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Lesson Schedule Unit 1 WATER TECHNOLOGY Objective To make the student conversant with the need and methods of treating water for industrial and domestic purposes


Topics to be covered

Introduction Sources of water Possible impurities Way of Entry

Property Hard and Soft Water Types of Hardness : Permanent and Temporary Hardness Units of Hardness Expression of Hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalence Alkalinity Types of alkalinity

Measurements Complexometric determination of Hardness Determination of Phenolphthalein and Methyl Orange alkalinity



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Water For Industrial use Requirements Disadvantages of using hard water in boilers (or) Boiler Problems 1. 2. 3. 4. Priming and Foaming Scale and Sludge Boiler Corrosion Caustic Embrittlement

Softening methods - Internal conditioning Phosphate conditioning method Calgon conditioning method Carbonate conditioning method Colloidal Conditioning method

Softening methods - External conditioning Demineralization Process

Desalination Reverse osmosis

Domestic Water Treatment Chlorination Ozonation UV treatment


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INTRODUCTION Water plays an important role in our daily life. 70% of the earth is covered by water, out of which 97% is in oceans and hence saline (not usable) 2% is locked as polar ice caps (not available for use) only 1% is available as surface and ground water (Usable)

Usable Sources

Surface water (River, Lake Etc)

Undergro Surface water (river,lake ,sea etc) Underground water (Well, Spring etc)

Though the ground water is clear, it contains dissolved salts, hence not pure. Surface water contains dissolved salts, dissolved gases and suspended impurities. Water is used as a raw material for some industries and agriculture It is an essential commodity for cooking , washing etc (Domestic purpose)

Surface and Underground water are normally used for Domestic and industrial purposes. Hence they must be free from impurities and fit for using


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Possible Impurities in surface water




Property affected


Colloidal and Suspended

Fine clay, decomposed matter, salts of iron, vegetable and animal matter manganese etc.

Colour, odour, taste Turbidity

Dissolved salts and

Sulphates, Chlorides, Calcium and Magnesium bicarbonates Sodium and potassium salts

Hardness and alkalinity

Chemical Dissolved gases O2, CO2, H2S Acidity


Micro organisms

Fungi, bacteria

Non potable

Way of Entry Rain recharges both surface and underground bodies. When water flows it collects impurities like dissolved salts, minerals, fine clay and silica. Some insoluble minerals undergo reaction and forms products which dissolve in water. For example anhydrous Calcium sulphate is converted to Calcium di hydrate and olivine is converted to serpentine


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CaSO4 + 2H2O ----------------- CaSO42H2O Mg2SiO4 + xH2O -------------- Mg2SiO4xH2O Olivine Serpentine 2Fe2S3 + 2H2O + 15O2 -------------- 4FeSO4 + 2H2SO4 ferric ferrous sulphide sulphate

Action of dissolved CO2 CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O -------------- Ca(HCO3)2 MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O -------------- Mg(HCO3)2 Insoluble carbonates are converted to soluble and hardness producing bi carbonates Hard and Soft Water The property of water which prevents it from lathering is called Hardness Water which does not produce lather with soap solution, but produces white precipitate is called hard water and which produces lather readily with soap solution is called Soft water. 2 C17H35COONa + Hard water (C17H35COO)2Ca / Mg + 2Na+ soap white scum Soap + Soft water Lather

Types of Hardness Hardness may be of two types viz., Temporary Hardness Permanent Hardness


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Temporary Hardness or Carbonate Hardness (CH) or Alkaline Hardness (AH): This is due to the presence of bicarbonates of calcium and It can be removed by mere boiling magnesium.

The bicarbonates are converted into insoluble carbonates and hydroxides, which can be removed by filtering.

Ca (HCO3)2 CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 Ca (HCO3prolonged )2 CaCO3 + H2O + CO2

prolonged Mg (HCO3)2 Mg(OH)2 + 2CO2 prolonged Mg (HCO3)2 Mg(OH)2 + 2CO2 prolonged

Permanent Hardness or Non-carbonate Hardness (NCH) or Nonalkaline Hardness(NAH): This is caused by the presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. It cannot be removed by boiling. It can be removed only by Chemical treatment. The most economic and common method of treatment is heating with soda (sodium carbonate) for example

CaSO4 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + Na2SO4


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Units of Hardness i) Parts per million (ppm) or Milligram per litre (mg/ L) ii) Degree French (oFr) iii) Degree Clark (oCl) ppm : 1 part of CaCO3 equivalent hardness in 106 parts of water mg/ L : 1 mg of CaCO3 equivalent hardness in 1 L of water Weight of 1 L of water = 1 Kg. = 1000 g = 1000000 mg = 106 mg Hence 1ppm = 1mg / L

1ppm = 1mg/L = 0.1oFr = 0.07o Cl

Expression of Hardness in terms of CaCO3 Equivalents (Importance of calcium carbonate equivalents) Hardness is expressed in terms of CaCO3 Equivalents because i) ii) it is most insoluble salt obtained in water treatment Molecular weight is 100 ( Eq. Wt 50)

Formula for calculating hardness in terms of CaCO3 Wt. of Hardness producing substance present in water (in mg) x 100 Molecular Wt. of hardness producing substance OR Wt. of Hardness producing substance present in water (in mg) x 50 Equivalent Wt. of hardness producing substance


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Differences between hard and soft water

Hard Water

Soft Water

Contains Ca and Mg salts

Does not contain Ca and Mg salts

Does not produce lather with soap

Produces lather easily with soap

Soap is wasted and cleaning quality is decreased

Cleaning quality is not decreased

Boiling point elevated, more time and fuel for cooking

Less fuel and time required for cooking

PROBLEMS BASED ON HARDNESS 1. If a sample of water contains 40mg of Ca2+ ions per litre, what is its calcium hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalent? Hardness in = Wt. of hardness producing Ca2+ terms of CaCO3 ------------------------------------------------ X Mol. Wt. of CaCO3 Mol. Wt. of Ca2+ = 40 / 40 X 100 =100 ppm


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2. A water sample contains 73 mg of Mg(HCO3)2 per litre. Calculate the hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalent? Hardness in = Wt. of hardness producing Mg (HCO3)2 terms of CaCO3 ------------------------------------------------ X Mol.Wt.of CaCO3 Mol. Wt. of Mg (HCO3)2 = 73 /146 X 100 = 50 ppm

3. A water sample contains 120 mg of MgSO4 per litre. Calculate the hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalents. Hardness in = Wt. of hardness producing MgSO4 terms of CaCO3 -------------------------------------------- X Mol.Wt.of CaCO3 Mol. Wt. of MgSO4 = 120 / 120 X 100 = 100ppm 4. Calculate the hardness of a sample of water containing 81 mg of calcium bicarbonate per litre of water. Hardness in = Wt. of hardness producing Ca (HCO3)2 terms of CaCO3 ------------------------------------------------ X Mol.Wt.of CaCO3 Mol. Wt. of Ca (HCO3)2 = 81 / 162 X 100 = 50 ppm 5. A water sample contains 50 mg of MgCl2 per litre. Calculate the hardness in terms of CaCO3 equivalent. Hardness in = Wt.of hardness producing MgCl2 terms of CaCO3 -------------------------------------------- X Mol. Wt. of CaCO3 Mol. Wt. of MgCl2 = 50 / 95 X 100 = 52.63 ppm


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6. Calculate temporary hardness and total hardness of a sample of water containing Mg(HCO3)2= 7.3ppm ; Ca(HCO3)2 =40.5ppm ; MgCl2 = 21.75ppm ; CaSO4 = 13.6ppm and = 50 ppm. Solution Name of the hardness producing salt Mg(HCO3)2 Ca(HCO3)2 CaSO4 MgCl2 NaCl Amount in Ppm 7.3 40.5 13.6 21.75 50 Molecular Weight Amount equivalent to CaCO3 in ppm

146 7.3 x100/ 146 = 5 162 40.5 x 100 / 162 = 25 136 13.6 x 100 / 136 = 10 95 21.75 x 100 / 95 = 22.9 NaCl does not contribute any hardness to water, hence it is ignored. Temporary Hardness = Mg (HCO3)2 + Ca (HCO3)2 = 5 + 25 = 30 ppm Permanent Hardness = CaSO4 + MgCl2 = 10 + 22.9 = 32.9 ppm Total Hardness = Temporary hardness + Permanent Hardness = 30 + 32.9 = 62.9 ppm

7. A sample of water contains 50mg of MgCl2 and 120mg of MgSO4 per litre. Express the hardness in terms of CaCO3. Hardness due to MgCl2 = 50 / 95 x 100 = 52.6 ppm Hardness due to MgSO4 = 120 /120 x 100 = 100 ppm Total Hardness = 52.6 + 100 = 152.6 ppm.


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ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS BY EDTA For experimental determination refer your Lab Record and class notes

Alkalinity Alkalinity of water may be mainly due to the presence of anions such as OH, CO32 or / and HCO3 . Both OH and CO32 have a pH value > 8, while the weak HCO3 has a pH >7 < 8 (7-8). During the determination of alkalinity, acid is taken in burette and water sample is taken in the conical flask. The choice of indicator depends on the pH of the alkaline substance. The working range of phenolphthalein lies between pH 8 to 10 and that of methyl orange is pH 3.4 to 11.3 ( in acidic medium it is pink and in alkaline medium it is yellow) OH can be detected using phenolphthalein only. While both CO32& HCO3 cannot be completely detected by phenolphthalein . CO32 + H+ HCO3 + H+ CO2 + H2O Hence for effective determination of both CO32& HCO3 the choice of indicator should be Methyl Orange. Qualitative and Quantitative estimation of alkalinity Aim: To determine the type (quality) and amount (quantity) of alkalinity present in the given water sample. Requirements: Water sample


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Standard Acid (normal) solution Indicators Phenolphthalein and Methyl Orange Principle: The determination of alkalinity is based on the following reactions: i) [OH ] + [H+] H2O (Phenolphthalein pink to colourless) ii) [CO32] + [H+] [HCO3] (Phenolphthalein pink to colourless Methyl orange yellow) iii) [HCO3 ] + [H+] H2O + CO2 (Methyl orange yellow to pink)

The titration of the water sample against a standard acid up to phenolphthalein end point marks the completion of reaction OH (i) & partial neutralization of CO32 (ii). Titration of the water sample upto methyl orange end point marks the complete neutralization of all the ions as shown by reactions (i), (ii) & (iii). The possibility of OH and HCO3 ions existing together is ruled out as they combine immediately to form CO32 ions. OH+ HCO3 NaOH + NaHCO3 CO32 + H2O Na2CO3 + H2O

On the basis of same reasoning, all the three OH, CO32 and HCO3 ions cannot exist together. Experimental Procedure: Pipette out a known volume of water (say20 ml ) sample into a clean conical flask and add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator.


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Titrate against standard acid solution till the pink colour disappears. This indicates the complete neutralization of hydroxide and partial neutrallisation of carbonate to bicarbonate. Then to the same solution, add 2-3 drops of methyl orange indicator and continue the titration till the pink colour reappears. At this point all the alkaline substances would have been neutralized and the water sample becomes weakly acidic. Calculations: Let the volume of acid consumed up to phenolphthalein end point be V1 ml and the total volume of acid consumed up to methyl orange end point be V2 ml Phenolphthalein alkalinity in terms of calcium carbonate equivalence P = V1 X Strength of acid (N) X Equivalent Wt.of CaCO3(50)X 1000 = ---ppm Volume of water sample

Methyl Orange alkalinity in terms of calcium carbonate equivalence M = V2 X Strength of acid (N) X Equivalent Wt. of CaCO3(50)X 000 =--- -ppm Volume of water sample

Relation between P & M Case I : Alkalinity is due to HCO3 only P=0 ( ie on adding phenolphthalein the water sample is colourless) The titration is carried out with methyl orange indicator HCO3 + H+ CO2 + H2O Amount of HCO3 = M


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Case II : Alkalinity is due to CO32 only


CO32 + H+ HCO3 + H+ CO2 + H2O


M = 2P



Amount of CO32 is 2P

Case I I I : Alkalinity is due to OH only On adding phenolphthalein the water sample is pink After phenolphthalein end point if MO is added the solution immediately becomes pink indicating that the water sample is already weakly acidic The titration is carried out with phenolphthalein indicator


Amount of OH is = P


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Case IV : Alkalinity is due to OH and CO32 M OH ,CO32 + H+ H2O + HCO3 + H+ CO2 + H2O pH > 8 pH < 8 MO P when P > M/2 (or) 2P > M <P

Let the acid consumed for partial neutralization that is phenolphthalein end point be P And the acid consumed for complete neutralization be M ( P + MO indicator) Acid consumed by HCO3 only = Total Phenolphthalein end point = M P Amount of CO32 = twice that consumed for bicarbonate = 2 (M P) We Know that total alkalinity M =,CO32 alkalinity + OH alkalinity Substituting the value of CO32 = 2 (M P ) M = 2 (M P) + OH alkalinity OH alkalinity = M [2 (M P )] = M [ 2M 2P] = M 2M + 2P = M + 2P Amount of OH = 2P M


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Case V: Alkalinity is due to CO32 and HCO3 M CO32, HCO3 + H+ HCO3 + H+ CO2 + H2O pH > 8 P pH < 8 MO CO32 HCO3 = P Amount of CO32 = 2P Total alkalinity M = CO32 + HCO3 M = 2P + HCO3 Amount of HCO3 = M 2P

Relation between the P and M values and the quality and quantity of ions present is summarized in the following table: Case 1 Alkalinity(ppm) P=0 OH CO32 HCO3 P=M/2 P=M P P>M/2 P<M/2 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5

2PM 2(MP)





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Disadvantages of Hard Water (Limitations of Hard water)



Responsible salts

DOMESTIC USE Does not lather well, Wastage of soap and water wastage of soap and water Elevation in boiling point. Hence more fuel and time is required. Scales are produced in the utensils Hazardous to health as it forms calcium oxalate crystals in urinary tracks


Due to salts of Ca & Mg


Due to salts of Ca & Mg


Due to hardness causing salts like Ca & Mg


Due to Calcium ions


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INDUSTRIAL USE Coloured spots on fabrics staining of cloth Affects colour, Does not give smoothness or glossy appearance Affects crystallization, makes sugar hygroscopic. Colour/ Stains on the cloth Requires more soap and water Scale and Sludge formation. Corrosion and Caustic embrittlement Priming and Foaming Due to hardness causing salts like Ca & Mg and iron & Mn salts



Due to salts of Ca & Mg


Due to sulphates, nitrates, alkali carbonates


Due to Mn & Iron salts

Due to salts of Ca & Mg Dissolved gases

Steam generation in Boilers



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Water fed into the boiler for the production of steam is called boiler feed water.

REQUIREMENTS OF BOILER FEED WATER Boiler feed water should be free from hardness producing substances. If hard water is fed directly into the boiler it leads to the following boiler troubles which reduce the efficiency of the boiler.


Effect in boiler



Dissolved gases O2 / CO2 and dissolved salts like MgCl2


Mg(HCO3)2,Mg(OH)2, Ca(HCO3)2, CaSO4

Scales are formed which decreases the efficiency of Boiler Priming also occurs

MgCl2 , MgSO4, CaCl2 , MgCO3

Sludge is formed which decreases the efficiency of Boiler.


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BOILER TROUBLES SCALE AND SLUDGE FORMATION: In boiler, water is converted to steam. During this process, when the volume of water decreases, a saturation point is reached and all the dissolved salts precipitate out. Depending on the physical and chemical nature of the impurity (salt) it may form a loose, slimy, non- adhering precipitate (Sludge) or hard strongly adhering precipitate (Scale)



Loose, slimy non adhering precipitate

Hard, adherent coating

Due to presence of salts like MgCl2 , MgSO4, CaCl2 , MgCO3

Due to presence of salts like Mg(HCO3)2,Mg(OH)2, Ca(HCO3)2, CaSO4


Low thermal conductivity hence wastage of fuel

Wastage of fuel

Occasional entrapped between scales

Decrease in efficiency of the boiler


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Choking of the pipes

Lowering of boiler safety

Prevention and Removal

By using softened water

By dissolving in acids like HCl, H2SO4

By blow down operation

By applying external and internal treatment. Removed by scrapping, wire brushes etc.

PRIMING & FOAMING Priming: When steam is produced rapidly in boilers the steam velocity suddenly increases and some droplets of liquid water are carried along with steam. Steam containing droplets of liquid water is called wet steam. The process of wet steam formation is called Priming. Priming is caused by Presence of large amount of dissolved solids High steam velocity Sudden boiling Improper boiler design Priming can be prevented by Using treated water Controlling the velocity of steam Fitting mechanical steam purifiers. Maintaining low water level Good boiler design


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Foaming: Oil or any other polymeric substance present in boiler feed water, reduces surface tension of water forming bubbles which do not break easily in boilers giving a foam appearance. This process is called foaming. Foaming is caused by Presence of oil & grease Presence of finely divided sludge particles Foaming can be prevented by Adding coagulants like sodium aluminate, ferrous sulphate etc. Boiler Corrosion: Boiler corrosion is decay of boiler material by chemical or electrochemical attack of its environment. Boiler corrosion is due to presence of Dissolved oxygen Dissolved carbon dioxide Dissolved salts like magnesium chloride i) Dissolved oxygen: When water containing dissolved oxygen is fed into boilers the following reaction occurs corroding the boiler material (rust formation) 2Fe + 2H2O + O2 2Fe(OH)2 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 2 [ Fe2O32H2O] Prevention methods for removing dissolved oxygen(D.O.): D. O. oxygen can be reduced by adding hydrazine / sodium sulphite N2H4 + O2 N2 + 2H2O 2Na2SO3 + O2 2Na2SO4 D.O. can be removed by mechanical deaeration method.


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Dissolved carbon dioxide:

When water containing bicarbonates is heated, carbon dioxide is evolved which makes the water acidic. This is detrimental to the metal. It leads to intense local corrosion called pitting corrosion. Ca(HCO3)2 CO2 + H2O CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 H2CO3

Prevention methods for removing dissolved carbon dioxide: By treatment with ammonium hydroxide: 2NH4OH + CO2 (NH4)2CO3 + H2O Can be removed by mechanical deaeration method along with oxygen.


Dissolved MgCl2 :

Acids produced from salts that are dissolved in water are mainly responsible for the corrosion of boilers. Salts like magnesium and calcium chloride undergo hydrolysis at high temperature to give HCl, which corrodes the boiler. Presence of HCl is more damaging due to chain reaction. MgCl2 + 2H2O Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2

FeCl2 + 2H2O Fe(OH)2 + 2HCl MgCl2 can be removed by internal conditioning external conditioning


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Caustic Embrittlement: ( type of boiler corrosion) It is the cracking of boiler metal. In high pressure boilers sodium carbonate (used in carbonate condition) decomposes to give sodium hydroxide. This NaOH flows into the minute hair cracks of boiler material and dissolves surrounding area of iron as sodium ferroate. This makes the boiler brittle and leads to cracking.

Na2CO3 + H2O 2NaOH + CO2 2Fe + 4NaOH 2Na2FeO2 + 2H2O

Caustic embrittlement can be prevented by Using sodium phosphate instead of sodium carbonate during internal conditioning Adding chemicals like tannin, lignin to the boiler water which seals the tiny air line cracks.

SOFTENING METHODS Internal Conditioning: Internal conditioning is treating the water after feeding into the boiler. The objective of internal conditioning is to convert scale forming precipitate to sludge forming precipitates which can be removed by blow down operation. Method Carbonate Phosphate Calgon Colloidal Agent applied Sodium Carbonate Sodium Phosphate Sodium hexa meta phosphate Tannin, kerosene, Agar-Agar


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Carbonate conditioning: Scale forming salt like CaSO4 present in the water adheres more strongly this can be prevented by precipitating Ca as CaCO3 which gives raise to a loosely adhering scale , by adding Na2CO3. CaSO4 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + Na2SO4 Disadvantage / Limitation: Applicable only for low pressure boiler Causes caustic embrittlement and corrosion in high pressure boilers as the unreacted Na2CO3 will be converted to NaOH and CO2. Calgon conditioning The chemical constitution of calgon is Sodium hexametaphosphate Na2[Na4(PO3)6]. On dissolving calgon in water it dissociates as Na2[Na 4 (PO3)6] 2Na+ + [Na 4 P6O18] 2

2CaSO4 + [Na4P6O18] 2 [Ca2P6O18] 2 + 2Na2SO4 (adhering) (non-adhering)

Phosphate conditioning: Impurities make water alkaline. Depending on pH of water mono / di / tri phosphate is used for treatment. The phosphate reacts with calcium and magnesium salts forming non-adhering precipitate which can be removed by blow down operation. CaCl2 + 2PO43- Ca3(PO4)2 + 6Cl


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Colloidal conditioning: In low pressure boilers scale formation can be avoided by adding organic substances like kerosene, tannin, agar-agar etc. They get coated over the scale forming precipitates, converting into loose deposits which can be easily removed. EXTERNAL CONDITIONING: Removal of hardness producing salts from the water before feeding into boiler. The external treatment can be done by the following methods. Lime Soda process Zeolite Process Ion Exchange Process / Demineralization process / de-ionisation process Ion Exchange or Deionisation or Demineralization Process Dimeralised water is soft water but soft water is not demineralised water Deionisation process removes all the anions and cations present in the hard water. TDS is as low as 10 ppm and the water can be used even in high pressure boilers Demineralisation of water is done in an ion exchanger. Ion Exchange resins are insoluble cross linked long chain macro polymer with micro porous structure and the functional groups attached to the chains are responsible for the ion exchanging properties. The equipment contains a cation exchanger and an anion exchanger.


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Cation Exchanger: Resins containing acidic functional group ( COOH, SO3H) are capable of exchanging their H+ ions with other cations of hard water. Cation exchange resin is represented as RH + Anion Exchanger: Resins containing basic functional groups ( NH2 ) or quaternary ammonium groups are capable of exchanging their OH ions with other anions of hard water. Anion exchange resin is represented as ROH


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Process: The hard water is first passed through a cation exchange column, which removes all the cations like Calcium, Magnesium from it and equivalent amount of H+ ions are released. 2RH+ + Ca2+ R2Ca2+ + 2H+ 2RH+ + Mg2+ R2Mg2+ + 2H+ The cation free water is then passed through an anion exchange column, which removes all the anions like chlorides, sulphates etc. and equivalent amount of OH ions are released from the column. ROH + Cl RCl + OH 2ROH + SO42 R2SO42 + 2OH H+ and OH- ions combine to form water H+ + OH H2O The water coming out is completely free from cations and anions. This water is known as demineralised water or deionised water. Regeneration: when the cation exchange resin is exhausted, it can be regenerated by passing a solution of dil. HCl or H2SO4. R2Ca2+ + 2H+ 2RH+ + Ca2+ ( washing)


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Similarly for the exhausted anion exchanger dil.NaOH can be used. R2SO42- + 2OH 2ROH + SO42 (washing) Advantages of ion exchange process: Highly acidic or alkaline water can be treated The water obtained will have very low TDS (< 5ppm) Disadvantages of ion exchange process: The equipment is costly Resins are expensive Turbid water cannot be used because it reduces the efficiency of the process Water containing Fe / Mn cannot be treated since it forms stable compound with the resin and regeneration of such resins fails DESALINATION OF BRACKISH WATER Water containing dissolved salts with a salty taste is called brackish water. It cannot be used for drinking purpose. The process of removing extra common salt from saline water is known as desalination. Commonly used desalination methods are Electro-dialysis - Ion selective membranes are used Reverse Osmosis Freezing Distillation


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REVERSE OSMOSIS: ( super filtration or hyper filtration.)

The natural osmosis process can be reversed by applying pressure higher than the osmotic pressure on the concentrated solution side. This will force the fresh water to move from concentrated to dilute side across the semi permeable membrane. This process of reversal of osmosis is called reverse osmosis. The membranes used are cellulose acetate, Polyamide, Sulphone etc. Advantages: The life time of the membrane is high. Membrane can be replaced within short time It removes all types of impurities Water obtained by this process is used for high pressure boilers Process is used for converting sea water into drinking water.

DOMESTIC WATER TREATMENT Requisites: Drinking or potable water should be Clear,colourless and odourless


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turbidity not > 10 ppm Free from objectionable minerals & dissolved gases pH ~ 7.5 8.0 TDS < 500 ppm Free from disease causing microorganisms Free from Pb, As, Cr, Mn, Fe etc. Hardness < 125 ppm


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Potable water / Domestic water / Municipal water Treatment Raw Water from river / lake / pond / well

Process: Screening Aim : To remove large debris, and floating particles by passing through b ars / rods

Process: Sedimentation Aim : To remove suspended solids by retaining water in settling tanks

Process: Coagulation Aim : To remove colloidal impurities by adding chemicals such as alum

Process: Filtration Aim : To remove any residual solids, colour & odour by passing through sand filter

Process: Disinfection Aim : To remove pathogenic micro organisms by treating with Cl2 / UV

Storage & Distribution


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Screening: The bar racks and screens are used to remove floating particles like leaves, plastic, wood pieces etc. Sedimentation: Water is allowed to stand undisturbed in settling tanks, about 5m deep. The suspended particles settle down at the bottom due to gravitational force The retention period in sedimentation tank ranges from 2-6 hours depending on the quantity of suspended impurity Coagulation / Flocculation: Chemical coagulation and flocculation are used to produce a flocculent precipitate that encapsules the colloidal and suspended solids in the water. The precipitate is removed by gravitational sedimentation. The commonly used coagulants are alum, sodium aluminate and ferrous sulphate. Alum: Al2(SO4)3 + 6H2O 2Al (OH)3 + 3H2SO4

Sodium aluminate: NaAlO2 + 2H2O Al (OH)3 + NaOH Filtration: Filtration is used to remove any residual solids remaining after sedimentation. It is done in Sand filters. The water is passed through a bed of fine sand placed over coarse sand layer and gravel. During filtration the sand pores get clogged, due to retention of impurities in the pores. When the process becomes slow the top sand layer is scrapped off and washed with water, dried and reused. Disinfection: Disinfection is used for destroying pathogenic micro organisms. The chemicals added for killing the bacteria are called disinfectants.


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Disinfection can be carried out by following methods: Boiling Bleaching powder Chlorination Chloramines Ozonation UV treatment Bleaching powder: About 1kg of bleaching powder per 1000 kilolitres of water is mixed and water is allowed to stand for several hours. The chemical reaction produces hypochlorous acid a germicide which destroys the germs. CaOCl2 + H2O Ca (OH)2 + Cl2 Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl Germs + HOCl Germs are killed Break-point chlorination Break point chlorination is addition of just sufficient amount of chlorine to oxidise organic matter, reducing substances and free ammonia in raw water, leaving behind mainly free chlorine, which possesses disinfecting action against pathogenic bacteria.
The Breakpointanother look
Chlorine is reduced to chlorides by easily oxid izab le stuff (H2 S, Fe2+, etc.) Cl2 Chloramines consumed b y broken down reactio n with & converted organic to nitrogen matter. If gas which NH3 is leaves the present, system chloramine Breakpoint. formatio n begins.


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Chlorination: Chlorine gas is used Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCl Germs + HOCl Germs are killed Chlorination



Broad Spectrum


Kills Spores and Phage

Irritating to Skin, eyes and mucous membrane In some cases leads to stomach dysfunction Very Sensitive to pH

Liquid or Powder Acceptable for Hard Water


Sensitive to Organics And has to be preserved 120 F.

Chloramine: ClNH2 + H2O HOCl + NH3 Ozonation: Ozone is highly unstable and breaks down, liberating nascent oxygen. O3 O2 + [O] [O] + Germs kills the germs


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Nascent oxygen is a powerful oxidizing agent. 2 - 3 ppm dosage is injected in a sterilizing tank. 10 -15 min contact time

Advantages: Ozone has a greater disinfection effectiveness against bacteria and viruses compared to chlorination. It simultaneously removes colour, odour and taste without giving any residue. It also removes hydrogen sulphide ,manganese and iron Ozone in excess is not harmful, since it is unstable and decomposes into oxygen No detrimental environmental impact Disadvantage: Expensive method hence not used for municipal water supply No residual disinfecting effects to keep water disinfected to customer Lesser solubility in water compared to chlorine so special mixing technique has to be employed Potential fire hazards and toxicity issues are associated with ozone generation. Some by products formed during ozonation are carcinogenic


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Ultraviolet light treatment UV light method of disinfection is economical for disinfecting water only in a small scale. UV light from mercury vapour lamp is capable of destroying all microorganisms within a short time of 10 -20 seconds thereby disinfecting water. Mechanism of action The UV light disrupts the DNA in the microorganisms. This inactivates the cells and prevents their multiplication. Thus destroy them completely and effectively The advantages of UV disinfection disinfection without adding chemicals does not change the taste minimal maintenance immediate treatment without the need for holding in tanks low power consumption Inexpensive if sun rays are used as UV light source

Disadvantages No residual disinfecting ( ie. No continued effect) Costly if electrically powered UV lamps are used The colloidal suspension has to be removed by filtration before subjection to UV treatment since they absorb UV light and reduce the amount of radiation available for disinfection.