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Answers to AS problems in Chemical Ideas

Section 7.1
1 a Rate of evaporation = rate of condensation. b It is a closed system, in which there is a dynamic equilibrium between water vapour and liquid. c No longer a closed system, H2O(g) escapes. d i Towards H2O(l) ii Towards H2O(g). 2 a Equilibrium lies to the reactants side because at equilibrium there is a greater concentration of reactants than products. b Equilibrium is reached at the point where the graphs become horizontal. 3 B 4 a left right b right left c no change d left right e left right 5 a The concentrated hydrochloric acid moves the position for the equilibrium to the left, the bismuth trichloride is predominantly present as BiCl3(aq). b The equilibrium would move to the right due to the large amount of water, hence a white precipitate of BiOCl(s) would be seen. 6 a There would be no change to fizziness as the concentration of CO2(g) is not influenced by the amount of air present since the system had already come to equilibrium. b The increase in concentration of CO2(g) would make the first equilibrium move to the right and form more CO2(aq) which in turn would make the second equilibrium move to the right and increase the concentration of H+(aq). c Dilute alkali would react with H+(aq) and the reduction in concentration of H+(aq) would cause the second equilibrium to move to the right. The resulting reduction in the concentration of CO2(aq) would cause the first equilibrium to move to the right and more CO2(g) would dissolve and so the equilibrium pressure of carbon dioxide would decrease.

Section 9.1
1 a K K+ + e oxidation H2 2H+ + 2e oxidation O + 2e O2 reduction Cu+ Cu2+ + e oxidation Cr3+ + e Cr2+ reduction Ag(+1) h C(+4), O(2) Br(0) i P(+5), Cl(1) P(0) j Al(+3), O(2) H(+1) k S(+6), F(1) H(1) l S(+6), O(2) N(3) m N(+5), O(2) Mg(+2), Cl(1) n P(+5), O(2) Cl(0) Cl(1) reduced Fe(0) Fe(+3) oxidised Cl(0) Cl(1) reduced H(0) H(+1) oxidised Cl(0) Cl(1) reduced Fe(+2) Fe(+3) oxidised F(0) F(1) reduced O(2) O(0) oxidised i Cl2 ii Fe i Cl2 ii H2 i Cl2 ii FeCl2 i F2 ii H2O Cl(+5) Cl(1) reduced O(2) O(0) oxidised S(+6) S(+4) reduced Br(1) Br(0) oxidised S(+6) S(2) reduced I(1) I(0) oxidised I(0) I(1) reduced S(+4) S(+6) oxidised b i ii iii iv v 6 a Cu2O + 2H+ Cu2+ + Cu + H2O Cu: 2(+1) +2 0 oxidised and reduced O: 2 2 no change H: 2(+1) 2(+1) no change 3Br2 + 6OH BrO3 + 5Br + 3H2O Br: 6(0) +5 5(1) oxidised and reduced O: 6(2) 3(2) 3(2) no change H: 6(+1) 6(+1) no change 4IO3 3IO4 + I I: 4(+5) 3(+7) 1 oxidised and reduced O: 12(2) 12(2) no change tin(II) oxide tin(IV) oxide iron(II) chloride iron(III) chloride lead(IV) chloride copper(I) oxide manganese(II) hydroxide nitrate(III) nitrate(V) sulphate(IV) sulphate(VI) manganate(VII) chromate(VI) vandate(V) KClO2 NaClO3 Fe(OH)3 Cu(NO3)2

2 a b c d e f g 3 a b c d 4 a b c d 5 a b c d

7 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n 8 a b c d

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Salters Advanced Chemistry, Pearson Education Ltd 2008. University of York. This document may have been altered from the original.