its performance is not temperature dependent What are the disadvantages of gravity control method (1) The scale is nonuniform (2) The system must be used in vertical position only What is the controlling torque equation for spring control method Tc = (Ebt3 )/(12L)

What are requirements of hair springs attached to the moving system which exerts controlling torque To employ spring control to an instrument, following requirements are essential (1) The spring should be non-magnetic (2) The spring should be free from mechanical losses (3) The spring should have a small resistance, sufficient cross sectional area (4) It should have low resistance temperature co-efficient What is the purpose of deflecting torque in measuring instrument To reduce the oscillations & to bring the pointer to rest with in short time What are the methods used to produce the controlling torque The following methods are used to produce damping torque. (1) Air friction damping (2) Fluid friction damping (3) Eddy current damping What are the advantages of fluid friction damping (1) Due to more viscosity of fluid, more damping is provided (2) The oil can be used for insulation purpose (3) Due to up thrust of oil, the load on the bearings is reduced, thus reducing the frictional errors What are the disadvantages of fluid friction damping

(1) This can be only used for the instruments which are in vertical position (2) Due to oil leakage, the instruments cannot be kept clean What is settling time The time required by the pointer to achieve the steady state when the complete transient behavior dies out is called settling time. What is current sensitivity It is defined as the deflection per unit current

Si = f/I = (Gi)/(Ki) = G/K


What is voltage sensitivity It is defined as the deflection obtained in scale divisions per unit voltage impressed on the galvanometer.

What does the Torque-weight ratio of an instrument indicates Sensitivity What is the formula for absolute error The diff between indicated value and true value The units of the sensitivity of a voltmeter Ohms/volts What is the basic SI unit of temperature Degree Kelvin Which type of electrical quantity does PMMC instrument measures Dc quantities Moving iron meters can be used upto which frequency levels 100 The units whose size cannot be choosen independently are called as Derived units

What is the measure of reproducibility of an instrument Precision Which material is used for standard resistance Manganin What is the span of the instrument

difference between upper and lower range of values What type of instruments are used for standardizing laboratories Absolute instruments Which material is used for swamping resistances Manganin Which type of galvanometer is used to measure the flux Ballistic galvanometer Which chemical is used in standard saturated Weston cell Cadmium sulphate Shunt resistances are added to extend the range of which meters Ammeters Which instrument is used to measure the insulator resistance Megger Which parameter is measured by Electrostatic effect Voltage What type of errors can be reduced by turns compensation in current transformer Ratio error Which parameter can be measured by Maxwells bridge Inductance Which factor can be measured by using Desauty bridge Dissipation factor