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Q1. a) The sensitivity of DC uses half wave rectifier. The sensitivity of an AC voltmeter uses a full wave rectifier.

b) The DC voltmeter sensitivity is given by:

For the AC voltmeter sensitivity is given by:


Wheatstone's bridge is the basic dc bridge that used for accurate measurement of resistance. Kelvins Bridge is employed when the resistance to be measured is of the order of magnitude of bridge contact and lead resistance, therefore its a modified form of Wheatstone's bridge. Kelvins bridge is a modification of Wheatstone's bridge and is used to measure values of resistance below 1. In low resistance measurement, the resistance of the leads connecting the unknown resistance to the terminal of the bridge circuit may affect the measurement.

The bridge is balanced when there is no current through the galvanometer. When the potential difference at points C and D is equal, i.e. the potential across the galvanometer is zero.

Q2. a) Resistive transducers The change in the value of the resistance with a change in the length of the conductor can be used to measure displacement. Strain gauges work on the principle that the resistance of a conductor or semiconductor changes when strained. This can be used for the measurement of displacement, force and pressure. The resistivity of materials changes with changes in temperature. This property can be used for the measurement of temperature. Inductive transducer There are two common type inductive transducers: simple inductance type and twocoil mutual inductance type. Both have been described below along with their circuits. The inductive transducers work on the principle of the magnetic induction of magnetic material. Just as the resistance of the electric conductor depends on number of factors, the induction of the magnetic material depends on a number of variables like the number of turns of the coil on the material, the size of the magnetic material, and the permeability of the flux path. In the inductive transducers the magnetic materials are used in the flux path and there are one or more air gaps. The change in the air gap also results in change in the inductance of the circuit and in most of the inductive transducers it is used for the working of the instrument. Simple Inductance Type Inductive Transducers In the simple inductance type of the inductive transducers simple single coil is used as the transducer. When the mechanical element whose displacement is to be measured is moved, it changes the presence of the flux path generated by the circuit, which changes the inductance of the circuit and the corresponding output. The output from the circuit is calibrated directly against the value of the input, thus it directly gives the valve of the parameter to be measured. Two-Coil Mutual Inductance Type Inductive Transducer In the two coil arrangement there are two different coils. In the first coil the excitation is generated by external source of the power and in the second coil the output is obtained. The output is proportional to the mechanical input.

Capacitive Transducer The capacitive transducer is used extensively for the measurement of displacement, pressure etc. Let us see the principle of working of capacitive transducer or sensor also called as variable capacitance transducer

The capacitance C between the two plates of capacitive transducers is given by:

Where C = the capacitance of the capacitor or the variable capacitance transducer o = the absolute permittivity

r = the relative permittivity

The product of o & r is also called as the dielectric constant of the capacitive transducer. A = the area of the plates D = the distance between the plates b) Thermocouple-based temperature measurement is often used in pharmaceutical validation projects. While the use of thermocouples is somewhat entrenched, the process of using them is well known to be complex and costly. A thermistor is a type of resistor with resistance varying according to its temperature. Output voltages are usually higher and they are quite often used without an amplifier. No compensation is needed as they measure absolute temperatures but they are quite non-linear. On the other hand thermistors come with a number of significant advantages as a tool for temperature measurement, such as: A large output signal that results in better precision. Greater stability, providing accurate performance for longer periods of time. Higher accuracy than thermocouples in mid-range temperatures.

c) Photo-emissive are photo devices which release free electrons from a light sensitive material such as caesium when struck by a photon of sufficient energy. The amount of energy the photons have depends on the frequency of the light and the higher the frequency, the more energy the photons have converting light energy into electrical energy. Photo-conductive photo devices vary their electrical resistance when subjected to light. Photoconductivity results from light hitting a semiconductor material which controls the current flow through it. Thus, more light increase the current for a given applied voltage. The most common photoconductive material is Cadmium Sulphide used in LDR photocells. Photo-voltaic generates an emf in proportion to the radiant light energy received and is similar in effect to photoconductivity. Light energy falls on to two semiconductor materials sandwiched together creating a voltage of approximately 0.5V. The most common photovoltaic material is Selenium used in solar cells.


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