Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1 Contents Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Overview ....................................................................... ...............................................................................2 Program Support / User Assistance ............................................. .................................................................3 COADE Technic al Support ..................................................................... .....................................................4 Chapter 2: Configuration and Environment 1 Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File.................................. ......................................................2 Computation Control .... ................................................................................ ................................................3 Use Pressure Stiffening ...... ................................................................................ ...............................3 Missing Mass ZPA .............................. ................................................................................ ..............3 Bend Axial Shape ............................................... ...............................................................................3 Rod Tolerance (degrees)........................................................ ............................................................4 Rod Increment (deg rees) .......................................................................... .........................................4 Alpha Tolerance ..................... ................................................................................ ...........................4 Ambient Temperature................................ ................................................................................ ........4 Friction Stiffness ................................................... ............................................................................4 Fr iction Normal Force Variation .................................................. .....................................................5 Friction Angle Variation. ................................................................................ ...................................5 Friction Slide Multiplier ................. ................................................................................ ...................5 Coefficient of Friction (Mu) .............................. ................................................................................ 5 WRC-107 Version .............................................................. ...............................................................5 WRC-107 Interpo lation Method................................................................... .....................................5 Incore Numerical Check .................. ................................................................................ ..................5 Decomposition Singularity Tolerance ........................ .......................................................................6 Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%)........................................................ ...........................................6 Bourdon Pressure................... ................................................................................ ............................7 Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness ................... ................................................................................ ......7 Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases..................... .................................................7 Hanger Default Restraint Stif fness .......................................................................... ..........................8 Default Translational Restraint Stiffness........... ................................................................................ 8 Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness ....................................... ........................................................8 SIFs and Stresses ....

................................................................................ ......................................................9 Default Code............ ................................................................................ ..........................................9 Occasional Load Factor ............. ................................................................................ ......................10 Yield Stress Criterion ................................ ................................................................................ ......11 B31.3 Sustained Case SIF Factor ....................................... .............................................................12 B31.3 Welding an d Contour Insert Tees Meet B16.9................................................ ......................13 Allow User's SIF at Bend .............................. ................................................................................ ..13 Use WRC329................................................................. ..................................................................13 Use Schneid er ............................................................................. .....................................................13 All Cases Corroded...... ................................................................................ ....................................13 Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable....... ................................................................................ .........14 WRC 329 ............................................................ .............................................................................14 Base Hoop Stress On ( ID/OD/Mean/Lams )........................................... ......................................14 Use PD/4t ............................. ................................................................................ ...........................14

2 Contents Add F/A in Stresses ................................................... ......................................................................14 Add Tor sion in SL Stress............................................................... ..................................................15 Stress Stiffening Due to Pr essure ......................................................................... ...........................15 Reduced Intersection ............................. ................................................................................ ..........16 Class 1 Branch Flexibility ........................................ .......................................................................17 B31.1 Reduced Z Fix................................................................... ....................................................17 Schneider ............... ................................................................................ ..........................................17 No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs ................................................................................ ...........17 Apply B31.8 Note 2................................................ .........................................................................17 Pres sure Variation in Expansion Cases .............................................. .............................................17 Geometry Directives ............ ................................................................................ .......................................18 Connect Geometry Through Cnodes ...... ................................................................................ .........18 Auto Node Number Increment ......................................... ...............................................................18 Z-Axis Vertica l .............................................................................. ..................................................19 Minimum Allowed Bend Angle ................................................................................ ......................19 Maximum Allowed Bend Angle............................. .........................................................................19 Bend Length Attachment Percent ..................................................... ...............................................19 Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend ................................................................................ ..................19 Loop Closure Tolerance .................................... ..............................................................................19 Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance ........................................... ................................................20 Plot Colors ................. ................................................................................ .................................................21 OPENGL Switch .............. ................................................................................ ...............................21 Pipes ........................................ ................................................................................ ........................21 Nodes................................................ ................................................................................ ...............21 Rigids/Bends.................................................. ................................................................................ ..21 Hangers/Nozzles............................................................ ..................................................................22 Structure . ................................................................................ .........................................................22 Background.......... ................................................................................ ............................................22 Axes............................. ................................................................................ ....................................22 Labels .................................. ................................................................................ ............................22 Highlights ...................................... ................................................................................ ..................22 Displaced Shape ........................................... ................................................................................ ...22 Stress Level 1 ...........................................................

.......................................................................22 Stress Level 2 ....................................................................... ...........................................................22 Stress Level 3 ... ................................................................................ ...............................................22 Stress Level 4 ............... ................................................................................ ...................................22 Stress Level 5 ........................... ................................................................................ .......................22 Stress < Level 1 ..................................... ................................................................................ ..........23 Stress > Level 1 .................................................. .............................................................................23 Stress > Level 2 ............................................................... ................................................................23 Stress > Leve l 3 ............................................................................ ...................................................23 Stress > Level 4 ......... ................................................................................ ......................................23 Stress > Level 5 ...................... ................................................................................ .........................23 FRP Pipe Properties ................................ ................................................................................ ....................24 Use FRP SIF ............................................. ................................................................................ .......24 Use FRP Flexibilities................................................. ......................................................................24 FRP Pro perty Data File................................................................. ...................................................25 BS 7159 Pressure Stiffenin g............................................................................... .............................25 FRP Laminate Type............................... ................................................................................ ..........25 Exclude f2 from UKOOA Bending Stress............................... ........................................................26 FRP Pipe Density .... ................................................................................ ........................................26 FRP Alpha (e-06) .................... ................................................................................ ........................26 FRP Modulus of Elasticity ........................... ................................................................................ ...26 Ratio Shear Mod:Emod ..................................................... ..............................................................26 Axial Strain:Ho op Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a) ......................................................... .................................26

Contents 3 Database Definitions............................................................ .......................................................................27 Struct ural Database................................................................... .......................................................27 Piping Size Specificat ion (ANSI/JIS/DIN/BS)........................................................... .....................27 Valves and Flanges...................................... ................................................................................ ....27 Expansion Joints ........................................................ ......................................................................28 Units F ile Name........................................................................ .......................................................28 Load Case Template ... ................................................................................ .....................................28 System Directory Name................... ................................................................................ ................28 Default Spring Hanger Table.................................. .........................................................................28 Enab le Data Export to ODBC-Compliant Databases ..................................... .................................28 Append Reruns to Existing Data ............. ................................................................................ ........29 ODBC Compliant Database Name ........................................ ..........................................................29 Miscellaneous ..... ................................................................................ ........................................................30 Output Table of Conte nts ............................................................................ ....................................30 Output Reports by Load Case.............. ................................................................................ ............30 Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes ............................ ..............................................................30 Time History An imation......................................................................... .........................................31 Dynamic Example Input Text.......... ................................................................................ ................31 Memory Allocated............................................. ..............................................................................31 User ID ....................................................................... .....................................................................31 Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail................................................... ......................................31 Disable Undo/Redo Ability ............. ................................................................................ ................32 Enable Autosave ............................................. ................................................................................ .32 Autosave Time Interval ..................................................... ..............................................................32 Prompted Autosa ve ............................................................................. ............................................32 Set/Change Password.............. ................................................................................ ....................................33 Access Protected Data ................... ................................................................................ ..................33 New Password .............................................. ................................................................................ ...33 Change Password........................................................... ..................................................................33 Remove Pass word ........................................................................... ................................................33 Units File Operations ....... ................................................................................ ...........................................34 Make Units File .................. ................................................................................

.............................34 Review Existing Units File...................... ................................................................................ ........34 Create a New Units File.............................................. .....................................................................35 Existing File to Start From ............................................................ ..................................................36 New Units File Name ....... ................................................................................ ...............................36 View/Edit File ............................... ................................................................................ ..................36 Convert Input to New Units................................. ................................................................................ .......37 Name of the Input File to Convert..................................... ..............................................................37 Name of the Uni ts File to Use ................................................................. ........................................37 Name of the Converted File........... ................................................................................ ..................37 Material Database ......................................... ................................................................................ ..............38 Material - Add ................................................ ................................................................................ .38 Material - Delete........................................................... ...................................................................38 Material Edit........................................................................... .......................................................39 Chapter 3: Piping Screen Reference 1 Piping Spreadsheet Data ........................................................ .......................................................................2 Help Sc reens and Units................................................................. .....................................................2 Auxiliary Fields - Compon ent Information ................................................................ ................................14 Bends ....................................... ................................................................................ ........................14 Rigid Elements ...................................... ................................................................................ ..........18 Expansion Joints .................................................. ............................................................................19

4 Contents Reducers .............................................................. ............................................................................20 S IFs & Tees ..................................................................... ................................................................22 Auxiliary Fie lds - Boundary Conditions....................................................... ..............................................31 Restraints .................... ................................................................................ .....................................31 Hangers................................. ................................................................................ ...........................36 Nozzles .......................................... ................................................................................ .............................48 Nozzle Flexibility - WRC 297.................... ................................................................................ .....48 Displacements........................................................... .......................................................................57 Auxili ary Fields - Imposed Loads...................................................... .........................................................58 Forces and Moments.. ................................................................................ ......................................58 Uniform Loads.......................... ................................................................................ .......................58 Wind Loads ........................................... ................................................................................ ..........59 Wave Loads ........................................................ .............................................................................60 Auxiliary Fields - Piping Code Data............................................. ..............................................................62 Allowable Stres ses............................................................................. ..............................................62 Available Commands............. ................................................................................ .....................................79 Break Command .......................... ................................................................................ ....................79 Valve/Flange Database ................................... ................................................................................ .81 Find Distance............................................................... ....................................................................84 Find Elem ent ............................................................................ .......................................................84 Global Coordinates ... ................................................................................ .......................................85 Insert Element........................ ................................................................................ ..........................85 Node Increment .................................... ................................................................................ ...........85 Show Informational Messages....................................... ..................................................................85 Tee SIF Scr atchpad......................................................................... .................................................85 Bend SIF Scratchpad ........ ................................................................................ ...............................91 Expansion Joint Modeler ...................... ................................................................................ ...........95 Expansion Joint Modeler Notes..................................... ..................................................................98 Expansion J oint Design Notes .............................................................. ...........................................99 Torsional Spring Rates ........... ................................................................................ .........................99 Bellows Application Notes .......................... ................................................................................ ..100 Available Expansion Joint End-Types....................................... ....................................................100 Pressure Rating ........

................................................................................ ......................................101 Expansion Joint Styles................ ................................................................................ ...................101 Materials ............................................... ................................................................................ .........102 Title Page......................................................... ..............................................................................10 3 Hanger Data................................................................... ................................................................103 Special Exec ution Parameters................................................................ ........................................109 Combining Independent Piping Systems ................................................................................ .......119 List/ Edit Facility ................................................. ..........................................................................121 Bl ock Operations ................................................................. ..........................................................123 Printing an Input Listing......................................................................... .......................................126 Input Plotting ...................... ................................................................................ ...........................127 Model Rotation, Panning, and Zooming............. ...........................................................................127 V iews............................................................................ .................................................................129 Volume Plot ting............................................................................ .................................................129 Displaying Element Informat ion ............................................................................ .......................129

Contents 5 Piping Input Graphics .......................................................... .....................................................................131 Static Output Graphics................................................................. .............................................................134 Chapter 4: Structural Steel Modeler 1 Overview ....................................................................... ...............................................................................2 The Structural Steel Property Editor........................................... ..................................................................3 New File ... ................................................................................ .........................................................3 Units File .......... ................................................................................ .................................................4 Vertical Axis................ ................................................................................ ......................................5 Material Properties .................... ................................................................................ ........................6 Cross Section (Section ID) ........................... ................................................................................ .....7 Model Definition Method ................................................. ...............................................................10 General Proper ties............................................................................ ...........................................................12 Add .............. ................................................................................ ....................................................12 Insert................... ................................................................................ .............................................12 Replace ........................ ................................................................................ ....................................12 Delete................................... ................................................................................ ............................12 UNITS Specification - UNIT....................... ................................................................................ ...............13 Axis Orientation Vertical..................................... ................................................................................ .......14 Material Identification - MATID ...................................... ..........................................................................15 MAT ID.............................................................................. ..............................................................15 YM............. ................................................................................ ......................................................15 POIS .................. ................................................................................ ..............................................16 G ............................. ................................................................................ .........................................16 YS.................................. ................................................................................ ..................................16 DENS....................................... ................................................................................ ........................16 ALPHA................................................ ................................................................................ ............16 Section Identification - SECID .................................. ................................................................................ .17 Section ID.................................................................. ......................................................................17 SECID .

................................................................................ ............................................................17 Name ............ ................................................................................ ...................................................18 Setting Defaults - DEFAULT ............................................................................... ......................................19 Setting Nodes in Space - NODE, NFILL, N GEN............................................................................. ..........20 NODE .............................................................. ................................................................................ 20 NFILL........................................................................ ......................................................................21 NGEN... ................................................................................ ...........................................................22 Building Elements - ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM....................................................... ............................24 ELEM ............................................ ................................................................................ ..................24 EFILL ..................................................... ................................................................................ .........25 EGEN ............................................................... ...............................................................................2 7 EDIM.......................................................................... .....................................................................29 Resettin g Element Strong Axis - ANGLE, ORIENT........................................... .......................................32 ANGLE ................................ ................................................................................ ...........................32 ORIENT ........................................... ................................................................................ ...............33 End Connection Information.................................... ................................................................................ ...35 Free End Connections - FREE............................................... ..........................................................35 Standard Structural Element Connections - BEAMS, BRACES, COLUMNS ...............................38 BRACES ......................................................................... ................................................................40 COLUMNS ..... ................................................................................ ................................................42 Defining Global Restraints FIX ............................................................................ ........................44 Loads ............................................... ................................................................................ ...........................46 Point Loads - LOAD................................ ................................................................................ ........46 Uniform Loads - UNIF ................................................ ....................................................................48

6 Contents Gravity Loads - GLOADS................................................. ..............................................................50 Wind Loads - WI ND ............................................................................. ..........................................51 Utilities ......................... ................................................................................ ..............................................53 LIST........................... ................................................................................ ......................................53 Structural Databases .................. ................................................................................ .................................54 AISC 1977 Database ......................... ................................................................................ ..............55 AISC 1989 Database ............................................ ...........................................................................61 Ge rman 1991 Database.............................................................. ......................................................68 Australian 1990 Databas e............................................................................... .................................71 South African 1992 Database ................ ................................................................................ ..........73 Korean 1990 Database............................................... ......................................................................74 UK 1993 Database....................................................................... ....................................................75 Chapter 5: Controlling the Dynamic Solution 1 Dynamic Analysis Input ......................................................... ......................................................................2 Dynamic Analysis Overview .............................................................. ..........................................................3 Random ............. ................................................................................ ................................................3 Harmonic ..................... ................................................................................ ......................................3 Impulse ................................ ................................................................................ ..............................6 Harmonic Analysis .............................. ................................................................................ .........................8 Excitation Frequencies .............................. ................................................................................ ........8 Harmonic Forces and Displacements .................................... ..........................................................11 Harmonic Displaceme nts............................................................................. ....................................13 Response Spectra / Time History Load Prof iles ........................................................................... ..............16 Response Spectrum / Time History Profile Data Point Input ..... .....................................................21 Force Response Spectrum Definitions..................................................................... ........................22 Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases ......... ................................................................................ .24 Spectrum /Time History Profile.............................................. .........................................................24 Factor.............. ................................................................................ .................................................24 Direction .................. ................................................................................ ........................................25 Combining Static and Dynamic Results ................................................................................ ..........32 Spectrum Time History..............................................

................................................................................ .38 Force....................................................................... .........................................................................38 Dire ction .......................................................................... ................................................................38 Node ........ ................................................................................ ........................................................38 Force Set #.......... ................................................................................ .............................................38 Lumped Masses .................. ................................................................................ ........................................44 Mass................................. ................................................................................ ................................44 Direction ................................... ................................................................................ .......................44 Start Node............................................ ................................................................................ ............44 Stop Node ....................................................... ................................................................................ .45 Increment................................................................... ......................................................................45 Snubber s .............................................................................. ............................................................46 Dynamic Control P arameters....................................................................... ...............................................48 Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectr um/Modes/Time-History) ......................................................... ..49 Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status............................ ..................................................62 Stiffness Factor for Fricti on (0.0 - Not Used)............................................................. .....................63 Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (0-Not used) ........ ..................................................................64 Frequency C utoff (HZ) ..................................................................... ...............................................67 Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/T ime History Time Step (ms) ..................................................... ....68 Load Duration (Time History or DSRSS Method) (Sec.)...................... ..........................................69 Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (Ra tio of Critical) ............................................................... ...69 ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC- G's)/# Time History Output Cases ............... ....................................71

Contents 7 Re-use Last Eigensolution ...................................................... .........................................................73 Spatial or Modal Com bination First ................................................................. ...............................73 Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ........ .............................................................................74 Modal Combination Method (GROUP/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS)............................. .....................74 Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N) .......................................................77 Include Missing Mass C omponents (Y/N) ................................................................ ......................78 Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS). ....................................................78 Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) .............................................................. ............78 Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ....................... .......................................................79 Sturm Sequence Check o n Computed Eigenvalues (Y/N).................................................... ...........79 Advanced Parameters .............................................. ................................................................................ ...81 Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues ................... ............................................81 Jacobi Sweep Tolerance .......... ................................................................................ ........................82 Decomposition Singularity Tolerance ................. ............................................................................82 S ubspace Size (0-Not Used) ...................................................... ......................................................82 No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0 - Not Used) ................................................... ................83 No. of Iterations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed) .............. .................................................................83 Percent of I terations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization ................................... .............................84 Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) ........................................................................84 Use O ut-Of-Core Eigensolver (Y/N).................................................... ...........................................84 Frequency Array Spaces ........... ................................................................................ .......................84 Pulsation Loads....................................... ................................................................................ ....................85 Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis........................ ................................................................................ .....88 Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig ................... ................................................88 Relief Load Synthesis for Liq uids ........................................................................... ........................94 Output From the Liquid Relief Load Synthesizer....... .....................................................................96 Chapter 6: Technical Discussions 1 Rigid Element Application ...................................................... .....................................................................2 Rigid Mat erial Weight ................................................................... ....................................................2 Rigid Fluid Weight ....... ................................................................................ .....................................2 Rigid Insulation Weight.................. ................................................................................ ...................2 Cold Spring................................................ ................................................................................

...................4 Expansion Joints .......................................... ................................................................................ .................7 Hanger Sizing Algorithm...................................... ................................................................................ ......10 Spring Design Requirements ............................................ ...............................................................10 Restrained Wei ght Case........................................................................ ...........................................10 Operating Case ................... ................................................................................ .............................11 Installed Load Case ............................ ................................................................................ .............11 Setting Up the Spring Load Cases ............................... ....................................................................12 Constant Effort Support.................................................................. .................................................12 Including the Spring Hanger Stiffness in the Design Algorithm .............................................. .......13 Other Notes on Hanger Sizing.......................................... ...............................................................13 Class 1 Branch Flexibilities ................................................................. .......................................................14 Modeling Friction Effe cts ............................................................................ ...............................................17 Nonlinear Code Compliance..... ................................................................................ ..................................19 Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints ............................................................................... ...............20 Notes on Occasional Load Cases................................ .....................................................................23 Static S eismic Loads.................................................................... ...............................................................24 Wind Loads.... ................................................................................ .............................................................27 Elevation....... ................................................................................ ...................................................29 Hydrodynamic (Wave and Cur rent) Loading .................................................................. ...........................30 Ocean Wave Particulars............................ ................................................................................ .......31

8 Contents Applicable Wave Theory Determination .................................. .......................................................32 Pseudo-Static Hydrodyn amic Loading ................................................................... .........................32 AIRY Wave Theory Implementation .................... ..........................................................................33 STO KES Wave Theory Implementation ................................................. ........................................34 Stream Function Wave Theory Implement ation........................................................................... ...34 Ocean Currents ........................................................... .....................................................................34 Technica l Notes on CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading....................................... ........................35 Input: Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters in CAESAR I I .........................................................39 Current Data ..... ................................................................................ ...............................................39 Wave Data .................... ................................................................................ ...................................41 Seawater Data............................. ................................................................................ .....................42 Piping Element Data..................................... ................................................................................ ...42 References ............................................................... ........................................................................42 Evalu ating Vessel Stresses........................................................... ...............................................................44 ASME Section V III Division 2 - Elastic Analysis of Nozzle .................................... ......................44 Procedure to Perform Elastic Analyses of Nozzles ...... ...................................................................46 Descriptio n of Alternate Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Nozzle Analysis ............... ...............47 Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Elastic Nozzle Analysis..... .....................................................48 Inclusion of Missing Mas s Correction ................................................................... .....................................49 References ............................. ................................................................................ ..........................52 Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II................... ................................................................................ ........54 Fatigue Basics....................................................... ...........................................................................54 Fa tigue Analysis of Piping Systems ............................................... .................................................55 Static Analysis Fatigue Exam ple ............................................................................ .........................56 Fatigue Capabilities in Dynamic Analysis............ ...........................................................................65 Cr eating the .FAT Files .......................................................... .........................................................67 Calculation of Fatig ue Stresses..................................................................... ...................................68 Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping ....... ................................................................................ .....................70 Underlying Theory ...................................... ................................................................................ ....70 FRP Analysis Using CAESAR II ............................................ ........................................................85 Code Compliance Consi derations....................................................................... ........................................93 General Notes for All Codes ......... ................................................................................ ..................93 Code-Specific Notes ....................................... ................................................................................ .98 Local Coordinates .......................................................... ...........................................................................127 O

ther Global Coordinate Systems ................................................. ................................................128 The Right Hand Rule......... ................................................................................ ............................128 Pipe Stress Analysis Coordinate Systems......... .............................................................................130 Defining a Model............................................................... ............................................................133 Using Local Coor dinates ........................................................................ .......................................135 CAESAR II Local Coordinate Definition s .............................................................................. ......136 Applications - Utilizing Global and Local Coordinates................. ................................................140 Transforming from Global to Local .......................................................................... ....................146 Frequently Asked Questions.............................. ............................................................................147 Chapter 7: Miscellaneous Processors 1 Accounting...................................................................... ..............................................................................2 Accounting File Structure....................................................... ...........................................................8

Contents 9 Batch Stream Processing ........................................................ ......................................................................9 CAESAR I I Fatal Error Processing ....................................................... .....................................................11 Chapter 8: Interfaces 1 Overview of CAESAR II Interfaces ............................................... ..............................................................2 CAD Interfaces . ................................................................................ ............................................................4 CADWorx/PIPE Link. ................................................................................ .......................................4 DXF AutoCAD Interface.................. ................................................................................ .................4 CADPIPE Interface ........................................... ................................................................................ 5 ComputerVision Interface ..................................................... ..........................................................24 Intergraph Interfac e .............................................................................. ...........................................26 PRO-ISO Interface ................ ................................................................................ ..........................64 PCF Interface...................................... ................................................................................ .............72 Generic Neutral Files .......................................... ................................................................................ ........74 CAESAR II Neutral File Interface .................................... ..............................................................74 Data Matrix Int erface.......................................................................... .............................................94 Computational Interfaces ....... ................................................................................ .....................................95 LIQT Interface.......................... ................................................................................ .......................95 PIPENET Interface .................................... ................................................................................ ....100 Data Export to ODBC Compliant Databases ................................ ............................................................102 DSN Setup ...... ................................................................................ ...............................................102 Controlling the Data Export . ................................................................................ .........................105 Data Export Wizard ................................ ................................................................................ .......106 Chapter 9: File Sets 1 CAESAR II File Guide ........................................................... ......................................................................2 CAESAR I I Operational (Job) Data Files.................................................. .................................................14 Chapter 10: Update History

1 CAESAR II Initial Capabilities (12/84).......................................... ..............................................................2 CAESAR II Versio n 1.1S Features (2/86) ......................................................... ...........................................3 CAESAR II Version 2.0A Features (10 /86) ........................................................................... ......................4 CAESAR II Version 2.1C Features (6/87).................. ................................................................................ ..5 CAESAR II Version 2.2B Features (9/88)...................................... ..............................................................6 CAESAR II Versio n 3.0 Features (4/90) .......................................................... ............................................7 CAESAR II Version 3.1 Features (11 /90) ........................................................................... .........................8 Graphics Updates..................................... ................................................................................ ..........8 Rotating Equipment Report Updates .................................. ...............................................................8 WRC 107 Updates ................................................................................ .............................................8 Miscellaneous Modifications...... ................................................................................ .......................8 CAESAR II Version 3.15 Features (9/91) ................ ................................................................................ ....9 Flange Leakage and Stress Calculations.................................... ........................................................9 WRC 297 Local Stress C alculations..................................................................... .............................9 Stress Intensification Factor Scratchpad......... ................................................................................ ...9 Miscellaneous ............................................................. .......................................................................9 CAESAR II Version 3.16 Features (12/91) ............................................... .................................................10 CAESAR II Version 3.17 Featu res (3/92) ..................................................................... .............................11 CAESAR II Version 3.18 Features (9/92) ......... ................................................................................ .........12 Codes and Databases ................................................ .......................................................................12

10 Contents Interfaces Added....................................................... .......................................................................12 Miscel laneous Changes ................................................................ ...................................................12 CAESAR II Version 3.19 Fea tures (3/93) ................................................................... ...............................14 CAESAR II Version 3.20 Features (10/93) ...... ................................................................................ ..........15 CAESAR II Version 3.21 Changes and Enhancements (7/94) ............ .......................................................16 CAESAR II Version 3.22 Changes & Enhancements (4/95).................................................. ....................18 CAESAR II Version 3.23 Changes (3/96) ................... ...............................................................................2 0 CAESAR II Version 3.24 Changes & Enhancements (3/97).......................... ............................................21 CAESAR II Version 4.00 Changes an d Enhancements (1/98) .......................................................... .........24 CAESAR II Version 4.10 Changes and Enhancements (1/99) ............. ......................................................25 CAESAR II Version 4.20 Changes and Enhancements (2/00) ................................................ ...................26 CAESAR II Version 4.30 Changes and Enhancements (3/01) ... ................................................................27 CAESAR II Ver sion 4.40 Features ............................................................. ................................................28 CAESAR II Version 4.40 Techni cal Changes and Enhancements ( 5/02)............................................ ......29

1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction In This Chapter Overview ....................................................................... ..............2 Program Support / User Assistance .............................. ...............3 COADE Technical Support........................................ .................4

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Overview This CAESAR II Technical Reference Guide is the reference manual for CAESAR II. It presents the theory behind CAESAR II operations, and explains why certain tas ks are performed. Users are urged to review the background material contained in this manual, especially when applying CAESAR II to unfamiliar types of analysis . Chapter 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 1) discusses the config uration of CAESAR II and the resulting environment. This includes language suppo rt and program customization. In addition to the COADE supplied routines, severa l third-party diagnostic packages are also mentioned. Chapter 3 (see "Piping Scr een Reference" on page 1), Piping Input Reference, contains images of program ge nerated screens, and explains each input cell, menu option, and toolbar button. Also discussed in detail is the Plot Screen, which displays the input model grap hically. Chapter 4 (see "Structural Steel Modeler" on page 1) examines the Struc tural Steel Modeler and describes all commands, toolbar buttons, menu items, and input fields. Chapter 5 (see "Controlling the Dynamic Solution" on page 1) disc usses the Dynamic Input and Control Parameters: each input cell, toolbar button, and menu item is examined. The purpose and effects of the various Dynamic Contr ol Parameters are detailed. Chapter 6 (see "Technical Discussions" on page 1) co ntains theoretical overviews of various technical methods used in CAESAR II. Bot h common and advanced modeling techniques are covered. Chapter 7 (see "Miscellan eous Processors" on page 1) provides information regarding a few miscellaneous a uxiliary processors. Chapter 8 (see "Interfaces" on page 1) details interfaces b etween CAESAR II and other programs. Chapter 9 (see "File Sets" on page 1) prese nts a list of files associated with CAESAR II. Chapter 10 (see "Update History" on page 1) lists the CAESAR II update history.

Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Program Support / User Assistance COADE s staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but als o, at times, an elaborate process one that may not be obvious to the casual user. Wh ile our documentation is intended to address the questions raised regarding pipi ng analysis, system modeling, and results interpretation, not all the answers ca n be quickly found in these volumes. COADE understands the engineer s need to produc e efficient, economical, and expeditious designs. To that end, COADE has a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II and piping issues raise d by users. CAESAR II support is available by telephone, e-mail, fax, and the in ternet; literally hundreds of support calls are answered every week. COADE provi des this service at no additional charge to the user. It is expected, however, t hat questions focus on the current version of the program. Formal training in CA ESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE. COADE schedules r egular training classes in Houston and provides in-house and open attendance tra ining around the world. These courses focus on the expertise available at COADE mo deling, analysis, and design.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual COADE Technical Support Phone: 281-890-4566 Fax: 281-890-3301 E-mail: techsupport@coade.com WEB: www.coa de.com (http://www.coade.com/c2articles/c2_faq_ web.html)

1 CHAPTER 2 Configuration and Environment In This Chapter Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File ......................2 Computati on Control...................................................................3 S IFs and Stresses................................................................ .........9 Geometry Directives.................................................. ..................18 Plot Colors................................................ ...................................21 FRP Pipe Properties ...................... ..............................................24 Database Definitions .......... .........................................................27 Miscellaneous....... .......................................................................30 Set/Ch ange Password .................................................................. 33 Units File Operations ....................................................... ...........34 Convert Input to New Units ....................................... .................37 Material Database........................................... .............................38

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File Each time CAESAR II starts, the configuration file caesar.cfg is read from the c urrent data directory. If this file is not found in the current data directory, the installation directory is searched for the configuration file. If the config uration file is not found, a fatal error will be generated and CAESAR II will te rminate. The configuration or setup file contains directives that dictate how CA ESAR II will operate on a particular computer and how it will perform a particul ar analysis. The caesar.cfg file is generated by selecting TOOLS/CONFIGURE/SETUP (or the Configure button from the toolbar) from the CAESAR II Main Menu. Note: You must click the Exit w/Save button on the bottom of the Configure/Setup windo w to create a new configuration file or to save changes to the existing configur ation file. The configuration program produces the Computation Control (on page 3) window. Use the tabs to navigate to the appropriate configuration spreadsheet s. Important: The caesar.cfg file may vary from machine to machine and many of the setup directives modify the analysis. Do not expect the same input file to produ ce identical results between machines unless the setup files are identical. It i s advised that a copy of the setup file be archived with input and output data s o that identical reruns can be made. The units file, if modified by the user, wo uld also need to be identical if the same results are to be produced. The follow ing section explains the CAESAR II setup file options. They are grouped as they appear when chosen from the tabs on the Configure window.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 3 Computation Control Computational Control Configuration Settings Use Pressure Stiffening This flag enables CAESAR II to include pressure-stiffening effects in those code s that do not explicitly require its use. In these cases pressure-stiffening eff ects will apply to all bends, elbows, and both miter types. In all cases, the pr essure used is the maximum of all pressures defined for the element. Missing Mass ZPA The default for this option is Extracted, which means that CAESAR II will use th e spectrum value at the last extracted mode. Changing this value to SPECTRUM instructs CAESAR II to use the last spectrum value as the ZPA for the missing mass comput ations. Bend Axial Shape For bends 45 degrees or smaller, a major contributor to deformation can be the a xial displacement of the short-arched pipe. With the axial shape function disabl ed this displacement mode is ignored and the bend will be stiffer.

Rod Tolerance (degrees) The angular plus-or-minus permitted convergence error. Unless the change from it eration n to iteration n+1 is less this value, the rod will NOT be converged. The CAESAR II is 1.0 degree. For systems subject to large horizontal displacements, values of 5.0 degrees for convergence tolerances have been used successfully. Rod Increment (degrees) The maximum amount of angular change that any one support can experience between iterations. For difficult-to-converge problems, values of 0.1 have proven effec tive here. When small values are used, however, the user should be prepared for a large number of iterations. The total number of iterations can be estimated fr om: Est. No. Iterations = 1.5(x)/(r)/(Rod Increment) Where: x - maximum horizont al displacement at any one rod. r - rod length at that support Alpha Tolerance The breakpoint at which CAESAR II decides that the entry in the Temp fields on t he input spreadsheet is a thermal expansion coefficient or a temperature. The de fault is 0.05. This means that any entry in the Temp fields whose absolute magni tude is less than 0.05 is taken to be a thermal expansion coefficient in terms o f inches per inch (dimensionless). Use of this field provides some interesting m odeling tools. If an Alpha Tolerance of 1.1 is set, then an entry in the Temp 2 field of -1 causes the element defined by this expansion coefficient to shrink t o zero length. This alternate method of specifying cold spring is quite useful i n jobs having hanger design with cold spring (see chapter 6 (see "Technical Disc ussions" on page 1) for more details regarding Cold Spring). Ambient Temperature If 0.0 is entered here, the default ambient temperature for all elements in the system is (degrees ^07) . If this does not accurately represent the installed, o r zero expansion strain state, then enter a different value in this field. Friction Stiffness Friction restraint stiffness. The default is 1E6 lb/in. This value is used when a friction restraint is "nonsliding." In the "non-sliding" state, stiffnesses ar e inserted in the two directions perpendicular to the restraint s line of action and opposing any sliding motion. This is the first parameter that should be adjuste d to help a slowly converging problem where friction is suspected. Lower stiffne ss values permit more "non-sliding" movement, but given the indeterminate nature of the friction problem in general, this error is not considered crucial.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 5 Friction Normal Force Variation This tolerance, default of 0.15, or 15 percent, is the amount of variation in th e normal force that is permitted before an adjustment will be made in the slidin g friction force. This value normally should not be adjusted. Friction Angle Variation Friction sliding angle variation. The default is 15 degrees. This parameter had more significance in versions prior to 2.1. This parameter is currently only use d in the first iteration when a restraint goes from the non-sliding to sliding s tate. All subsequent iterations compensate for the angle variation automatically . Friction Slide Multiplier This is an internal friction sliding force multiplier and should never be adjust ed by the user unless so directed by a member of the COADE/CAESAR II support sta ff. Coefficient of Friction (Mu) The value specified here is applied by default as the coefficient of friction to all translational restraints. Specifying a value of zero, the default, means th at no friction is applied. WRC-107 Version This directive sets the Version of the WRC-107 bulletin used in the computations . Valid options are: August 1965 March 1979 March 1979 with the 1B1-1 and 2B-1 o ff axis curves (default) WRC-107 Interpolation Method The curves in WRC Bulletin 107 cover essentially all applications of nozzles in vessels or piping; however, should any of the interpolation parameters i.e., U, Beta, etc. fall outside the limits of the available curves then some extension o f the WRC method must be used. The default is to use the last value in the parti cular WRC table. Alternatively, the user may control this extensions methodology interactively. This causes the program to prompt the user for curve values when necessary. Incore Numerical Check Enables the in-core solution module to test the stability of the solution for th e current model and loadings. This option, if enabled, adds the solution of an e xtra load case to the job stream.

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Decomposition Singularity Tolerance The default value is 1.0 e+10. CAESAR II checks the ratio of off-diagonal coeffi cients to the on-diagonal coefficient in the row. If this ratio is greater than the decomposition singularity tolerance, then a numerical error may occur. This problem does not have to be associated with a system singularity. This condition can exist when very small, and/or long pipes are connected to very short, and/o r large pipes. The out-ofcore solution will, however, stop with a singularity me ssage. This solution abort will prevent any possibility of an errant solution. T hese solutions have several general characteristics: When machine precision erro rs of this type occur they are very local in nature, affecting only a single ele ment or very small part of the model, and are readily noticeable upon inspection . The 1E10 limit can be increased to 1E11 or 1E12 and still provide a reasonable check on solution accuracy. Any solution computed after this limit has been inc reased should always be checked closely for reasonableness. At 1E11 or 1E12 the number of significant figures in the local solution has been reduced to two or three. The 1E10 limit can be increased to 1E20 or 1E30 to get the job to run, but the u ser should remember that the possibility for a locally errant solution exists wh en stiffness ratios are allowed to get this high. Solutions should be carefully checked. Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%) Use this directive is to specify the default percentage of wall thickness allowe d for mill and other mechanical tolerances. Note: For most piping codes, this va lue is only used during the "minimum wall thickness" computation. Mill tolerance is usually not considered in the flexibility analysis. By default this value is 12.5, corresponding to a 12.5% tolerance. To eliminate mill tolerance considera tion, set this directive to 0.0.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 7 Bourdon Pressure Select the BOURDON PRESSURE EFFECT from the drop list. The BOURDON EFFECT causes straight pipe to elongate, and bends to "OPEN UP" translationally along a line connecting the curvature end points. If the BOURDON EFFECT is not activated ther e will be no global displacements due to pressure. BOURDON PRESSURE OPTION #1 (TRANSLATION ONLY) includes only translational effect s. BOURDON PRESSURE OPTION #2 (TRANSLATION & ROTATION) includes translational and r otational effects on bends. OPTION #2 may apply for bends that are formed or rol led from straight pipe, where the bend cross section will be slightly oval due t o the bending process. Note: OPTION #1 is the same as OPTION #2 for straight pipe. For elbows, OPTION # 1 should apply for forged and welded fittings where the bend cross section can b e considered essentially circular. Note: The BOURDON EFFECT (translation only) is always considered when FRP pipe i s used, regardless of the actual setting of the BOURDON FLAG. Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness Enabling this option causes CAESAR II to ignore the stiffness of spring hangers in the analysis. This option is consistent with hand computation methods of spri ng hanger design, which ignored the effects of the springs. Important: COADE rec ommends that this value never be changed. Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases Enabling this option defaults CAESAR II to place the designed spring stiffness i nto the Hanger Operating Travel Case and iterate until the system balances. This iteration scheme therefore considers the effect of the spring hanger stiffness on the thermal growth of the system (vertical travel of the spring). If this opt ion is used, it is very important that the hanger load in the cold case (in the physical system) be adjusted to match the reported hanger Cold Load. Disabling t his option defaults the program to design spring hangers the traditional way.

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness Where hangers are adjacent to other supports or are themselves very close (for e xample where there are two hangers on either side of a trunnion support), the CA ESAR II hanger design algorithm may generate poorly distributed hot hanger loads in the vicinity of the close hangers. Using a more flexible support for computi ng the hanger restrained weight loads often allows the design algorithm to more effectively distribute the system s weight. A typical entry is 50,000; the default v alue is (1.0E12 lb/in). Default Translational Restraint Stiffness This directive defines the value used for non-specified translational restraint stiffnesses. By default this value is assumed to be (1.0E12 lb./in). Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness This directive defines the value used for non-specified rotational restraint sti ffnesses. By default this value is assumed to be (1.0E12 in-lb/deg).

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 9 SIFs and Stresses SIFs and Stresses Configuration Settings Default Code The piping code the user designs to most often should go here. This code will be used as the default if no code is specified in the problem input. The default p iping code is B31.3, the chemical plant and petroleum refinery code. Valid entri es are B31.1, B31.3, B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.5, B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII, B31.11, ASME-NC(Class 2), ASME-ND(Class 3), NAVY505, Z662, BS806, SWEDISH1, SWED ISH2, B31.1-1967, STOOMWEZEN, RCCM-C, RCCM-D, CODETI, Norwegian, FDBR, BS7159, U KOOA, IGE/TD/12, and DNV.

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Occasional Load Factor The default value of 0.0 tells CAESAR II to use the value that the active piping code recommends. B31.1 states that the calculated stress may exceed the maximum allowable stress from Appendix A, (Sh), by 15% if the event duration occurs les s than 10% of any 24 hour operating period, and by 20% if the event duration occ urs less than 1% of any 24 hour operating period. The default for B31.1 applicat ions is 15%. If 20% is more suitable for the system being analyzed then this dir ective can be used to enter the 20%. B31.3 states, The sum of the longitudinal stre sses due to pressure, weight, and other sustained loadings (S1) and of the stres ses produced by occasional loads such as wind or earthquake may be as much as 1. 33 times the allowable stress given in Appendix A. Where the allowable stress va lue exceeds 2/3 of yield strength at temperature, the allowable stress value mus t be reduced as specified in Note 3 in 302.3.2. The default for B31.3 applications is 33%. If this is too high for the material and temperature specified then a sm aller occasional load factor can be input.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 11 Yield Stress Criterion The 132 column stress report produced by CAESAR II contains a value representati ve of the maximum stress state through the cross section, computed per the indic ated yield criteria theory. CAESAR II can compute this maximum stress (note, thi s is not a Code stress) according to either Von Mises Theory or the Maximum Shea r Theory. The selected stress is computed at four points along the axis normal t o the plane of bending (outside top, inside top, inside bottom, outside bottom), and the maximum value is printed in the stress report. The equations used for e ach of these yield criteria are listed below. If the Von Mises Theory is used, C AESAR II computes the octahedral shear stress, which differs from the Von Mises stress by a constant factor. (For B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.8 Chapter VIII, and DnV this setting controls which equation is used to compute the "equivalent stress". For these three codes, the equations shown in the code are used to determine th e yield criterion, not the standard mechanical stress equations shown below. The se standard mechanical stress equations are used for the other codes addressed b y CAESAR II. ) 3D Maximum Shear Stress Intensity (Default) SI = Maximum of: S1OT - S3OT S1OB S3OB Max(S1IT,RPS) - Min(S3IT,RPS) Max(S1IB,RPS) - Min(S3IB,RPS) Von Mises Stres s (Octahedral) OCT = Maximum of: (S3OB2+S1OB2+(S3OB-S1OB)2)1/2 / 3.0 ((S3IB-RPS) 2+(S3IB-S1IB)2+(RPS-S1IB)2)1/2 / 3.0 (S3OT2+S1OT2+(S1OT-S3OT)2)1/2 / 3.0 ((S3ITRPS)2+(S3IT-S1IT)2+(RPS-S1IT)2)1/2 / 3.0 Where: S1OT=Maximum Principal Stress, O utside Top = (SLOT+HPSO)/2.0+(((SLOT-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2)1/2 S3OT=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Top =(SLOT+HPSO)/2.0- (((SLOT-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual S1IT=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Top =(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0+(((SLIT-HPSI)/2.0)2+T SI2) S3IT=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Top =(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0- (((SLIT-HPSI)/2 .0)2+TSI2) S1OB=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top =(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0+ (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2 1/2 1/2 S3OB=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Bottom =(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0- (((SLOB-HPSO)/2. 0)2+TSO2) 1/2 S1IB=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom =(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0+ (((SLIB-HPSI)/2.0 )2+TSI2) 1/2 S3IB=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom =(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0- (((SLIB-HPSI)/2.0 )2+TSI2) RPS=Radial Pressure Stress, Inside HPSI=Hoop Pressure Stress (Inside, f rom Lame s Equation) HPSO=Hoop Pressure Stress (Outside, from Lame s Equation) SLOT=Long itudinal Stress, Outside Top SLIT=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Top SLOB=Longitudi nal Stress, Outside Bottom SLIB=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Bottom TSI=Torsional Stress, Inside TSO=Torsional Stress, Outside 1/2 B31.3 Sustained Case SIF Factor B31.3 Code Interpretation 1-34 dated February 23, 1981 File: 1470-1 states that for sustained and occasional loads an SIF of 0.75i, but not less than 1.0 may be used. This setup directive allows the user to enter his/her own coefficient. Th e default is 1.0. To comply with this interpretation the user would enter 0.75. B31.3 Code Interpretation 6-03 dated December 14, 1987 permitted users to ignore the stress intensification for sustained and occasional loads.To comply with th is interpretation, the user would enter 0.0.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 13 B31.3 Welding and Contour Insert Tees Meet B16.9 This flag controls the "assumption" that the geometry of B31.3 welding and conto ur insert tees (sweepolets) meet the dimensional requirements of the code, and c an be classified as B16.9 tees. The default setting for this directive is "NO", which causes the program to use a flexibility characteristic of 3.1*T/r, as per the A01 addendum. Selecting this checkbox, allows the program to assume that the fitting geometry meets the requirements of Note 11, introduced in the A01 adden dum, and a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r will be used. Note: In order to match runs made with CAESAR II prior to Version 4.40, this checkbox must be sel ected. Prior to Version 4.40, CAESAR II always used a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r. Allow User's SIF at Bend This feature was added for those users that wished to change the stress intensif ication factor for bends. Previously this was not permitted, and the code define d SIF was always used. If the user enables this directive, he may override the c ode s calculated SIF for bends. The user entered SIF acts over the entire bend curva ture and must be specified at the TO end of the bend element. The default is off. Use WRC329 This directive activates the WRC329 guidelines for all intersections, (not just for reduced intersections). The recommendations made by Rodabaugh in section 5.0 of WRC329 will be followed exactly in making the stress calculations for inters ections. Every attempt has been made to improve the stress calculations for all codes, not just the four discussed in Rodabaugh s paper. Users not employing either B31.1, B31.3 or the ASME NC or ND codes, and who wish to use WRC329 are encourag ed to contact COADE for additional information. Throughout this document WRC330 and WRC329 are used synonymously (330 was the draft version of 329). When finall y published, the official WRC designation was 329. Use Schneider This directive activates the Schneider reduced intersection assumptions. It was because of observations by Schneider that much of the work on WRC 329 was starte d. Schneider pointed out that the code SIFs could be in error when the d/D ratio at the intersection was less than 1.0 and greater than 0.5. In this d/D range t he SIFs could be in error by a factor as high as 2.0. Using the Schneider option in CAESAR II results in a multiplication of the out of plane branch stress inte nsification by a number between 1 and 2 when the d/D ratio for the intersection is between 0.5 and 1.0. For B31.1 and other codes that do not differentiate betw een in and out-of-plane SIFs the multiplication will be used for the single stre ss intensification given. All Cases Corroded A recent version of the B31.3 piping code mentioned reducing the section modulus for sustained or occasional stress calculations by the reduction in wall thickn ess due to corrosion. Several users have interpreted this to mean that the reduc ed section modulus should be used for all stress calculations, including expansi on. This directive allows those users to apply this conservative interpretation of the code. Enabling All Cases Corroded causes CAESAR II to use the corroded se ction modulus for the calculation of all stress types. This method is recommende d as conservative, and probably more realistic as corrosion can significantly af fect fatigue life, i.e., expansion. Disabling this directive causes CAESAR II to strictly follow the piping code recommendations, i.e. depending on the active p iping code, some load cases will consider corrosion and some will not.

Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable Activate this check box in order to cause CAESAR II to default new jobs to use t he Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable to add the difference between the hot allowab ress and the sustained stress to the allowable expansion stress range (if permit ted by the particular code in use). Deactivating this option causes new jobs to default to not using this allowable. WRC 329 Allows the user to use the recommendations of WRC 329 for reduced intersections. A reduced intersection is any intersection where the d/D ratio is less than 0.9 75. The WRC 329 recommendations result in more conservative stress calculations in some instances and less conservative stress calculations in others. In all ca ses the WRC 329 values should be more accurate, and more truly in-line with the respective codes intent.

Base Hoop Stress On ( ID/OD/Mean/Lams ) This directive is used to indicate how the value of hoop stress should be calcul ated. The default is to use the ID of the pipe. Most piping codes consider the e ffects of pressure in the longitudinal component of the CODE stress. Usually, th e value of the hoop stress has no bearing on the CODE stress, so changing this d irective does not affect the acceptability of the piping system. If desired, the user may change the way CAESAR II computes the hoop stress value. This directiv e has the following options: ID Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where d is internal diameter of the pipe. OD Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where d e outer diameter of the pipe. Mean Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where d he average or mean diameter of the pipe. Lams Hoop stress is computed according to Lams equation, Ri2 ) and varies through the wall as a function of R. = P ( Ri2 + Ri2 * Ro2 / R2 ) / ( Ro2 Use PD/4t Enabling this directive causes CAESAR II to use the simplified form of the longi tudinal stress term when computing sustained stresses. Some codes permit this si mplified form when the pipe wall thickness is thin. This option is used most oft en when users are comparing CAESAR II results to those from an older pipe stress program. The more comprehensive calculation, i.e. the Default, is recommended. Add F/A in Stresses Determines whether or not the axial stress term is included in the code stress c omputation. Setting this directive to Default causes CAESAR II to use whatever t he currently active piping code recommends. Only the B31.3-type piping codes (i. e. codes where the sustained stress equation is not explicitly given) have the F /A stresses included in the sustained and occasional stress equations. The B31.1 -type codes do not include the F/A stresses because the equations given explicit ly in the code do not include it. The F/A stresses discussed here are not due to longitudinal pressure. These are the F/A stresses due to structural loads in th e piping system itself.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 15 Add Torsion in SL Stress Some piping codes include torsion in the sustained and occasional stresses by ex plicitly including it in the stress equation (i.e. B31.1), and some don t include to rsion in the sustained and occasional stresses by implicitly calling for longitudin al stresses only (i.e. B31.3). Setting the Add Torsion in SL Stress directive to Ye s forces CAESAR II to include the torsion term in those codes that don t include it already by default. Setting this directive to Default causes CAESAR II to use wh atever the currently active piping code implies. In a sustained stress analysis of a very hot piping system subject to creep, it is recommended that the user in clude torsion in the sustained stress calculation via this parameter in the setu p file. Stress Stiffening Due to Pressure This flag instructs the program to include pressure stiffening effects on straig ht pipes. The options for this flag are: 0 - no stiffening of straight pipes due to pressure 1 - elemental stiffening usi ng Pressure #1 2 - elemental stiffening using Pressure #2 Note, this option modifies the element's stiffness matrix.

16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Reduced Intersection Available options are B31.1(Pre 1980), B31.1(Post 1980), WRC329, ASME SEC III, a nd Schneider: B31.1 (Pre 1980) Allows the B31.1 code user to have the pre-1980 code rules used for reduced inte rsection. These rules didnot define a separate branch SIF for the reduced branch end. The branch stress intensification factor will be the same as the header st ress intensification factor regardless of the branch-to-header diameter ratio. B31.1 (Post 1980) Allows the B31.1 code user to employ the post-1980 code rules for reduced inters ections. The reduced intersection SIF equations in B31.1 from 1980 through 1989 generated unnecessarily high SIFs because of a mistake made in the implementatio n. (This is as per WRC329.) For this reason many users opted for the Pre 1980 F calculation discussed above. CAESAR II corrects this mistake by the automatic activation of the flag: B31.1 Reduced Z Fix = On. Users can vary the status of t his flag in the CAESAR II setup file to generate any interpretation of B31.1 des ired. The default for a new job is for B31.1(Post 1980) and for the B31.1 Reduce d Z Fix = On. The No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs flag also affects the SIF c alculations at reduced intersections and is also available in this release. WRC 329 Allows the user to use the recommendations of WRC329 for reduced intersections. A reduced intersection is any intersection where the d/D ratio is less than 0.97 5. The WRC329 recommendations result in more conservative stress calculations in some instances and less conservative stress calculations in others. In all case s the WRC329 values should be more accurate, and more truly in-line with the res pective codes intent. ASME Sect. III Allows the user to use the 1985 ASME Section III NC and ND rules for reduced int ersections. Schneider Activates the Schneider reduced intersection stress intensification factor multi plication. Has the same effect as the Use Schneider option.

B31.1 SI

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 17 Class 1 Branch Flexibility Activates the Class 1 flexibility calculations. The appearance of this parameter in the setup file will completely change the modeling of intersections in the a nalysis. For intersections not satisfying the reduced branch rules that d/D 0.5 and that D/T 100, the branch will start at the surface of the header pipe. A per fectly rigid junction between the centerline of the header and surface will be f ormed automatically by CAESAR II using the element offset calculations. SIFs act at the surface point for the branch. When the reduced branch rules are satisfie d, the local flexibility of the header is also inserted at this surface point. I ntersections not satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be stiffer and carry m ore load, while intersections satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be more flexible and will carry less load. All changes to the model are completely transparent to the user. In systems where the intersection flexibility is a majo r component of the overall system stiffness, the user is urged to run the analys is both with and without the Class 1 Branch Flexibility active to determine the effect this modeling on the analysis. For more technical discussion, refer to Cl ass 1 Branch Flexibilities (on page 14). B31.1 Reduced Z Fix This directive is used in conjunction with B31.1, and makes the correction to th e reduced branch stress calculation that existed in the 1980 through 1989 versio ns of B31.1. This error was corrected in the 1989 version of B31.1, and the B31. 1 Reduced Z Fix is on by default in CAESAR II. Schneider Activates the Schneider reduced intersection stress intensification factor multi plication. Has the same effect as the Use Schneider option. No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs There has been considerable concern involving the SIFs for reduced fittings. Par t of the discussion centers around just what should be considered a reduced fitt ing. The CAESAR II default is to assume that welding tees and reinforced fabrica ted tees are covered by the reduced fitting expressions, even though the reduced fitting expressions do not explicitly cover these intersection types. Users wis hing to leave welding tees and reinforced tees out of this definition should ena ble this directive. Apply B31.8 Note 2 The B31.8 piping code defines both "in-plane" and "out -of -plane" SIF values. T he notes to Appendix E, B31.8 states that a more conservative approach can be ta ken, by using the "out-of-plane" SIF value for the "in-plane" value (Note 2). Th is directive controls whether or not this more conservative approach is used. Pr ior to Version 4.30, CAESAR II always applied Note 2, the more conservative appr oach, and there was no way to alter this behavior. The user can control (through the use of this directive) whether or not Note 2 is implemented. The default be havior is to use the two different SIF values and not employ Note 2. Pressure Variation in Expansion Cases This directive controls whether or not any pressure variation (between the refer enced load cases) will appear in the resulting expansion load case.

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Geometry Directives Geometry Directives Configuration Settings Connect Geometry Through Cnodes Restraints, flexible nozzles, and spring hangers may be defined with connecting nodes. By default CAESAR II ignores the position of the restraint node and the c onnecting node. They may be at the same point or they may be hundreds of feet ap art. This directive allows the user to insist that each restraint, nozzle, or ha nger exists at the same point in space as its connecting node. In many cases, en abling this option will cause plot-wise disconnected parts of the system to be re-conn ected and to appear as expected in both input and output plots.

Auto Node Number Increment This directive sets the value for the Automatic Node Numbering routine. Any nonzero, positive value in this data cell is used to automatically assume the TO NODE val ue on the piping input spreadsheets. The new (TO) node number is determined as: To Node = From Node + Auto Node Number Increment. If this value is set to 0.0, automati e numbering is disabled.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 19 Z-Axis Vertical By default CAESAR II assumes the Y axis is vertical with the X and Z axes in the horizontal plane. If desired, the Z axis can be made vertical by checking this box. In this case, the X and Y axes will be in the horizontal plane. Minimum Allowed Bend Angle Very small angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during soluti on. When the user has a reasonable radius and a small angle there are usually no problems. However, if the small angle bend is grossly small compared to the sur rounding elements then the bend should probably not be used and a different mode ling approach employed. Enabling this directive allows the user to reset the min imum angle CAESAR II will accept for a bend angle. The default is 5.0 degrees. Maximum Allowed Bend Angle Very large angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during soluti on. When the user has a reasonable radius and a large angle there are usually no problems. However, if the large angle bend plots compared reasonably well to th e surrounding elements then the bend can probably be used without difficulty. We ll-proportioned bends up to 135 degrees have been tested without a problem. Enab ling this directive allows the user to reset the maximum angle CAESAR II will ac cept for a bend. The default is 95 degrees. Bend Length Attachment Percent Whenever the element leaving the tangent intersection of a bend is within (n)% o f the bend radius on either side of the weldline, CAESAR II inserts an element f rom the bend weldline to the TO node of the element leaving the bend. The inserted ele ment has a length equal to exactly (n)% of the bend radius. The user may adjust this percentage to reduce the error due to the inserted element, however, the le ngth tolerance for elements leaving the bend will also be reduced. To obtain mor e accurate results the user must include less slop in the system dimensions around ben ds. The default attachment is 1.0 percent. Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend Nodes on a bend curvature that are too close together can cause numerical proble ms during solution. Where the radius of the bend is large, such as in a cross co untry pipeline, it is not uncommon to find nodes on a bend curvature closer than 5 degrees. In these situations the user may enable this directive to change the CAESAR II error checking tolerance for the closeness of points on the bend curvature. The default is 5.0 degrees. Loop Closure Tolerance The loop closure tolerance used by CAESAR II for error checking can be set inter actively by the user for each job analyzed, or the user can enter the desired lo op closure tolerance via this directive and override without distraction the pro gram default value of 1.0 in. See the following section for a discussion of the CAESAR II units file.

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance This directive enables the user to specify the maximum slope of a straight pipe element for which thermal bowing effects will be considered. Thermal bowing is u sually associated with fluid carrying horizontal pipes in which the fluid does n ot fill the cross section. In these cases, there is a temperature differential a cross the cross section. This directive allows the user to define the interpreta tion of horizontal. By default, the program uses a value of 0.0001 as the horizontal t hreshold value. If a pipe element s pitch is less than this tolerance, the element i s considered to be horizontal, and thermal bowing loads can be applied to it. An element s pitch is computed from: PITCH = | DY | / ( DX2 + DY2 + DZ2 )1/2

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 21 Plot Colors Plot Colors Configuration Settings OPENGL Switch By default the 3D Hoops graphics engine uses the OPENGL drivers. On some machine s with older graphics cards, or older graphics drivers, OPENGL does not perform well. Unchecking this checkbox instructs the CAESAR II graphics engine to use th e alternate Microsoft drivers, instead of the OPENGL drivers. Pipes Enter the color for the center-line and volume plots of pipe elements. Excludes valves, other rigids and expansion joints. Nodes Enter the color for the node numbers. Rigids/Bends Enter the color for the rigid elements and for bend highlighting in the input pl ot.

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Hangers/Nozzles Enter the color for the hanger and nozzle symbols that are displayed on the inpu t plot. Structure Enter the color that the structural elements should be plotted in. The color sel ected should contrast with the color entered for the Pipes. Background Enter the color for the plot background. The user should be careful setting this parameter because all other colors need to coordinate with the background color selected. Axes Enter the color of the plot axes that appear in the bottom left corner of the sc reen. Labels Enter the color for the geometry labels exclusive of the node numbers. Examples are, Diameter, Thickness, Length, Plot Labeling. Highlights Enter the color for the input level plot highlight. The color selected should co ntrast with the color entered for the Pipes. Displaced Shape Enter the color for the displaced shape overlay. The color selected should contr ast with the color entered for the Pipes. Stress Level 1 Enter the stress value that defines the lower limit cutoff. Stress Level 2 Enter the stress value that defines the second lowest stress color-plot limit. Stress Level 3 Enter the stress value that defines the third lowest stress color-plot limit. Stress Level 4 Enter the stress value that defines the fourth lowest stress color-plot limit. Stress Level 5 Enter the stress value that defines the upper limit cutoff.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 23 Stress < Level 1 Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress lower than Stress Level 1. Stress > Level 1 Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stre ss Level 1 and less than Stress Level 2. Stress > Level 2 Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stre ss Level 2 and less than Stress Level 3. Stress > Level 3 Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stre ss Level 3 and less than Stress Level 4. Stress > Level 4 Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater that Stre ss Level 4 and less than Stress Level 5. Stress > Level 5 Enter the color for the portion of the pipe element that has a stress greater th an Stress Level 5. The color of an element from one end to the other varies as t he stress varies.

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual FRP Pipe Properties FRP Properties Configuration Settings Use FRP SIF By default, when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20), CAESAR II sets the fitting SIF to 2.3. Some users have requested that the standard code SIF be used, others have requested the ability to specify this value manually. By disabling this directi ve, the standard code SIF equations will be applied to all FRP fittings. This also all ows manual specification of these values by the user. If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Co des are in effect, code SIFs will always be used, regardless of the setting of t his directive. Use FRP Flexibilities By default, when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20), CAESAR II sets the fitting flexibility factor to 1.0. Some users have requested that the standard code flexibili ty factor be used. By disabling this directive, the standard code flexibility factor e quations will be applied to all FRP fittings. If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code flexibility factors will always be used, regardless of the setti ng of this directive.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 25 FRP Property Data File Standard FRP material properties may be read in from files. The user may select the available files. Once selected, the program will give the user the option of reading in from that file. Users may create FRP material files as text files wi th the .frp extension; these files should be stored in the CAESAR\SYSTEM sub-dir ectory. The format of the files must adhere to the following format: Sample FRP Data File Note: The data lines must follow exactly the order shown above. The four data li nes defining the UKOOA envelope are intended for future use and may be omitted. BS 7159 Pressure Stiffening The BS 7159 code explicitly requires that the effect of pressure stiffening on t he bend SIFs be calculated using the Design Strain (this is based upon the assum ption that the FRP piping is fully pressurized to its design limit). This is CAE SAR II s default method. When the piping is pressurized to a value much lower than i ts design pressure, it may be more accurate to calculate pressure stiffening bas ed on the Actual Pressure stress, rather than its design strain. Note that this alternative method is a deviation from the explicit instructions of the BS 7159 code. FRP Laminate Type The default Laminate Type (as defined in the BS 7159 code) of the fiberglass rei nforced plastic pipe used should be entered. Valid laminatetypes are Chopped str and mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surf ace tissue reinforced layer. Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer. All cho pped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue rei nforced layer. This entry is used in order to calculate the flexibility and stre ss intensity factors of bends; therefore this default entry may be overridden us ing the Type field on the bend auxiliary spreadsheets.

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Exclude f2 from UKOOA Bending Stress Some sources, such as Shell's DEP 31.40.10.19-Gen. (December 1998) and ISO/DIS 1 4692 suggest that, when using the UKOOA code, the axial bending stress should no t be multiplied by the Part Factor f2 (the System Factor of Safety) prior to com bination with the longitudinal pressure stress. Users wishing to modify the UKOO A requirements in this way should enable this check box. Users wishing to use UK OOA exactly as written should disable this check box. FRP Pipe Density Weight of the pipe material on a per unit volume basis. This field is used to se t the default weight density of FRP materials in the piping input module. FRP Alpha (e-06) In this field, the thermal expansion coefficient for the fiberglass reinforced p lastic pipe used (multiplied by 1,000,000) should be entered. For example, if th e value is: 8.5E-6 in/in/deg, then the user would enter 8.5 in this field. The e xponent (E-6) is implied. If a single expansion coefficient is too limiting for the user s application, the actual thermal expansion may always be calculated at tem perature in inches per inch (or mm per mm) and entered directly into the Tempera ture field on the Pipe spreadsheet. FRP Modulus of Elasticity Axial elastic modulus of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic pipe. This is the default value used to set the data in the input processor. The user may override this v alue in the input when necessary. Ratio Shear Mod:Emod In this field, the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in t he axial direction) of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used should be ent ered. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity (axial) is 3.2E6 psi, a nd the shear modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be enter ed here. Axial Strain:Hoop Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a) The product of the ratio of the axial to the hoop elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio which relates the strain in the axial direction to a stress in the hoop di rection. Ea - Elastic modulus in the axial direction. Eh - Elastic modulus in th e hoop direction. Vh/a - Poissons ratio relating the strain in the axial directi on due to a stress in the hoop direction.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 27 Database Definitions Database Definitions Configuration Settings Structural Database This directive specifies which database file is to be used to acquire the struct ural steel shape labels and cross section properties from. The structural databa ses provided include AISC 1977, AISC 1989, German 1991, South African 1991, Kore an 1990, Australian 1990, and United Kingdom. Piping Size Specification (ANSI/JIS/DIN/BS) By default, CAESAR II uses the ANSI pipe size and schedule tables in the input p rocessor. Users may optionally select the standard tables of another piping spec ification using this directive. The available tables are American National Stand ard (ANSI) Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) German Standard (DIN) Valves and Flanges This directive enables the user to specify which Valve/Flange database should be referenced by CAESAR II during subsequent input sessions. The databases provide d include the following: a generic database, the Crane database, a database (gen eric) without attached flanges, and the CADWorx/Pipe database.

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Expansion Joints This directive enables the user to specify which Expansion Joint database should be referenced by CAESAR II during subsequent input sessions. The databases prov ided include Pathway, Senior Flexonics, IWK, and Piping Technology. Units File Name This directive allows the user to scroll through the available units files and s elect one to activate. Since the CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data di rectory, different data directories can be configured to reference different uni ts files. Units files are searched for first in the local data directory, and th en in the active SYSTEM directory. The active units file is used for new job creation and all output generation. Load Case Template This directive allows the user to scroll through the available load case templat es and select the one to be active. Since the CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data directory, different data directories can be configured to reference different template files. Template files are searched for first in the local dat a directory, and then in the "active SYSTEM" directory. The active template file is used to "recommend" load cases. System Directory Name This directive enables a user to select which SYSTEM directory is used by CAESAR II. A ll of the various system directories contain formatting files, units files, text files, and other user configurable data files. Some of these formatting files are lan guage specific or Code specific. Therefore, users may want to switch between sys tem directories depending on the current job. The directive allows the user to s croll through the available system directories and select one to be ACTIVE. Sinc e the CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data directory, different data dir ectories can be configured to reference different system directories. All system directory names must be of the form: SYSTEM.??? where the .??? is a three chara cter suffix identifying the directory. Users can create system directories as ne eded, following this required naming convention. The CAESAR II distribution disk ettes contain language files for English, French, German, and Spanish. These for matting files can be installed in separate system directories, with an appropria te suffix, to allow switching between languages. Note that there must be a prima ry system directory, named system, for the program to place accounting, version, and diagnostic files that it creates during execution. The secondary system dir ectories are only referenced for llanguage and formatting files. Default Spring Hanger Table This directive is used to set the value of the default spring hanger table, refe renced during the spring hanger design stage of the solution. CAESAR II includes tables from more than 20 different vendors. Enable Data Export to ODBC-Compliant Databases This directive turns on the capability to create ODBC-compliant databases for st atic output.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 29 Append Reruns to Existing Data The default of NO (unchecked) causes a rerun to overwrite data from previous run s in the ODBC database. Turning this directive on (checked) causes a rerun to ad d new data to the database, thus storing multiple runs of the same job in the da tabase. ODBC Compliant Database Name This field contains the name of the ODBC project database. All jobs run in this data directory will write their output to the database specified here.

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Miscellaneous Miscellaneous Configuration Settings Output Table of Contents This directive allows the user to control the generation of a Table of Contents, normally produced after a static or a dynamic output session. By default this d irective is turned on, which causes the output processors to generate a Table of Contents upon exit. Turning this directive off disables the generation of the T able of Contents. Output Reports by Load Case By default, CAESAR II generates output reports sorted by load case. As an option , this directive may be turned off, which will cause the output reports to be so rted by type. For reports by type, all displacement reports will be generated, t hen all restraint reports, then all force reports, etc. Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes By default CAESAR II sorts the nodes in ascending order during the force/stress computations. This produces a displacement output report in which the nodes are ordered in increasing magnitude. This directive can be turned off to disable thi s nodal sort. The resulting displacement reports will be produced in the order t he nodes were entered during model building.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 31 Time History Animation This directive allows the user to disable the creation of the file used to anima te the time history displacement of the piping system. By default this directive is tu rned on, which instructs CAESAR II to generate a file of displacements, <jobname >.XYT, for every time step. This file is used in subsequent interactive animatio n sessions by the user. Note, however, that the size of this file is dependent o n the size of the model and the number of time steps analyzed. It may therefore be advantageous from a disk usage point of view not to create this file. To instruct C AESAR II not to create this file, turn this setting off. Dynamic Example Input Text This directive allows the user to control how much example text is placed in new dynam ic input files. By default, CAESAR II places example text and spectrum definitio ns in the input stream of new dynamic input files. Once a user is familiar with the in put, this example text may be undesirable. This directive allows the user to var y how much of this example text is incorporated in the input. MAX - This setting is the default and instructs CAESAR II to place all of the examples and spectru m definitions in the input stream of new dynamic input files. NONE -This directive eli minates all of the example text and all of the built in spectrum definitions. Th is setting is intended for experienced users. SPEC -This setting eliminates all of the example text, but leaves the predefined spectrum definition. This means t hat the built in spectrum definitions (El Centro etc.) will still be defined, an d available for use. Memory Allocated This setting modifies the Windows registry to increase the amount of RAM availab le to CAESAR II. Setting this directive to a number greater than the available R AM will cause Windows to use Virtual Memory (Hard Disk Space to be used as RAM) to be used. This may slow the program, however, and is normally recommended only for very large piping models. User ID When more than one workstation attempts to the CAESAR II data in the same direct ory at the same time it causes a corruption of the control file in the data dire ctory, which may cause abnormal program execution. Therefore, in situations wher e there may be more than one concurrent user running CAESAR II in a given data d irectory each user (or more exactly, each workstation) should enter a three-char acter User ID in this field. This creates a separate control file for each User ID to allow simultaneous access of the CAESAR II data within the same directory. Note: user. This User ID is not a password and is specific to the computer requ iring access and not to the Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail This directive disables the graphic thumbnail plot in the File Open dialog boxes . The graphics thumbnail plots a small image of the model as a single line drawi ng. On some slower, memory limited processors, or when scanning very large model s, this thumbnail graphic may take a few seconds to plot the model. To prevent t his delay check this box to turn off the graphics.

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Disable Undo/Redo Ability It may be desirable on some installations to disable the UNDO/REDO feature of th e input module. With UNDO/REDO enabled, CAESAR II can process a job approximatel y one-half the size of that which can be processed when UNDO/REDO is disabled (f or similar memory settings). Likewise, with UNDO/REDO enabled, the input module speed may be reduced. Enable Autosave When this option is checked, CAESAR II will automatically save the piping input at specified intervals. Autosave Time Interval This value (in minutes) is the time interval used to perform the auto-save funct ion. Autosave will be initiated every "X" minutes, where the value of "X" is spe cified in this edit box. Prompted Autosave When this option is checked, CAESAR II will prompt the user, at the specified ti me interval, to save the input. If this option is not checked, the input will be saved automatically at the specified time intervals (assuming autosave is enabl ed).

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 33 Set/Change Password The Password button provides the user with the option of providing a password pr otection scheme for the configuration file. By setting a password on the primary configuration file (done by setting the default data directory to the CAESAR II program directory), a corporate standard can be enforced throughout the network . Subsequent use of the configuration module in other data directories will allo w modification only of display or other environment directives (i.e., those that do not affect calculated results). When this button is clicked, a secondary win dow is displayed with four possible selections: New Password Access Protected Da ta Change Password Remove Password Access Protected Data This option is accessible once a password exists. Assuming the correct password is given for access, the user is then allowed to modify protected directives. The use of this option is not necessary if there is no previously specified password. If no password has been set, all directives can be modified by the user. New Password Once a password has been entered, the user on settings from the program directory, or tering a new password the user is prompted ensure the password was typed as expected has the ability to change configurati alter or remove the password. When en for the new password a second time to by the user the first time.

Change Password The current password may be changed at any time by a user who has authorization (he/she must enter the correct existing password for access to this directive). Once a password has been set, all computation controls, stress directives, and a ny other directives which could affect the CAESAR II computations are disabled a nd cannot be changed by the user. All protected directive labels, edit boxes, an d default buttons are grayed out when disabled. Remove Password The current password may be removed at any time by a user with authorization to do so (he/she must enter the correct existing password for access to this direct ive). Once a password has been removed, all directives in CONFIGURE/SETUP are mo difiable by the user from any directory where he/she has read/write access right s.

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Units File Operations The active units file as specified in the configuration file is used in conjunct ion with all new input files and all existing output files in the given data dir ectory. The units file specified in the configuration file will not modify the u nits in an existing CAESAR II input file Convert Input to New Units. Make Units File The user may create a custom units file or review an existing units file by choo sing TOOLS /MAKE UNITS FILE from the CAESAR II Main Menu. An explanation of each input field and button under this option follows. Review Existing Units File

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 35 Make Units File Dialog Clicking the Review Existing Units File button highlights a list box to the righ t that contains all existing units files located in both the data directory and the program directory. Choose the units file to review from the list, then click the View/Edit File button to proceed. A window will display (see below) contain ing all CAESAR II dimensional items, their internal units, the conversion factor between the internal units and the user-specified units, and the user s units. Review Existing Units Dialog Create a New Units File

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Units Maintenance Clicking the Create a New Units File button creates a new units file and activat es the next two items described below. When all items are completed choose the V iew/Edit File button to proceed. A window will appear in which the entries for t he user's units and the conversion factor can be edited. If the userdefined unit s for a given item exists in the list then there is no need to choose a conversi on factor as it will be updated automatically. If a new set of units is desired (miles in the length category for instance) then the user may type in (or select from the drop down list) the new unit name (mi.) and the new conversion factor (.00001578 in this example). Create New Units Dialog Existing File to Start From In CAESAR II a new units file is created by using an existing units file as a te mplate. Choose an existing units file from the list. It is simplest to choose a file that has many units in common with the file to be created. New Units File Name A unique file name must be entered here without the extension. View/Edit File Click this button to proceed once all activated lists on the Create New Units di alog have been completed.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 37 Convert Input to New Units The user may convert an existing input file to a new set of units by choosing TO OLS / CONVERT INPUT TO NEW UNITS from the CAESAR II Main Menu. A window will be created that contains the following three input fields: Units File Conversion Dialog Name of the Input File to Convert Type the full path name followed by the input file name (including the ._a exten sion) to be converted. The Browse button to the right of this text box may be us ed to choose the appropriate input file. Name of the Units File to Use Select the name of the appropriate units file from the list provided. Name of the Converted File Type the full path name followed by the input file name that corresponds to the new input file. Caution: Clicking the Browse button here and picking an existing ._a file the converted file will overwrite the existing ._a file chosen from th e list.

38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Material Database CAESAR II provides a material database (accessed with TOOL/MATERIAL DATABASE fro m the MAIN MENU listing physical properties and code-dependent allowable stresse s of more than 300 materials. These materials can be edited and additional mater ials can be added to the database by the user. Note: It is incumbent upon the us er to check material allowables and other physical property data for the particu lar code being used. While COADE attempts to keep the material database up-to-da te the codes are subject to change frequently and the accuracy of the database i s not guaranteed. Below is an explanation of the input fields for the Material D atabase. Material To add a urrently least a - Add new material spreadsheet to the database. This command saves any data c shown on the spreadsheet and clears the spreadsheet for a new entry. At material number and code must be given for the data to be saved.

Material - Delete This operation deletes the entire material spreadsheet from the database. The us er may choose the spreadsheet to delete from the list which contains only user-d efined database spreadsheets. The user cannot delete the material database sprea dsheets supplied with the CAESAR II program.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 39 Material - Edit To edit an existing material spreadsheet in the database. A window will appear f rom which the user must either type the name of the material or pick the materia l from the list. The piping code ID on the right side corresponds to the piping code ID on the piping input spreadsheet when allowables are chosen. Material Database Editor Displaying Data for A106-B Number Enter a number by which the material is to be referenced. The number must be bet ween 101 and 699 inclusive and should not already be a reference for another mat erial. Name Enter the material name as listed in the applicable code.

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Applicable Piping Code Enter the CAESAR II piping code number for the material. A list of the piping co de numbers for the various codes are listed below. ALL B31.1 B31.1 1967 B31.3 B31.4 B31.5 B31.8 B31.11 ASME NC ASME ND NAVY 505 CAN Z662 BS 806 Swedish 1 Swedish 2 Stoomwezen RCC-M C RCC-M D CODETI Norwegian TBK -6 FDBR BS 7159 UKOOA IGE/TD/12 DNV Eff, Cf, z This factor is necessary for various piping codes as defined below: STOOMWEZEN The cyclic reduction factor, referred to in the code as Cf. NORWEGIAN - This is the circumferential weld strength factor, z . If not entered, it defaults to 1.0. BS 7 159 - This field is the ratio of the design stress sd, in the circumferential (h oop) direction to the design stress in the longitudinal direction. Since design stress is defined in Sec. 4.3 of the code as: d = d * Elam , sd x = d * Elamx and design strain should be the same for both directions, this entry will also b e the ratio of the moduli of elasticity Elam (hoop) to Elamx (longitudinal). If le ft blank, a value of 1.0 will be used. Density Enter the density of the material. Minimum Temperature Curve (A-D) As defined by B31.3 (Section 323.2.2), some carbon steels are limited to a minimum metal temperature as shown in Figure 323.2.2. This cell is used to specify which cu rve should be used to check this material. If this code section is applicable, s pecify either A, B, C, or D. If this code section is not applicable, leave this cell blank. Note that this information is not currently used by CAESAR II. FAC A factor necessary for various piping codes as defined below: Stoomwezen This value should be either 0.44 or 0.5 and is used in computing the equilibrium stresses a s discussed in Section 5.2 of the code. The value of 0.5 can be used for steel i f the design and fabrication are such that stress peaks are avoided. Norwegian ( units: 106) Material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature Rm . If not entered, this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.

Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 41 Poisson's Ratio For Metals only. Enter the value to be used for Poisson s Ratio for this material.

Temperature In this field enter the temperatures corresponding to the database values you wi ll add to the right. In the database supplied with CAESAR II all temperatures ar e in 100F increments. Note that some of the codes list physical property values in 50F increments, therefore small discrepancies may occur between CAESAR II and a g iven code because of the interpolation of data. Exp. Coeff. Enter the expansion coefficient at the corresponding temperature. This coefficie nt must be multiplied by 106 F prior to being input here. (ex. An expansion coef ficient of 1.2 x 10-5 in/in/F would be input as 12). Allowable Stress Input the code allowable stress corresponding to the temperature to the left. Elastic Modulus This is the Modulus of Elasticity corresponding to the temperature to the left. Yield Stress This is the Yield Stress corresponding to the temperature to the left. Ult Tensile Stress BS 806 Mean Stress to Failure for design life at temperature Swedish Method 1 Creep Rupt ure Stress at temperature. Stoomwezen Rrg average creep stress to produce 1% permane nt set after 100,000 hours at temperature (vm). IGE/TD/12 - Ultimate Tensile Str ength Norwegian - (UNITS: lb./sq.in.) Material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature "Rm". If not entered, this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.

1 CHAPTER 3 Piping Screen Reference This chapter illustrates how to enter job parameters through the program's menus , fields, and commands. In This Chapter Piping Spreadsheet Data......................................................... .....2 Auxiliary Fields - Component Information ................................ .14 Auxiliary Fields - Boundary Conditions...................................... 31 Nozzles...................................................................... ..................48 Auxiliary Fields - Imposed Loads .......................... .....................58 Auxiliary Fields - Piping Code Data .................... .......................62 Available Commands ................................... ...............................79

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Piping Spreadsheet Data Help Screens and Units The question mark key <?> or the <F1> function key if pressed while in any of th e input data cells, will produce interactive help text for that particular input item. Additionally, while resting the cursor on a field, a tool tip indicating the current units will appear. From The FROM NODE number defines the starting end of the element. Node numbers must be numeric, ranging from 1 to 32000. Normally, the FROM NODE number is duplicated f orward by CAESAR II from the preceding element. The node numbers may be changed by the user, who should take care not to use the same node number more than once in the model. To The TO NODE number defines the end of the current element. Node numbers must be numeric, ranging from 1 to 32,000. The node numbers may be changed by the user, who should take care not to use the same node number more than once in the model .

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3 Name The Name check box is used to assign non-numeric names to node points. Double-cl icking this check box activates an auxiliary spreadsheet where names, of up to 1 0 characters, can be assigned to the From and/or To nodes. These names will show up in place of the node numbers in graphic plots and reports (possibly truncate d in 80 column reports). DX Delta X (DX) defines the element's projected length along the global X direction . CAESAR II accepts [compound length] [length] [fraction] formats (such as feet - inch fraction or meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication, and division may be used as well as e xponential format. Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified. DY Delta Y (DY) defines the element's projected length along the global Y direction . CAESAR II accepts [compound length] [length] [fraction] formats (such as feet - inch fraction or meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication, and division may be used as well as e xponential format. Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual DZ Delta Z (DZ) defines the element's projected length along the global Z direction . CAESAR II accepts [compound length] [length] [fraction] formats (such as feet - inch fraction or meter - decimal - centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication, and division may be used as well as e xponential format. Enter the DISTANCE between the TO and the FROM node along the direction specified. Examples for DX, DY, DZ Fields Element Cosines Element Length Enter the distance between the TO and the FROM node. Element Dire ction Cosines Direction vector or direction cosines which define the center-line of the element. For an element aligned with the "X" axis, Cos X ..... 1.0 Cos Y ..... <Blank> Cos Z ..... <Blank>

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 5 For an element aligned with the "Y" axis, Cos X ..... <Blank> Cos Y ..... 1.0 Co s Z ..... <Blank> For an element aligned with the "Z" axis, Cos X ..... <Blank> Cos Y ..... <Blank> Cos Z ..... 1.0 Element Offsets Element Offsets are used to correct an element's modeled dimensions back to its actual dimensions. 1 2 3 Activate by double-clicking the Offsets check box on th e Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double-clicking a second time. Specify the distances from the TO node's position in 3-D space to the actual TO end of the element. Specify the distances from the FROM node s position in 3-D space to the actual FROM end of the element. Any offset direction distances left blank defau lt to zero. Note: Thermal expansion is 0 for the offset portion of an offset element. No element flexibi lity is generated for the offset portion of the element. A common usage for the offset element is shown in the following figure:

Pipe Section Data Diameter The Diameter field is used to specify the pipe diameter. Normally, the nominal diameter is entered, and CAESAR II converts it to the actual outer diame ter necessary for the analysis. There are two ways to prevent this conversion: u se a modified UNITS file with the Nominal Pipe Schedules turned off, or enter di ameters whose values are off slightly from a nominal size (in English units the tolerance on diameter is 0.04 in.). Use <F1> to obtain additional information an d the current units for this input field. Available nominal diameters are determ ined by the active pipe size specification, set via the configuration program. T he following are the available nominal diameters. ANSI Nominal Pipe ODs, in inch es (file ap.bin) 10 34 1 12 14 36 1 16 42 2 18 2 20 3 22 3 24 4 26 5 28 6 30 8 32 JIS Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file jp.bin) 15 20 200 25 250 32 300 40 35 0 50 400 65 450 80 500 90 550 100 600 125 650 150 DIN Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file dp.bin) 15 20 25 250 300 350 1600 180 0 32 400 2000 40 500 2200 50 600 65 700 80 800 100 900 125 1000 150 1200 200 140 0

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 7 Wt/Sch The Wall Thickness/Schedule field is used to specify the thickness of the pipe. Normal input consists of a schedule indicator (such as S, XS, or 40), whi ch will be converted to the proper wall thickness by CAESAR II. If actual thickn ess is entered, CAESAR II will accept it as entered. Available schedule indicato rs are determined by the active piping specification, set via the configuration program. The available schedules are listed below. ANSI B36.10 Steel Nominal Wal l Thickness Designation: S - Standard XS - Extra Strong XXS - Double Extra Stron g ANSI B36.10 Steel Pipe Numbers: 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 ANSI B36.19 Stainless Steel Schedules: 5S 10S 40S 80S JIS PIPE SCHEDULES 1990 Steel Schedules: 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1990 Stainless Steel Schedules: 5S 10S 40S DIN PIPE SCHEDULES none Note: Only the s (standard) schedule applies to wall thi ckness calculations for DIN.

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual +Mill Tol % The Positive Mill Tolerance is is only enabled when IGE/TD/12 is active, and is used when the Base Stress/Flexi bility On directive of the Special Execution Options is set to Plus Mill Toleran ce. In that case, piping stiffness and section modulus is based on the nominal w all thickness, increased by this percentage. The user may change this value on a n element by element basis. -Mill Tol % The Negative Mill Tolerance is read in f rom the configuration file for use in minimum wall thickness calculations. Also, for IGE/TD/12, this value is used when the Base Stress/Flexibility On directive of the Special Execution Options is set to Plus Mill Tolerance. In that case, p iping stiffness and section modulus is based on the nominal wall thickness, decr eased by this percentage. The user may change this value on an element by elemen t basis. Seam-Welded This directive is only activated when the IGE/TD/12 code is active. This is used to indicate when straight pipes are seam welded and affects the Str ess Intensification Factor calculations for that pipe section due to Seam Welded fabrication. Corrosion Enter the corrosion allowance to be used order to calcul ate a reduced section modulus. A setup file directive is available to consider all str ess cases as corroded. Insul Thk Enter the thickness of the insulation to be app lied to the piping. Insulation applied to the outside of the pipe will be includ ed in the dead weight of the system, and in the projected pipe area used for win d load computations. If a negative value is entered for the insulation thickness , the program will model refractory lined pipe. The thickness will be assumed to be the thickness of the refractory, inside the pipe. Temperatures There are nine temperature fields, to allow up to nine different operating cases . Temperature values are checked (by the error checker) to insure they are withi n the code allowed ranges. Users can exceed the code ranges by entering the expa nsion coefficient in the temperature field in units of length/length. The expans ion coefficient can be a useful method of modeling cold spring effects. Also whe n material 21(userdefined material) enter temperature *expansion coefficient as in the example below. Values entered in the temperature field whose absolute val ues are less than the Alpha Tolerance are taken to be thermal expansion coeffici ents, where the Alpha Tolerance is a configuration file parameter and is taken t o be 0.05 by default. For example; if the user wanted to enter the thermal expan sion coefficient equivalent to 11.37in./100ft., the calculation would be: 11.37i n./100ft. * 1 ft./ 12in. = .009475 in./in.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 9 This would be entered into the appropriate Temperature field. Note: A cut short is no more than reducing a pipe element's length to zero (for example; if we wan ted 8.5 cm of cold spring we could put in an 8.5 cm long element and then therma lly shrink its length to zero). This allows the cold spring to be manipulated as an individual thermal case rather than as a concentrated force. Access to opera ting conditions 4 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating Conditions input screen, accessible via the Ellipses Dots button directly to the right of the standard Temperature and Pressure input fields. This dialog box may be kept open or closed for the convenience of the user.

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Pressures There are ten pressure fields, to allow up to nine operating, and one hydrotest, pressure cases. When multiple pressures are entered, the user should be particu larly careful with the set up of the analysis load cases, and should inspect CAE SAR II's recommendations carefully before proceeding. Access to operating pressu res 3 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating Conditions input scree n, accessible via the Ellipses Dots button directly to the right of the standard Temperature and Pressure input fields. This dialog box may be retained open or closed at the convenience of the user. Entering a value in the HydroPress field signals CAESAR II to recommend a Hydrotest load case. Enter the design gage pres sure (i.e. the difference between the |internal and external pressures). Note: C AESAR II addresses negative pressures as follows: - the absolute value of the lo ngitudinal pressure stress (PD/4t) term will be added to the appropriate code eq uations - pressure thrust forces applied to expansion joint ends will be compres sive. - buckling is not addressed in CAESAR II. Note: The BOURDON (pressure elon gation) EFFECT is "OFF" by default. (It is assumed to be nonconservative.) Users wishing to activate the BOURDON EFFECT may do so via the Special Execution Opti ons. The BOURDON EFFECT is ALWAYS considered in the analysis of Fiberglass Reinf orced Plastic pipe, Material id=20. Piping Materials Material Name Materials are entered either by name or number. All available mate rial names and their CAESAR II material numbers are displayed in the drop list. Since this list is quite long, entering a partial material name (such as A106) a llows the user to select from matching materials. Numbers 1-17 correspond to the generic materials, without code allowable stresses. Material 18 represents the cold spring element for cut short and material 19 represents the cold spring element f or cut long. Material 20 is used to define Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe. F RP Pipe requires slightly different material modeling and the spreadsheet change s to accommodate the difference. Analysis of fiberglass pipe is described in gre ater detail in Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual. When a material has been selected from the database, the physical properties as well as the allowabl e stresses are obtained and placed on the spreadsheet. At any later time, if the temperature or piping code is changed, these allowable stress values are automa tically updated. Material Properties Modulus of Elasticity, Poisson's Ratio, and Pipe Density fields are automatically filled in when a material number is enter ed. If the user wishes to override any material property extracted from the data base, simply change the value to be modified after the material number has been entered.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 11 Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) The CAESAR II FRP pipe element models an orthotropic material whose properties c an be defined by: Ea - Axial Modulus of Elasticity Eh - Hoop Modulus of Elastici ty h/a - Poisson's ratio of the strain in the axial direction resulting from a stress i n the hoop direction.

G - Shear Modulus (Not related to the Elastic Modulus and Poisson s ratio in the con ventional manner.) FRP pipe is invoked from the CAESAR II element spreadsheet wi th a material type 20. The material name will be immediately printed and FRP pro perties from the configuration file will be input on the spreadsheet. Some of th e material parameters are renamed when the FRP material is selected: Elastic Modulu s changes to Elastic Modulus/axial and Poisson's Ratio changes to Ea/Eh*n h res the value of the expression: (Ea*n h/a) / Eh (which happens to be equal to n a/h, Poisson's ratio of the strain in the hoop direction resulting from a stress in the axial direction). The shear modulus G can be defined by entering the rat io of G/Ea (shear modulus to axial modulus) on the special execution parameters screen. Only one ratio can be entered per job. Because the hoop modulus is usual ly considerably higher than the axial modulus for FRP pipe, the decrease in flex ural stiffness at bends and intersections due to changes in the circular cross-s ection is typically negligible, and so a default flexibility factor of 1 is used for these components. Similarly, since the fatigue tests performed by Markl on steel pipe will likely have no bearing on FRP design, an SIF of 2.3 is applied f or all fittings. CAESAR II uses these recommendations for all FRP fittings unles s specifically overridden by the user. This can be overridden on a point-by-poin t basis, or by forcing all calculations to adhere to the requirements of the gov erning code (through a CAESAR II configuration parameter). Note that if the BS 7 159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, all SIFs and flexibility factors will be calcu lated as per that code regardless of the configuration parameter settings. Densities Pipe Density The appropriate pipe density is filled in automatically when a prop er material number is input. This value may be overridden by the user at any tim e. It will then be the user s value that gets column-duplicated through the remainde r of the input.

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Insulation Density Enter the weight density of the insulation on a per unit volume basis. (If the insulation thickness spec ified above is negative, this field is the weight of the refractory lining, on a per unit volume basis.) If left blank then CALCIUM SILICATE is assumed for insulation having a density o f: 6.655E-3. Insure that this "assumed" value is appropriate for the current app lication. Refractory densities are much higher than insulation densities and cou ld lead to under sized restraints. Sample density values for both insulation and refractory materials are listed below. MATERIAL DENSITY (lb/cu.in.) AMOSITE ASBESTOS CALCIUM SILICATE CAREYTEMP FIBERGLASS (OWEN/CORNING) FOAM-GLASS /CELLULAR GLASS HIGH TEMP KAYLO 10 (TM) MINERAL WOOL PERLITE / CELO-TEMP 1500 PO LY URETHANE STYRO FOAM SUPER X .009259 .006655 .005787 .004051 .004630 .01389 .007234 .004919 .007523 .001273 . 001042 .01447

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 13 Densities for some typical refractory materials are given below: MATERIAL DENSITY (lb./cu.in.) A.P. GREEN GREENCAST 94 A.P. GREEN KRUZITE CASTABLE A.P. GREEN MC-30 A.P. GREEN MC-22 A.P. GREEN KAST-SET A.P. GREEN KAST-O-LITE 25 A.P. GREEN VSL-35AST 94 .09433 .08681 .08391 .07234 .06655 .05208 .02257 B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W B&W KAOCRETE B KAOCRETE 32-C KAO-TAB 95 KAOLITE 2200 KAOLITE 2200-HS KAOLITE 2500-LI . .05787 .08333 .09549 .03241 .04745 .03472 Fluid Density When the internal fluid the piping system transports would signifi cantly effect the weight loads, the fluid density should be specified. When the specific gravity of the fluid is known, it can be entered here instead of the de nsity, e.g. .85SG. Specific gravities are converted to the appropriate densities immediately on input. Note that to enter specific gravity, follow the numeric v alue with the letters SG (no spaces); this value will then be converted to densi ty. Note: In the default ENGLISH units system, densities are entered in pounds p er cubic inch.

14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Auxiliary Fields - Component Information Bends Activate by double-clicking the Bend check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second time. Radius CAESAR II makes the long radius bend calculation whenever a bend is input. If th e user wishes to use some other bend radius the new bend radius can be entered i n this field.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 15 Type For most codes, this refers to the number of attached flanges, and can be select ed from the drop list. If there are no flanges on the bend then leave the Type f ield blank. A bend should be considered flanged if there is any heavy/rigid body withi n 2 diameters of the bend that will significantly restrict the bends ability to ovalize. When using the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes with Fiberglass Reinforced Plasti c (FRP) pipe, this entry refers to the material laminate type, and may be 1, 2, or 3. These laminate types are All chopped strand mat (CSM) constructing with in ternal and external surface tissue reinforced layer. Chopped strand mat (CSM) an d woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinf orced layer. Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction wit h internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer. The Laminate type affec ts the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for the BS 7159 and UKOOA Codes only. Angle The angle to a point on the bend curvature. The user may place additional nodes at any point on the bend curvature provided the added nodes are not within 5 deg rees of each other. (The 5 degree node-spacing limit may be changed via the conf iguration file if necessary.) Note that the element TO node is always physically located at the far end of the bend. By default CAESAR II places a node at the m idpoint of the bend (Designated by the letter M in this field), as well as at th e 0-degree position (start) of the bend if possible. Node Node number to be associated with the extra point on the bend. CAESAR II places unique node numbers in these fields whenever a bend is initiated. New, unique no de numbers must be assigned to the points whenever the user adds points on the b end curvature. If numbering by 5 s and the TO node number for the bend element is 35 , a logical choice for the node number for an added node at 30 degrees on the be nd would be 34. The added nodes on the bend can be treated like any other nodes in the piping system. Nodes on the bend curvature may be restrained, displaced, or placed at the intersection of more than two pipes. Nodes on a bend curvature are most commonly used as an intersection for a dummy leg, or for the location o f a restraint. All nodes defined in this manner will be plotted at the tangent i ntersection point for the bend.

16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Miter Points Number of cuts in the bend if mitered. The bend SIF scratch pad may be invoked f rom the pipe spreadsheet by choosing Kaux - Review SIFs at Bend Nodes. When the user enters a valid mitered bend node number, CAESAR II tells the user if the mi tered bend input is closely or widely spaced. If the bend is determined to be wi dely spaced and the number of miter cuts is greater than 1, then it is recommend ed that the bend be broken down into n single cut widely spaced miters, where n number of cuts in the bend. The number of cuts and the radius of the bend are a ll that is required to calculate the SIFs and flexibilities for the bend as defi ned in the B31 codes. The bend radius and the bend miter spacing are related by the following equations: Closely Spaced Miters R= q= S / (2 tan ) Bend Angle / ( 2 n) where n = number of miter cuts Widely Spaced Miters R= r2 = = r2 (1.0 + cot q) / 2.0 (ri + ro) / 2.0 Bend Angle / 2.0 Fitting Thickness Enter the thickness of the bend if different than the thickness of the matching pipe. If the entered thickness is greater than the matching pipe wall thickness, then the inside diameter of the bend will be smaller than the inside diameter o f the matching pipe. Section modulus calculations for stress computations are ma de based on the properties of the matching pipe as defined by the codes. The pip e thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors -- once as Tn, and once when determining the mean cross-sectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the flexibility characteristic (h): h = (Tn)(R) / (r2) Tn = Thi ckness of bend or fitting R = Bend radius r = Mean cross-sectional radius of mat ching pipe = (OD - WT) / 2 OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe WT = Wall Thic kness of matching pipe

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 17 Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the matching pipe for the calculation of the mean cross-sectio nal radius of the pipe (the WT value). More specifically, the individual codes u se the two wall thicknesses as follows: For Tn: Calculation: B31.1 B31.3 B31.4 B 31.5 B31.8 B31.8 Ch VIII SECT III NC SECT III ND Z662 NAVY 505 B31.1 (1967) SWED ISH BS 806 STOOMWEZEN RCC-M C/D CODETI NORWEGIAN FDBR BS 7159 UKOOA IGE/TD/12 Fi tting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Matching Pipe Fitt ing Fitting Fitting N/A N/A Matching pipe Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fittin g Fitting Fitting Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Matchi ng Pipe Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Fitting Fitting Matching Pipe N/A N/A Matching Pipe Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting For Mean R adius The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the sti ffness matrix calculations; however, note that the thickness of the matching pip e (WT) is always used in the bend stress calculations.

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual K-Factor Normally the bend flexibility factor is calculated as per the requirements of th e active code. The user can override this calculation by entering a value in thi s field. Seam-Welded Used by the IGE/TD/12 piping code to calculate the stress intensification factor s due to seam welded elbow fabrication as opposed to extruded elbow fabrication. This directive is only available when the IGE/TD/12 piping code is active. Rigid Elements Activate by double-clicking the Rigid check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second time. Enter the rigid element weight. Thi s value should always be zero or positive and should not include the weight of a ny insulation or fluid. CAESAR II automatically includes 1.0 times the fluid weight of equivalent straig ht pipe. CAESAR II automatically includes 1.75 times the insulation weight of eq uivalent straight pipe. Rigid elements with zero weight are considered to be mod elling constructs and do not have fluid or insulation weight added. The rigid el ement stiffness is proportional to the matching pipe, i.e. a 13 in. long 12 in. diameter rigid element is stiffer than a 13 in. long 2 in. diameter rigid elemen t. This fact should be observed when modelling rigid elements that are part of a small pipe/large vessel, or small pipe/heavy equipment model. The stiffness pro perties are computed using 10 times the entered thickness of the rigid element. For additional details see Chapter 6 of this manual. The length must be entered in the Delta Length field (DX, DY, DZ). See the discussion of the valve and flan ge database (see "Valve/Flange Database" on page 81) for the automatic input of these types of components.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 19 Expansion Joints Activate by double-clicking the Expansion Joint check box on the pipe element sp readsheet. Deactivate by double-clicking a second time. Zero Length Expansion Joints Used to model hinged and gimballed joints. Leave the DX, DY, and DZ fields blank or zero. Define completely flexible stiffnesses as 1.0, and completely rigid st iffness as 1.0E12. All stiffnesses must be entered. Finite Length Expansion Joints The DX, DY, and DZ fields should describe the change in dimensions required to g et from one end of the flexible bellows connection to the other. The transverse and bending stiffnesses are directly related for finite length joints. The user should input only one of these stiffnesses. CAESAR II will calculate the other s tiffness automatically based on flexible length, effective ID, and the other sti ffness. It is recommended that the user enter the transverse stiffness and leave the bending stiffness blank.

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Bellows Stiffness Properties If the element length is zero then all stiffnesses should be defined by the user . If the element length is not zero then either the bending or the transverse st iffness should be left blank. CAESAR II will automatically calculate the stiffne ss not entered. (For rubber expansion joints, all stiffnesses may be entered.) I f the torsional stiffness value is not specified, CAESAR II will use a default v alue of . Bending "STIFFNESSES" from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufac turers) that are to be used in a finite length expansion joint model should be m ultiplied by (4) before being used in any piping program. Bending "STIFFNESSES" from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufacturers) that are to be used in a ZERO length expansion joint model should be used without modification. Use (1.0 ) for bellows stiffnesses that are completely flexible. Use (1.0E12) for rigid b ellows stiffnesses. Zero Length expansion joints can be used in many modelling a pplications to define struts, hinged ends, etc. The orientation of zero length e xpansion joints is taken from the element that precedes the expansion joint prov iding the "TO" node of the proceeding element is equal to the "FROM" node on the expansion joint element. If the preceeding element does not go "INTO" the expan sion joint, then the orientation will be taken from the element that follows the expansion joint providing it properly "LEAVES" the joint. Effective ID The effective inside diameter for pressure thrust (from the manufacturer s catalog). For all load cases including pressure CAESAR II will calculate the pressure thrust force tending to blow the bellows apart (provided the pressure is positive). If le ft blank, or zero, then no axial thrust force due to pressure will be calculated . Many manufacturers give the effective area of the expansion joint: Aeff. The E ffective ID is calculated from the effective area by: Effective ID = (4Aeff / )1 /2 Reducers

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 21 Activate or deactivate this option by double-clicking the Reducer check box on t he piping element spreadsheet. Optionally, enter the TO END Diameter 2, Thicknes s 2, and Alpha values of the reducer. The FROM END diameter and wall thickness o f the reducer element will be taken from the current piping element spreadsheet. CAESAR II will construct a concentric reducer element made of ten pipe cylinder s, each of a successively larger (or smaller) diameter and wall thickness over t he element length. CAESAR II will calculate SIFs according to the current piping code (see Code Compliance Considerations in the CAESAR II Technical Reference M anual for more information) and apply these internally to the Code Stress Calcul ations. These SIFs are dependent on the slope of the reducer transition (among o ther code-specific considerations), labeled Alpha in the figure above. If Alpha is left blank the program will calculate this value based on the change in pipe diameter over 60% of the entered element length. If entered, Diameter 2 and Thic kness 2 will be carried forward when the next pipe element is created as Diamete r and Wt/Sch. If not specified, Diameter 2 and Thickness 2 will be assumed equal to those values entered as Diameter and Wt/Sch on the following element spreads heet.

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The Piping Error Checker will report the value of alpha used by CAESAR II (see a bove picture) if no value for alpha is entered on the input spreadsheet. Diameter 2 Optionally enter the diameter of the TO END of the reducer element. (The FROM EN D diameter is obtained from the Diameter field of the piping spreadsheet.) The v alue entered will carry forward as the diameter of the following element. Nomina l values are converted to actual values if that feature is active. If left blank , the program will calculate "Alpha" using the diameter from the following eleme nt as Diameter 2. Thickness 2 Enter the wall thickness of the "TO END of the reducer element. (The FROM END th ickness is obtained from the Wall Thickness/Schedule field of the piping spreads heet.) The entered value will carry forward as the wall thickness of the followi ng element. Nominal values are converted to actual values if that feature is act ive. Alpha Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the valu e will be set from an estimated slope equal to the arc tangent X [ 1/2(the chang e in diameters) (60% of the entered reducer length)]. R1 Enter the transition radius for the large end of the reducer, as shown in Append ix 4, Table 8 of IGE/TD/12 Code (enabled only when IGE/TD/12 is active). R2 Enter the transition radius for the large end of the reducer, as shown in Append ix 4, Table 8 of IGE/TD/12 (enabled only when IGE/TD/12 is active).. SIFs & Tees Activate by double-clicking the SIFs and Tees check box on the Pipe Element Spre adsheet. Deactivate by double-clicking a second time.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 23 There are two basic component types: Three element intersection components, and Two el ement joint components. A fully defined intersection model requires that three pipes f rame into the intersection node, and that two of them are co-linear. Partial int ersection assumptions are made for junctions where the user has coded one or two pipes into the intersection node, but these models are not recommended. Two ele ment joint components can be formed equally well with one or two elements framing into the node. As usual, the intersection or joint type and properties need only be entered on one of the elements going to the junction. CAESAR II duplicates the i ntersection characteristics for all other pipes framing into the intersection. U sers are urged to fully review the WARNING messages coming from CAESAR II during error checking. These messages detail to the user any assumptions made during t he assembly and calculation of the intersection SIFs. The available intersection s and joint types are shown in the table that follows, along with the other para meters that can affect the stress intensification factors for the respective com ponent.

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Input Items Optionally Effecting SIF Calculations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Reinforced Fabricated Tee Unreinforced Fabricated Tee Welding Tee Sweepolet Weldolet Extruded Welding Tee Girth Butt W eld Socket Weld (No Undercut) Socket Weld (As Welded) Tapered Transition Threade d Joint Double Welded Slip-On Lap Joint Flange (B16.9) Bonney Forge Sweepolet Bo nney Forge Latrolet Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet Full Encirclement Tee Ftg Ro WE LD ID WELD ID Ftg Ro Pad Thk Ftg Ro Ftg Ro Ftg Ro CROTCH CROTCH CROTCH CROTCH CR OTCH CROTCH Weld d or ID FILLET FILLET Weld d The input data cells are defined as follows: Pad Thk. Thickness of the reinforci ng pad for reinforced fabricated or full encirclement tees, intersection type #1 and #17 respectively. The pad thickness is only valid for these intersection ty pes. Note that in most piping codes the beneficial effect of the pad s thickness is limited to 1.5 times the nominal thickness of the header. This factor does not a pply in BS 806 or Z184, and is 2.5 in the Swedish piping code. If the thickness of a type 1or type 17 intersection is left blank or zero the SIFs for an unreinf orced fabricated tee are used. Ftg Ro. Fitting outside radius for branch connect ions. Used for reduced branch connections in the ASME and B31.1 piping codes, Bo nney Forge Insert Weldolets, and for WRC 330/329 intersection SIF calculations. Setup file directives exist to invoke the WRC 330/329 calculations, and to limit the application of the reduced branch connection rules to unreinforced fabricat ed tees, sweepolets, weldolets, and extruded welding tees. If omitted, FTG ro de faults to the outside radius of the branch pipe. Crotch R. The crotch radius of the formed lip on an extruded welding tee, intersection type 6. This is also the intersection weld crotch radius for WRC330 calculations. Specifying this value when it is known can result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the WRC 330 intersection. Basically, if the user makes an attempt to reduce the stress riser at a fabricated intersection, by guaranteeing that there will be a smooth transition radius from the header to the branch pipe, then he may reduce the resulting stress intensification by a factor of 2.0.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 25 Weld(d). Defines the average circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diam eter of the pipe. Used for Butt Welds and Tapered transitions. Note that this is the average, and not the maximum mismatch. Users must themselves make sure that any maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied for their particular code. Fill et. The fillet leg length, and is used only in conjunction with a socket weld co mponent. For an unequal leg fillet weld, this value is the length of the shorter leg. Note that if a fillet leg is given, both socket weld types result in the s ame SIF. See appendix D of the B31 piping codes for further clarification. Weld ID. The following are valid entries: 0 and 1. 0 indicates an as welded fitting, 1 indicates a finished or ground flush fitting. This entry is used for Bonney Fo rge sweepolets and insert weldolets, as well as butt welds in the Swedish piping code. B1. This entry defines the primary stress index to be used for the given node on the current element. This entry is only applicable for ASME Class 2 and 3 piping. For the BS 7159 Code, the B1 field is used to enter the pressure stres s multiplier (m), if other than as per the code requirements. For straight pipe, m = 1.0; for bends and tees, m is defined in Figures 7.1 and 7.12 of the BS 715 9 Code. B2. This entry defines the primary stress index to be used for the given node on the current element. This entry is only applicable for ASME Class 2 and 3 piping. If omitted, B1 and B2 are defaulted as shown as follows: Straight Pip e: Curved Pipe: B1=0.5 B2=1.0 B1=-0.1+0.4h; but not <0 or >0.5 B2=1.30/h2/3; but not <1.0; h=tR/rm2 Intersections: B1=0.5 Butt-Welded Tees: B2b=0.4(R/T)2/3 but not <1.0 B2r=0.5(R/T)2/3 but not <1.0 Bran ch Connections: (r<0.5R) B2b=0.50 C2b but not <1.0 B2r=0.75 C2r but not <1.0 C2b =3(R/T)2/3 (r/R)1/2 (t/T)(r/FTG ro) but not <1.5 C2r=1.15(r/t)1/4 but not <1.5 T he SIF(IN) and SIF(OUT) fields may be used to override the CAESAR II calculated values for any intersection. Override values only apply for the single element t hey are defined on. SIFs may be calculated for partial intersections and dummy l egs.

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Note: When IGE/TD/12 is active, the SIF/TEE spreadsheet changes its appearance t o accommodate specialized specialized SIF parameters. Refer to supplementary IGE /TD/12 documentation for further information. SIF / Tee Node Number Enter the node number where a Stress Intensification exists. This may be any nod e in the system, but is most often at a pipe intersection or joint. If the node is at an Intersection, stress intensification factors will be automatically calc ulated for all pipes going to the intersection providing the intersection "TYPE" is specified. The intersection type needs to only be entered once. CAESAR II wi ll find all other pipes framing into the intersection and apply the appropriate SIFs accordingly. If the node is at a two-pipe Joint, i.e. a butt weld, stress i ntensification factors will be calculated for the two pipes going to the joint n ode providing the joint "TYPE" is specified. The joint type needs to only be ent ered once. CAESAR II will find the other pipe completing the joint. If the node is not at an intersection or a joint then the Type field should be left BLANK an d the "USER DEFINED" SIFs entered in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields. User entries in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields only apply to the element on which they are defi ned. User defined stress intensification factors, must be greater then or equal to one. The user can get CAESAR II to calculate and display code defined SIFs wh ile in the SIF scratchpad. This scratchpad is accessed via the K-Aux option on t he pipe spreadsheet. Parameters used in the scratchpad may be modified so that t he effects of different geometries and thicknesses can be observed. Most changes made in the scratchpad may be automatically transferred back into the input, if desired. If the node is on any part of a bend's curvature then the following ap plies: 1 User defined SIFs won't override code calculated SIFs for bends, althou gh a SETUP file directive exists to override this default, i.e. ALLOW_USERS_BEND _SIF=YES. If this parameter appears in the setup file then users may specify SIF s for bend "to" nodes. The SIFs so specified will apply for the entire bend curv ature. User defined SIFs will apply to straight pipe going to points on a bend c urvature regardless of any parameter in the setup file. This option is commonly used to intensify injector tie-ins at bends, or dummy legs, or other bend attach ment-type of supports. 2 User-Defined SIFS Anywhere in the Piping System Unless the piping element is a bend, SIFs for non-intersection points are normal ly taken to be 1.0. If for some reason the SIF should be greater than (1.0) the user may enter the non-unity SIF in the Intersection Auxiliary field without spe cifying the intersection type. Note that a user defined SIF only acts at the nod e on the current element.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 27 Stress Intensification Factors (Details) Stress intensification factors are calculated automatically for bends and define d intersections as specified by the applicable piping code. The user may enter s pecific stress intensification factor for any point in the piping system by acti vating the SIFs and Tees check box on the pipe spreadsheet. The node number wher e the stress is to be intensified is entered in the first available Node field, and the in-plane and out-plane stress intensification factors are entered in the SIF(i) and the SIF(o) fields, respectively. The only exception is that users ca nnot specify SIFs for bend elements (unless the User Bend SIF directive is activ ated in the configuration file). Code defined SIFs always apply. CAESAR II will not allow user-defined stress intensification factors to be less than 1.0. The n ode to be intensified must be the To or the From node on the current element. St resses are only intensified at the element end going to the specified node. For example, if two pipes frame into node 10, one going from 5 to 10, and the other from 10 to 15; and a stress intensification factor of 2.0 for node 10 is defined on the element from 5 to 10, then the 10 end of the element from 5 to 10 will h ave a stress intensification of 2.0, and the 10 end of the element from 10 to 15 will have a stress intensification of 1.0. User defined stress intensification factors can be used to override code calculated values for nodes at intersection s. For example, let node 40 be an intersection defined by an unreinforced fabric ated tee. The header pipes framing into the intersection go from 35 to 40 and fr om 40 to 45. The branch pipe framing into the intersection goes from 175 to 40. The code-calculated values for the stress intensification factors in the header pipes are: SIF(i) SIF(o) = 4.50 = 3.75 and in the branch pipe are SIF(i) SIF(o) = 6.70 = 5.58

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Also assume that finite element analysis of the intersection showed the header s tress intensification factors to be 2.3 and 1.87, respectively, and the branch s tress intensification factors to be equal to the code recommended values, i.e. 6 .70 and 5.58. To properly override the code-calculated stress intensification fa ctors for the header pipes, two pipe elements will have to be modified: 35 to 40 Node 40 Type: SIF(i): 2.3 SIF(o): 1.87 40 to 15 Node 40 Type: SIF(i): 2.3 SIF(o ): 1.87 The stress intensification for the branch pipes can be calculated accord ing to the code, so, part of the branch pipe spreadsheet might appear: 175 to 40 NODE Type: SIF(i): SIF(o): If either of the SIF fields for the header elements going to 40 were left blank, the code-calculated value would be used in its plac e. This is only true where code-calculated values exist along with user-specifie d values. If the element from 110 to 115 needs the stress intensification factor s for each of its ends is 2.0, then a part of that element's spreadsheet might a ppear: 110 to 115 Node Type: SIF(i): SIF(o): 2.0 110 40 2 - Unreinforced Node: Type: 115

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 29 SIF(i): SIF(o): 2.0 Leaving the out-of-plane stress intensification factor blank implies that it is equal to the in-plane stress intensification factor. There are no code-calculate d values to override these user-input values. The user is not permitted to overr ide code-calculated stress intensification factors for bend elements (unless the Allow User's Bend SIF directive is activated in the configuration file). Additi onally, bend stress intensification factors will supersede any code-calculated i ntersection stress intensification factors for the same node. This characteristi c allows the user to apply code-calculated intersection stress intensification f actors to dummy legs without disturbing the normal bend stress intensification f actors. The node on the dummy leg, that is also on the bend curvature, is define d as an intersection on the Intersection SIF Scratchpad. The intersection stress intensification factors will be calculated and can be applied to the dummy leg end that connects to the bend. Bend stress intensification factors are unchanged . Stress intensification factors can be calculated for intersections having one, two, or three pipes framing into it. Where two pipes form a partial intersectio n, CAESAR II assumes that the larger pipe is the header and the smaller the bran ch. Where one pipe forms a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the inte rsection is full sized. CAESAR II will not calculate stress intensification fact ors for intersections having more than three pipes framing into it. The stress i ntensification factors calculated by CAESAR II can be viewed interactively from the pipe spreadsheet by selecting either the KAUX - REVIEW SIFS AT INTERSECTION NODES menu item or the KAUX REVIEW SIFS AT BEND NODES menu item. One of the foll owing SIF scratchpads will appear after typing in the node number to review when prompted. Note that the Node must be a valid Bend node when Reviewing SIFs at B ends.

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual At this point the user may interactively change any of the spreadsheet data and recalculate the SIFs. This allows the user to see the effect that changing geome tries and properties have on code stress intensification factors. Note: CAESAR I I gives the user the opportunity to transfer back to the actual model any data w hich might be changed in the scratch pad.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 31 Auxiliary Fields - Boundary Conditions Restraints Activate the restraint auxiliary by double-clicking on the check box. Deactivate by double-clicking a second time. If more than four restraints are to be specified on one element, the additional restraints may be placed on any other input spreadsheet. Note Do not use restrai nts in these three situations: 1) Imposed Displacements Specify displacements fo r the point using the Displacement Auxiliary field. 2) Flexible Nozzles Use the Nozzles check box to open the Nozzles Auxiliary Data field to input the vessel o r tank characteristics required by WRC 297, PD 5500, or API 650 to calculate loc al nozzle flexibilities. Once these flexibilities have been calculated, CAESAR I I automatically inserts the necessary restraints and flexibilities into the pipi ng model. 3) Hangers program designed or pre-defined spring hangers Use the Hangers check box to open the Hanger Auxiliary Data field.

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Node Node number where the restraint is to act. Note: The node number does not have t o be on the current element. CNode Optional connecting node. Restraints with connecting nodes can be used to tie on e node in the piping system to any other node in the system. If left blank then the restraint node is tied, via the restraint stiffness, to a fixed point in spa ce. If the connecting node is specified then the restraint node is tied, via the restraint stiffness, to the connecting node. In all cases, CNodes associate nod al degrees of freedom. Additionally, CNodes can be used to geometrically connect different parts of a model graphically. This option is controlled via the setup file directive Connect Geometry through CNodes (on page 18). See Chapter 2 of t he this manual for additional information on this topic. Type The following restraints can be activated by selecting them from the drop list i n the Restraint Auxiliary field. The use of these restraints is detailed in Chap ter 3 of the CAESAR II Applications Guide. Restraint Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Anch or Translational Double Acting Rotational Double Acting Guide, Double Acting Dou ble Acting Limit Stop Translational Double Acting Snubber Translational Directio nal Rotational Directional Directional Limit Stop Abbreviation ANC X, Y, or Z RX , RY, or RZ GUIDE LIM XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB +X, -X, +Y, -Y, +Z, -Z +RX, -RX, +RY, etc . +LIM,-LIM XROD, YROD, ZROD X2, Y2, Z2 RX2, RY2, RZ2 -X2, +X2, -Y2, etc. +RX2,RX2, +RY2, etc. XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR +XSNB,-XSNB,+YSNB, etc. 10 Large Rotation Rod 11 Translational Double Acting Bilinear 12 Rotational Doub le Acting Bilinear 13 Translational Directional Bilinear 14 Rotational Direction al Bilinear 15 Bottom Out Spring 16 Directional Snubber Anchor Restraint is defined for ALL degrees of freedom at the node.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 33 X , Y, or Z Translational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed free displacement along the specified degree of freedom. (i.e. a +Y restraint is restraint against movement in the minus -Y direction and is free to move in the plus Y direction). RX, RY, or RZ Rotational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed free displacement along the specified degree of freedom. Guide Transverse restraint that may be skewed. LIM Limit stops are axial restraints that may be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed free displacement along the ele ment longitudinal axis. XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB Snubbers are restraints that engage only during quick movements such as those in duced by a shock. They only act on the piping system in the Occasional load case . Snubbers may be preceded by a (+) or a (-). X2, Y2, Z2 Bilinear supports are restraints that have two different stiffnesses associated with them. The stiffness is dependent upon the loading on the support. Bilinear supports may be preceded by a (+) or a (-). K2 Post yield stiffness of a bilinea r restraint. When the load on the restraint exceeds Fy then the stiffness on the restraint changes from K1 to K2. The value of K2 may be negative, modelling sha llow trench or groove-type pipeline supports. K2 VALUES OF ZERO WILL BE TREATED AS RIGID. For very small stiffnesses enter a value of 1.0. XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR Spring supports that may be preceded by a (+) or a (-). "Bottom out" spring. Add itional required input is the spring rate, allowed travel, and initial load. If the allowed travel in the direction of support is exceeded, the spring "bottomsout". X (cosx, cosy, cosz) or X (vecx, vecy, vecz) Translational skewed restraints. May be preceded by a (+) or (-). If a direction vector is entered, i.e. vecx, vecy, vecz, CAESAR II will convert the direction vector into the corresponding cosines. RX (cosx, cosy, cosz) or RX (vecx, vecy, vecz) Rotational skewed restraints.

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual XROD, YROD, ZROD Translational, large rotation, rod or hanger-type restraints. May be preceeded b y a (+) or (-) sign to indicate the orientation of the pivot point about which t he rod swings. A (+) is assumed, and in the case of a YROD this implies that the pivot point is above the pipe. Additional REQUIRED input is the rod or hanger l ength. XROD (COSX, COSY, COSZ) or XROD (VECX, VECY, VECZ) Translational skewed, large rotation rod or hanger type restraint. Stif Stiffness associated with any support, guide, limit stop, rod |or spring that ca n be defined as a restraint. If left blank then |the defined restraint will be c onsidered rigid. The default |rigid restraint stiffness is 1.0E12. K1 is the ini tial stiffness of a bilinear restraint (i.e. X2). Any positive stiffness may be entered if the restraint is not rigid. Stiffnesses greatly in excess of 1.0E15 s hould be avoided. If a stiffness value is specified for an anchor, the entered s tiffness will apply for all (6) degrees of freedom at the anchored node.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 35 Gap This is a multiple use field defined as follows: TYPE = X Y Z GUI LIM RX RY RZ G AP (UNITS: ^01) - Distance along the restraint line of action the restrained nod e may travel before resistance to movement begins. The gap value must be positiv e. For rotational restraints the gap is given in degrees. If the translational r estraint is not preceded by a sign, then the restraint is double acting and the gap will be taken to exist for both positive and the negative displacements alon g the line of action (i.e. if a 0.25 in. gap is specified at a +Y restraint, the n the restrained node may move freely 0.25 in. in the minus Y direction before r estraint occurs. The gap specification does not affect the amount of free displa cement that can occur along the positive Y direction in this example). When defi ning windows of allowed movement it is not uncommon to place two restraints havi ng the same line of action, but with different signs at the same node. This conf iguration is perfectly legal. The user is cautioned to remember to form the wind ow with signs on restraints rather than with signs on gaps. In CAESAR II a gap i s a measure of length and is always positive. Examples: TYPE GUI GAP 1/4 ... One quarter ^01 gap on either side of the "guided " restraint. TYPE +Y GAP 3.0 ... Three ^01 gap BELOW the support that must be closed before t he +Y support begins acting. TYPE RX GAP 5.0 ... Five degree gap about the X axi s about which the pipe may rotate freely before rotational restraint occurs. TYPE = XROD YROD ZROD Len (UNITS: ^01) - Swinging length of the rod or hanger. D istance along the restraint line of action from the restrained node to the pivot point. The restraint swings about the pivot point. If a CNODE is defined then t he restraint swings about the CNODE. "Len" is a required entry. TYPE = X2 Y2 Z2 RX2 RY2 RZ2 K2 (UNITS: ^14 <or> ^15) - Post yield stiffness of a bilinear restra int. When the load on the restraint exceeds Fy then the stiffness on the restrai nt changes from K1 to K2. The value of K2 may be negative, modelling shallow tre nch or groove-type pipeline supports. K2 VALUES OF ZERO WILL BE TREATED AS RIGID . For very small stiffnesses enter a value of 1.0. TYPE = XSPR YSPR ZSPR "x" (UN ITS: ^01) Travel along the spring axis before "bottom-out" occurs. In the case o f a typical YSPR, this is the movement in the negative "Y" direction before the spring bottoms out. TYPE = XSNB YSNB ZSNB

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual dmp - Future use intended for snubber damping value. Mu This is a multiple use field defined as follows: TYPE = X Y Z GUI LIM MU (UNITS: Unitless) - Static friction coefficient. Friction provides resistance to moveme nt along the direction normal to the restraint line of action. The magnitude of the friction force is equal to MU * Fn, where Fn is the normal force on the rest raint. A friction coefficient may be automatically assigned to every new transla tional restraint by assigning a value to the Coefficient of Friction field (see "Coefficient of Friction (Mu)" on page 5) in the Configure/Setup module. TYPE = XROD YROD ZROD Fi (UNITS: ^02 ) - Initial spring load. This field should be left blank for a rigid YROD. If the YROD is modelling a spring hanger, then the hang er stiffness should be entered into the STIF field, and the initial cold load on the hanger should be entered here. TYPE = X2 Y2 Z2 RX2 RY2 RZ2 Fy (UNITS: ^02 < or> ^04 ) - Yield Load. If the load on the support is less than "Fy" then the in itial stiffness K1 is used. If the load on the support is greater than "Fy" then the second stiffness "K2" is used. TYPE = XSPR YSPR ZSPR F (UNITS: ^02 ) - Init ial spring cold load. This input is required, and is almost always positive. TYP E = XSNB YSNB ZSNB na - Not Applicable. This field is not used when the restrain t TYPE is snubber. Hangers Activate the hangers auxiliary by double-clicking on the check box. Deactivate b y double-clicking a second time.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 37 Node The node to which the hanger is connected. CNode The CNode, or connecting node number, is used only when the other end of the han ger is to be connected to another point in the system, such as another pipe node .

38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Hanger Table The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II: 1. Grinnell 3. Power Piping 5. Lisega 7. Piping Technology 9. Piping Services 11. Inoflex 13. S INOPEC 15. Flexider 17. Comet 19. Sarathi 21. China Power 23. Quality Pipe Suppo rts 2. Bergen Power 4. NPS Industries 6. Fronek 8. Capitol 10. Basic Engineers 1 2. E. Myatt 14. BHEL 16. Carpenter & Paterson 18. Hydra 20. Myricks 22. Pipe Sup ports USA Additional design options are invoked by further modifying the hanger table numb er: Add + 100 to get Extended Range Add + 200 to get Cold Load Design Add + 400 to get the Hot load centered if possible. For example, to use Grinnell Springs a nd cold load design the user would enter: 1 + 200 = 201. To use Grinnell Extended R ange springs, Cold Load Design, and to get the Design Hot load centered in the midd le of the hanger table, if possible, the user would enter: 1 + 100 + 200 + 400 = 701.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 39 A single job can use any combination of tables. The hanger table can be specifie d on the individual hanger spreadsheet, or can be specified on the Hanger Run Co ntrol Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 103). If a spring table is entered in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet then it is used as the default for all subsequent hangers defined. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet defaults to th e hanger tablespecified in the configuration file. The maximum load range was in cluded in CAESAR II to permit the selection of less expensive variable support h angers in place of constant effort supports when the spring loads are just outsi de the manufacturers recommended range. Users should make sure that the maximum load range is available from the manufacturer as a standard item. Cold Load Spri ng Hanger Design. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design is a method of designing the sp rings, whereby the hot (or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installe d) position of the piping. This method of spring design offers several advantage s over the more usual hot load design: Hanger stops are easier to remove. There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or wh en the stops are removed. Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brou ght up to temperature. Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design. In some system configurations, operating loads on connected e quipment are lower. A typical configuration resulting in this load-reduction is one wh ere a hot vertical riser, anchored at the bottom, turns horizontally into a nozz le connection. The spring to be designed is at the elbow adjacent to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the difference between the hot and cold loads counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the anchor. The disadvantages to cold load design are In some systems, in the hot condition the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value proportional to the spring rate times the travel. Most installations are done on a hot load design basis. The decision to use hot or cold load hanger design rests with the user. M iddle of the Table Hanger Design. Many designers prefer that the hot load be cen tered as close as possible to the middle of the spring table. This is to provide as much variability either way before the spring bottoms out when the system is hot. This was a much more needed feature, before effective computer modelling of pipi ng systems, when the weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or ca lculated by hand. Activating this option does not guarantee that spring hot load s will be at the middle of the spring table, but CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this position. The CAESAR II design algorithm will go to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the larger spr ings range, but will never switch spring types. This option can only result in a one size larger spring when it is effective. CAESAR II will attempt to move the hot load to the next higher spring when it is within 10% of the maximum travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not satisfactory then the old one wil l be used, even though its hot load is within 10% of the high end of the table l oad range, to get a springs hot load close to the middle of the table.

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Extended Load Range Springs. Extended load ranges are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table. Some manufacturers build double spring supports to accom modate this range, and others adjust the top or bottom travel limits to accommod ate either end of the extended table. Before using the maximum ranges, the user should make sure that the manufacturer can properly supply the spring. Use of th e extended range often eliminates the need to go to a constant effort support. L isega springs do not support the "extended range" idea. A request for extended L isega springs results in the standard Lisega spring table and ranges. Hanger/Can Available Space This tells CAESAR II how much room, above or below the pipe, there is to install the hanger or can. If the value entered by the user is negative, then CAESAR II will assume that a can is to be installed. If the value entered is positive the n CAESAR II will assume that a hanger is to be in installed. Hangers or cans wil l be selected for a particular location only if they can be installed in the spa ce allotted. The precise definition of available space varies with the manufactu rer. Drawings and tables for each manufacturer are shown at the end of this sect ion. This is the available vertical clearance for the hanger or can:

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 41 If the Available Space is not an important design criteria, then the field shoul d be left blank or zero. If the Available Space is positive, then the vertical c learance will be assumed to be above the pipe and a hanger will be designed. If the Available Space is negative, then the vertical clearance will be assumed to be below the pipe and a can will be designed. When the Available Space is the go verning factor in a hanger design, several smaller springs are typically chosen in place of one large spring. Allowable Load Variation (%) This is the user specified limit on the allowed variation between the hot and co ld hanger loads. If not specified, the only limit on load variation is that inhe rent in the spring table. This is approximately 100% when the hot load is smalle r than the cold load, and 50% when the hot load is larger than the cold load. Ho t loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the operating displacement in the Y direction is positive. The default value for the load variation is 25%. The use r is advised to enter this value in the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet before an y hangers are defined. Bergen-Paterson is the only manufacturer that specificall y gives 25% as a design limit. The Allowable Load Variation is the percentage va riation from the hot load: Variation = (Cold Load) - (Hot Load) Hot Load or as may be more familiar: Variation = (Travel)(Spring Rate) Hot Load The Allowable Variation is entered as a percentage, i.e. twenty five percent wou ld be entered 25.0. The Allowable Load Variation can have different values for d ifferent hanger locations if necessary by entering the chosen value on the indiv idual hanger spreadsheets or it can be entered on the Hanger Design Control Spre adsheet to apply to all hangers in the model.

Rigid Support Displacement Criteria This is a parameter used to determine if there is sufficient travel to design a spring. The Rigid Support Displacement Criteria is a cost saving feature that re places springs that are not needed with rigid rods. The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. From this case the load to b e supported by the hanger in the operating condition is determined. Once the han ger design load is known, an operating case is run with the hot hanger load inst alled to determine the travel at the hanger location. If this determined hanger travel is less than the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria then a rigid Y suppo rt is selected for the location instead of a spring. If the Rigid Support Displa cement is left blank or zero, the criteria will not be applied. The Rigid Suppor t Displacement Criteria may be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet, or on each individual hanger spreadsheet. The value specified on the Run Control Spreadsheet is used as the default for all hangers not having it defined explic itly. A typical value to be used is 0.1 in. Important: In some cases a Single di rectional restraint should be inserted instead of a rigid rod. Rigid rods are do uble acting restraints which can in some cases develop large hold down forces that don eally exist because the support has lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bow ed slightly. When this condition develops the user should rerun the hanger desig n inserting single directional restraints where rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II. Hangers should probably never be replaced by rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system that are usually associated with rotating equipment or ves sel nozzles that need to be protected. Maximum Allowed Travel Limit To specify a limit on the amount of travel a variable support hanger may undergo , specify the limit in this field. The specification of a maximum travel limit w ill cause CAESAR II to select a constant effort support if the design operating travel exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the manufacturer table would have been satisfactory in every other respect. Constant effort hange rs can be designed by inputting a very small number for the Maximum Allowed Trav el Limit. A value of 0.001 is typical to force CAESAR II to select a for a parti cular location.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 43 No. Hangers at Location If left blank, CAESAR II will attempt to find a single hanger that suits all des ign requirements at the location. If a single hanger cannot be found, then CAESA R II will try to find a double hanger that satisfies all design requirements. If a double hanger cannot be found, then CAESAR II will recommend a constant effor t support hanger for the location. If the user wants to use a different upper li mit on the number of springs that CAESAR II will consider for a location, then t he negative of that number should be entered in this field. For example, if the user wants to use as few springs as possible, yet is willing to use as many as 5 springs if necessary, -5 should be entered in the No. of Hangers field. To dire ctly specify the number of springs to be designed at a location, enter that numb er in the No. of Hangers field. Note: Enter only positive numbers in the No of H angers field. Allow Short Range Springs CAESAR II gives the user the option of excluding short range springs from consid eration from the selection algorithms. In some instances short range springs are considered specialty items and are not used unless their shorter length is requ ired for clearance reasons. In this case, this check box should be cleared by th e user. If this option is not activated, CAESAR II will select a mid-range sprin g over a short-range spring, assuming they are more standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their short-range counterparts. If the default shou ld be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box on the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet.

Operating Load To override the operating load that CAESAR II is calculating, enter the desired value in the Operating Load field. This value is normally entered when the user thinks that loads on a piece of equipment will be reduced if a hanger in the vic inity of the equipment is artificially caused to carry a proportionately larger part of the total load. This operating load is the hot load the hanger is design ed to support after it undergoes any travel due to the thermal expansion of the piping. CAESAR II s calculated hanger operating loads may be read from the hanger ta ble printed in the output processor. The column title is HOT LOAD. The user s entered e will similarly show up in this table if defined. The total desired operating l oad at the location should be entered. If there are two hangers specified at the location and each should carry 500 lb., then the operating load specified shoul d be 1,000 lb.

44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Multiple Load Case Design The spring selection algorithm can be based on one or more operating conditions. A two-pump installation, where only one pump operates at a time, is a good appl ication for multiple load case hanger design. There are currently thirteen diffe rent multiple load case design algorithms available: Design spring per operating case #1. Design spring per operating case #2. Design spring per operating case #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, and #9. Design spring for maximum operating load. Design spring for maximum travel. Design spring for average load and average travel. D esign spring for maximum load and maximum travel. The Multiple Load Case Design option can be specified at the global level in the Hanger Design Control Data Sp readsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 103). The globally specified option will ap ply for all hanger design locations unless overridden in a specific hanger desig n spreadsheet. Enter the number of operating thermal cases to be considered when sizing springs for this system in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet. This v alue defaults to 1.0. Also enter the Multiple Load Case Design option to be the default value (unless the design option is to be specified individually for each hanger to be designed in the system). Example Problem of a Multiple Load - Case Spring - Hanger Design This example illustrates the different hanger designs that can result from the u se of different multiple load case design options.

46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Free Anchor/Restraint at Node Anchors, or restraints, simulating equipment connections that are in the immedia te vicinity of the hanger are usually freed during the hanger design restrained weight run, so that loads normally going to the equipment nozzle are carried by the hanger. The user should enter the node number for the equipment where the re straint to be freed acts. The corresponding free code may also be specified to tell CA ESAR II which of the restraint/anchor directions to be freed. For nozzles that a re further removed from the hanger usually only the Y direction should be freed. Hangers are commonly used around equipment nozzles to support the weight of the pipe as it thermally expands away from the nozzle. The hanger can usually be de signed to take almost the full weight of the pipe between the anchor and the han ger if the anchor is freed when making the restrained weight calculation. The an chor is freed by entering its node number in the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field. The pipe going to the anchor will be treated just like a free end (for the hange r weight calculation only!!!). The Free Code field works with the Free Anchor/Re straint at Node field to limit the actual degrees of freedom at an anchor that a re released. The Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field works in conjunction with t he Free Code field. If the Free Code is not specified for an anchor, the anchor is assumed to be completely free for the restrained weight run. The Restrained Weig ht hanger design pass is the first analysis step in the hanger design, and is run a utomatically by CAESAR II. The following steps comprise the Restrained Weight run: 1 2 3 Putting rigid Y restraints at each hanger location. Removing anchors and rest raints that are to be freed. Running the weight analysis to find the hot hanger loads. Nonlinear restraints may not be freed during hanger design. Note: Free Code Whenever an anchor or restraint should be released for the restrained weight run , that anchor s node number should be put in the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field , and the Free Code describing the directions to be released should be put in th e Free Code field on the same hanger spreadsheet. Free Codes are Free the anchor or restraint in the Y direction only. Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and X directions only. Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and Z directions only. Free all translational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X,Y and Z) Free all translational and rotational degrees of freedom for the anchor or r estraint. (X, Y, Z, RX, RY, and RZ) The last option usually results in the highe st adjacent hanger loads, but should only be used when the horizontal distance b etween the hanger and the anchor is within about 4 pipe diameters.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 47 Predefined Hanger Data When using the Predefined Hanger Data fields on the hanger spreadsheet, and ther e is more than one hanger at the location, use the Number of Hangers field to sp ecify the number of hangers. Then enter the spring rate and pre-load applicable to a single hanger. There is no reason to try to compute the equivalent spring r ates or theoretical loads. Pre-defined hanger data can be entered in one of two ways: All information for the hanger can be input. Only the spring rate for the hanger can be input. If all information is input, the restraint configuration fo r the node is completely defined and it will not be included in the hanger desig n algorithm. For a position to be completely pre-defined, one of the following c onditions must apply: spring rate and theoretical cold load constant effort supp ort load Spring Rate and Cold Load The spring rate and the theoretical cold load effectively define a hanger locati on. If the user enters both, then the hanger location will be completely pre-def ined by the user and no analysis level design for the hanger will take place. Re-setting Loads on Existing Spring Hangers If only the spring rate is given, CAESAR II will assume that the user wants to r e-rate the spring at the given location. The old spring rate should be read from the existing hanger and input directly to CAESAR II. The Theoretical Cold Load field should be left blank for the re-rate. If more than a single spring exists at the location, then the total number of springs should be entered in the No. o f Hangers field (CAESAR II assumes that the load is distributed evenly among mul tiple springs at the same point). CAESAR II will go through its normal hanger de sign procedure to calculate the load and travel for all proposed hanger location s including the location with springs to be re-set. The stiffness of the re-set springs will not be used for this re-design. Once CAESAR II sizes the springs, a comparison will be made with the user-entered spring rates. If the program's se lected spring rate is within 5% of the user's existing spring rate, CAESAR II wi ll list the spring's figure number and size in the output report. If the selecte d spring rate is more than 5% off the users value, no manufacturer's data will b e listed. In either case, CAESAR II will use the user-entered spring rate in all following analyses. It is up to the user to confirm that the new hot and cold l oads are within the existing spring's working range. The major use of the re-rat e capability is to find new installed loads for old springs. Springs might be re rated after the shutdown of a unit that has been operating continuously for a lo ng period, or after mechanical or process changes have been made to a piping sys tem.

48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Nozzles Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadshee t and selecting the WRC 297 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. D eactivate by double-clicking a second time. Nozzle Flexibility - WRC 297 Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadshee t and selecting the WRC 297 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. D eactivate by double-clicking a second time.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 49 When a nozzle node number is input, CAESAR II scans the current input data for t he node and loads its diameter and wall thickness and enters it in the Nozzle Au xiliary Data field. Current nozzle flexibility calculations are in accordance wi th the Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 297, issued August 1984 for cylinde r to cylinder intersections. A valid nozzle node has the following properties: O nly a single element connects to the nozzle node. The nozzle node is not restrai ned and does not have displacements specified for any of its degrees of freedom. Computed nozzle flexibilities are automatically included in the piping system a nalysis via program generated restraints. This generation is completely transpar ent to the user. Six restraints are established for each flexible nozzle input. If a vessel node number is defined, then the vessel node acts like a connecting node for each of the six restraints. Vessel nodes are subject to the same restri ctions shown above for nozzle nodes. Note: The user should not put a restrainer on an element between the nozzle node and any specified vessel node. CAESAR II c reates the required connectivity from the nozzle flexibility data and any user g enerated stiffnesses between these two points will add erroneously to the nozzle stiffnesses. During the error checking of the nozzle flexibilities, all useful WRC curve data is displayed on the terminal. These values may be used to enter t he illustrated nozzles in the WRC 297 bulletin. It is sometimes helpful to know just how close a particular nozzle is to one of the several asymptotic limits, o r to a curve boundary.

50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Note: The user will only be able to see the WRC 297 computed data during the err or checking process with warning messages activated. Each input item on the nozz le spreadsheet is discussed in detail as follows: Nozzle Node Number Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There s hould only be a single piping element connected to this node, and there should b e no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular t o the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however , the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel shou ld be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the true centerline of the nozzle. Vessel Node Number Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the ves sel shell. The vessel/tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If the vessel node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vess el node. Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the ve ssel from the nozzle connection to the skirt or foundation.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 51 Nozzle Diameter Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of th e pipe used to model the nozzle.) Nozzle Wall Thickness Wall thickness of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the wall thickness o f the pipe element used to model the nozzle.) Vessel Diameter Outside diameter of the vessel. Vessel Wall Thickness Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vesse l. Do not include the thickness of any reinforcing pad. Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the v essel wall thickness before nozzle stiffness calculations are performed. Distance to Stiffener or Head Distance along the vessel center-line, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significant ly stiffens the cross-section of the vessel against local deformation normal to the shell surface. Distance to Opposite-Side Stiffener or Head Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closes t stiffener or head in the vessel on the other side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels. Vessel centerline direction vector X, Y, Z Direction vector or direction cosines which define the center-line of the vessel . For a vertical vessel this entry would read: Vessel centerline direction vecto r X:<blank> Vessel centerline direction vector Y: 1.0 Vessel centerline directio n vector Z:<blank>

52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be collinear or CAESAR II will f lag this as an error. Vessel Temperature (Optional) Estimated temperature of the vessel/nozzle junction. If input, the vessel temper ature must be paired with a valid vessel material number. The estimated temperat ure is used to calculate the hot modulus of elasticity. Vessel Material No. (Optional) If input, the vessel material number must be paired with a valid vessel temperat ure. The allowed vessel material number can be any valid material number from th e material database and corresponds to the pipe materials used in the spreadshee t. If the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank or ze ro, an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi will be used. API 650 NOZZLES Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadshee t and selecting the API 650 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. D eactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time. CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to appendix P of API 650, "Design of Carbon Steel Atmospheric Oil Storage Tanks."

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 53 Nozzle Node Number Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the ve ssel shell. There should only be a single piping element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however, the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes f rom the vessel should be perpendicular to the vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on the tru e centerline of the nozzle. Tank Node Number Node on the tank surface at the poi nt where the nozzle intersects the vessel/tank shell. The tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the API stiffnesses to a poin t fixed rigidly in space. If the tank node is given, the nozzle node will be con nected via the API stiffnesses to the tank node. Tank nodes are specified when t he user wishes to model through the tank from the nozzle connection to the found ation. Nozzle Diameter Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of th e pipe used to model the nozzle.) Nozzle Wall Thickness Wall Thickness of the nozzle. May be different than the attached pipe wall thick ness API-650 Tank Diameter Outside Diameter of the Vessel or API 650 storage tank. Note that API 650 Addend um 1 does not recommend these computations for diameters less than 120 feet. API -650 Tank Wall Thickness Wall Thickness of l. DO NOT include 2 For API tanks, the nozzle, enter the Vessel at the point where the Nozzle connects to the vesse the thickness of any reinforcing pad. API 650 Reinforcing 1 or if the reinforcing is on the shell, then enter 1. If it is on a 2. API 650 Nozzle Height

For API 650 applications, enter the height from the centerline of the nozzle to the base of the tank.

54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual API 650 Fluid Height Enter the liquid level of the fluid in the storage tank. This fluid level must b e greater than the nozzle height. API 650 Specific Gravity Enter the specific gr avity of the stored liquid. This value is unitless. API-650 Tank Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Enter the coefficient of thermal expansion of the plate material of the tank is constructed. Values are listed in engineering handbooks or the appropriate secti on of the API 650, App P. If this value is left blank, zero will be assumed. API 650 Delta T Enter the change in temperature from ambient to its maximum that the tank normal ly experiences. For example: If the maximum summertime temperature is 107F. The de lta T would be 107 - 70 = 37F. If this value is left blank, zero will be assumed. API-650 Tank Modulus of Elasticity For API 650 nozzles, the hot modulus of elasticity of the tank must be entered d irectly. If this value is left blank, 29.5E6 will be assumed. PD 5500 Nozzles Activate by double-clicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadshee t and selecting the PD 5500 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. D eactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 55 CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to Appendix G of the PD 5500 Specification for Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels. The input req uirements for these nozzles are: Nozzle Node Number Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single pipin g element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on th e node. The nozzle element should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however, the first (possibly very s hort) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the v essel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle e lement can then go off on the true centerline of the nozzle. Vessel Node Number Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the ves sel shell. The vessel/tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in space. If the vessel node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vess el node. Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the ve ssel from the nozzle connection to the skirt or foundation. Vessel Type - Cylind er (0) or Sphere (1) If the vessel is cylindrical, enter a 0. For cylinders, the distances to stiffeners/heads and the vessel direction cosines are required. If the vessel is spherical, enter a 1. For spheres, the fields for the distances t o stiffeners/heads and vessel direction cosines are both ignored. Nozzle Diamete r Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of th e pipe used to model the nozzle.)

56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Vessel Diameter Outside diameter of the vessel. Vessel Wall Thickness Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vesse l. Do not include the thickness of any reinforcing pad. Vessel Reinforcing Pad T hickness Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the v essel wall thickness before nozzle stiffness calculations are performed. Distanc e to Stiffener or Head Distance along the vessel center-line, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significant ly stiffens the cross-section of the vessel against local deformation normal to the shell surface. Distance to Opposite-Side Stiffener or Head Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closes t stiffener or head in the vessel on the other side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels. Vessel Centerline Direction Cosines These are di rection vectors or direction cosines that define the center-line of the vessel. For a horizontal vessel aligned with the X axis, this entry would read: Vessel centerl ine direction vector X ..... 1.0 Vessel centerline direction vector Y ..... <Bla nk> Vessel centerline direction vector Z ..... <Blank> Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be co-linear or CAESAR II will flag this as an erro r. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels. Vessel Temperature (Optional) Estimated temperature of the vessel/nozzle junction. If input, the vessel temper ature must be paired with a valid vessel material number. The estimated temperat ure is used to calculate the hot modulus of elasticity.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 57 Vessel Material No. (Optional) If input, the vessel material number must be pair ed with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel material number can be an y valid material number from the material database and corresponds to the pipe m aterials used in the spreadsheet. If the vessel temperature and the vessel mater ial number are left blank or zero, an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi will be used . Displacements Activate by double-clicking the Displacements check box on the Pipe Element Spre adsheet. Deactivate by double-clicking the Displacements check box a second time . Enter the node number where the displacement is to be specified. There must not be a restraint at this node. Enter the displacements at the node. Any displaceme nt direction not specified for any displacement vector will be free. To specify an anchor at node 1000 with a 1/2-in. displacement in the minus Y direction for displacement set #1, enter data as shown in the figure above. The displacements at a node can be specified for up to 9 different vectors, intended to correspond to the 9 temperature cases. Note: If an imposed displacement is specified for a specific degree-of-freedom, that degree-of-freedom will be considered restraine d for all load cases whether or not they contain that displacement set.

58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Auxiliary Fields - Imposed Loads Forces and Moments Activate by double-clicking the Forces/Moments check box on the Pipe Element Spr eadsheet. Deactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time. Enter the node number where the forces and/or moments are to act. Enter the magn itudes of the forces and/or moments. Up to 9 different force vectors can be defi ned at each node point. Uniform Loads Activate by double-clicking the Uniform Loads check box on the Pipe Element Spre adsheet. Deactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 59 The uniform load specification is distributive, and will act on all following el ements until zeroed or changed. A snow load of 8.0 pounds per foot (assuming uni ts of pounds per inch) could be entered: Vector 1 Vector 2 Vector 3 UX UY UZ -8/12 or may be entered: UX UY UZ -.6667 UX, UY, and UZ can be changed to GX, GY, and GZ so that uniform loads can be ent ered as a fraction of the total pipe weight through the Kaux- Special Execution Parameters (see "Uniform Load in G's" on page 112) command. The GX, GY, and GZ s pecifications are used most frequently for defining static earthquake loadings. Note: Up to 3 uniform load vectors can be defined. Wind Loads Activate by double-clicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsh eet. Deactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time.

60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual This is a shape factor as defined in ASCE #7. A value of 0.5 to 0.65 is typicall y used for cylindrical sections. Activating the wind directive will enable the W ind Load Input Spreadsheets, which are accessed from the Load Case Editor during the Static Analysis. This auxiliary is used to define the presence of wind load s (via the wind shape factor as defined in ASCE #7) or wave loads (with associat ed coefficients). The load type may be set or turned off via the radio button. I mportant: off. This value is distributive, and will act on all following element s until changed or turned Wind Shape Factor Coefficient defined in A58.1-1982 in Table 12 for chimneys, tanks, and similar s tructure. A value of 0.5 to 0.65 is typically used for cylindrical sections. Act ivating the wind directive will turn on the Wind Load Input Spreadsheets, which are accessed form the Load Case Editor during Static Analysis. Activate by doubl e clicking the Wind Wave checkbox on the Pipe Element SPreadsheet. Deactivate by double clicking the checkbox a second time. Wave Loads Activate by double-clicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsh eet. Deactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time. Important: turned off. These values are distributive, and will act on all following elements until chan ged or Drag Coefficient, Cd Coefficient as recommended by API RP2A. Typical values range from 0.6 to 1.20. E ntering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the drag coefficient based on par ticle velocities. Added Mass Coefficient, Ca This coefficient accounts for the added mass of fluid entrained into the pipe. T ypical values range from 0.5 to 1.0. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calcu late the added mass coefficient based on particle velocities.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 61 Lift Coefficient, Cl This coefficient accounts for wave lift, which is the force perpendicular to bot h the element axis and the particle velocity vector. Entering a 0.0 instructs CA ESAR II to calculate the added lift coefficient based on particle velocities. Marine Growth The thickness of any marine growth adhering to the external pipe wall. This will increase the pipe diameter experiencing wave loading by twice this value. Marine Growth Density An entry in this field designates the density to be used if including the weight of the marine growth in the pipe weight. If left blank, the weight of the marin e growth will be ignored.

62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Auxiliary Fields - Piping Code Data Allowable Stresses Activate by double-clicking the Allowable Stresses check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by double-clicking the check box a second time. The Allowable Stress Auxiliary field incorporates piping codes with their associ ated inputs. The help screens should be used liberally to be sure that the prope r interpretation of each new input data cell is made. A CAESAR II Piping Spreads heet illustrating the Allowable Stress field is shown above. Note: Allowable str ess data is distributive, and applies to all following elements unless changed o r zeroed.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 63 Codes The piping codes are listed in the following table. Their current publication da tes can be found in the CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide. B31.1 B31.3 B31.4 B31.4, Chapter IX B31.5 B31.8 B31.8, Chapter VIII B31.11 ASME Sect III NC (Class 2) ASME Sect III ND (Class 3) Navy 505 CAN/CSA Z662 BS 806 Swedish Power Piping Code (Method 1) Swedish Power Piping Code (Method 2) B31.1 - 1967 Stoomwezen RCC-M C RCC-M D CODETI Norwegian TBK-6 FDBR BS 7159 UKOOA IGE/ TD/12 DNV Each of the input data cells are discussed in general in the following section. For more information about code compliance consideration see Chapter 6 of the Te chnical Reference Manual.

64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual SC Typically the cold allowable stress for the specific material taken directly fro m the governing piping code. The value of SC will usually be divided by the long itudinal weld efficiency (Eff) before being used. See the notes that follow for the specific piping code. B31.1. Allowable stress tables in Appendix A include t he longitudinal weld joint efficiencies where applicable. These efficiencies sho uld not be used for flexibility stress calculations. If the joint efficiency (Ef f) is given on this spreadsheet CAESAR II will divide the entered SC by the join t efficiency before using it in the allowable stress equations. B31.3. Values fr om tables in Appendix A don t include the joint efficiency. Eff should be zero, blan k, or one. Note that the 1980 version of B31.3 included the longitudinal weld jo int efficiencies as part of the tables in Appendix A. If this version of the cod e is being used then Eff should be entered in the appropriate field on this spre adsheet. B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX. SC is not used!!! The only stress value in B31 .4 is the yield stress taken from Table 1 in the appendix. (See the Sy data fiel d on this spreadsheet.) B31.5. Values from tables in Appendix A don t include the jo int efficiency. Eff should be zero, blank, or one. B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII. SC is not used!!! The only stress value in B31.8 is the yield stress taken from Ap pendix D. (See the Sy data field.) B31.11. SC is not used!!! The only stress val ue used in B31.11 is the yield stress. ASME NC and ND. SC is taken directly from Appendix I. Eff is not used, and is ignored if entered. Navy 505. There is no mention of joint efficiency in the 505 specification; however, it is implied in Footnot e 1 of Table TIIA. If a joint efficiency is given CAESAR II will divide SC by th e joint efficiency before using it in the allowable stress equations. Eff should probably be zero, blank, or one. CAN Z662. SC is not used. The only stress valu e in Z184 is the yield stress specified in the standards or specification under which the pipe was purchased. (See the Sy data field.) BS 806. 0.2% of the proof stress at room temperature from Appendix E. Eff is not used in BS 806 and is ignored if entered. Swedish Method 1. SC is not used. Method 1 only uses either the yiel d, or creep rupture stress at temperature, (SHn and Fn respectively on this spre adsheet.) Eff is used, but is the Circumferential weld joint efficiency and has a comp letely different meaning. Swedish Method 2. SC is the allowable stress at room t emperature from Appendix 2. Eff is not used, and is ignored if entered. B31.1 (1967). SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from the tables in Appendix A. Th ese tables include the Longitudinal Weld joint efficiencies where applicable. Th ese efficiencies should not be used for flexibility stress calculations. If the joint efficiency Eff is given CAESAR II will divide the entered SC by the joint effici ency before using it in the allowable stress equations. Stoomwezen (1989). SC is the yield stress at room temperature, referred to as Re in the code.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 65 RCC-M C, D. SC is taken from Appendix, Eff is not used, and is ignored if entered. COD ETI. This is "famb" from the code. Eff is not used, and is ignored if entered. Norwegi an. This is "f1" from the code. Eff is not used for longitudinal joint efficiency. BS 7159. SC is not used. Design stress is entered in the SH fields. UKOOA. SC is no t used. Design stress (in the hoop direction) is entered in the SH fields. IGE/T D/12. SC is not used. DNV. SC is not used.

Typically the hot allowable stress for the specific material taken directly from the governing piping code. A value must be entered for each defined temperature case. The value of SH will usually be divided by the longitudinal weld efficien cy (Eff) before being used. See the recommendations that follow for the specific piping code. B31.1. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above. B31.3. Allo wable stress from Appendix A, see SC above. B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX . SH is not used. B31.5. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above. B31.8, B31.8 Chapte r VIII . SH is used for the minimum wall thickness computations only. B31.11.. S H is not used. ASME NC and ND. Allowable stress from Appendix I. Navy 505. Allow able stress from Table XIIA. See SC above. CAN Z662. SH is not used. BS 806. SH is 0.2% of the proof stress at design temperature Appendix E. (Eff is not used.) Swedish Method 1. SH is the yield stress at temperature from Appendix 1. Swedis h Method 2. SH is the allowable stress at temperature from Appendix 2. B31.1 (19 67). Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above. Stoomwezen. SH is the yield stress at design temperature, referred to as Re (um) in the code. RCC-M C, D. S H is taken from the Appendix. CODETI. This is f from the code. Norwegian. This is "f he code. FDBR. The hot allowable defined in Section 3.2. BS 7159. This is the de sign stress d, in the longitudinal direction, as defined in Section 4.3 of the c ode, i.e.: d = d * Elamx. Design stress in the circumferential (hoop) direction should be specified by entering the ratio of the circumferential design stress t o the axial design stress in the Eff field below. (Note that since design strain should be the same for both directions, the entry in the Eff field will also be ratio of Elamf(hoop) to Elamx (longitudinal). UKOOA. This is the allowable desi gn stress in the hoop direction, defined in the code as f1 * LTHS. The three HOT AL LOWABLE STRESS fields correspond to the three possible temperature cases.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 67 IGE/TD/12. Yield Stress is used here instead of a Hot Allowable Stress.

68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Fn STRESS RANGE REDUCTION FACTOR Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the material database, if available and applicable. STR ESS RANGE REDUCTION FACTOR for most piping codes. Exceptions are noted below. In most cases the stress range reduction factor is taken from the following tables : B31.1 OPERATING CYCLES 7000 and less 7000 - 14000 14000 - 22000 22000 - 45000 45000 - 100000 100000 B31.3 REDUCTION FACTOR 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 OPERATING CYCLES 7000 and less 7000 - 14000 14000 - 22000 22000 - 45000 45000 - 100000 100000 - 2 00000 200000 - 700000 700000 - 2000000 REDUCTION FACTOR 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 Where several thermal states exist and where the number of thermal cycles is hig h the user should consult the applicable B31 piping code for methods of combinin g cycle life data. If omitted a value of ONE will be used. EXCEPTIONS: B31.4 - Not Used !!!! B31.8 - Not Used !!!! B31.8 CHAPTER VIII - Not Used !!!! C ODETI - This term is called "U" in the code. NORWEGIAN - This term is called "fr " in the code, and may be as high as 2.34. DNV - This is the material ultimate t ensile strength at temperature. CAN Z662 - F1 = L, the location factor, obtained from Table 4.1

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 69 Application Gas (non-sour) General & cased crossings Roads Railways Stations Other Gas (sour service) General & cased crossings Roads Railways Stations Other HVP General & cased crossings Roads Railways Stations Other LVP Uncased railway crossings All others CLASS 1 CLASS 2 CLASS 3 CLASS 4 1.000 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.750 0.900 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.750 0.700 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.550 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.900 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.750 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 1.000 0.800 0.625 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.625 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.625 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.625 0.800 0.800 0.625 1.000 0.625 1.000 0.625 1.000 0.625 1.000 Class 1 - Location areas containing 10 or fewer dwelling units intended for huma n occupancy Class 2 - Location areas containing 11 to 46 dwelling units intended for human occupancy OR buildings with more than 20 persons outside areas with m ore than 20 persons industrial installations Class 3 - Location areas with more than 46 dwelling units intended for human occupancy OR institutions where rapid evacuation may be difficult Class 4 - Location areas where buildings intended fo r human occupancy have 4 or more stories.

70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual F2 = T, the temperature derating factor, obtained from Table 4.3 Temperature up to 120 (C) 150 180 200 230 Derating Factor T 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.91 0.87 F3 - Not Used !!!! BS 806 - Mean Stress to Failure in design life at design temp erature. F1, F2, ... F9 correspond to the up-to nine possible thermal states. FD BR - Identical to B31.1, except: Note that if "expansion coefficients" are enter ed directly instead of temperatures, the program can not determine Ehot. In this case, a value of 1.0 should be entered in the FAC cell and these fields should be used to specify the product of ( f * Ehot / Ecold ) for each temperature case . SWEDISH METHOD 1 - Creep Rupture Stress at temperature. F1, F2 ... F9 correspo nd to the up-to nine possible thermal states. STOOMWEZEN - Creep related materia l properties as follows: F1 = Rrg - average creep stress to produce 1% permanent set after 100,000 hours at temperature (vm). F2 = Rmg - average creep tensile s tress to produce rupture after 100,000 hours at temperature (vm). F3 = Rmmin - m inimum creep tensile stress to produce rupture after 100,000 hours at temperatur e (vm). BS 7159. The term used in this code is the fatigue factor, Kn, and is us ed inversely compared to other codes (so its value is greater than 1.0). Kn is c alculated as: Kn = Where: As = n 1 + 0.25(As/ n) (log10(n) - 3) stress range during fatigue cycle Maximum stress during fatigue cycle number of stress cycles during design life = = n UKOOA. This is the ratio r from the material UKOOA idealized allowable stress en velope. This ratio is defined as sa(0:1)/sa(2:1) as shown on the figure below. O ne value should be given for each of the operating temperature cases. IGE/TD/12. This is the UTS value.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 71 Eff The longitudinal weld joint efficiency. The use of this parameter by CAESAR II v aries with the piping code. Depending upon code requirements, the allowable stre ss may be either divided by Eff for use in the flexibility calculations or multi plied by Eff for use in the minimum wall calculations. The following describes t he effect of the longitudinal joint efficiency for each of the piping codes. B31 .1, B31.1-1967, B31.5. Allowable stress tables include Longitudinal Weld Joint E fficiencies where applicable. If Eff is entered, values for SC and SH will be di vided by Eff before being used in the flexibility calculations. Eff will be igno red in the minimum wall calculation. B31.3, B31.4, B31.8, B31.11, NAVY 505, Z662 (J), BS 806 (e), CODETI (z), FDBR (vl). Allowable stress (or yield stress) tabl es do not include Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiencies, Eff will be ignored for the flexibility calculations. SH will be multiplied by Eff when calculating the minimum wall thickness. B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.8 Chapter VIII, ASME NC, ASME ND, RCCM-C, RCCM-D. Eff is ignored for both flexibility and minimum wall thickness c alculations, and therefore the field is disabled for these code. Swedish Method 1, Swedish Method 2, Norwegian TBK 5-6. Eff is the circumferential joint factor z and is used in the calculation of the code stresses, rather than in the calcul ation of the allowables (either for flexibility or minimum wall thickness). Stoo mwezen. For this code, this Eff is the cyclic reduction factor, referred to as C f in the code. Weld joint efficiency is not considered for this code in CAESAR I I. BS 7159. This code replaces this field with Eh/Ea, the ratio of the hoop modu lus to the axial modulus of elasticity. If omitted, a default value of 1.0 is us ed, as though the material is isotropic. UKOOA, IGE/TD/12. These codes replace t his field with f2 and Dfac, respectively, the system design factor (typically 0. 67). DNV. This code replaces this field with usage factor Ns (pressure yielding) from Tables C1 or C2. The value must be between 0.77 and 0.96. Sy - Yield Stress at Temperature This is Syt, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of |the pipe mat erial at maximum temperature. Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if available and applicable. UTS - Ultimate Tensile Strength of Material This the ultimate tensile strength of the material at design conditions. Note: U nless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if available and applicable.

72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Design Factor (Unitless) This is the system design factor, as described in Table 2 of the IGE/TD/12 code. It should normally fall between 0.3 and 0.67. Note: Unless explicitly entered b y the user, this value will |be taken from the material database, if available a nd applicable.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 73 Sy This is a code-specific field, generally requiring input only for the transmissi on and non-US piping codes. Code-specific input requirements are described as fo llows: B31.1. Not used. B31.3. Not used. B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX . Taken from Ta ble 1 in the Appendix. B31.5. Used to satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 523. 2.2.f.4. This paragraph addresses ferrous materials in piping systems between -2 0F and -150F. The value entered here should be the quantity (40% of the allowabl e) as detailed in the Code. When Sy is defined, the OPE case will be considered a "stress case". The allowable reported in the output report will be the value e ntered here. The computed operating stress will include all longitudinal compone nts, and ignore torsion. B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII. Taken from Appendix 5. B31.1 1. Specified Minimum Yield Stress. ASME Sect III Class 2 and 3. Basic Material Y ield Strength at design temperature for use in Eqn. 9 for consideration of Level A and B service limits. Level C and Level D service limits must be satisfied in separate runs by adjusting the value for the occasional factor in the CAESAR II configuration file. If the occasional factor is set to 1.2, the allowable stres s is the minimum of 1.2 x 1.5 SH or 1.5 SY. If the factor is 1.5, the allowable is the minimum of 1.5 x 1.5 SH or 1.8 SY, while if the factor is 2.0, the allowa ble is the minimum of 2.0 x 1.5 SH or 2.0 SY. (Note, in order to satisfy the cod e SH should be replaced by SM for the latter two.) Navy 505. Not used. CAN Z662. Specified Minimum Yield Strength taken from the standards or specifications und er which the pipe was purchased or as per clause 4.3.3. BS 806. Sustained Stress Limit. The lower of 0.8 X 0.2% Proof stress value or the creep rupture design s tress value defined in Appendix A under cold or any other operating condition. S ee 17.2(c) Swedish Method 1. Not Used. The yield stress at temperature is entere d in the respective SHn fields for the up to nine possible thermal states. Swedi sh Method 2. Ultimate Tensile Strength at room temperature. B31.1 (1967). Not us ed. Stoomwezen (1989). SY is the tensile strength at room temperature, referred to as Rm in the code. RCC-M C, D. Not used. CODETI. Not used.

74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Norwegian. This should be the allowable stress at 7000 load cycles, RS, from Cod e Table 10.2. If not entered, this factor is not considered to control the expan sion stress allowable. FDBR. Not used. BS 7159. Not used. UKOOA. Not used. IGE/T D/12. Specified minimum yield stress (SMYS). Specified Minimum Yield Stress This is SMYS, or Sy, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of the p ipe material at room temperature. Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, t his value will be taken from the Material Database, if available and applicable. Fac A unitless multiplication factor used by some transmission and non-U.S. piping c odes. The specific input required for each piping code is discussed as follows: B31.1. Not used. B31.3. Not used. B31.4. Amount the pipeline may be considered u nder complete axial restraint, i.e. long and buried. This option is used primari ly when the user is adding bending stresses to the stresses already developed in the pipeline due to its buried restraint. This condition occurs when, for examp le a branch is tieing into a long buried header and the soil supports are not mo deled. The equation for stress in CAESAR II is: Stress = (Fac) x abs[ E (T2-T1) + (1- ) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1-Fac) Where: E = T2 = T1 = = Shoop = SE = SL = = el astic modulus thermal expansion coefficient per degree operating temperature amb ient temperature Poisson' s ratio hoop stress in the pipe. expansion stress due to bending sustained stress due to pressure.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 75 Fac should be a number between zero and one. One, when the pipe is fully restrai ned, i.e. buried for a long distance. Zero when the pipe is subject to no buried axial restraint. The default value for Fac is 0.0. Note that when Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This will cause the hoop stress component, rather than the lo ngitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses, conforming to the spir it of the restrained line stress calculation above. B31.4 Chapter IX. This value is F1, Hoop Stress Design Factor, as per Table A402.3.5(a) of B31.4. Appropriat e values are 0.72 for Pipelines or 0.60 for Platform piping and Risers. B31.5. N ot used. B31.8. Construction Design Factor, from Table 841.114B. Construction ty pe: (Descriptions are approx.) A (CLASS 1) Wasteland, Deserts, Mountains, Grazin g Land, Farmland, Sparsely Populated Areas. B (CLASS 2) Fringe Areas Around Citi es, Industrial Areas, Ranch or Country Estates. C (CLASS 3) Suburban Housing Dev elopments, Shopping Centers, Residential Areas. D (CLASS 4) Multi-Story Building s are prevalent, Traffic is heavy and where there may be numerous other utilitie s underground. (0.4 is the default if not entered.) B31.8 Chapter VIII. This val ue is F1, Hoop Stress Design Factor, as per Table A842.22 of B31.8. Appropriate values are 0.72 for Pipelines or 0.50 for Platform piping and Risers. B31.11. Am ount the pipeline may be considered to be under complete axial restraint (see di scussion under B31.4 above). ASME Sect III, Class 2 and 3. Not used. B31.1 (1967 ). Not used. Navy 505. Not used CAN Z662. Indicates whether the pipe is restrain ed (i.e. long or buried) or unrestrained. The equation for pipe under complete a xial restraint is: Stress = (Fac) x abs[ E (T2-T1) + (1- ) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1 -Fac) 0.60 0.50 0.40 FACTOR 0.72

76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Where: E = T2 = T1 = = Shoop = SE = SL = = elastic modulus thermal expansion coe fficient per degree operating temperature ambient temperature Poisson's ratio ho op stress in the pipe. expansion stress due to bending sustained stress due to p ressure. Fac should be 1.0, 0.0, or 0.001. One, for pipe under complete axial restraint.O ne, when the pipe is fully restrained, i.e. buried for a long distance. The defa ult value for Fac is 0.0. Note that when Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This ca uses the hoop stress component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses if the axial stress is compressive. BS806. Not used. Swedish Power Code, Method 1. Sigma(tn) multiplier. Usually 1.5. For prestressed (cold sprung) piping this value should be 1.35. The default used is 1.5. Swedis h Power Code, Method 2. Not used. Stoomwezen. This is a constant whose value is either 0.44 or 0.5. Refer to Stoomwezen Section 5.2 for details. RCC-M C, D. Not used. CODETI. Not used. Norwegian. This should be the material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature, RM. If not entered, this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable. FDBR. This cell can be used to override the ratio of Ehot/Ecold, which is automatically determined by CAESAR II. Th e modulus ratio is used to compute the expansion case allowable stress, based on the material and temperature. Normally, this field can be left blank. However, if desired, a value (greater than zero and less than one) can be entered in this field to over-ride the program determined ratio. To correctly utilize the FBDR code, the user should enter the Hot Modulus in the Elastic Modulus cell of the s preadsheet. CAESAR II will look up the Cold Modulus and compute this necessary r atio. Note that the use of the Hot Modulus in the flexibility analysis is a devi ation of FBDR from every other piping code in CAESAR II. Note that if expansion coefficients are entered directly instead of temperatures, the program cannot de termine Ecold. In this case, a value of 1.0 should be entered in this cell and t he cyclic reduction factor fields should be used to specify the product of ( f * Ehot /Ecold) for each temperature case.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 77 BS 7159. Mean temperature change multiplier k, as defined in Section 7.2.1 of th e code. This should be 0.85 for liquids, 0.8 for gases, and 1.0 for ambient temp erature changes. If left blank, this value will default to 1.0. UKOOA. Mean temp erature change multiplier k, as defined for the BS 7159 code above. If left blan k, this value will default to 1.0. IGE/TD/12. Material shakedown factor Ksd. DNV . Usage factor Nu (pressure bursting) from Tables C1or C2. Values must be betwee n 0.64 and 0.84. Ksd. (Factor) (Unitless) This is the material shakedown factor described in Table 4 of the IGE/TD/12 code . Typical values are: Carbon Steel: Austenitic steel: 1.8 2.

Pvar This input is only used for the RCC-M, ASME Sect. III NC and ND, and DNV piping codes, the Swedish Power Piping, and the Norwegian codes: ASME and RCC-M C, D. T his is the variance in the pressure between operating and peak to be used as the compo nent in equation 9 above that found from B1 * P * Do / 2tn. Do not enter the pea k pressure for Pvar, enter the difference between the operating pressure and the peak pressure. Swedish Power Code, Methods 1 & 2. This is BETA for the Seff calculati on. If not given, beta defaults to 10%. Ten percent would be entered as 10.0. Values e ntered must be between 0.1 and 25.0. Values entered outside of this range will b e automatically adjusted to the outer limit of the allowed range. The definition for beta, as given in the Swedish piping code in section 5.6.2.1, is the maximum al le minus the tolerance as a percentage of the nominal wall thickness. Stoomwezen. P VAR is the Cm coefficient in the code whose value is usually 1.0. Norwegian. PVA R is the difference between design pressure P (in equation 10.7) and peak pressu re Pmaks (in equation 10.8). The table that follows defines when each of these p arameters is valid input for the piping code (V) or not required (N). DNV. Usage factor N for equivalent stress check from Table C4. Values must be between 0.77 and 1.00.

78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Material Fatigue Curves Material Fatigue Curve data may be entered here, permitting the evaluation of fa tigue load cases and cumulative usage scenarios. Cycle vs. Stress data may be en tered for up to eight data points. (Note the IGE/TD/12 provides the opportunity to enter up to five fatigue curves, representing fatigue classes D,E, F, G, and W.) Fatigue evaluations are explicitly specified by IGE/TD/12; CAESAR II offers them as extensions to other codes. The user is also given the option of reading in fatigue curve data from a file, several of which are provided with CAESAR II. Cycle/Stress pairs should be entered in ascending order (ascending by cycles). Stress values should be entered as the allowable Stress Range rather than allowa ble Stress Amplitude. Fatigue Curves will be considered to be entered using a lo garithmic interpolation. Note: Fatigue Curves may also be read in from files, us ing the Read From File button. Note: Static FATigue cases will be evaluated agai nst the full range of the fatigue curve, while dynamic FATigue cases are assumed to represent amplitudes, and are therefore evaluated against half of the range of the fatigue curve.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 79 Available Commands Break Command This command is initiated with the Model - Break command. This option is availab le from the pipe spreadsheet and allows the user to break an element into two or more individual elements. The break option was designed for situations where: A straight ru n of pipe between two nodes needs to be broken to insert a restraint, or some ot her change in properties. A long straight run of pipe needs to be broken into mu ltiple, uniform lengths of pipe with similar support conditions on each length, i.e. a long straight run of rack piping, or a buried run with multiple soil supp orts at each point in the run. An example break screen is shown in the following figur e: The example above illustrates a single element insert between the nodes 100 and 110. T he node to be inserted is 105 and is 6 ft. from the node 100. If there was some other node in the model with a restraint (or imposed displacements) like the one to be put on the newly generated node 105, then the node identifying that restr aint location could be filled in at the line Get support from Node, and the restraint would be automatically placed at 105. For multiple inserts in a rack piping syst em the prompts might appear as follows:

At the prompt for support condition if the user entered the node where a +Y restraint had already been defined, a +Y restraint would be placed at all of the generated nodes, namely 110, 112, ... , 120. The multiple insert BREAK is used primarily for three reasons: Rack piping supports where the total length and node spacing is known and entered directly when requested at the break prompts. Underground pipe ru ns where the overall length of the run is known, and the lengths of the individu al elements in the run are known. To add mass points in order to refine a model for dynamic analysis. Note: There are two occasions when Break will not work: The e t is an expansion joint. The delta dimensions in the DX, DY, and DZ fields are bla nk or zero.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 81 Valve/Flange Database The Valve and Flange database is accessed through the Model - Valve command. The re are four databases currently provided: CRANE steel valves and total flange le ngth GENERIC valves and 2/3 flange length Corner and Lada valves - no flanges CA DWorx/PIPE (this is the CAESAR II default) The CRANE database contains all flang ed and welded fittings in the CRANE steel valve catalog. The GENERIC database co ntains information from a variety of sources. In some cases (i.e. weights for co ntrol valves) information from different sources was found to vary considerably. In these cases the largest reasonable weight was selected for use in the databa se. In other cases only the length of the fitting was available. The default dat abase, the CADWorx/Pipe database, is a subset of the full component database pro vided with CADWorx/Pipe, COADE's piping design and drafting program. This databa se offers nine different component types (gate, globe, check, control, ball, plu g, and butterfly valves; flange pair and single flange) as well as four differen t end types (flanged, no-flanged, threaded, or socket). Selection of flangedend components or flanges themselves automatically provides for gaskets. Note: Selecting flanged ends (FLG) for a valve simply adds the length and weight of two flanges and gaskets to the valve length and weight. No FLG selects a val ve without including the two mating flanges. Accessing the valve and flange database. 1 2 3 4 Enter the node numbers for the rigid element in the From and To fields o n the pipe spreadsheet. Click the Valve/Flange toolbar or select MODEL - VALVE f rom the menu. Use the mouse to highlight blocks to select the particular fitting desired. Click OK to accept the selection. If the particular selection is valid for the current line size, the user will see that CAESAR II enters the length o f the element in the DX, DY, and/or DZ fields, designates the element as RIGID, and inserts the weight in the appropriate slot in the Auxiliary field.

82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The assumed orientation of the rigid is taken from the preceding element. The us er should note that CAESAR II is doing a table lookup based on line size, and is inserting the selected table values into the spreadsheet. Should the line size change at some later time, the user must come back and ask CAESAR II to perform another table look-up for the new sizes. Use of the CADWorx/Pipe database offers several benefits over use of the other databases: The CADWorx/Pipe database pro vides more accurate component lengths and weights than those typically available in the GENERIC database. Using the same component data for CAESAR II and CADWor x/Pipe modeling promotes the efficiency of the bi-directional interface between the two programs, for those who are using both programs. Total sharing of data f iles and specifications between CAESAR II and CADWorx/Pipe occurs when the CADWo rx program installation directive is saved in the registry. In that case, the th ird line of the CADWORX.VHD file should be edited to name the actual CADWorx spe cifications (located in the CADWORX\SPEC subdirectory). For more information on editing this file, see below. Users may more easily modify the CADWorx/Pipe valv e and flange database, since the specification files and component data files ar e ASCII text files. This process, which involves possibly editing the CADWORX.VH D, specification, and data files, is described below. The CADWORX.VHD file is st ructured as such:

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 83 The first line must read CADWORX.DAT, so it may not be changed. The second line, which may be edited by the user, must begin with a zero; the second number on t he line designates the number of specifications to make available to the user. I t can be a maximum of 7. The third line, which may be edited by the user, lists the available specifications. Each specification name must consist of 8 characte rs, padded by blanks on the right. The specification names designate files with extension .SPC, located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR II or the CADWorx /Pipe specification directory (if the CADWORX directive is set in the registry). The fourth line, which may be edited by the user, designates whether each speci fication uses English or Metric nominal pipe sizes. Seven blanks followed by a 1 indicate English nominals, while seven blanks followed by a 2 indicate metric n ominals. The last five lines should not be changed by the user. The specificatio n files are located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR installation director y. They are designated by the extension .SPC. The specification files correlate pipe size and component with the appropriate data file. Individual lines in the file list the library (subdirectory to the LIB_I or LIB_M directory, depending o n whether English or Metric units are in effect), file name (with an extension e qual to the library name), range of nominal pipe sizes for which the specified d ata file applies. Any of these items may be edited by the user; the last item on the line is the component type number, and should not be changed. Other items i n the file pertain to CADWorx/Pipe and are not significant to the CAESAR II user . The data files hold the dimensional and weight values. Data files for differen t types of components hold different types of data; the data columns are labeled . The only data with significance to the CAESAR II user involves the weight and lengths these may be changed by the user. The following is a typical component dat a file for weld neck flanges:

84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual More extensive information on editing of these files can be found in the CADWorx /Pipe User Manual. Find Distance Click Origin and Current Node to calculate the distance between coordinate (0.0, 0.0,0.0) and the TO node of the current element. Click Nodes, and then enter two node numbers to calculate the distance between those two nodes. Find Element Enter a single node number to find the next element containing that node number (either as a FROM or TO node). Enter two node numbers to find the next element c ontaining BOTH of those node numbers (in either order).

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 85 Global Coordinates Enter absolute (global) coordinates for the start node of each discontiguous sys tem segment. This may be required for three reasons: 1 -- the user may wish to s how nodal coordinates in absolute, rather than relative coordinates. 2 -- defini ng global coordinates for discontiguous segments allow the piping segments to pl ot in the correct locations, rather than superimposed at the origin. 3 -- if WIN D loading is present, it is important that the pipe be given the correct elevati on. Insert Element Selecting BEFORE inserts a new element prior to the current element, with the FR OM node equal to the FROM node of the current element. Selecting AFTER inserts a new element following the current element, with the FROM node equal to the TO n ode of the current element. Node Increment When generating the FROM and TO nodes for new elements, CAESAR II uses the nodal increment set in CONFIGURE/SETUP. This may be overridden by entering a differen t value here. Show Informational Messages Activate the check box to display informational messages upon the conversion of Nominal to Actual diameters, Schedule to Wall Thickness, and Specific Gravity to Density. De-activate the check box to suppress these messages. Tee SIF Scratchpad Enter the number of the node where you want to evaluate the Stress Intensificati on Factors.

86 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Allowed Intersection / Joint Types ID Type sif calculations: ------------------------------------------------------------1 - Reinforced Fabri cated Tee 2 - Unreinforced Fabricated Tee 3 - Welding Tee 4 - Sweepolet (Weldedin Contour) 5 - Weldolet (Branch Welded-on) PAD T, FTG ro, CROTCH .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... FTG ro, CROTCH FTG ro, CROTCH .... .... CROTCH CROTCH .... .... .... .... .... .... WELD d FILLET F ILLET WELD d .... .... .... WELD ID .... WELD ID .... 6 - Extruded Welding Tee 7 - Girth Butt Weld 8 - Socket Weld (No Undercut) 9 - S ocket Weld (As Welded) 10 - Tapered Transition 11 - Threaded Joint 12 - Double W elded Slip-on Flange 13 - Lap Joint Flange (B16.9 Stub) 14 - Bonney Forge Sweepo let 15 - Bonney Forge Latrolet 16 - Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet 17 - Full Encir clement Tee FTG ro, CROTCH .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... FTG ro .... .... ... . .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... PAD T, FTG ro The "TYPE" only needs to be entered once for each intersection or joint in the p roblem. Users CANNOT specify two different SIFs at a single node and get an incr eased SIF. For example a socketweld TYPE and an intersection TYPE cannot be spec ified at the same point. Intersection SIFs can be calculated for one, two or thr ee pipe junctions. Conservative assumptions are made with regard to missing info rmation and orientations. Warning messages are printed during error checking for each intersection where assumptions must be made to apply code rules. For 2 ele ment joints the largest diameter and the smallest thickness are used when discre pancies exist between the two adjoining pipes, (unless the two element fitting i s a socket weld, and then the largest thickness is used). These selections are m ade to generate the largest SIFs and thus the most conservative stress calculati ons. Intersection SIFs can be calculated for dummy leg intersections on bend cur vatures. This is a crude method for estimating bend/dummy leg SIFs, but is often considered an improvement over an unintensified dummy leg.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 87 Code calculated bend stress intensification factors will always take precedence over any other SIF that may be defined at the bend node. (A setup file directive : ALLOW_USERS_BEND_SIF=YES permits the user to override code sif's at bends if n ecessary.) Pad Thickness Thickness of the REINFORCING PAD for reinforced fabricated tees, Intersection ty pe 1. Note: In most piping codes this beneficial effect of the pad's thickness i s limited to pads of a thickness less than 1.5 times the nominal thickness of th e fitting. This factor does not apply in BS806 or Z662, and is 2.5 in the Swedis h piping code. Crotch Thickness for B31.3 Welding Tees and Sweepolets (intersect ion types 3 and 4). The crotch thickness and radius are necessary for CAESAR II to determine if the fitting meets B16.9 requirements. Fitting Outside Radius The largest fitting outside radius for branch connections. Used for reduced bran ch connections in the ASME and B31.1 piping codes, Bonney Forge Insert Weldolets , and for WRC329 intersection SIF calculations. SETUP file directions allow thes e calculations to be incorporated into most piping codes as an option. SETUP fil e directives also exist to limit the application of the reduced branch connectio n rules to UNREINFORCED FABRICATED TEES, SWEEPOLETS, WELDOLETS and EXTRUDED WELD ING TEES. (i.e. omitting REDUCED WELDING TEES and REDUCED REINFORCED FABRICATED TEES.) If omitted, FTG ro defaults to the outside radius of the branch connectio n if omitted. Crotch Radius CROTCH RADIUS for extruded welding tees, intersection type 6. This is also the i ntersection weld crotch radius for WRC329. Specifying this value when it is know n can result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the intersectio n. This reduction only applies when WRC329 intersection options are selected fro m the setup file, and for unreinforced fabricated tees, sweepolets, weldolets an d extruded welding tees, i.e. intersection types 2, 4, 5, and 6. This value must be larger than Tb/2 and Th/2 to be effective |in reducing the stress intensific ation. (There is another value in the code that must be checked by the user and that is (Tb'+y)/2 (y) is the largest thickness at the intersection. The crotch r adius must be larger than this value also.) If this value is left blank, a value of zero will be used. This indicates no crotch, i.e. a corner.

88 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Weld ID Values: 0 or BLANK - As Welded 1 Used for: BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE If entered as 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the sif is taken as 1.0. See the help screens for Weld Mismatch (Weld d) for more detail on how input parameters are used to compute sif's for girth butt welds. - Finished/Grou nd Flush Weld d (Mismatch) Average circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter of the pip e. Used for Butt Welds and Tapered Transitions. Note: THIS IS THE AVERAGE, AND N OT THE MAXIMUM MISMATCH. USERS MUST VERIFY THAT ANY MAXIMUM MISMATCH REQUIREMENT S ARE SATISFIED FOR THEIR PARTICULAR CODE. This value is used in the sif equatio ns as follows: For B31.1: IF( TR.GE. 0.237 .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.13 ) THEN S = 1. 0 ELSE IF( TR .LT. 0.237 .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.33 ) THEN S = 0.9 + 2.7*DMIS/TR IF ( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9 IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0 ELSE IF( TR .GE. 0.237 ) THEN S = 0.9 + 2.7*DMIS/TR IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9 IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0 ELSE OUT O F THE RANGES FOR B31.1 USE THE MAX. SIF S = 1.9

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 89 END IF Where TR is the pipe thickness (inches), and DMIS is the entered weld mis match. See Table D1 in the B31.1 appendix for a further discussion and assumptio ns. For B31.3, B31.4, B31.8 (including Ch VIII), BS 806, Canadian, Navy and B31. 1-1967: The sif for girth butt welds is always taken as 1.0 regardless of the in put for thickness and mismatch. For ASME III NC or ND codes: IF( TR .GE. 0.237 ) THEN S = 1.0 ELSE S = 0.9 * ( 1.0 + 3.0*DMIS/TR ) IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9 IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0 END IF For the Swedish and Norwegian codes: IF( TR .GT. 4.5 mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN S = 1.0 ELSE IF( TR.LE.0.1771654 .OR. DMIS/TR.G T.0.1 ) THEN S = 1.8 ELSE IF NONE OF THE OTHER PARAMETERS GOVERN THEN USE A MAX. SIF OF 1.8. Not sure what the code's intention is when none of the above parame ters apply. This is certainly the most conservative. S = 1.8 END IF For the RCCM C/D codes: IF( TR .GT. 4.75mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN S = 1.0 ELSE S = 1 .8 END IF For the CODETI code: IF( TR .GT. 5.0mm ) THEN S = 1.0 ELSE

90 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual S = 1.8 END IF For the FDBR code: IF( TR .GT. 5.0mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THE N S = 1.0 ELSE S = 1.8 END IF For Tapered Transitions this value is the mismatch of the inside diameters at the small end weld, and is used as the "delta" in th e equation: sif = 1.3 + 0.0036(d/t) + 3.6("delta")/t Socket Fillet Weld Leg Length This parameter is used when calculating SIFs of socket welds (type 8 or 9) when the B31.3, ASME-III Subsection NC or ND codes (3, 12, or 13) are in effect. Note : If a fillet leg size is entered, both socket weld types result in the same sif . The sif is calculated as (2.1)(T) / Leg, where T is the pipe wall thickness an d Leg is the fillet leg length. A minimum sif of 1.3 required. For an unequal le g fillet weld, use the length of the shorter leg. Header Pipe Outside Diameter Enter the actual outside diameter of the matching pipe. If the fitting is a tape r (TYPE = 10), enter the actual outside diameter of the small end of the tapered connection. Do not enter the fitting diameter. Header Pipe Wall Thickness Enter the actual wall thickness of the header matching pipe. If the fitting is a taper (TYPE = 10), enter the wall thickness of the small end of the tapered con nection. Do not enter the fitting thickness. Branch Pipe Outside Diameter Enter the actual outside diameter of the matching pipe. Do not enter the diamete r of the fitting.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 91 Branch Pipe Wall Thickness Enter the actual wall thickness of the matching pipe. Do not enter the wall thic kness of the fitting. Bend SIF Scratchpad Bend Radius The Default is LONG RADIUS. The user may override the program calculated bend ra dius at any time. The long radius bend value is obtained from a look-up table ba sed on the user's specified diameter. Users of pipes with diameters not listed a s standard CAESAR II nominal diameters should compute and enter the bend radius by hand. CAESAR II's "ON-SCREEN-MULTIPLICATION" simplifies this chore, i.e. the bend radius for a three-eighths inch pipe could be entered: .375*1.5. Bend Type/Laminate Type Enter the number of bend end cross sections that resist ovalization, i.e. 0, 1 o r 2. A bend's end cross section resists ovalization whenever a much heavier fitt ing (i.e. a valve or a flange), is attached to the bend end. This entry serves o nly to modify the stiffness and stress intensification factors for the bend. Fla nges stiffen the bend and make it less susceptible to stress. The British Piping Code BS 806 defines a bend's end cross section as resisting ovalization wheneve r a rigid fitting is within two diameters of the bend's end. For the BS 7159 and UKOOA codes, this entry refers to the material laminate type, and may be 1, 2, or 3. These laminate types are: 1 - All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction wi th internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer 2 - Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface tiss ue reinforced layer 3 - Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving const ruction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer. Laminate typ e affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification fact ors for the BS 7159 and UKOOA codes only.

92 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Fitting Thickness Enter the thickness of the bend if different than the thickness of the matching pipe. If the entered thickness is greater than the matching pipe wall thickness, then the inside diameter of the bend will be smaller than the inside diameter o f the matching pipe. Section modulus calculations for stress computations are ma de based on the properties of the matching pipe as defined by the codes. The pip e thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors -- once as Tn, and once when determining the mean cross-sectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the flexibility characteristic (h): h = (Tn)(R) / (r2) Tn = Thi ckness of bend or fitting R = Bend radius r = Mean cross-sectional radius of mat ching pipe = (OD - WT) / 2 OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe WT = Wall Thic kness of matching pipe

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 93 Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the matching pipe for the calculation of the mean cross-sectio nal radius of the pipe (the WT value). More specifically, the individual codes u se the two wall thicknesses as follows: For Tn: Calculation: B31.1 B31.3 B31.4 B 31.5 B31.8 B31.8 Ch VIII SECT III NC SECT III ND Z662 NAVY 505 B31.1 (1967) SWED ISH BS 806 STOOMWEZEN RCC-M C/D CODETI NORWEGIAN FDBR BS 7159 UKOOA IGE/TD/12 Fi tting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Matching Pipe Fitt ing Fitting Fitting N/A N/A Matching pipe Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fittin g Fitting Fitting Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Matchi ng Pipe Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Matching Pipe Fitting Fitting Matching Pipe N/A N/A Matching Pipe Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting Fitting For Mean R adius The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the sti ffness matrix calculations; however, note that the thickness of the matching pip e (WT) is always used in the bend stress calculations.

94 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Miter Points Number of CUTS (or changes of direction) in the mitered bend. The "NUMBER OF CUT S" and the "BEND RADIUS" are the only inputs required (along with the program-de termined bend angle) to calculate the SIFs and flexibilities defined in the vari ous piping codes for mitered elbows. The RADIUS of the bend and the spacing of t he cuts are directly related to one another, given one, the other can be calcula ted. Closely spaced miters typically have a radius equivalent to the standard lo ng radius bend for the given pipe size. Closely spaced mitered bends, regardless of the number of miter cuts can be modelled as a single bend element. Widely sp aced mitered bends should be modelled as "n" single cut miters, where "n" is the number of cuts in the bend. This means that "n" bend elements should be defined , each one a single cut miter. The bend radius associated with these individual, single cut miters is smaller than the standard long radius bend and must be cal culated separately. Examples in the CAESAR II User Guide illustrate this applica tion. Matching Pipe Outside Diameter Enter the outside diameter of the matching pipe in the units shown. This is used in the average cross sectional radius calculation: r2 = (OD - WT) / 2 OD = Outs ide Diameter as entered WT = Wall Thickness of attached pipe The B31.3 (1993) co de defines r2 as the "mean radius of matching pipe". Wall Thickness of Matching Pipe Enter the actual matching pipe nominal wall thickness. Do not subtract out any c orrosion. All SIF calculations are made ignoring corrosion. This wall thickness is used in the mean radius (r2) calculation as defined in the piping codes. Elastic Modulus Enter the Cold Modulus of Elasticity of the pipe material. This is used for the pressure stiffening calculations. Maximum Pressure This is used for the pressure stiffening calculations. For the BS 7159 or UKOOA codes, this entry should be the product of the material Design Strain, , and the ma terial modulus of elasticity.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 95 Expansion Joint Modeler CAESAR II will automatically generate an expansion joint model from catalog data selected by the user. The catalog used may be selected in the CAESAR II Configu re/Setup routine. The user decides where in the model the expansion joint should go, i.e. between which two nodes, and the modeler assembles the completed joint . Selectable joint styles include Untied, Tied, Hinged, Gimballed, Untied-Univer sal, and Tied Universal expansion joints. An example selection session is illust rated as follows. Of particular note are the following items: Any of four materi al types may be selected. These material types are used to adjust the bellows st iffnesses to the actual highest temperature in the model. This will typically re sult in higher stiffnesses than those shown in the vendor s catalog because the stif fnesses in the catalog may be based on a higher design temperature. Any combinat ion of end types may be selected. Bellows, liner, cover, rod, and hinge/gimbal a ssembly weights are looked up from the stored database and automatically include d in the expansion joint model. For universal joints, the minimum allowed length is stored, but when the available space exceeds the minimum allowed, the user i s prompted for the length that he wishes the expansion joint assembly to occupy. The last screen that follows shows the proposed model to the user before it is insert ed into the CAESAR II input. This allows the user to investigate the characteris tics of several joints before settling on one. Actual maximum pressure ratings a re also a part of the database, and in many cases exceed the nominal pressure ra ting shown in the catalog. Users will be permitted to use pressures up to these actual allowed maximums. Allowed joint movements are also stored as part of the database and are printed with each proposed model. These values should be record ed for use in checking the model after a successful design pass has been complet ed. Pressure thrust is included in the modeling considerations for each of the e xpansion joint styles, removing this concern from the user. In the case of tied expans ion joints, rigid elements are used to model the tie-bars. Restraints with conne cting nodes are used to contain the pressure thrust, and to keep the ends of the expansion joint parallel. The Expansion Joint Modeling session is started by cl icking the Expansion Joint button on the toolbar or selecting the MODEL - EXPANS ION JOINT menu item from the pipe spreadsheet:

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 97 Expansion Joint Modeler - From / To Nodes If the length of the current element exceeds the length of the expansion joint a ssembly, indicate whether the expansion joint assembly should be installed at th e FROM end or the TO end of the current element. Expansion Joint Modeler - Hinge/Pin Axis Enter the direction cosines which defines the axis of the hinge pin of the expan sion joint assembly (i.e., the axis about which the joint can rotate). For examp le, if the hinge can rotate about the X-axis, enter: 1.0 0.0 0.0 Expansion Joint Modeler - Tie Bar Plane If an expansion joint has only two tie rods, permitting rotation about the plane defined by the tie rods, enter the direction cosines which, when crossed with t he axis of the expansion joint assembly, defines the plane. In other words, ente r the direction cosines corresponding to a line drawn from the mid-point of one tie rod to the mid point of the other. Expansion Joint Modeler - Overall Length The length of a universal joint is variable, depending upon the length of the in termediate spool piece. Enter the desired length of the universal joint, or alte rnatively activate the check box in order to default to the shortest recommended length.

98 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Expansion Joint Modeler - Expansion Joint Database The current expansion joint vendor provides multiple databases.Select the one wh ich you wish to use in the modeler. The default expansion joint vendor may be ch anged in CONFIGURE/SETUP (see "Expansion Joints" on page 28). Expansion Joint Modeler - Modeler Results The proposed model of the expansion joint assembly is shown in the window at top . Click Build to insert this into the piping system model. The lower window show s the bellows stiffness parameters and allowable movements (from the vendor cata log). The allowable movements should be noted for later evaluation of the expans ion joint. Expansion Joint Modeler Notes Expansion joints cannot be inserted on an element that is either already a rigid or an expansion joint. Bends, however, can be at either end of the element wher e the expansion is being inserted. There does not have to be a length given on t he element where the expansion joint is to be inserted. The six types of expansi on joint models supported currently by CAESAR II are as listed below: Untied sin gle bellows Tied single bellows Hinged single bellows Gimballed single bellows U ntied universal bellows Tied universal bellows The four possible joint end types are Welded-end Slip-on flange Weld neck flange Plate flange If the length of th e element to receive the expansion joint model is given, then the expansion join t assembly should fit within this length. If it does not, a warning message will be displayed to the user. If a universal joint has been requested, the length o f the receiving element should be at least long enough to accept the smallest po ssible universal length, as defined by the minimum spool piece size from the man ufacturers database. If the element to receive the universal expansion joint mod el is zero, the user will be prompted for the desired expansion joint length. If the element to receive the universal expansion joint model had an original leng th, then the maximum possible space available for the universal will be reported and the user asked for the length desired. If the element to receive any expans ion joint is longer than the expansion joint to be inserted, the user will be pr ompted for the end of the element where the joint should be inserted, i.e. the F rom or To end. Overall universal lengths should be limited to about 10 times the pipe diameter before the center spool piece weight begins to become a problem. If there is a bend at either the From or the To end of the element to receive th e expansion joint, then the length of the element must be defined.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 99 To find extra nodes needed for the expansion joint model, CAESAR II starts with the element From node and increments by one until a sufficient number of nodes n ot used elsewhere in the model are encountered. It is these nodes that are repor ted in the proposed-model pop-up window. Note that angular stiffnesses reported are gi ven in the current set of units. Only the translational stiffness label is found at the top of the bellows stiffness report. If users are unsure about the rotat ional stiffness units, they may be seen either in the help screens or in the UNITS rep ort from the LIST option. The user is prompted to adjust the stiffness for the e xpansion joint if the highest operating temperature is given and not equal to th e expansion joint catalog design temperature. Note that this will in general pro duce bellows stiffnesses greater than those published in the catalog. Bellows, t ie-bar, and hinge/gimbal assembly weights are combined together and distributed over the expansion joint rigid end pieces. The expansion joint modeler makes eve ry attempt possible to generate nodes in the model that are unique. The user sho uld inspect the nodes that are generated closely and make sure that he does not use them unintentionally in any future model building. There is a fair amount of computer logic set up to make intelligent decisions about the configuration tha t the user wants insofar as bends, hinges, tied bellows, and pressure thrust are concerned. Users should review generated CAESAR II models and be sure that ever ything is consistent with the user s intentions. Expansion Joint Design Notes It was common practice in the expansion joint industry to design expansion joint bellows and hardware (restraints) for the system pressure, and pressure thrust only. Generally, no consideration was given to the system deadweight or thermal forces. This poor practice has been tolerated in the past (prior to the widespre ad use of piping analysis programs) because of the following: The deadweight and thermal forces are normally small compared to the pressure and pressure thrust. Designers laid out expansion joints so that the thermal forces were very low an d hence not significant. The allowable stresses used in hardware designs have a significant safety factor. The forces and moments generally were not known. Toda y when an expansion joint is modeled, it is recommended that ALL information rel ating to the joint be submitted to the expansion joint manufacturer. This is esp ecially true of the forces and moments resulting from the operating loads, i.e. deadweight, thermal forces, and operating deflections. Better evaluations of the loading conditions on the bellows and hardware simply help the manufacturer mak e sure that his design is suited for the intended installation and service. Torsional Spring Rates If the torsional spring rate is unknown, a large value should be entered (i.e. 1 E10) to produce conservative results. These results will be conservative with re spect to loads and non-conservative with respect to displacements. It is very co mmon to rate the bellows allowed torsion by the amount of rotation experienced. Large torsional stiffnesses will result in small, seemingly satisfactory rotations. Wh en results from a piping analysis are communicated back to the expansion joint m anufacturer, it is important to report both the rotation AND the stiffness used to produce that rotation. A good estimate of bellows stiffnesses is given in Cha pter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.

100 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Bellows Application Notes The following considerations are important when selecting the number of convolut ions for a particular application: Movement Capability The more convolutions selected the greater the movement capacity of the bellows. It is a common practice to perform a quick hand calculation to estimate the req uired movement and then select the number of convolutions from the rated movemen ts in the catalog. Once an analysis is performed, the exact evaluation of the be llows performance can be made using the expansion joint rating module program pr ovided with CAESAR II. Spring Forces The more convolutions selected, the lower the resulting bellows spring forces wi ll be. This is particularly critical when the expansion joint is located near ro tating equipment. Available Space The more convolutions selected, the greater the required overall length. If work ing in a confined area, the number of convolutions may be restricted by the spac e. Available Expansion Joint End-Types The following are expansion joint end-types available in the CAESAR II modeler. Welded Standard pipe beveled for welding. Slipon Slip-on flange. WN Weld neck flange. Plate Plate flange in accordance with the manufacturers catalog. Slip-on, weld neck, a nd plate flanges may not be available in all diameters and pressure ratings, i.e . over 24-in. diameters. Consult the catalog for specific interface dimensions, codes and materials. When the user selects a combination not available, he is wa rned that there is no database values for his particular geometry and line size.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 101 Pressure Rating The pressure rating should be equal to, or larger than the design pressure of th e system. Note, however, that in many instances larger pressures can be tolerate d than the rated pressure shown, in fact in many small diameter expansion joints the same bellows is used in 50, 150, and 300 psi-rated joints. The CAESAR II mo deler contains the true minimum pressure limits for all of the bellows in the da tabase, and checks the maximum pressure in the line (as entered by the user) aga inst the allowed pressure (which as stated, is often greater than the rated pres sure). This particular feature allows the user to select a smaller joint with mo re flexibility for certain applications. Expansion Joint Styles Listed as follows are the six available styles of expansion joints that are buil t automatically by CAESAR II. With each type is a brief discussion of its use wh en associated with hot, pressurized equipment protection. Untied Single unrestrained expansion joint. This type of joint can absorb movement in a ll directions. It will also subject the system to pressure thrust which must be designed for, external to the expansion joint !!! This type of joint should almo st never be used by the expansion joint novice needing to protect hot, pressuriz ed equipment. Guide restrictions limiting displacements into the joint, regular maintenance problems (because of all of the support hardware away from the bello ws), and pressure thrust make using and analyzing this type of bellows difficult . Tied Tied single expansion joint that is capable of transverse (lateral) movement onl y. Pressure thrust is restrained internally via the tie-bars. This is a good, de pendable expansion joint to use because pressure thrust does not have to be desi gned for, tie rods provide stability to the overall joint (making working with i t in the field easier), and there is a single displacement mode (i.e. lateral) t hat can be directly compared to the rated lateral movement in the catalog, witho ut the need for the relatively complicated geometric calculations in the Expansi on Joint Rating program. The drawbacks to the single TIED expansion joint are th at they are fairly stiff in practice (often not providing the needed flexibility to sufficiently reduce the loads on sensitive equipment), and that the tie-bar assembly does provide some nonlinear restraining effect on flexibility that is u naccounted for in the analysis that may be appreciable when the bellows displace ment becomes large (i.e. when it is most critical that it perform as predicted.) Hinged Single hinged expansion joint. This type of joint can only angulate about one ax is. Pressure thrust is retained internally by the hinge mechanism. Hinge joints are often used in pairs to absorb considerable displacement in a single plane, w hile transmitting very little load to any attached equipment. The piping system must, however, be designed to assure that displacement into the hinges is planar for all types of thermal and occasional loadings to be experienced by the syste m. Where pressure loads to be absorbed by the hinge mechanism are high, consider able friction forces can be generated that will somewhat limit further flexing o f the joint, thus transmitting larger loads than expected back into the piping s ystem. Gimbal Single gimbal expansion joint. This type of joint can angulate about two axes. G imballed joints restrain both pressure thrust and torsion via the gimbal mechani

sm. These joints are often used in pairs to absorb considerable displacement in several directions, while transmitting very little load to any attached equipmen t.

102 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual U-UNIV Untied universal expansion joint. This type of unit is similar to a single unres trained expansion joint. It can absorb movement in all directions and normally h as a much higher capacity for transverse (lateral) deflection than a single bell ows. An untied universal will subject the system to pressure thrust loads which must be designed for, external to the expansion joint. Even when pressure is neg ligible these joints can often be difficult to use in practice unless proper gui ding of the thermal displacement protects the joint against undesired movement. Additionally, calculations for computing effective bellows axial movements for a rbitrary movements in three dimensions is not trivial. T-UNIV Tied universal expansion joint. Similar to a tied single joint, except that the tied universal has much higher transverse (lateral) movement capability. Pressur e thrust loads are restrained internally via the tie-bars. These types of joints are a good option where vertical pipe runs close to the equipment are available . The tie-bars restrict movement to a single mode (lateral) and eliminate the wo rry about pressure thrust design. Longer lengths result in smaller lateral stiff nesses, but overall length is somewhat restricted by the weight of the center sp ool. A good rule of thumb is to restrict the overall length of the assembly to t en times the pipe diameter. Users should be careful not to put the assembly into compression, as the tie bar mechanisms are not designed to take this load and d amage to the bellows can result. These six types of expansion joints are not all of the types available, but are the most common. If a joint is needed that is n ot covered by the above, it is suggested that the user select the style closest to that required, and then edit the resulting input once the EJ Modeler is compl ete and processing returns to the piping spreadsheet. Materials Bellows can be formed from most ductile materials that can be welded by the auto matic T.I.G. butt welding process and yield a homogeneous ductile weld structure . Due to the fact that the specific media content varies from system to system, and th at most media data specified prior to system operation is approximate, with considerab le fluctuation possible, it is not feasible to make specific recommendations con cerning bellows materials. The following are the four most common bellows materi als that are supported by CAESAR II: 304SS A240 tp 304 Stainless Steel 316SS A240 tp 316 Stainless Steel 600Inc Inco 600 High Nickel 625Inc Inco 625 High Nickel Liners Internal liners smooth the flow through the expansion joint. The smooth flow red uces pressure drop and also prevents flow-induced vibration of the bellows. Line rs are generally recommended when the flow velocity exceeds 1.3 ft./sec. as a mi nimum, and are definitely recommended when the flow velocity exceeds about 25 ft ./sec. Consult the manufacturers catalog for additional information. Heavy gage liners should be used in high velocity or turbulent flow systems. Also heavy lin ers should be used when the media is abrasive. Covers External covers are used to protect the very thin bellows, (0.010 to 0.090 in.) from mechanical damage. Covers are also recommended when the line is to be insul ated.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 103 Title Page By pressing <Ctrl>T at any time during pipe spreadsheet input, the current job's title page will be displayed (also may access through the MODEL - TITLE menu it em). This is up to 60 lines of text that is stored with the problem, and may be used for detailing run histories, discussing assumptions, etc. These lines may b e printed with the output report through the input echo. Hanger Data System-wide hanger design criteria are activated from the input spreadsheet by c hoosing the Model Hanger Design Control Data.

104 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Spring hanger design can be globally controlled by entering data into the hanger control spreadsheet shown above. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet contains five items that also appear on each individual hanger design spreadsheet. These parameters can be set once in the run control spreadsheet, and will apply for a ll individual hangers to be defined unless specifically overridden at the indivi dual hanger input level. These items are short-range springs rigid support displ acement criteria maximum-allowed travel limit hanger table multiple load-case de sign option In addition, the Hanger Design Control spreadsheet tells the hanger design algorithm the number of temperature cases to be used in the hanger design , and whether or not the actual cold loads should be calculated. All of these op tions will be discussed in detail on the following pages. Whenever hanger locati ons are given for the first time, default parameters are assigned for all of the fields that show up in the Hanger Auxiliary Data field. These default parameter s are taken from the Hanger Design Control spreadsheet. The user should, therefo re, enter any non-default parameters that are to apply globally to all hangers i n the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet. An individual description of each Hanger D esign Control Spreadsheet Data cell follows: No. of Hanger - Design Operating Load Cases The number of load cases to be considered when designing spring hangers. This va lue may be between 1 and 9 and corresponds to the number of thermal load cases t o be used in hanger design. If more than one Operating case is to be considered in the hanger design then the user must also select the Multiple Load Case Desig n option to be used. Calculate Actual Cold Loads Enable this check box to cause CAESAR II to make one additional pass after the h anger design is completed and the hangers are installed, to determine the actual installed loads that should be used when the hangers are first installed and th e load flanges adjusted in the field. This calculation tends to be important whe n the stiffness of the piping system is small, the stiffness of the hanger selec ted is high, and/or when the hanger travel is large (i.e. this usually is more i mportant in smaller diameter piping systems that for some reason are spring supp orted away from equipment nozzles). Actual cold loads should definitely be calcu lated when springs in smaller diameter lines are to be adjusted in the cold posi tion. Allow Short Range Springs CAESAR II gives the user the option of excluding short range springs from consid eration from the selection algorithms. In some instances short range springs are considered specialty items and are not used unless their shorter length is requ ired for clearance reasons. In this case, this check box should be cleared by th e user. If this option is not activated, CAESAR II will select a mid-range sprin g over a short-range spring, assuming they are more standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their short-range counterparts. If the default shou ld be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box on the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 105 Allowable Load Variation (%) This is the user specified limit on the allowed variation between the hot and co ld hanger loads. If not specified, the only limit on load variation is that inhe rent in the spring table. This is approximately 100% when the hot load is smalle r than the cold load, and 50% when the hot load is larger than the cold load. Ho t loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the operating displacement in the Y direction is positive. The default value for the load variation is 25%. The use r is advised to enter this value in the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet before an y hangers are defined. Bergen-Paterson is the only manufacturer that specificall y gives 25% as a design limit. The Allowable Load Variation is the percentage va riation from the hot load: Variation = (Cold Load) - (Hot Load) Hot Load or as may be more familiar: Variation = (Travel)(Spring Rate) Hot Load The Allowable Variation is entered as a percentage, i.e. twenty five percent wou ld be entered 25.0. The Allowable Load Variation can have different values for d ifferent hanger locations if necessary by entering the chosen value on the indiv idual hanger spreadsheets or it can be entered on the Hanger Design Control Spre adsheet to apply to all hangers in the model.

Rigid Support Displacement Criteria This is a parameter used to determine if there is sufficient travel to design a spring. The Rigid Support Displacement Criteria is a cost saving feature that re places springs that are not needed with rigid rods. The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. From this case the load to b e supported by the hanger in the operating condition is determined. Once the han ger design load is known, an operating case is run with the hot hanger load inst alled to determine the travel at the hanger location. If this determined hanger travel is less than the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria then a rigid Y suppo rt is selected for the location instead of a spring. If the Rigid Support Displa cement is left blank or zero, the criteria will not be applied. The Rigid Suppor t Displacement Criteria may be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet, or on each individual hanger spreadsheet. The value specified on the Run Control Spreadsheet is used as the default for all hangers not having it defined explic itly. A typical value to be used is 0.1 in. Important: In some cases a Single directional restraint should be inserted inste ad of a rigid rod. Rigid rods are double acting restraints which can in some cas es develop large hold down forces that don t really exist because the support has lif ff, or because the rigid rod has bowed slightly. When this condition develops th e user should rerun the hanger design inserting single directional restraints wh ere rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II. Hangers should probably never be replaced by rigid rods in very stiff parts of t he piping system that are usually associated with rotating equipment or vessel n ozzles that need to be protected.

106 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Maximum Allowed Travel Limit To specify a limit on the amount of travel a variable support hanger may undergo , specify the limit in this field. The specification of a maximum travel limit w ill cause CAESAR II to select a constant effort support if the design operating travel exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the manufacturer table would have been satisfactory in every other respect. Constant effort hange rs can be designed by inputting a very small number for the Maximum Allowed Trav el Limit. A value of 0.001 is typical to force CAESAR II to select a for a parti cular location. Hanger Table The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II: 1. Grinnell 3. Power Piping 5. Lisega 7. Piping Technology 9. Piping Services 11. Inoflex 13. S INOPEC 15. Flexider 17. Comet 19. Sarathi 21. China Power 23. Quality Pipe Suppo rts 2. Bergen Power 4. NPS Industries 6. Fronek 8. Capitol 10. Basic Engineers 1 2. E. Myatt 14. BHEL 16. Carpenter & Paterson 18. Hydra 20. Myricks 22. Pipe Sup ports USA Additional design options are invoked by further modifying the hanger table numb er: Add + 100 to get Extended Range Add + 200 to get Cold Load Design Add + 400 to get the Hot load centered if possible. For example, to use Grinnell Springs a nd cold load design the user would enter: 1 + 200 = 201.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 107 To use Grinnell Extended Range springs, Cold Load Design, and to get the Design Hot lo ad centered in the middle of the hanger table, if possible, the user would enter : 1 + 100 + 200 + 400 = 701. A single job can use any combination of tables. The hanger table can be specified on the individual hanger spreadsheet, or can be s pecified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 103). If a spring table is entered in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet then it is used as the default for all subsequent hangers defined. The Hanger Design Contr ol Spreadsheet defaults to the hanger tablespecified in the configuration file. The maximum load range was included in CAESAR II to permit the selection of less expensive variable support hangers in place of constant effort supports when th e spring loads are just outside the manufacturers recommended range. Users shoul d make sure that the maximum load range is available from the manufacturer as a standard item. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design is a method of designing the springs, whereby the hot (or operating) load is suppo rted in the cold (or installed) position of the piping. This method of spring de sign offers several advantages over the more usual hot load design: Hanger stops are easier to remove. There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when the stops are removed. Spring loads can be adjus ted before the system is brought up to temperature. Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design. In some system configurations, o perating loads on connected equipment are lower. A typical configuration resulti ng in this load-reduction is one where a hot vertical riser, anchored at the bottom, t urns horizontally into a nozzle connection. The spring to be designed is at the elbow adjacent to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the difference b etween the hot and cold loads counters the moment produced by the vertical therm al expansion from the anchor. The disadvantages to cold load design are In some systems, in the hot condition the loads on rotating equipment may be increased b y a value proportional to the spring rate times the travel. Most installations a re done on a hot load design basis. The decision to use hot or cold load hanger design rests with the user. Middle of the Table Hanger Design. Many designers pr efer that the hot load be centered as close as possible to the middle of the spr ing table. This is to provide as much variability either way before the spring bottoms out when the system is hot. This was a much more needed feature, before effecti ve computer modelling of piping systems, when the weights at hangers were approx imated by chart methods or calculated by hand. Activating this option does not g uarantee that spring hot loads will be at the middle of the spring table, but CA ESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this position. The CAESAR II design algorithm will go to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the larger springs range, but will never switch spring types. Thi s option can only result in a one size larger spring when it is effective. CAESA R II will attempt to move the hot load to the next higher spring when it is with in 10% of the maximum travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not sati sfactory then the old one will be used, even though its hot load is within 10% o f the high end of the table load range, to get a springs hot load close to the m iddle of the table.

108 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Extended Load Range Springs. Extended load ranges are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table. Some manufacturers build double spring supports to accom modate this range, and others adjust the top or bottom travel limits to accommod ate either end of the extended table. Before using the maximum ranges, the user should make sure that the manufacturer can properly supply the spring. Use of th e extended range often eliminates the need to go to a constant effort support. L isega springs do not support the "extended range" idea. A request for extended L isega springs results in the standard Lisega spring table and ranges. Multiple Load Case Design Options Whenever more than one thermal load case is to be used in the hanger sizing algo rithm, CAESAR II must know how the user wishes to weigh the results from the dif ferent cases. There are currently 13 different methods that may be used for mult iple load case hanger design selection. These 13 methods are listed as follows a nd are described in greater detail under the hanger auxiliary data section. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Design per Load Case #1 Design per Load Case #2 Design per Load Case #3 Design p er Load Case #4 Design per Load Case #5 Design per Load Case #6 Design per Load Case #7 Design per Load Case #8 Design per Load Case #9 10 Design for the maximum operating load 11 Design for the maximum travel 12 Des ign for the average load and the average travel 13 Design for the maximum load a nd the maximum travel

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 109 Special Execution Parameters The Special Execution Parameters dialog is invoked by choosing the KAUX - SPECIA L EXECUTION PARAMETERS option from the menu or by clicking it's toolbar from the piping spreadsheet. The Special Execution Parameters, once chosen, remain set f or that particular job. Print Forces on Rigids and Expansion Joints Forces and moments are not normally printed for rigid elements and expansion joi nts, because the forces that act on these elements can usually be read directly from the forces that act on the adjacent pipe elements. Check this box to cause forces and moments to be calculated and printed for all rigid elements and expan sion joints in the system. If there are a considerable number of rigid elements in the job, this option will cause some slowdown in the output processor, and wi ll cause the solution intermediate files to increase slightly in size. Print Alphas and Pipe Properties If the user checks this box he will be given the option, at the error checking l evel, to print the interpolated expansion coefficients along with the pipe, insu lation, and fluid weights. This report can be very useful during error checking to help identify possible problems in the temperature or weight input specificat ions. Rigid elements and expansion joints are treated just like straight pipe. R igid weights and insulation factors are not reflected in this table.

Activate Bourdon Effects Choose the option from the drop list to activate the Bourdon pressure effect. Th e Bourdon pressure effect causes straight pipes to elongate, or displace along t heir axes, and causes curved pipes, or bends to elongate along the line that con nects the bends near and far nodes. If the Bourdon effect is not activated there global displacements due to pressure. The Bourdon effect is always considered wh en plastic pipe is used, regardless of the setting of the Activate Bourdon Effec ts flag. By default CAESAR II does not include the Bourdon effect in the analysi s of steel piping systems, i.e. there will be no displacements of the system due to pressure. As an option, the user may include pressure displacement effects i f he wishes. These effects can be appreciable in long runs of pipe, or in high p ressure, large diameter bends adjacent to sensitive equipment. Bourdon effects a re almost always important in fiberglass reinforced plastic piping systems. For this reason the Bourdon (Translational) is automatically turned on for all FRP p ipe runs and bends. Two Bourdon options are available: Translational pressure de formations only. Translational and rotational deformations. The Translational op tion should be used when the elbows in the system are forged or welded fittings and can reasonably be assumed to have a circular cross section. The Translationa l and Rotational option should be used when the bends in the system are fabricat ed by the hot or cold bending of straight pipe. In these cases the slight residu al ovalization of the bend cross section, after bending, will cause the bend to try to straighten out when pressurized. Fixed end moments are associated with this opening not exist when the original shape of the bend crosssection is circular. Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts This is a dual purpose flag activated by selecting the appropriate option from t he drop list. The user is prompted for two pieces of information by this input: The loop closure tolerance. The global coordinates of the first point of the pip ing system and each following piece of the piping system that is not connected t o the first. This data is needed the first time CAESAR II prepares a global geom etry calculation. This calculation is made on three different occasions: Before preprocessor plots are generated Before global coordinate reports are built Befo re error checking is performed Alternatively, prompting may be avoided by enteri ng the global coordinates by using the Edit - Global (see "Global Coordinates" o n page 85) command from the main spreadsheet. There are several major uses for t his flag: To set the loop closure tolerance To properly define the elevation of the piping system for wind/wave load calculations To give the proper east-west/n orth-south coordinates for dimension checks

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 111 To move parts of the system around in the plotted output for visual checking Whe never the user creates a physical loop in the piping system there will be at least two different sets of dimensions between the same points. If the two dimensions are not within a certain tolerance of each other, a fatal error will occur. This to lerance may be set interactively or in the configuration file. Selecting "Both" for the Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts directive causes CAESAR II to intera ctively prompt for this tolerance. Thermal Bowing Delta Temperature This field is used to specify the temperature differential which exists between the top of the pipe and the bottom of the pipe. This differential is used to com pute an elemental load, added to each temperature case for horizontal pipes. This entr y should be computed from the equation: dT = Ttop - Tbottom For example, conside r a horizontal pipe where the temperature on the top is 20 degrees hotter than t he temperature on the bottom. The proper value to enter in this field will be 20 , not -20. Liberal Stress Allowable A conservative formulation of the allowable expansion stress range for many code s in CAESAR II is calculated from: f ( 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh ) When the user requests that the Liberal Allowable be used, the difference between Sh and Sl, provided Sh > S l, will be added to the term inside the parenthesis, i.e. SA(Liberal) = f[ 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh + ( Sh - Sl) ] The liberal expression will only be employed when the re is at least one sustained stress case in the load set. If there is more than one sustained stress case in a single problem, then the largest of Sl, consideri ng all of the sustained cases, for any single element end will be chosen to subt ract from Sh. Because the sustained stress varies from one pipe to another, the allowable expansion stress will also vary. By default, CAESAR II uses the libera l stress allowable setting in the configuration file, (see "Liberal Expansion St ress Allowable" on page 14) in its computation of the expansion stress allowable . (New models are created using this configuration setting.) Users not wishing t o utilize this default setting for calculating the expansion can simply change t he state of this check box.

112 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Uniform Load in G's Uniform loads can be defined in either terms of force per unit length or in term s of a magnifier times gravitational loading (g). The loading magnifier can act in any direction and is specified by giving its components along the three ortho gonal X, Y, and Z axes. Gravitational loading is used most often to model the st atic equivalent of a dynamic earthquake loading. When activated, the uniform loa d fields on the pipe spreadsheet change from UX, UY, and UZ to GX, GY, and GZ. A n entry of: GX = 1.0, GY = 0.0, GZ = 0.0 represents a lg loading on the piping s ystem in the horizontal X direction. An entry of: GX = 0.0, GY = -1.0, GZ = 0.0 represents a 1.0g load in the minus Y direction, and is exactly equal to the pip e weight load. Gravitational load entries are distributive properties similar to the uniform loads they replace. Once specified, the given g loading will act on all subsequent pipe elements until changed or zeroed. The user may activate the gravitational load option at any time during the input of the problem. The grav itational load option is activated by checking the box. Note: Earthquake loads a re occasional loadings and as such are not directly addressed by the CAESAR II r ecommended load case logic. Users must form their own combination cases at the o utput processor level that represent the algebraic sum of the stresses due to su stained and occasional loads. See Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual fo r more on Occasional Load Case definition. Stress Stiffening Due to Pressure (all codes except IGE/TD/12) This directive activates the Pressure Stiffening effects in straight pipes. CAES AR II applies the stress stiffening matrix to the elemental stiffness matrices ( of straight pipes only) using an axial force P equal to the internal pressure as selected from the drop list times the internal area of the pipe. Note that othe r internal forces (due to thermal or imposed mechanical loads) are not included in the P force as this is not a non-linear effect. Note that Stress Stiffening i s not currently available for pressure cases 3 through 9. Base Stress/Flexibility on (IGE/TD/12 code only) This directive indicates whether to base the IGE/TD/12 stress analysis (element stiffness and section modulus) on the nominal wall thickness, maximum wall thick ness (nominal wall thickness (nominal plus mill tolerance), or minimum wall thic kness (nominal minus mill tolerance). Note that corrosion is deducted from the s ection modulus for all stress types except Hydrotest, and that regardless of thi s selection, Stress Concentration Factors are always based upon nominal dimensio ns. Ambient Temperature The default ambient temperature for all elements in the system is 70F/21C. If this d oes not accurately represent the installed, or zero expansion strain state, then enter the actual value in this field. The ambient temperature is used in conjun ction with the specified hot temperature and the interpolated expansion coeffici ent to calculate the thermal expansion per inch of pipe length experienced by th e element when going from the ambient temperature to the hot temperature. A defa ult ambient temperature can be defined in the configuration file (see "Ambient T emperature" on page 4). This (configuration) value is used when a new model is c reated to set the value of ambient temperature.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 113 FRP Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (x 1,000,000 ) The default thermal expansion coefficient for fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe is 12.0E-6 in./in./deg.F. If the user has a more suitable value for the particu lar composite then that value should be inserted in this field. For example, if the improved value was: 8.5E-6 in./in./deg.F., then the user would enter 8.5 in this field. The exponent (E-6) is implied. This expansion coefficient is used in conjunction with the temperatures entered on the pipe spreadsheet for each plas tic pipe element to calculate the thermal expansion for the element. It should b e noted that this method does not provide for any variation in the thermal expan sion coefficient as a function of temperature. This could prove limiting should there be parts of the system at different non-ambient temperatures. In this case the user may always calculate the thermal expansion at temperature in inches pe r inch and input this value directly into the Temperature field on the pipe spre adsheet. For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration fi le. FRP Ratio of Shear Modulus/Emod Axial In this field, the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in t he axial direction) of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used should be ent ered. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity (axial) is 3.2E6 psi, a nd the shear modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be enter ed here. For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration fi le. FRP Laminate Type The default Laminate Type (as defined in the BS 7159 code) of the fiberglass rei nforced plastic pipe used should be entered. Valid laminatetypes are Chopped str and mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surf ace tissue reinforced layer. Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer. All cho pped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue rei nforced layer. This entry is used in order to calculate the flexibility and stre ss intensity factors of bends; therefore this default entry may be overridden us ing the Type field on the bend auxiliary spreadsheets. Z-Axis Vertical Traditionally CAESAR II has always used a coordinate system where the Y-axis coi ncides with the vertical axis. In one alternative coordinate system, the Z-axis represents the vertical axis (with the X axis chosen arbitrarily, and the Y-axis being defined according to the right hand rule. CAESAR II now gives the user th e ability to model using either coordinate system, as well as to switch between both systems on the fly in most cases.

114 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Defaulting to Z-Axis Vertical The user s prefer red axis orientation may be set using the Tools-Configure/Setup option, on the G eometry Directives (see "Z-Axis Vertical" on page 19) tab, as shown in the figur e below. Clicking the Z-Axis Vertical check box causes CAESAR II to default any new piping, structural steel, WRC 107, NEMA SM 23, API 610, API 617, or API 661 models to use the Z-axis vertical orientation. Old models will appear in the ori entation in which they were last saved. The default value in Configure/Setup is unchecked or Y-axis vertical.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 115 Orienting a Piping Model to Z-Axis Vertical A new piping model will determine it s axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existing piping model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from Y-Axis to Z-Axis vertical by cl icking the check box on the Kaux-Special Execution Parameters screen, as show in the figure below.

116 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Clicking this check box causes the model to immediately convert to match the new axis orientation (i.e., Y-values become Z-values) or vice versa, so there is no change in the model only in its representation, as shown in the following figur es: This allows any piping input file to be immediately translated from one coordina te system into the other. When including other piping files in a model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match that of the piping model. Tran slation occurs immediately upon inclusion. When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the include files need not match that of t he piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion. The axis orienta tion on the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads), the Static Out put Processor, The Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dic tated by the orientation of the model s input file. Orienting a Structural Model to Z-Axis Vertical. A new structural model will determine its axis orientation base d on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existing structural mod el will use the same axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis or ientation may be toggled from Y-Axis to Z-Axis Vertical by changing the value of the Vertical Command, activated by clicking the button on the toolbar, or throu gh the COMMANDS/MISCELLANEOUS/VERTICAL menu command as shown in the figure on th e next page.

118 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Note: Unlike the piping and equipment files elsewhere in CAESAR II, toggling thi s setting does not translate the structural input file, but rather physically ro tates the model into the new coordinate system, as shown in the figures below. W hen including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the in cluded files need not match that of the piping model. Translation occurs immedia tely upon inclusion. When analyzing a structural model on its own, the axis orie ntation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads), the Static Output Processor, the Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the orientation of the structural model s input file. Orienting an Equip ment Model to Z-Axis Vertical. The WRC 107, NEMA SM 23, API 610, API 617, and AP I 661 equipment analytical modules may also utilize the Z-axis vertical orientat ion. A new equipment model will also determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existing equipment model will u se the same axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from Y-Axis to Z-Axis Vertical by clicking the check box typical ly found on the second data input tab of each module. Clicking this check box ca uses the model to immediately convert to match the new axis orientation (i.e., Y -values become Z-values) or vice versa, so there is no change in the model only in its representation, as shown in the following figures: When using the Get Loa ds From Output File button to read in piping loads from CAESAR II output files, the axis orientation of the piping files need not match that of the equipment mo del. Translation occurs immediately during the read-in of the loads. Bandwidth Optimizer Options The bandwidth optimizer is used to order the set of equations that represent the piping system for both static and dynamic analyses. The optimizer may be run wi th a variety of different switch settings. The default settings were chosen for their combination of ordering efficiency and speed. These settings should suffic e for the majority of piping systems analyzed. For systems having greater than 1 00 nodes, or that are highly interconnected, the following optimum parameters sh ould be used. Optimizer Method Both Next Node Selection Decreasing Final Orderin g Reversed Collins Ordering Band Degree Determination Connections User Control N one If the User Control is set to "Allow User Re-looping," CAESAR II will let th e user interactively try as many different combinations of switch settings as de sired. When the most efficient ordering is obtained, the user may continue on wi th the analysis. This interactive prompting for optimization parameters is done in the analysis level processing.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 119 Combining Independent Piping Systems Input from other jobs may be included into the current piping model. Piping models add ed may have a node offset applied and can optionally be rotated about the Y axis before being added. Choose KAUX/INCLUDE PIPING INPUT FILES from the Pipe Input spreadsheet to "include" other input files. When including other piping models, the user is asked for the following: File Name. The user may browse for the file name. The file need not reside in th e current data directory. Read Now (Y/N/L) Y, if the file is to be read immediat ely and stored as part of the current input (the file read may be edited as part of the current job). N, if the file is to be read for plotting and fully proces sed only during error checking (the file read may not be edited as part of the c urrent job). The L option is discussed under "Large Job Includes," below. Rotati on. If not zero, then gives the angle about the Y axis by which to rotate the mo del before including it in the current job. The rotation applies regardless of t he (Y/N) setting. Note: Restraints, uniform loads, and concentrated forces are N OT rotated. Additionally, the rotation of the model can be accomplished from the LIST Utility. Node Increment. The increment to be added to all of the nodes in the model before including it in the current job. The node increment applies reg ardless of the (Y/N) setting.

120 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Including Structural Models Include Structural Input Files. This input screen is used to include an alreadybuilt structural model into the current job. The structural model must have been built and successfully error checked in the structural steel preprocessor acces sed from the CAESAR II MAIN MENU. Once a structural model has been built, it may be included into any piping input using the above screen. The names of up to 20 different structural models to be included are entered into the data area avail able. Once this is done, the structural model may be plotted and analyzed with t he piping model. The structural models need not reside in the current directory. Piping systems are usually tied to structural steel models by the use of restra ints with connecting nodes. The user should make absolutely sure there are no no de number conflicts between structure and pipe models. Once a restraint with a c onnecting node is defined between the pipe and structure, CAESAR II knows where to put the structure in the resulting preprocessor plot. If no connection betwee n the pipe and the structure is given, the structure will be plotted starting fr om the origin of the piping system (and the resulting plot will most likely look fu nny ).

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 121 List/ Edit Facility The CAESAR II input listings allow the display of all applicable input data in a context display. This mode is accessed through the Edit - List command. optiona lly in a user specified format. The user can edit, delete or modify data in the lists. The List option screen contains a row of tabs at the bottom that are used to select the various list options to be displayed. When a tab has been selecte d the row headings at the top of the spreadsheet will reflect the specific input data and controlling parameters displayed in the corresponding columns. All of the input data can be accessed through the various list reports. An example list control screen is shown below.

122 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The reports are generated in column format in a window like that shown above tha t the user can interactively review or modify. The cursor can be moved into any field and a new value entered to replace the original value. The reports may be scrolled vertically or horizontally. Help may be requested by pressing the <F1> key while in any of the data cells. Cell input may be deleted by highlighting th e selection and pressing the <Delete> key. The list spreadsheet supports standar d windows commands such as Cut and Paste on a field-by-field basis. The User may edit input data on the list spreadsheet, which will then update the input sprea dsheets as well. Values that carry forward on the input spreadsheet are highligh ted in red where there is a change in the data value. For example, in the sample spreadsheet shown, the diameter changes from 219.075 mm to 508.0 mm on the elem ent from node 90 to 100 so the new diameter is highlighted in red. Other options from the Element List include the following: The Find command (invoked with <Ct rl> F or EDIT - FIND menu item) is used to quickly jump to the element where the given node is located. Find remembers the last node number entered, so subseque nt finds of the same node can be accomplished by typing <Ctrl> F. Access to the elemen t Auxiliary Data screens is available by highlighting an element row and choosin g the Aux button from the toolbar or alternatively by right-clicking on an eleme nt line and picking the BLOCK OPERATIONS-AUX item in the popup menu. By single-c licking on any checked items from the window shown below the appropriate Auxilia ry Data field will be displayed. The user may edit the data in the Auxiliary Dat a field, which will in turn update the input spreadsheet. Additionally, the user may enter new data by double-clicking on any of the unchecked boxes to bring up that item's Auxiliary Data screen. An entire Auxiliary Data field may be delete d by double-clicking on the checked item (a prompt will warn the user of the imp ending delete operation).

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 123 Block Operations The list editor has the ability to perform global editing operations on selected parts of the piping system. These operations include varieties of rotations, du plications, node renumbering, and status reporting. Block operations are availab le on the element list only. Move the cursor to the first element in the group t o be operated on and click the row number for that item. This element should bec ome highlighted. Move the cursor to the last element in the group to be operated on and click on the corresponding row number while holding the <shift> key down . The entire group of elements will be highlighted. This highlighting defines the elem ents that any block operations will change. A block may contain any number of el ements from a single element to every element in the model. A block must be defi ned before CAESAR II will allow the user to enter the BLOCK OPERATIONS menu item . After the block has been identified select Block and one of the following submenu items to perform the indicated operation (or right-click in the list proces sor and select one of the following from the pop-up menu): Rotate The Rotate dialog box is shown in the following figure. The user may rotate the block through some angle about the X, Y or Z axis. The Unskew option helps the u ser take a skewed geometry and return it to an orthogonal orientation. The Setup option permits the user to determine what in the block should be rotated, inclu ding restraints, displacements, force/moments, uniform loads, and flexible nozzl es. The default is for all of these items that appear in the block to be rotated with the block. Data/message screens illustrating an example rotation are shown as follows. Delete This command deletes the selected block.

124 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Duplicate The Duplicate dialog is shown in the figure below. The user can make identical c opies of the block or can make mirror image by "flipping" the chosen elements in one of the orthogonal planes. Mirror imaging is done on the piping delta dimens ions only (i.e. restraints are copied, but not mirror imaged, i.e.: a +Y restrai nt will not become a -Y restraint when mirrored in the XZ plane.) The duplicate setup option works just like the rotation setup option. Restraints, disp lacements, forces/moments, uniform loads and nozzles may individually be include d or excluded from the duplication. Once the type of duplication is determined t he user must decide the following: Where in the input to put the duplicated grou p of elements. Either at the end of the current block, the end of the input file , or after a specific element in the model. What node increment to add to the no des in the block so that they define unique pipe elements. Be sure this incremen t is large enough to avoid any duplication of node numbers.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 125 Nodes On certain occasions the node numbering in a particular area of the model may no t be to the user's liking. To renumber a part of the model in a more logical fas hion use the Block-Node menu command. The two available options are Increment an d Renumber as shown in the following figure. The user enters the starting node and the increment for the block's nodal renumb ering. Every node in the block on the piping system will be renumbered. The user must be sure that the starting node and increment will result in unique node nu mbers for the elements being renumbered. This feature can be used to clean up pa rt, or all of the piping system. It is not unusual for an analyst to put the ent ire model in one block and do a full renumber on all of the nodes. This often pr esents a much cleaner picture of the analysis to the client. Users are urged to make copies of any large jobs before renumbering them. Users should be particula rly careful when renumbering systems containing large numbers of interconnected restraints with Cnodes. Note: It is common for CAESAR II not to renumber a Cnode in a block having perceived that the Cnode is connected to a node outside the b lock. (In fact Cnode will not be renumbered if they do not connect to a node in the block and on the piping system.) Any possible confusion can be avoided in th ese instances by starting the renumbering at a node greater than the largest nod e in the model. If all of the nodes are renumbered successfully (i.e. there aren 't any dangling Cnodes), then the node Increment command can be issued with a ne gative increment to shift the newly renumbered nodes back into the original rang e.

126 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Printing an Input Listing An input listing can be printed by using the File - Print command from the sprea dsheet. The program prompts the user to select the reports to print, prior to pr inting. The user can change the report contents through modification of a .inp f ile. Any time an input listing is written to a file or to the printer, the forma t of each of the reports is obtained from a .inp file. The .inp files are ASCII text files which can be modified to create reports of differing styles or conten t. The file Initial.inp can be modified to change the page length in the report, and the starting and stopping column positions. Any text editor (such as Notepa d) can be used to change any of the .inp files. Users changing .inp files may re ceive fatal errors during report generation if impossible formats, or invalid co mmands are requested. Note: For users preferring a different (more columnar) for m of the basic element data, three additional formatting files have been provide d. ELEMENT0.INP ELEMENT1.INP ELEMENT2.INP ELEMENT3.INP COADE standard element fo rmat 1st alternate element format 2nd alternate element format 3rd alternate ele ment format To utilize any of these formatting files, change directories to the CAESAR II\Sy stem directory. Then, copy the desired formatting file into Element.inp. To prin t an Input Echo from the input spreadsheets, choose FILE - PRINT from the pull-d own menu. To write an Input Echo to the screen for review, choose FILE - PRINT P REVIEW from the pull-down menu. Note: An input listing may also be printed from the output module, as part of the entire output report.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 127 Input Plotting The following figure shows the CAESAR II graphics interface. There are several methods of accomplishing nearly every command in the Input Plo t Utility. Commands may be enabled by clicking toolbar buttons, selecting drop-d own menu items, or through the use of hot keys. Model Rotation, Panning, and Zooming In general it is faster to use the hot keys for model rotation and the mouse but ton for model translation. It is much faster to turn volume plot off prior to mo del rotation and translation with hot keys. CAESAR II toggles the volume off whe n using the mouse to pan the model and restores the volume at the conclusion of the pan. The shift key may be used to toggle between Rotation and Panning functi onality of the arrow keys. The letters SHFT appear at the bottom right of the Pl ot Window when the Shift option is enabled. Note that the Shift key need not be held down to enable the SHFT option.

128 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual SHFT Option Disabled Rotations: About the Y-axis, use the right and left arrow keys. About the Z-axis , use the insert and delete keys. About the In-Plane axis (parallel to the displ ay), use the up and down arrow keys. About the X-axis, press the <z> key to view from the Z-axis or the <y> key to view from the Y-axis, then use the up and dow n arrow keys. SHFT Option Disabled Panning: Pan up with the <Page Up> key Pan down with the <Page Down> key Pan lef t with the <Home> key Pan right with the <End> key SHFT Option Enabled Panning: To Pan Left and Right, use the left and right arrow keys. To Pan Up and Down, use the up and down arrow keys. Note: Other key combinations are possible , and the user is urged to experiment with different keystrokes to find the opti mum combination for themselves. Toolbar buttons may also be used for Rotations a nd Translations and the volume plot should be disabled first. This method is gen erally slower than hot keys or the mouse. A particularly effective method for qu ickly panning the plot is to right-click the mouse on the Plot window and choose Pan from the pop-up menu. Then the model will move with the mouse about the win dow. To disable this directive, either press the <Esc> key or right-click the mo use and choose PAN again. Zooming Zooming is accomplished with either the + or - keys or by simply left-clicking t he mouse and dragging it to draw a box around the portion of the model to be enl arged. Another effective method of zooming is accomplished by right-clicking on the Plot window and choosing Zoom from the pop-up menu, then dragging the mouse up and down to zoom in and out. When satisfied with the view, either press the < esc> key or right-click the mouse and choose ZOOM again from the pop-up menu to deactivate mouse controlled zooming. Reset Plot Reset Plot may be chosen from either the Toolbar, from the menu by selecting VIE W/RESET or by pressing the <F9> function key. This returns the plot to the origi nal default position as when the Plot window is first entered from the Input Spr eadsheet.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 129 Views The Input Plot may be viewed Isometrically (default), or along any of the three global axes. To view the plot in the two-dimensional plane normal to a given axi s, either press the axis letter on the keyboard (X, Y, or Z), choose the corresp onding Toolbar button, or pick the appropriate menu item under the View menu. To display the plot in all four views simultaneously, choose the 4 views button, p ress <ctrl> 4, or select the 4 VIEWS menu item under the View menu. To return to the SE Isometric view, choose the SE ISO View button, the <F10> function key, o r select SOUTHEAST ISO VIEW from the View drop-down menu. Volume Plotting The three different volume plots available in CAESAR II are the Volume Plot, the Wire Frame Plot, and Rendering. Rendering views the model as a 3-D solid, while Volume Plot is the volume outline view. Toggle Volume on and off with the <V> k ey, the Volume button on the Toolbar, or the VOLUME PLOT menu item from the View menu. Toggle 3-D Rendering or 3-D Wire Frame on and off with either the appropr iate button on the Toolbar or the menu choice under the View menu. Displaying Element Information Model information may be displayed on the plot by choosing the appropriate Toolb ar button, the dropdown menu item under the Options menu, or the appropriate Hot Key (as shown on the dropdown menu). The following is a short description of th e available model information on the Plot window: Expansion Joints and Rigids Plotted by default and displayed in green on the Plot window. Restraints Also plotted in green, translational restraints are plotted as isocoles triangle s with the apex touching the pipe in the direction of free travel (ex: a +Y rest raint looks like a triangle with it's base below the pipe). Flexible restraints are drawn with small spring symbols. Gapped restraints are drawn slightly removed from the centerline of the pipe. Rotational restraints are plotted twice as wide at the base of the arrow-head as translational restraints. The user is encouraged t o experiment to determine all the symbols that CAESAR II uses to depict various restraint types. Anchors Anchors are shown as green triangles with standard anchor lines protruding from the base. Hangers Drawn as brown (default) cylinders with a line extending to the hanger node. Nozzles Brown Cylinder with larger "cap" at vessel connection point. Bends, Tees All shown as highlighted straight lines connecting the associated boundary nodes .

130 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Forces, Moments, Displacements The node is highlighted and the vectors are displayed numerically. Thicknesses, Diameter, Length, Material Number Element pipe wall thicknesses, insulation thicknesses, material number, element diameter and length are displayed numerically near the midpoint of the element. Node Numbers Node Numbers are displayed in yellow. Only From and To nodes are displayed. Range The Range command may be used to plot only those elements that contain nodes wit hin the range specified by the user. This is particularly helpful when attemptin g to locate a specific node in a rather large model. Highlight The Highlight option is used to mark elements having similar properties. Each su bsequent highlight is cumulative. Very descriptive color displays can be generat ed and interactively rotated to give the user a clear description of the conditi ons used for highlighting.

Piping Input Graphics The piping preprocessor also provides interactive graphics and listing functions to facilitate model editing and verification. Model verification can be perform ed using either the Graphics or List utilities, although a combination of both m odes is recommended. When drawing the model, the status bar displays drawing node X of Y and changes to Ready when finished. The model remains functional while drawing

Hoops Plot Tools (toolbar): Reset Plot Displays the plot in its default configuration: removes any highlight ing, sets ISO view, renders mode, and zooms to extent. This action may also be a ctivated by clicking the F9 function key on the keyboard. Disregards or repeats the user s last action. Undo/Redo The view can be zoomed in by dragging a box around the desired area. Zoom to Window The model will zoom in or out to fit entirely on the screen. Zoom to Extents Front/Back; Top/Bottom; Left/Right View in Southe ast isometric mode. This action may also be activated by clicking the F10 functi on key on the keyboard. Activates an interactive rotation feature when the left mouse button is clicked. Orbit The model may be zoomed in/out by moving mouse up /down while clicking the left mouse button. The model may also be zoomed from un der any other command by rotating the mouse wheel (when applicable). The model m ay be panned left, right, up, or down. Upon clicking the button, the cursor with change to a hand; and the view may be panned by moving the mouse while clicking the left mouse button. The view may also be panned from under any other command by ho lding down the middle mouse button/mouse wheel while moving the mouse. On clicki ng this button, the drop down menu appears with the following options: Free Hand , Circle, Rectangle, and Annotate. The geometry or the text entered by this comm and, are not kept with the model, and get erased/deleted on any change (like zoo m, pan, or rotate). Allows selecting among predefined generally used views. Pres sing X, Y, or Z buttons on the keyboard will set the model in right , top , or f dingly. Additionally, holding down the SHIFT button while pressing X, Y, or Z ke ys will show left , bottom , or back views respectively. ISO View Zoom Pan Freehand Markup: FreeHand, Circle, Rectangle, Annotate Walk Through Gouraud Shading/ Hidden Lines/ Wire Frame/ Two Line Mode/ CenterLin e View Allows interactively move inside the model, and look left, right, up, and down. A list of available commands/keys is displayed on the screen. Will switch the co rresponding view mode of the model. Pressing the V button on the keyboard will s witch the views in following order: Gouraud Shading (rendered mode) -> Two Line Mode > Center Line View.

132 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Select by Single Click Clicking on elements when this option is selected causes the input spreadsheet f or the chosen element to be displayed in the background. The element is highligh ted and zoomed to selection. Additionally, a dialog box with basic element geome try information is updated within the plot window. The Element Information dialo g may be moved around or away from the view. Clicking on the empty space will de -select the element. Inserts a cutting plane. Insert Cutting Plane Annotate Model When the button is selected the user can add annotations with leader lines to the graphics. This is done by left-clicking th e mouse to start the leader line, then dragging the line to the annotation point , typing in the annotation, and then pressing the Enter button. NOTE: The annota tion font face, size, and color may be changed by clicking the Change Display Op tions button. Model Info Change Display Options Not active. Allows the setting o f colors, fonts and other definable defaults for the geometry and text on the pl ot. Changes to graphic settings are restored whenever plot is exited and restart ed in the graphics view. Alternatively, the user may set a "standard" setup to b e always restored upon entering graphics for this particular job. This is done t hrough the use of this button, followed by the User Options tab. Enables the see through of elements. The degree of translucence is set in Plot Configuration un der the Visibility tab. This option is especially useful when designing a jacket ed pipe, when one or more pipes are hidden inside a jacket. Switches between the named model view projections. The default (set to Orthographic projection) can be set by the user for this particular job through the use of the Plot Configura tion dialog, followed by the User Options tab. Translucent Objects Perspective/ Orthographic/ Stretched Projection Note: Most of the operations are also available by right-clicking the mouse and selecting an action from the popup menu. Pressing [ESC] or re-selecting the opti on from the popup menu exits the action. 4 Views Allows viewing all four view modes simultaneously (right, top, front, and ISO). Upon clicking the button, the splitter bars appear, move the mouse to the desire d position, and click the left mouse button. NOTE: All four views can be operate d on independently (zoom, pan, or orbit); however, the modellevel operations (li ke selection, coloring for restraints or diameters, node numbers, etc.) update a ll four views simultaneously. Displays and highlights with color the expansion j oints, tees, or flexible nozzles correspondingly.

Expansion Joints/ Tees/ Nozzles Anchors/ Hangers/ Restraints Displays anchors (a lternatively, Menu Plot/Options -> Anchors or F2 function key), hangers (alternatively , Menu Plot/Options -> Hangers or F4 function key), and non-anchor, non-hanger restrai nts (alternatively, Menu Plot/Options -> Restraints or F7 function button) corre spondingly. Note: The size of mentioned boundary condition symbols corresponds t o the pipe sizing (OD). In addition, the size of restraints and the hangers may be manually adjusted to become larger or smaller by clicking the black arrow to the right of the button and selecting the size option from the drop down menu Ma terials/ Diameters/ Wall Thickness/ Insulation Displays a list of distinct const ruction materials (keyboard letter M ), pipe outside diameters (keyboard letter D ) knesses (keyboard letter W ), and/or insulation thicknesses (keyboard letter I ) us

odel, and colors the corresponding elements on the view with separate colors.

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 133 , Displacements/ Forces/ Uniform Loads/ WindsWaves View Compass Predefined displacements, Forces and Moments, Uniform Loads, and Wind/Wave loads may be graphically colored on the model. The corresponding legend window is fil led with relevant information. The legend window may be dragged away from the vi ewing area. When printed, the legend in the form of grid is printed on the secon d page, following the graphics view. Toggles the display of the coordinate system compass. In addition, the compass symbol may be toggled on the screen by typing the letter P on the keyboard. Labels plot with node numbers. Node Numbers Note: The font face, size and color of the node numbers may be changed by clicki ng Change Display Options button. In addition, the node numbers may be toggled o n the screen by typing the letter N on the keyboard. Labels plot with element le ngths. Lengths Note: The font face, size and color of the node numbers may be changed by clicki ng Change Display Options button. In addition, the node numbers may be toggled o n the screen by typing the letter L on the keyboard. Displays elements based on node ranges. The dialog allows select all/clear all node numbers, reverse select ion, or enter from and to nodes. Typing U from the keyboard will bring the range The View Spreadsheet command allows the user to maintain both the plot and the spreadsheet on the screen simultaneously. If the Select by Single Click button i s clicked, the switching among elements in the spreadsheet view will highlight a nd zoom to the current element on the graphics view. Displays each element tempe rature or pressure (respectively) as a separate color. If temperature/pressure 2 -9 are used, a menu appears allowing the user to choose which temperature/pressu re range to display. The legend is displayed in a separate window, that may be d ragged away from the view. When clicked, it will display the Find Node dialog . Entering node numbers will select/highlight the element (if found) and move it i nto the window (zoom to selection) Range View Input Spreadsheet Show Temperatures/ Pressures Find Node Note: The current plot may be output to the clipboard, a bitmap file (.TIF), or a printer through use of the Edit-Copy, File-Save As Bitmap, or File-Print comma nds, respectively.

134 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Static Output Graphics The user can also use the View-Plot menu command or the Plot toolbar to review t he analytic results in graphics mode, which can produce displaced shapes, stress distributions, and restraint actions. The output graphics contains the same 2 t oolbars as were used in the input graphics: HOOPS Standard Toolbar with zoom, pan, orbit and other related buttons, and HOOPS Input Toolbar with buttons for restrai nts, materials, diameters, node numbers and other related buttons. See the descr iption of the buttons in the Piping Input Graphics section. The Hoops Output Options Toolbar is described below: Load Cases Analysed Deflected Shape This is a drop down list box with a choice of the loads cases that were analyzed for the job. You can switch among available load cases to see the corresponding output. The plot will show the model view along with a normalized/scaled deflec ted shape of the system in the operating condition for the currently selected lo ad case. The deflection scale can be adjusted by clicking the small black arrow on the right of the button and selecting Adjust Deflection Scale option from the menu. The color of the displaced geometry can be changed by clicking the Change Display Options button on the Hoops Standard Toolbar, and then proceeding to th e Output Options tab. Not active Allows the user to put the actual magnitude for X, Y, or Z displacements on the currently displayed geometry. It starts with hi ghest value for given direction, then (on pressing Enter ) puts 2nd, 3rd highest, etc. Subsequent clicks of the same button will turn this option off and refresh the p lot. Each corresponding element is highlighted on the view. If the Zoom to Selec tion button is clicked, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element. If t he Show Element Viewer Grid button is clicked, the Event Viewer dialog will be d isplayed: it contains all the nodes in the model, report is set to Displacements for particular load case, and the corresponding displacements column (DX, DY, o r DZ) is highlighted. Allows the user to put the magnitude for forces and moment s in selected direction for the restrained nodes. It starts with highest for giv en option/direction, then (on pressing Enter ) puts 2nd, 3rd highest, etc. Subsequent c licks of the same button will turn this option off and refresh the plot. Each co rresponding element is highlighted on the view. If the Zoom to Selection button is clicked on the toolbar, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element. I f the Show Element Viewer Grid button is clicked r, the Event Viewer dialog will be displayed: it contains all the nodes in the model, report is set to Restrain ts for particular load case, and the corresponding Force/Moment column is highli ghted. Displays with color overstressed points on the elements. Overstressed con ditions are only detected for load cases where a code compliance check was done (i.e., where there are allowable stresses available). This operation is similar to Show Code Stress by Percent; but only points with code stress to allowable ra tio of greater than 100% are displayed. Displays the code stresses one at a time from the largest to the smallest values. Subsequent clicks of the same button w ill turn this option off and refresh the plot. Each corresponding element is hig hlighted on the view. If the Zoom to Selection button is clicked on the toolbar, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element. If the Show Element Viewer Grid button is clicked, the Event Viewer dialog will be displayed: it contains a ll the nodes in the model, report is set to Stresses for particular load case, a nd the Code Stress column is highlighted. Grow Maximum Displacements- X/ Y/ Z ,

Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 135 Show Code Stress Colors by Value Show Code Stress Colors by Percent Show Element Viewer Grid Plots the piping system in a range of colors, where the color corresponds to the value or percent of allowable (respectively) of the code stress. The Legend win dow can be resized and/or moved away from the view. Colors and corresponding str ess levels are initially set in the Configuration/Setup module. They can also be adjusted by clicking the black arrow to the right of the button and selecting A djust Settings option from the menu. If the Show Element Viewer Grid button is clicked, the Event Viewer dialog will be displayed whenever any of the Displacements, Restraint Loads, or Stresses but tons is clicked. The Event Viewer Grid contains a selection of load cases analyz ed, a set of reports to choose from, all the nodes in the model and other useful information in tabular form. Upon selecting any of the output options buttons, the Event Viewer will be pre-set to the corresponding load case and report. The summary of the reports for any particular element may also be obtained by clicki ng the Select by Single Click button on the HOOPS Standard Toolbar and pointing to an element on the view. If the Zoom to Selection button is clicked, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element whenever any of the Displacements, Res traint Loads, or Stress buttons is used. If the button is not ON , the elements will st ill be highlighted, but view will not be zoomed to the selection. Zoom to Selection Notes: On operating Output Options buttons (max. displacements, restraint loads, and stresses): (1) Each corresponding element is highlighted on the view. (2) I f the Zoom to Selection button is clicked, the view will zoom to the highlighted element. (3) If the Show Element Viewer Grid button is clicked on the toolbar, the Event Viewer dialog will be displayed. It will be pre-set to the correspondi ng load case and report; column with relevant information and row with selected element will be highlighted on the grid.

1 CHAPTER 4 Structural Steel Modeler In This Chapter Overview ....................................................................... ..............2 The Structural Steel Property Editor ........................... ................3 General Properties............................................ ...........................12 UNITS Specification - UNIT ....................... ...............................13 Axis Orientation Vertical .................... ........................................14 Material Identification - MATID...... ...........................................15 Section Identification - SECID.... ................................................17 Setting Defaults - DEFAULT... ...................................................19 Setting Nodes in Space - N ODE, NFILL, NGEN .......................20 Building Elements - ELEM, EFILL, EGEN , EDIM....................24 Resetting Element Strong Axis - ANGLE, ORIENT ..... .............32 End Connection Information ..................................... ..................35 Loads...................................................... .....................................46 Utilities............................... .........................................................53 Structural Databases ....................................................................54

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Overview The following pages contain descriptions of each of the structural element keywo rds. These definitions and examples arranged in usage order. The following list of all the keywords is arranged alphabetically and gives the page number for eac h keyword where its input description can be found. Keyword/Page Number ANGLE (on page 32) BEAMS (on page 38) BRACES (on page 40) COLUMNS (on page 42) D EFAULT (see "Setting Defaults DEFAULT" on page 19) EDIM (on page 29) EFILL (on p age 25) EGEN (on page 27) ELEM (on page 24) FIX (see "File Sets" on page 1) FREE (see "File Sets" on page 1) GLOAD (see "Gravity Loads - GLOADS" on page 50) LIS T (on page 53) LOAD (see "Point Loads - LOAD" on page 46) MATID (see "Material I dentification MATID" on page 15) NFILL (on page 21) NGEN (on page 22) NODE (on p age 20) ORIENT (on page 33) SECID (see "Section Identification - SECID" on page 17) UNIF (see "Uniform Load in G's" on page 112) UNIT (see "UNITS Specification - UNIT" on page 13) WIND (see "Wind Loads - WIND" on page 51) VERTICAL (see "Axi s Orientation Vertical" on page 14)

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 3 The Structural Steel Property Editor CAESAR II provides the user with the capability to enter the general properties when beginning a new file using the Structural Steel Wizard. The following secti on illustrates a typical new file input session using this editing technique. New File From the CAESAR II Main Menu, select FILE/NEW to begin the process. Type the nam e of the structural steel file you want to create. To begin this process, click the Structural Input radio button and click OK to launch the Structural Steel Wi zard.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Units File Select the units file that the structural file will be based on from the pull-do wn list on this screen. To continue, click Next.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 5 Vertical Axis Select either the Y or Z axis as the vertical axis aligned with gravity from the pull-down list on this screen. To continue, click Next.

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Material Properties Enter the material properties for the structural steel members here before conti nuing. These include Density, Young's Modulus, Yield Strength, Poisson's Ration, and Thermal Expansion Coefficients. The latter corresponds to operating tempera tures 1 through 9 if used. You may have multiple materials using a unique Materi al ID for each. For additional materials you must complete the wizard first, the n continue in the Structural Steel Modeler as instructed later in this chapter. To continue, click Next.

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Enter the appropriate cross sectional type (note these must be entered exactly a s listed at the end of this chapter). An easier method is to click the Select Se ction ID button and then expand the appropriate tree (beams, channels, tees, or angles) as shown below. All of the cross section types supported by CAESAR II ar e then available for selection. After the proper section type is selected click OK. If the section type is to be user-defined, check the User Defined box and enter the data in the area to the right as shown on the next page.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 9 Enter the Cross Sectional Area, Strong and Weak axis moments of inertia, the tor sional resistivity constant, and the height and width of the rectangle for plott ing purposes. Note: In the plot of a User Defined Cross Section, the section wil l appear as a simple rectangle with dimensions in BoxH and BoxW. To continue, cl ick Next.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 11 Select either Type 1 (element Definition using the EDIM commands) or Type 2 (Nod e and Element Definition using the NODE and ELEM commands). Click Finish to comp lete the wizard and the main Structural Steel Modeler window appears populated w ith data from the wizard. Once this portion of the model is complete you can make further entries as detai led in the following section.

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual General Properties All directives are picked from either the menu or the toolbar. After the informa tion is filled out in the input fields on the left side of the window, press the +-sign button to add the command to the model (or drag the dialog to the approp riate position in the text). The appropriate text will appear on the right side of the window (the white section). The following graphics show how to choose the commands, the input fields, and the resultant input file text (always the last line of text on the right). There is no provision to type in commands directly i n the text section. Add Click on the + button to add the data in the edit dialog to the end of the model . Insert Highlight a given command line in the input list section and click the Insert bu tton to insert the data in the edit dialog in front of the highlighted command. Replace Click the Replace button to replace the currently highlighted command line with the data in the Edit dialog. Delete Click the Delete button to remove the highlighted command line from the model. N ote: The data in the Edit dialog may also be dragged to its appropriate position in the model text area.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 13 UNITS Specification - UNIT Units Specification Used to specify the UNITS file to be used, instead of the UNITS file currently d esigned in the configuration file. This command should appear first, before ente ring any material, section, or dimensional data.

14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Axis Orientation Vertical The axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads) , the Static Output Processor, the Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the orientation of the model s input file. Orienting a stru ctural model to Z-Axis Vertical. A new structural model will determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existin g structural model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last sa ved. The axis orientation may be toggled from Y-Axis to Z-Axis button on the Ver tical by changing the value of the Vertical command, activated by clicking the t oolbar, or through the COMMANDS/MISCELLANEOUS/VERTICAL menu option, as shown in the figure below. Note: Unlike the piping and equipment files elsewhere in CAESAR II, toggling thi s setting does not translate the structural input file, but rather physically ro tates the model into the new coordinate system. When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match tha t of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion. When analy zing a structural model on its own, the axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind, and wave loads), the Static Output Processor, and the Dyna mic Input Processor is dictated by the orientation of the structural model s input.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 15 Material Identification - MATID Material Properties Definition Used to enter material properties that correspond to a Material ID number.There must be at least one valid material specification given per job. One Material ID can be used for a group of elements that have many Section IDs. (In fact there is usually only a single Material ID specified for any one job.) Units from the specified UNITS.FIL are used. Default material properties (i.e. for A-36 structu ral steel) may be invoked by issuing the following MATID command: MATID 1. MATI D matid, YM, POIS, G, YS, DENS, ALPHA MATID User defined material ID number. Usually 1, and sequentially thereafter. YM Young s Modulus of Elasticity.

G Shear Modulus of Elasticity Usually about one third of YM YS Yield Strength (Currently not used) DENS Material Density ALPHA Material coefficient of thermal expansion.There can be up to three thermal cases (corresponding to thermal cases T1, T2, and T3) defined for structural steel me mbers. Thermal effects on structural members are entered using thermal expansion coefficients in terms of in./in, mm./mm., i.e. unitless. The three thermal coef ficients are entered after the density.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 17 Section Identification - SECID Section Definition Section ID Used to assign member cross section properties to Section ID numbers. SECID seci d, NAME = <label> SECID A user defined Section ID to be used for all future referencing of this set of c ross section properties. Usually Section ID s start at 1 and go up, but the user may assign values in any order that is convenient. User-Defined For a user-defined shape click the User Defined check box. There are six additio nal parameters users must enter to fully define the user s cross section: Area Cross section area (length2). Ixx Strong axis moment of inertia (length4).

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Iyy Weak axis moment of inertia (length4). Torsional R Torsional resistivity constant (length4). BOXH Height of a rectangul ar box for plotting (height is along the weak axis). BOXW Width of a rectangular box for plotting (width is along the strong axis). User-Defined Section Properties Name Either an AISC shape name or the word USER. All AISC names should be entered exactly a s shown in the AISC handbook with the exception that fractions should be represe nted as decimals., i.e. the angle: LX6X3-1/2X1/2 should be entered: L6X3.5X0.5. Leading or trailing zeros may be omitted. Alternatively, the user may select the appropriate section name from the window provided after clicking the Select Sec tion ID button. A full list of available Section types are found at the end of t his chapter.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 19 Setting Defaults - DEFAULT Default Section and Material IDs Used to set the default values of the Section ID and the Material ID. Whenever a n element generation occurs and the Section and/or the Material ID is omitted, t he default values set here are used. The initial default value for both the Sect ion and the Material ID is 1.

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Setting Nodes in Space - NODE, NFILL, NGEN NODE Node Definition Used to define the absolute coordinates of a point in global X, Y, Z space. NODE num X, Y, Z

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 21 NFILL Defining Multiple Nodes along a Line Used to fill in evenly spaced nodes between two already defined end points. If t he increment BY is omitted, the default is 1.

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual NGEN Generating a Matrix of Nodes Used to duplicate patterns of nodes. At least the first and last node in the bas e node pattern must already exist before the NGEN command is issued. Other nodes in the base node pattern not already defined will be evenly spaced between the first and last node. The DX, DY, and DZ are offsets for duplicate nodes from the base pattern of nodes. NGEN n1, TO, BY, LAST, NODEINC, DX, DY, DZ, n1 First node in the base node pattern (must exist before the NGEN command is issue d). TO Last node in the base node pattern (must exist before the NGEN command is issued ). BY Increment to get from the starting node to the ending node in the base pattern. n1, TO and BY define the nodes in the base pattern. All subsequent nodal pattern s generated start from the base pattern. If omitted the default is 1. LAST Last node in the last nodal pattern to be generated. If omitted then a single pa ttern duplication will occur.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 23 NODEINC Increment to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first ge nerated pattern, and then from this pattern to the next generated pattern, etc. DX, DY, DZ Coordinates offset to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and then from this pattern to the next generated patte rn, etc. Example In the preceding figure, the nodes from 1100 to 2000 with an increment of 100 ar e duplicated twice, each new pattern offset 10 ft. in the z-direction. The new n odes created are from 2100 to 3000 and also from 3100 to 4000. Note that the NFI LL command previous to this NGEN command was not necessary.

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Building Elements - ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM ELEM Defining a Single Element Used to define a single element that exists between two points in global Cartesi an space. In addition a section identifier and a material identifier for the ele ment may also be given. If the section and/or material ids are omitted the curre nt default values are used. (For more information see help for the keyword DEFAU LT (see "Setting Defaults - DEFAULT" on page 19).) ELEM n1, TO, SECID, MATID, KE YWORD,

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 25 EFILL Generating Multiple Elements along a Line Used to generate a consecutive string of elements. None of the elements generate d need to exist prior to the FILL operation. EFILL n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, SEC ID, MATID, INCSECID, INCMATID n1 FROM TO TO node number on the first element generated. node number on the first element generated. FROM node on the

INC Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the ent. If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

INCTO Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO If INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual LAST TO node on the last element to be generated.

SECID Section ID for the first element generated. MATID Material ID for the first element generated. INCSECID Increment to get from the Section ID for the first element to the Section ID for the second element. (Default=0) INCMATID Increment to get from the Material ID for the first element to the Material ID f or the second element. (Default=0) Example In the preceding figure elements were generated between each pair of nodes betwe en node 1200 and 2000. The increment between From to From nodes and To to To nod es is the same in this case, being equal to 100. Eight elements were created in this example, together with the one element previously created using the ELEM co mmand for a total of nine elements. Note that the ELEM command would not have be en necessary here, since all nine elements could have been created using the EFI LL command by simply substituting node 1100 in place of node 1200 in the From No de field.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 27 EGEN Duplicating Elements Used to duplicate patterns of elements. EGEN is a very flexible and very powerfu l generation command that should be used carefully. The form of EGEN shown below does not presume that any of the elements in the base pattern exist before the generation. If elements in the base pattern do exist before the generation they will be redefined during the generation process. EGEN n1, TO, INC, INCTO, INSECI D, LAST, INCMATID, GENINC, GENINCTO GENLAST SECID, MATID, , , n1 FROM TO TO node on the first element in the base pattern. node on the first element in the base pattern.

INC Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element in the base pattern to the e on the second element in base pattern. If omitted defaults to 1.

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual INCTO Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO If INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

LAST TO node on the last element in the base pattern. The EGEN command is set up to generat e multiple copies from the base pattern of elements. GENINC Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element in the base pattern to the e on the first element in the first duplicate pattern.

GENINCTO Increment to get from the TO node on the first element in the base pattern to the TO the first element in the first duplicate pattern. If omitted defaults to GENINC . GENLAST The TO tern. node on the last element in the last pattern to be duplicated from the base pat

SECID Section ID to be used for the elements in the base pattern. If omitted the defau lt Section ID is used. For more information see the help for DEFAULT (see "Setting Def aults - DEFAULT" on page 19) for an explanation of how the default Section ID is set up. On start-up the default Section ID is 1. MATID Material ID to be used for the elements in the base pattern. If omitted the defa ult Material ID is used. For more information see help for DEFAULT (see "Setting Defau lts - DEFAULT" on page 19) for an explanation of how the default material ID is set up. On start-up the default material ID is 1. INCSECID Section ID increment to be used between patterns. i.e. the first pattern of elem ents generated from the base pattern of elements will have a Section ID of SECID + INCSECID. If omitted defaults to zero. INCMATID Material ID increment to be used between patterns. If omitted defaults to zero.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 29 Example In the preceding figure the base element pattern from 1100 to 2000 was reproduce d two more times, from 2100 to 3000 and from 3100 to 4000. Each element has noda l increments of 100. The increment between the base element list and the next el ement list is 1000 and the last node in the last pattern is 4000. Then the cross members were created using the base pattern from 1100 to 2100 and reproducing i t in nodal increments of 100 until node 4000 was reached. The following figure s hows the resultant model. Volume Plot of Structural Steel Model Showing Node Numbers EDIM Define elements using the dimensions of the element rather than references to no des. Any existing elements encountered will be redefined. The EDIM element defin ition is probably more familiar to piping engineers while ELEM, EGEN, and EFIL a re more familiar to structural engineers. INC, INCTO, and LAST may be omitted to define a single element. "FROM" node on the first element to be defined. TO "To" node on the last element to be defined.

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual INC Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the ent. If omitted, INC defaults to 1. FROM node on the

INCTO Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO If INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

DX, DY, DZ Coordinates offset to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and then from this pattern to the next generated patte rn, etc. MATID Material ID for the first element. If not given, then the current default is use d. (See Help for keyword DEFAULT.) SECID_EIDM Section ID for the first element. If not given, then the current default is used . (See Help for keyword DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults - DEFAULT" on page 19).) INSECID Section ID increment to get from the Section ID of the first element to the Sect ion ID of the second element. INCMATID_EDIM Material ID increment to get from the Material ID of the first element to the Ma terial ID of the second element.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 31 Examples EDIM 5 to 10 DY = 12-3 SECID=2..Column 12-3 high from 5 to 10 EDIM 5,10 DY=12-3, 2....................Same column EDIM 2 TO 3 LAST=8 DX=13-3.....Defining beams 1 3-3 long and elements 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, and 78. INC defaults to 1. <-----------> 10-0 (typ) Enter the 4 EDIM commands top define the small frame shown to the right. Remembe r that every thing after a (:) or (:) on the line is treated as a comment. EDIM 1 TO 5 INC=1 LAST=8 DY=12-0 SECID=1 EDIM 5 TO 9 INC=1 LAST=12 DY=12-0 SECID =2 EDIM 5 TO 6 INC=1 LAST=8 DX=10-0 SECID=3 EDIM 9 TO 10 INC=1 LAST=12 DX=10-0 S ECID=3 ;1st floor columns ;2nd floor columns ;1st floor beams ;roof beams

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Resetting Element Strong Axis - ANGLE, ORIENT ANGLE Defining the Default Strong Axis Orientation Used to define the default element strong axis orientation. ANGLE is most often used when defining columns whose strong axes are not parallel to the X axis. (Us ually for columns the strong axis is parallel to either the X or the Z axis.) In the case where the column strong axis is parallel to the Z axis, first ANGLE is used to redefine the default orientation, i.e. ANGLE=90. Next the column elemen ts are defined. Then ANGLE is used again to reset the default orientation back t o its original value, i.e. ANGLE=0.0. The ORIENT and ANGLE keywords similarly de fine the angle of rotation (in degrees) about the element center line from the s tandard orientation to the element strong axis. ORIENT defines this angle for a single element or for a group of elements, and ANGLE sets the default orientatio n back to its original value, i.e. ANGLE=0.0. The default orientation angle is z ero degrees. Positive angular rotation is found using the right-hand rule by extending the thumb along the element in the direction of the TO node. The fingers of the right hand circle in the direction of a positive orientation angle. The default eleme nt orientation is as follows: If the member is vertical then the default strong axis is taken to be along the global X axis.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 33 For all non-vertical members the strong axis is taken to be perpendicular to the center line of the member and in the horizontal plane. (This is exactly what is desired for a typical beam orientation in a building). The strong axis is defin ed for the WF shape as shown: ANGLE n1 n1 Default strong axis orientation angle to be used for all subsequently defined el ements. ORIENT Used to define the element strong axis orientation. Note that values for n1 and TO be given as node numbers or element indices. Element indices are enclosed in pa rentheses. An example of the index input is given at the bottom. ORIENT n1, TO INC, INCTO, LAST, ANGLE, n1 FROM TO TO node on the first element. node on the first element. FROM node on the may

INC Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the ent. If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual INCTO Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO If INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC. n1 FROM LAST TO node on the first element the wind load is to act on. node on the last element to have its orientation angle defined.

ANGLE Rotation in degrees from the default position to the actual position of the memb er strong axis. Examples ORIENT 1 TO 2 ANGLE=90 The strong axis for the element from 1 to 2 is 90 degrees away from the default position. ORIENT 5 TO 10 INC=5 LAST=30 ANGLE=90 The eleme nts: 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, and 25-30 all have their strong axis 90 degrees away from the default position. If each of these members is a vertical column, t hen their new strong axis of bending is along the Z axis. (This means that the c olumns with their new orientation are better suited to take X direction forces.)

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 35 End Connection Information Free End Connections - FREE Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Free End Connections

Used to define element FREE end connections. For example FREE would be used to describ e the element ends in a structure that has pinned-only beam-to-column connections. E nnection type defines a members fixity to its nodes, not a nodes fixity in space. F REE works in conjunction with BEAMS, BRACES, and COLUMNS. These last three t the FREE end connection defaults for certain types of members. For each element defi ned after the defaults are set an entry is automatically made into the FREE array to k eep track of the type of connection and the nodes that define the element. FREE n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, <free parms> n1 FROM TO TO node on the first element that this FREE spec is to apply to. node on the first element that this FREE spec is to apply to.

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual INC Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the ent. If omitted, INC defaults to 1. FROM node on the

INCTO Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO If INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.

LAST TO node on the last element this FREE spec is to apply to. LAST, INC, and INCTO can be omitted if the FREE spec is only to apply to a single element. <free end parms> - May be any single combination of: / At the element FROM end / FAXIA NDWEAK Axial translational dof Strong axis shear translational dof Weak axis she ar translational dof Torsional dof Strong axis bending dof Weak axis bending dof

/ At the element TO end / TAXIAL TSHRSTR TSHRWEAK TTORS TBNDSTR TBN shear translational dof Weak axis shear translational dof Torsional dof Strong axis bending dof Weak axis bending dof Enter those <free end parms> that define the degrees of freedom at the element e nd that should be FREE. In the case where a small WF shape attaches to a large I beam the connection might be designed so that weak axis bending of the WF shape is no t transmitted to the web of the I beam. If the element defining the WF shape wen t from nodes 1040 to 1045 then the FREE spec for this element might appear: FREE 1040 TO 1045 FBNDWEAK, TBNDWEAK

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 37 The westward side of a building has a row of beams on the ground floor that are attached rigidly to columns at the other end. The beams are identified by the pa ttern of nodes: 610-710, 620-720, 630-730, ...,690-790. There are eight beams in all in this group. The 600 end is the end that is pinned. The FREE spec for thi s group might appear: FREE 610 TO 710 INC=10 LAST=790 FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK

38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Standard Structural Element Connections - BEAMS, BRACES, COLUMNS BEAMS Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Default End Connections for BEAMS Defines default end connection types for members identified by the orientation o f their center line. The definition of BEAM is any member whose center line lies completely along either the global X or global Z axis. Once the BEAMS keyword i s used to define element end connection freedoms any element subsequently define d that fits the above definition for a beam will have those same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the BEAMS keyword is reset or re-specified. T he default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degree s of freedom to its nodes. BEAMS has two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. T he FREE mode is to set FREE end connection defaults, and the FIX mode is to reset the end connection types once all beams with that particular FREE end connection have been defined. BEAMS FREE BEAMS FIX <free end parms>...use to release end connections . <free end parms>...use to reset released-end connections The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the FREE keyword. The <free end parms> defining the 12 local degrees of freedom for each element are: FAXIAL FSHRSTR FSHRWEAK TAXIAL TSHRSTR TSHRWEAK

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 39 FTORS FBNDSTR FBNDWEAK TTORS TBNDSTR TBNDWEAK Example Just before defining a group of beams that had both ends pinned, the following B EAMS command would be issued: BEAMSFREE FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDW EAK, Just after defining the pinned end beams, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the following BEAMS command would be issued: BEAMSFIX FT ORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK, As shorthand notation, if the word FIX is all that appears on the line following all end connections for the beam will be fixed, i.e. BEAMS FIX

BEA

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual BRACES Auxiliary Area for Defining Default End Connections for Braces Used to define de fault end connection types for members that can be identified by the orientation of their center line. The definition of BRACE in-so-far as this keyword is conc erned, is any member whose center line does not completely lie along any of the global axes. Once the BRACE keyword is used to define element end connection fre edoms any element subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a brac e will have those same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the BRA CE keyword is reset or re-specified. The default condition is for each end of an y member to be fixed in all six degrees of freedom to its nodes. BRACES may be a bbreviated: BR. BRACES has two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mo de is used to set FREE end connection defaults, and the FIX mode is used to reset the end connection types once all braces with that particular FREE end connection have bee n defined. BRACES FREE <free end parms> ...use to release end connections BRACES FIX <free end parms> ...use to reset released end connections The <free end par ms> are discussed in greater detail with the FREE keyword. The <free end parms> defini ng the 12 local degrees of freedom for each element are: FAXIAL FSHRSTR FSHRWEAK TAXIAL TSHRSTR TSHRWEAK

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 41 FTORS FBNDSTR FBNDWEAK TTORS TBNDSTR TBNDWEAK Example BRACES Just before defining a group of braces that had both ends pinned to the adjoinin g columns, the following command would be issued: BRACES FREE FTORS, FBNDSTR, FB NDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK, Just after defining the pinned end braces, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the following BRACES command would be issued. BRACESFIX FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK, As shorthand notation, if the word FIX is all that appears on the line following n all end connections for the brace will be fixed, i.e. BRACES FIX

BRA

42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual COLUMNS Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Default End Connections for Columns Used to def ine default end connection types for members that can be identified by the orien tation of their center line. The definition of COLUMN in-so-far as this keyword is concerned is any member whose center line is completely vertical. Once the CO LUMN keyword is used to define element end connection freedoms any element subse quently defined that fits the above definition for a column will have those same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the COLUMN keyword is reset o r re-specified. The default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of freedom to its nodes. COLUMNS has two possible setting mod es: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is to set FREE end connection defaults, and the FIX mo de is to reset the end connection types once all columns with that particular FREE end connection have been defined. COLUMNS FREE <free end parms> ..use to release en d connections COLUMNS FIX <free end parms> ..use to reset released end connectio ns The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the FREE keyword. The <fr ee end parms> that define the 12 local element degrees of freedom are: FAXIAL FS HRSTR FSHRWEAK TAXIAL TSHRSTR TSHRWEAK

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 43 FTORS FBNDSTR FBNDWEAK TTORS TBNDSTR TBNDWEAK Example Just before defining a group of corner columns that were pinned at their TO ends, the following COLUMN command would be issued: COLUMNSFREE TTORS, TBNDSTR TBNDWEAK, , TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK, Just after defining the pinned end columns, to return the end connection default s to their regular values the following COLUMNS command would be issued: COLUMNS SFREE TTORS, TBNDSTR TBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, , TBNDWEAK, As shorthand notation, if the word FIX is all that appears on the line following en all end connections for the column will be fixed, i.e. COLUMNS FIX Note: As a general rule an element cannot undergo rigid body motion. Therefore, an element can not have both TTORS and FTORS released at the same time. Additionally beams typically have moment releases only at their ends, not at intermediate nodes us ed to apply loads or connect bracing.

COL

44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Defining Global Restraints - FIX Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Restraints

Used to define restraint boundary conditions at structural member end points. St iffnesses may be entered in the field following the fixity indicator; if the sti ffness value is omitted, the fixity will be rigid. TO and BY may be omitted to de xity for a single node point. (i.e. FIX 10 ALL) Note that values for n1 and TO may be given as node numbers or indices. Node indices are enclosed in parenthesis. FIX n1, TO, BY, X, Y, Z, RX, RY, RZ, ALL FIX n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8, n9, n10,

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 45 Examples FIX 1 ALL - Fix all degrees of freedom at node #1. FIX 5 X1000 Y1000 Z1000 Fix X , Y and Z degrees of freedom at node #5, and use 1,000 lb./in. springs FIX 100 T O 110 ALL Fix rigidly all degrees of freedom for the nodes from 100 to 110. The increment between 100 and 110 defaults to 1. Eleven nodes have their fixities de fined here. FIX 105 TO 125 BY 5 X1000,1000,1000 Fix X, Y, and Z degrees of freed om for the nodes: 105, 110, 115, 120, and 125, and use 1,000 lb./in. springs. FI X (1) to (10) ALL Fix all degrees of freedom for the first 10 nodes in the node list.

46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Loads Point Loads - LOAD Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Concentrated Forces and Moments

Used to define concentrated forces and/or moments that act at structural member end points. TO and BY may be omitted to define loads for a single point. LOAD may ated: LOA. Note that values for n1 and TO may be given as node numbers or indices. Nod e indices are enclosed in parentheses. LOAD n1, TO, BY, FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, LOAD n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8,

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 47 Examples LOAD 305 FY-1000 Have minus 1,000 lb. Y direction load acting at the structural node #305. LOAD 10 TO 18 BY=1 FX=707,FZ=707 Have skewed load in the horizontal p lane acting at each of the nodes 10,11,...,17,18. BY could have been omitted here, its default is 1. LOAD (15) to (25) FY=-383 A load of 383 pounds acts in the minus Y direction on the 15 th through the 25 th nodes in the node list.

48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Uniform Loads - UNIF Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Uniform Loads

Used to define a constant uniform load (i.e., CAESAR II load case U1) that acts over the full length of the member. (Uniform loads may have special meanings whe n used in CAESAR II piping runs.) INC, INCTO, and LAST may be omitted to de that acts on a single element only. Note that values for n1 and TO may be given as nod e numbers or element indices. Element indices are enclosed in parentheses. UNIF n1, TO, INC, INCTO LAST UX, UY, UZ, UNIF n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8, n1 FROM TO TO node on the first element this uniform load is to act on. node on the first element this uniform load is to act on.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 49 INC Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the ent. If omitted, INC defaults to 1. FROM node on the

INCTO Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO If INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC. LAST TO node on the last element this uniform load is to act on.

UX,UY,UZ Magnitude of the uniform load in the global X, Y and Z directions. Unless used i n a piping analysis employing g loads, uniform loads are in units of force per unit le ngth of member. When used in a piping analysis with g loads the uniform loads are in u nits of gravitational acceleration., i.e. UY=-1 would define a uniform load iden tical to the member weight load. Examples UNIF 1 TO 2 UY=-2.3 On the element from 1 to 2 a uniform load with a magnitude o f 2.3 lbs. per inch acts in the minus Y direction. UNIF 1,2, UY -2,3 Same UNIF 1 00 TO 200 INC=2 INCTO=3 LAST=500 UX=0.03, -1,0.03 Uniform load acting on element s 100-200, 102-203,...,300-500 with a small horizontal component and a -1 load i n the Y. (Looks like have g load input for piping problem.) UNIF (1) to (30) UY=-2.3 T he first 30 elements in the element list have a uniform load of -2.3 pounds per inch acting in the minus Y direction.

50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Gravity Loads - GLOADS Defining Uniform Load in G s

Used to inform this processor that all specified uniform loads are to be interpr eted as G loads instead of force/length. Important: If structural and piping models ar e mixed the GLOAD flags must match (i.e., uniform loads in the piping model must be designed as "G" loads in the special execution parameters). This command tak es no other parameters.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 51 Wind Loads - WIND Defining Wind Loads Defines the magnitude of the wind shape factor for the structural elements. (The default value is 2.0.) WIND n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, SHAPE, WIND n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8, n1 FROM TO TO node on the first element the wind load is to act on. node on the first element the wind load is to act on. FROM node on the

INC Increment to get from the FROM node on the first element to the ent. If omitted, INC defaults to 1.

52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual INCTO Increment to get from the TO node on the first element to the TO If INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC. LAST TO node on the last element the wind load is to act on.

SHAPE Magnitude of the wind shape factor. For structural steel members this value is u sually 2.0. Wind loading on the structure can be turned on and off by resetting this parameter to zero, for elements not exposed to the wind. This value carries forward to all subsequently defined elements. Examples WIND 1 TO 2 SHAPE=2.0 On the element from 1 to 2 a shape factor with a magnitude of 2.0 is applied. This value is applied to all following elements. WIND 1,2,SH APE 2.0 Same WIND 100 TO 200 INC=2 INCTO=3 LAST=500 SHAPE=1.8 Wind shape factor of 1.8 on elements 100-200, 102-203,...,300-500.

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 53 Utilities LIST To access the List option, click the List tab located at the bottom of the Struc tural Steel Modeler. List enables users to display node and coordinate data; ent er node ranges; and also select input list reports. Note, selecting all displays a of each report in the order they appear on the modeler window. Defining List Options to Display

54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Structural Databases The CAESAR II Structural databases contain over 20 different properties for each cross section. For the finite element solution, only six of these items are emp loyed: Area Strong axis moment of inertia Weak axis moment of inertia Torsional resistivity constant Member section height Member section depth There are seven different structural databases included in CAESAR II. The databases are those of the AISC 1977, the AISC 1989, the German 1991, the Australian 1990, the South A frican 1992, Korean 1990, and UK 1993. The member designations for each database are listed as follows:

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 55 AISC 1977 Database W36X300 W36X194 W33X241 W33X118 W30X116 W27X114 W24X131 W24X68 W21X111 W21X62 W1 8X97 W18X55 W16X89 W16X40 W14X605 W14X370 W14X211 W14X120 W14X68 W14X34 W12X279 W12X152 W12X79 W12X45 W12X19 W10X77 W10X39 W10X17 W8X40 W8X18 W6X16 W36X280 W36X 182 W33X221 W30X211 W30X108 W27X102 W24X117 W24X62 W21X101 W21X57 W18X86 W18X50 W16X77 W16X36 W14X550 W14X342 W14X193 W14X109 W14X61 W14X30 W12X252 W12X136 W12X 72 W12X40 W12X16 W10X68 W10X33 W10X15 W8X35 W8X15 W6X15 W36X260 W36X170 W33X201 W30X191 W30X99 W27X94 W24X104 W24X55 W21X93 W21X50 W18X76 W18X46 W16X67 W16X31 W 14X500 W14X311 W14X176 W14X99 W14X53 W14X26 W12X230 W12X120 W12X65 W12X35 W12X14 W10X60 W10X30 W10X12 W8X31 W8X13 W6X12 W36X245 W36X160 W33X152 W30X173 W27X178 W27X84 W24X94 W21X147 W21X83 W21X44 W18X71 W18X40 W16X57 W16X26 W14X455 W14X283 W14X159 W14X90 W14X48 W14X22 W12X210 W12X106 W12X58 W12X30 W10X112 W10X54 W10X26 W8X67 W8X28 W8X10 W6X9 W36X230 W36X150 W33X141 W30X132 W27X161 W24X162 W24X84 W 21X132 W21X73 W18X119 W18X65 W18X35 W16X50 W14X730 W14X426 W14X257 W14X145 W14X8 2 W14X43 W12X336 W12X190 W12X96 W12X53 W12X26 W10X100 W10X49 W10X22 W8X58 W8X24 W6X25 W5X19 W36X210 W36X135 W33X130 W30X124 W27X146 W24X146 W24X76 W21X122 W21X6 8 W18X106 W18X60 W16X100 W16X45 W14X665 W14X398 W14X233 W14X132 W14X74 W14X38 W1 2X305 W12X170 W12X87 W12X50 W12X22 W10X88 W10X45 W10X19 W8X48 W8X21 W6X20 W5X16

56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual W4X13 M14X18 M5X18.9 M12X11.8 M4X13 M10X9 M8X6.5 M6X20 M6X4.4 S24X121 S20X86 S15X42.9 S10X25.4 S6X12.5 S3X5.7 S24X106 S20X75 S12X50 S8X23 S5X14.7 S24X100 S20X66 S12X40.8 S8X18.4 S5X10 S24X90 S18X70 S12X35 S7X20 S4X9.5 S24X80 S18X54.7 S12X31.8 S7X15.3 S4X7.7 S20X96 S15X50 S10X35 S6X17.2 S3X7.5 C15X50 C10X30 C9X13.4 C7X9.8 C4X7.25 C15X40 C10X25 C8X18.7 C6X13 C4X5.4 C15X33.9 C10X20 C8X13.7 C6X10.5 C3X6 C12X30 C10X15.3 C8X11.5 C6X8.2 C3X5 C12X25 C9X20 C7X14.7 C5X9 C3X4.1 C12X20.7 C9X15 C7X12.2 C5X6.7 MC18X58 MC13X40 MC12X40 MC12X10.6 MC10X25.3 MC9X25.4 MC8X18.7 MC6X18 MC18X51.9 MC13X35 MC12X35 MC10X41.1 MC10X24.9 MC9X23.9 MC8X8.5 MC6X15.3 MC18X45.8 MC13X31.8 MC12X37 MC10X33.6 MC10X21.9 MC8X22.8 MC7X22.7 MC6X16.3 MC18X42.7 MC12X50 MC12X32.9 MC10X28.5 MC10X8.4 MC8X21.4 MC7X19.1 MC6X15.1 MC13X50 MC12X45 MC12X30.9 MC10X28.3 MC10X6.5 MC8X20 MC7X17.6 MC6X12 WT18X150 WT18X115 WT18X85 WT16.5X120.5 WT16.5X70.5 WT18X140 WT18X105 WT18X80 WT16.6X110.5 WT16.5X65 WT18X130 WT18X97 WT18X75 WT16.5X100.5 WT16.5X59 WT18X122.5 WT18X91 WT18X67.5 WT16.5X76 WT15X105.5

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 57 WT15X95.5 WT15X58 WT13.5X80.5 WT13.5X47 WT12X65.5 WT12X42 WT15X86.5 WT15X54 WT13.5X73 WT13.5X42 WT12X58.5 WT12X38 WT15X66 WT15X49.5 WT13.5X57 WT12X81 WT12X52 WT12X34 WT15X62 WT13.5X89 WT13.5X51 WT12X73 WT12X47 WT12X31 WT12X27.5 WT10.5X50.5 WT10.5X31 WT9X53 WT9X32.5 WT9X20 WT8X33.5 WT8X18 WT7X302.5 WT7X199 WT7X128.5 WT7X79.5 WT7X49.5 WT7X30.5 WT7X17 WT6X152.5 WT6X95 WT6X53 WT6 X32.5 WT6X20 WT6X9.5 WT5X44 WT5X24.5 WT5X13 WT5X6 WT10.5X73.5 WT10.5X46.5 WT10.5X28.5 WT9X48.5 WT9X30 WT9X17.5 WT8X28.5 WT8X15.5 W T7X275 WT7X185 WT7X116.5 WT7X72.5 WT7X45 WT7X26.5 WT7X15 WT6X139.5 WT6X85 WT6X48 WT6X29 WT6X17.5 WT6X8 WT5X38.5 WT5X22.5 WT5X11 WT4X33.5 WT10.5X66 WT10.5X41.5 WT10.5X25 WT9X43 WT9X27.5 WT8X50 WT8X25 WT8X13 WT7X250 WT7 X171 WT7X105.5 WT7X66 WT7X41 WT7X24 WT7X13 WT6X126 WT6X76 WT6X43.5 WT6X26.5 WT6X 15 WT6X7 WT5X34 WT5X19.5 WT5X9.5 WT4X29 WT10.5X61 WT10.5X36.5 WT10.5X22 WT9X38 WT9X25 WT8X44.5 WT8X22.5 WT7X365 WT7X227. 5 WT7X155.5 WT7X96.5 WT7X60 WT7X37 WT7X21.5 WT7X11 WT6X115 WT6X68 WT6X39.5 WT6X2 5 WT6X13 WT5X56 WT5X30 WT5X16.5 WT5X8.5 WT4X24 WT10.5X55.5 WT10.5X34 WT9X59.5 WT9X35.5 WT9X23 WT8X38.5 WT8X20 WT7X332.5 WT7X213 WT7X141.5 WT7X88 WT7X54.5 WT7X34 WT7X19 WT6X168 WT6X105 WT6X60 WT6X36 WT6X22.5 WT6X11 WT5X50 WT5X27 WT5X15 WT5X7.5 WT4X20

58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual WT4X17.5 WT4X9 WT4X10 WT2.5X9.5 WT4X15.5 WT4X7.5 WT4X7.5 WT2.5X8 WT4X14 WT4X6.5 WT3X8 WT2X6.5 WT4X12 WT4X5 WT3X6 WT4X10.5 WT4X12.5 WT3X4.5 MT7X9 MT3X10 ST12X60.5 ST12X40 ST10X33 ST7.5X21.45 ST6X15.9 ST4X9.2 ST3X6.25 ST2 X3.85 MT6X5.9 MT3X2.2 ST12X53 ST10X48 ST9X35 ST6X25 ST5X17.5 ST3.5X10 ST2.5X7.375 ST1. 5X3.75 MT5X4.5 MT2.5X9.45 ST12X50 ST10X43 ST9X27.35 ST6X20.4 ST5X12.7 ST3.5X7.65 ST2.5X 5 ST1.5X2.85 MT4X3.25 MT2X6.5 ST12X45 ST10X37.5 ST7.5X25 ST6X17.5 ST4X11.5 ST3X8.625 ST2X4.75 Double angles - long legs back-to-back D8X8X1.1250 D8X8X0.7500 D6X6X1.0000 D6X6X0.6250 D5X5X0.8750 D5X5X0.3750 D4X4X0.6 250 D4X4X0.3125 D3.5X3.5X0.3125 D3X3X0.3750 D3X3X0.1875 D2.5X2.5X0.2500 D2X2X0.3 125 D2X2X0.1250 D8X8X1.0000 D8X8X0.6250 D6X6X0.8750 D6X6X0.5000 D5X5X0.7500 D5X5X0.3125 D4X4X0.5 000 D4X4X0.2500 D3.5X3.5X0.2500 D3X3X0.3125 D2.5X2.5X0.3750 D2.5X2.5X0.1875 D2X2 X0.2500 D8X6X1.0000 D8X8X0.8750 D8X8X0.5000 D6X6X0.7500 D6X6X0.3750 D5X5X0.5000 D4X4X0.7500 D4X4X0.3 750 D3.5X3.5X0.3750 D3X3X0.5000 D3X3X0.2500 D2.5X2.5X0.3125 D2X2X0.3750 D2X2X0.1 875 D8X6X0.7500

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 59 D8X6X0.5000 D8X4X0.5000 D7X4X0.3750 D6X4X0.5000 D6X3.5X0.3125 D5X3.5X0.3750 D5X3 X0.3750 D4X3.5X0.5000 D4X3.5X0.2500 D4X3X0.3125 D3.5X3X0.3125 D3.5X2.5X0.3125 D3 X2.5X0.2500 D3X2X0.3125 D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.1875 D8X4X1.0000 D7X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.7500 D5X3.5X0.3125 D5X3 X0.3125 D4X3.5X0.3750 D4X3X0.5000 D4X3X0.2500 D3.5X3X0.2500 D3.5X2.5X0.2500 D3X2 .5X0.1875 D3X2X0.2500 D2.5X2X0.3750 B8X6X1.0000 D8X4X0.7500 D7X4X0.5000 D6X4X0.6250 D6X3.5X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.5000 D5X3X0.5000 D5X3 X0.2500 D4X3.5X0.3125 D4X3X0.3750 D3.5X3X0.3750 D3.5X2.5X0.3750 D3X2.5X0.3750 D3 X2X0.3750 D3X2X0.1875 D2.5X2X0.2500 B8X6X0.7500 Double angles small legs back-to-back B8X6X1.0000 B8X6X0.2500 B8X4X0.5000 B7X4X0.3750 B6X4X0.5000 B6X3.5X0.3125 B5X3.5 X0.3750 B8X6X0.7500 B8X4X1.0000 B7X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.3750 B5X3.5X0.7500 B5X3.5 X0.3125 B8X4X0.7500 B7X4X0.5000 B6X4X0.6250 B6X3.5X0.3750 B5X3.5X0.5000 B5X3X0.5 000 B5X3X0.3750 B4X3.5X0.5000 B4X3.5X0.2500 B4X3X0.3125 B5X3XO.3125 B4X3.5X0.3750 B4X3X0.5000 B4X3X0.2500 B5X3X0.2500 B4X3.5X0.3125 B4X3X0.3750 B3.5X3X0.3750

60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual B3.5X3X0.3125 B3.5X2.5X0.3125 B3X2.5X0.2500 B3X2X0.3125 B2.5X2X0.3750 B2.5X2X0.1 875 B3.5X3X0.2500 B3.5X2.5X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.1875 B3X2X0.2500 B2.5X2X0.3125 B3.5X2.5X0.3750 B3X2.5X0.3750 B3X2X0.3750 B3X2X0.1875 B2.5X2X0.2500

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 61 AISC 1989 Database W44X285 W40X268 W40X531 W40X297 W40X167 W36X588 W36X328 W36X256 W36X160 W33X468 W33X263 W33X141 W30X433 W30X235 W30X124 W27X494 W27X281 W27X161 W24X492 W24X279 W24X162 W24X94 W21X402 W21X223 W21X122 W21X68 W18X283 W18X158 W18X86 W18X50 W44X 248 W40X244 W40X480 W40X277 W40X149 W36X527 W36X300 W36X232 W36X150 W33X424 W33X 241 W33X130 W30X391 W30X211 W30X116 W27X448 W27X258 W27X146 W24X450 W24X250 W24X 146 W24X84 W21X364 W21X201 W21X111 W21X62 W18X258 W18X143 W18X76 W18X46 W44X224 W40X221 W40X436 W40X249 W36X848 W36X485 W36X280 W36X210 W36X135 W33X387 W33X221 W33X118 W30X357 W30X191 W30X108 W27X407 W27X235 W27X114 W24X408 W24X229 W24X131 W24X76 W21X333 W21X182 W21X101 W21X57 W18X234 W18X130 W18X71 W18X40 W44X198 W40X 192 W40X397 W40X215 W36X798 W36X439 W36X260 W36X194 W33X619 W33X354 W33X201 W30X 581 W30X326 W30X173 W30X99 W27X368 W27X217 W27X102 W24X370 W24X207 W24X117 W24X6 8 W21X300 W21X166 W21X93 W21X50 W18X211 W18X119 W18X65 W18X35 W40X328 W40X655 W4 0X362 W40X199 W36X720 W36X393 W36X245 W36X182 W33X567 W33X318 W33X169 W30X526 W3 0X292 W30X148 W30X90 W27X336 W27X194 W27X94 W24X335 W24X192 W24X104 W24X62 W21X2 75 W21X147 W21X83 W21X44 W18X192 W18X106 W18X60 W16X100 W40X298 W40X593 W40X324 W40X183 W36X650 W36X359 W36X230 W36X170 W33X515 W33X291 W33X152 W30X477 W30X261 W30X132 W27X539 W27X307 W27X178 W27X84 W24X306 W24X176 W24X103 W24X55 W21X248 W2 1X132 W21X73 W18X311 W18X175 W18X97 W18X55 W16X89

62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual W16X77 W16X36 W14X550 W14X342 W14X193 W14X109 W14X61 W14X30 W12X252 W12X136 W12X 72 W12X40 W12X16 W10X68 W10X33 W10X15 W16X67 W16X31 W14X500 W14X311 W14X176 W14X99 W14X53 W14X26 W12X230 W12X120 W12X6 5 W12X35 W12X14 W10X60 W10X30 W10X12 W16X57 W16X26 W14X455 W14X283 W14X159 W14X90 W14X48 W14X22 W12X210 W12X106 W12X5 8 W12X30 W10X112 W10X54 W10X26 W8X67 W16X50 W14X730 W14X426 W14X257 W14X145 W14X82 W14X43 W12X336 W12X190 W12X96 W12X 53 W12X26 W10X100 W10X49 W10X22 W8X58 W16X45 W14X665 W14X398 W14X233 W14X132 W14X74 W14X38 W12X305 W12X170 W12X87 W12X 50 W12X22 W10X88 W10X45 W10X19 W8X48 W16X40 W14X605 W14X370 W14X211 W14X120 W14X68 W14X34 W12X279 W12X152 W12X79 W12X 45 W12X19 W10X77 W10X39 W10X17 W8X40 HP14X117 HP13X73 HP10X57 HP14X102 HP13X60 HP10X42 HP14X89 HP12X84 HP8X36 HP14X73 HP12X74 HP13X100 HP12X63 HP13X87 HP12X53 M14X18 M12X11.8 M10X9 M8X6.5 M6X20 M6X4.4 M5X18.9 M4X13 S24X121 S20X86 S15X42.9 S10X25.4 S6X12.5 S3X5.7 S24X106 S20X75 S12X50 S8X23 S5X14.75 S24X100 S20X66 S12X40.8 S8X18.4 S5X10 S24X90 S18X70 S12X35 S7X20 S4X9.5 S24X80 S18X54.7 S12X31.8 S7X15.3 S4X7.7

S20X96 S15X50 S10X35 S6X17.25 S3X7.5 C15X50 C10X30 C15X40 C10X25 C15X33.9 C10X20 C12X30 C10X15.3 C12X25 C9X20 C12X20.7 C9X15

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 63 C9X13.4 C7X9.8 C4X7.25 C8X18.75 C6X13 C4X5.4 C8X13.75 C6X10.5 C3X6 C8X11.5 C6X8.2 C3X5 C7X14.75 C5X9 C3X4.1 C7X12.25 C5X6.7 MC18X58 MC13X35 MC12X31 MC10X22 MC8X21.4 MC6X18 MC18X51.9 MC13X31.8 MC12X10.6 MC10X8.4 MC8X20 MC6X15.3 MC18X45.8 MC12X50 MC10X41.1 MC10X6.5 MC8X18.7 MC6X16.3 MC18X42.7 MC12X45 MC10X33.6 MC9X25.4 MC8X8.5 MC6X15.1 MC13X50 MC12X40 MC10X28.5 MC9X23.9 MC7X22.7 MC6X12 MC13X40 MC12X35 MC10X25 MC8X22.8 MC7X19.1 WT18X115 WT18X105 WT18X85 WT18X67.5 WT16.5X145.5 WT16.5X110.5 WT16.5X76 WT16.5X5 9 WT15X95.5 WT15X66 WT15X54 WT13.5X97 WT13.5X73 WT13.5X51 WT12X88 WT12X65.5 WT12 X51.5 WT12X38 WT12X27.5 WT10.5X66 WT10.5X50.5 WT18X128 WT18X97 WT18X80 WT16.5X177 WT16.5X131.5 WT16.5X100.5 WT16.5X70.5 WT15X1 17.5 WT15X86.5 WT15X62 WT15X49.5 WT13.5X89 WT13.5X64.5 WT13.5X47 WT12X81 WT12X58 .5 WT12X47 WT12X34 WT10.5X83 WT10.5X61 WT10.5X46.5 WT18X116 WT18X91 WT18X75 WT16.5X159 WT16.5X120.5 WT16.5X84.5 WT16.5X65 WT15X105. 5 WT15X74 WT15X58 WT13.5X108.5 WT13.5X80.5 WT13.5X57 WT13.5X42 WT12X73 WT12X52 W T12X42 WT12X31 WT10.5X73.5 WT10.5X55.5 WT10.5X41.5

64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual WT10.5X36.5 WT10.5X28.5 WT9X71.5 WT9X53 WT9X38 WT9X30 WT9X23 WT8X50 WT8X33.5 WT8 X22.5 WT8X15.5 WT7X332.5 WT7X250 WT7X199 WT7X155. WT10.5X34 WT10.5X25 WT9X65 WT9X48.5 WT9X35.5 WT9X27.5 WT9X20 WT8X44.5 WT8X28.5 W T8X20 WT8X13 WT7X302.5 WT7X227.5 WT7X185 WT10.5X31 WT10.5X22 WT9X59.5 WT9X43 WT9X32.5 WT9X25 WT9X17.5 WT8X38.5 WT8X25 WT8 X18 WT7X365 WT7X275 WT7X213 WT7X171 MT7X9 MT6X5.9 MT5X4.5 MT4X3.25 MT3X2.2 MT2.5X9.45 ST12X60.5 ST10X43 ST7.5X21.45 ST5X12.7 ST3X6.25 ST1.5X2.85 ST12X53 ST10X37.5 ST6X25 ST4X11.5 ST2.5X7.375 ST12X50 ST10X33 ST6X20.4 ST4X9.2 ST2.5X5 ST12X45 ST9X35 ST6X17.5 ST3.5X10 ST2X4.75 ST12X40 ST9X27.35 ST6X15.9 ST3.5X7.65 ST2X3.85 ST10X48 ST7.5X25 ST5X17.5 ST3X8.625 ST1.5X3.75 L9X4X0.6250 L8X8X1.1250 L8X8X0.7500 L8X8X0.5000 L8X6X0.7500 L8X6X0.5000 L8X4X0.7 500 L7X4X0.7500 L9X4X0.5625 L8X8X1.0000 L8X8X0.6250 L8X6X1.0000 L8X6X0.6250 L8X6X0.4375 L8X4X0.5 625 L7X4X0.6250 L9X4X0.5000 L8X8X0.8750 L8X8X0.5625 L8X6X0.8750 L8X6X0.5625 L8X4X1.0000 L8X4X0.5 000 L7X4X0.5000

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 65 L7X4X0.3750 L6X6X0.7500 L6X6X0.5000 L6X6X0.3125 L6X4X0.6250 L6X4X0.4375 L6X3.5X0 .5000 L5X5X0.8750 L5X5X0.5000 L5X5X0.3125 L5X3.5X0.5000 L5X3.5X0.3125 L5X3X0.500 0 L5X3X0.3125 L4X4X0.6250 L4X4X0.3750 L4X3.5X0.5000 L4X3.5X0.3125 L4X3X0.4375 L4 X3X0.2500 L3.5X3.5X0.3750 L3.5X3X0.5000 L3.5X3X0.3125 L3.5X2.5X0.4375 L3.5X2.5X0 .2500 L3X3X0.3750 L3X3X0.1875 L3X2.5X0.3750 L3X2.5X0.1875 L3X2X0.3750 L3X2X0.187 5 L2.5X2.5X0.3125 L2.5X2X0.3750 L6X6X1.0000 L6X6X0.6250 L6X6X0.4375 L6X4X0.8750 L6X4X0.5625 L6X4X0.3750 L6X3.5X0 .3750 L5X5X0.7500 L5X5X0.4375 L5X3.5X0.7500 L5X3.5X0.4375 L5X3.5X0.2500 L5X3X0.4 375 L5X3X0.2500 L4X4X0.5000 L4X4X0.3125 L4X3.5X0.4375 L4X3.5X0.2500 L4X3X0.3750 L3.5X3.5X0.5000 L3.5X3.5X0.3125 L3.5X3X0.4375 L3.5X3X0.2500 L3.5X2.5X0.3750 L3X3 X0.5000 L3X3X0.3125 L3X2.5X0.5000 L3X2.5X0.3125 L3X2X0.5000 L3X2X0.3125 L2.5X2.5 X0.5000 L2.5X2.5X0.2500 L2.5X2X0.3125 L6X6X0.8750 L6X6X0.5625 L6X6X0.3750 L6X4X0.7500 L6X4X0.5000 L6X4X0.3125 L6X3.5X0 .3125 L5X5X0.6250 L5X5X0.3750 L5X3.5X0.6250 L5X3.5X0.3750 L5X3X0.6250 L5X3X0.375 0 L4X4X0.7500 L4X4X0.4375 L4X4X0.2500 L4X3.5X0.3750 L4X3X0.5000 L4X3X0.3125 L3.5 X3.5X0.4375 L3.5X3.5X0.2500 L3.5X3X0.3750 L3.5X2.5X0.5000 L3.5X2.5X0.3125 L3X3X0 .4375 L3X3X0.2500 L3X2.5X0.4375 L3X2.5X0.2500 L3X2X0.4375 L3X2X0.2500 L2.5X2.5X0 .3750 L2.5X2.5X0.1875 L2.5X2X0.2500

66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual L2.5X2X0.1875 L2X2X0.2500 L2X2X0.3750 L2X2X0.1875 L2X2X0.3125 L2X2X0.1250 D8X8X1.1250 D8X8X0.7500 D6X6X1.0000 D6X6X0.6250 D5X5X0.8750 D5X5X0.3750 D4X4X0.6 250 D4X4X0.3125 D3.5X3.5X0.3125 D3X3X0.3750 D3X3X0.1875 D2.5X2.5X0.2500 D2X2X0.3 125 D2X2X0.1250 D8X6X0.5000 D8X4X0.5000 D7X4X0.3750 D6X4X0.5000 D6X3.5X0.3125 D5 X3.5X0.3750 D5X3X0.3750 D4X3.5X0.5000 D4X3.5X0.2500 D4X3X0.3125 D3.5X3X0.3125 D3 .5X2.5X0.3125 D3X2.5X0.2500 D3X2X0.3125 D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.1875 D8X8X1.0000 D8X8X0.6250 D6X6X0.8750 D6X6X0.5000 D5X5X0.7500 D5X5X0.3125 D4X4X0.5 000 D4X4X0.2500 D3.5X3.5X0.2500 D3X3X0.3125 D2.5X2.5X0.3750 D2.5X2.5X0.1875 D2X2 X0.2500 D8X6X1.0000 D8X4X1.0000 D7X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.750 0 D5X3.5X0.3125 D5X3X0.3125 D4X3.5X0.3750 D4X3X0.5000 D4X3X0.2500 D3.5X3X0.2500 D3.5X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.1875 D3X2X0.2500 D2.5X2X0.3125 D8X8X0.8750 D8X8X0.5000 D6X6X0.7500 D6X6X0.3750 D5X5X0.5000 D4X4X0.7500 D4X4X0.3 750 D3.5X3.5X0.3750 D3X3X0.5000 D3X3X0.2500 D2.5X2.5X0.3125 D2X2X0.3750 D2X2X0.1 875 D8X6X0.7500 D8X4X0.7500 D7X4X0.5000 D6X4X0.6250 D6X3.5X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.5000 D5X3X0.5000 D5X3X0.2500 D4X3.5X0.3125 D4X3X0.3750 D3.5X3X0.3750 D3.5X2.5X0.3750 D3X2.5X0.3750 D3X2X0.3750 D3X2X0.1875 D2.5X2X0.2500

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 67 B8X6X1.0000 B8X4X1.0000 B7X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.3750 B5X3.5X0.7500 B5X3.5 X0.3125 B5X3X0.3125 B4X3.5X0.3750 B4X3X0.5000 B4X3X0.2500 B3.5X3X0.2500 B3.5X2.5 X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.1875 B3X2X0.2500 B2.5X2X0.3125 B8X6X0.7500 B8X4X0.7500 B7X4X0.5000 B6X4X0.6250 B6X3.5X0.3750 B5X3.5X0.5000 B5X3 X0.5000 B5X3X0.2500 B4X3.5X0.3125 B4X3X0.3750 B3.5X3X0.3750 B3.5X2.5X0.3750 B3X2 .5X0.3750 B3X2X0.3750 B3X2X0.1875 B2.5X2X0.2500 B8X6X0.5000 B8X4X0.5000 B7X4X0.3750 B6X4X0.5000 B6X3.5X0.3125 B5X3.5X0.3750 B5X3 X0.3750 B4X3.5X0.5000 B4X3.5X0.2500 B4X3X0.3125 B3.5X3X0.3125 B3.5X2.5X0.3125 B3 X2.5X0.2500 B3X2X0.3125 B2.5X2X0.3750 B2.5X2X0.1875

68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual German 1991 Database I80 I200 I320 I450 I100 I220 I340 I475 I120 I240 I360 I500 I140 I260 I380 I550 I 160 I280 I400 I600 I180 I300 I425 IPE80 IPE200 IPE360 IPE100 IPE220 IPE400 IPE120 IPE240 IPE450 IPE140 IPE270 IPE500 IPE160 IPE300 IPE550 IPE180 IPE330 IPE600 IPEO180 IPEO330 IPEO600 IPEO200 IPEO360 IPEO220 IPEO400 IPEO240 IPEO450 IPEO270 IPEO500 IPEO300 IPEO550 IPEV400 IPEV450 IPEV500 IPEV550 IPEV600 IPBI-100 IPBI-220 IPBI-340 IPBI-600 IPBI-120 IPBI-240 IPBI-360 IPBI-650 IPBI-140 IPBI-260 IPBI-400 IPBI-700 IPBI-160 IPBI-280 IPBI-450 IPBI-800 IPBI-180 IPBI-300 IPBI-500 IPBI-900 IPBI-200 IPBI-320 IPBI-550 IPBI-1000 IPB-100 IPB-220 IPB-340 IPB-600 IPB-120 IPB-240 IPB-360 IPB-650 IPB-140 IPB-260 IPB-400 IPB-700

IPB-160 IPB-280 IPB-450 IPB-800 IPB-180 IPB-300 IPB-500 IPB-900 IPB-200 IPB-320 IPB-550 IPB-1000 U30X15 U60 U160 U280 U30 U65 U180 U300 U40X20 U80 U200 U320 U40 U100 U220 U350 U50X25 U120 U240 U380 U50 U140 U260 U400

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 69 T20 T50 T120 T25 T60 T140 T30 T70 T35 T80 T40 T90 T45 T100 1/2I140 1/2I260 1/2I380 1/2I160 1/2I280 1/2I400 1/2I180 1/2I300 1/2I425 1/2I200 1/2I320 1/2I450 1/2I220 1/2I340 1/2I475 1/2I240 1/2I360 1/2I500 1/2IPE140 1/2IPE270 1/2IPE500 1/2IPE160 1/2IPE300 1/2IPE550 1/2IPE180 1/2IPE330 1/2IPE600 1/2IPE200 1/2IPE360 1/2IPE220 1/2IPE400 1/2IPE240 1/2IPE450 1/2IPEO180 1/2IPEO330 1/2IPEO600 1/2IPEO200 1/2IPEO360 1/2IPEO220 1/2IPEO400 1/2IPEO240 1/2IPEO450 1/2IPEO270 1/2IPEO500 1/2IPEO300 1/2IPEO550 1/2IPEV400 1/2IPEV450 1/2IPEV500 1/2IPEV550

1/2IPEV600 1/2IPB140 1/2IPB260 1/2IPB400 1/2IPB700 1/2IPB160 1/2IPB280 1/2IPB450 1/2IPB800 1/2IPB180 1/2IPB300 1/2IPB500 1/2IPB900 1/2IPB200 1/2IPB320 1/2IPB550 1/2IPB1000 1/2IPB220 1/2IPB340 1/2IPB600 1/2IPB240 1/2IPB360 1/2IPB650 1/2IPBI140 1/2IPBI260 1/2IPBI400 1/2IPBI700 1/2IPBI160 1/2IPBI280 1/2IPBI450 1/2IPBI800 1/2IPBI180 1/2IPBI300 1/2IPBI500 1/2IPBI900 1/2IPBI200 1/2IPBI320 1/2IPBI550 1/2IPBI1000 1/2IPBI220 1/2IPBI340 1/2IPBI600 1/2IPBI240 1/2IPBI360 1/2IPBI650 1/2IPBV140 1/2IPBV260 1/2IPBV360 1/2IPBV650 1/2IPBV160 1/2IPBV280 1/2IPBV400 1/2IPBV700 1/2IPBV180 1/2IPBV300 1/2IPBV450 1/2IPBV800 1/2IPBV200 1/2IPBV305 1/2IPBV500 1/2IPBV900 1/2IPBV220 1/2IPBV320 1/2IPBV550 1/2IPBV1000 1/2IPBV240 1/2IPBV340 1/2IPBV600

70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual L20X3 L35X4 L50X5 L25X3 L35X5 L50X6 L25X4 L40X4 L50X7 L30X3 L40X5 L30X4 L45X4 L30X5 L45X5

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 71 Australian 1990 Database UB760X244 UB690X125 UB460X82 UB360X51 UB200X30 UB760X220 UB610X125 UB460X74 UB36 0X45 UB200X25 UB760X197 UB610X113 UB460X67 UB310X46 UB180X22 UB760X173 UB610X101 UB410X60 UB310X40 UB180X18 UB760X148 UB530X92 UB410X54 UB250X37 UB150X18 UB690X 140 UB530X82 UB360X57 UB250X31 UB150X14 UC310X283 UC310X97 UC150X37 UC310X240 UC250X89 UC150X30 UC310X198 UC250X73 UC150X23 UC310X158 UC200X60 UC100X15 UC310X137 UC200X52 UC310X118 UC200X46 UBP310X79 UBP250X85 UBP250X63 TFB125X65 TFB100X45 TFC125X65 TFC100X50 TFC75X40 PFC380X100 PFC150X75 PFC300X90 PFC250X90 PFC230X75 PFC200X75 PFC180X75 EL200X200X26 EL200X200X16 EL150X150X16 EL125X125X16 EL125X125X8 EL100X100X8 EL90 X90X8 EL75X75X8 EL65X65X10 EL65X65X5 EL50X50X8 EL200X200X20 EL200X200X13 EL150X150X12 EL125X125X12 EL100X100X12 EL100X100X6 EL9 0X90X6 EL75X75X6 EL65X65X8 EL55X55X6 EL50X50X6 EL200X200X18 EL150X150X19 EL150X150X10 EL125X125X10 EL100X100X10 EL90X90X10 EL75 X75X10 EL75X75X5 EL65X65X6 EL55X55X5 EL50X50X5

72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual EL50X50X3 EL45X45X3 EL40X40X3 EL30X30X3 EL25X25X3 EL45X45X6 EL40X40X6 EL30X30X6 EL25X25X6 EL45X45X5 EL40X40X5 EL30X30X5 EL25X25X5 UL150X100X12 UL150X90X12 UL125X75X12 UL125X75X6 UL100X75X6 UL75X50X5 UL65X50X5 UL150X100X10 UL150X90X10 UL125X75X10 UL100X75X10 UL75X50X8 UL65X50X8 UL150X90X16 UL150X90X8 UL125X75X8 UL100X75X8 UL75X50X6 UL65X50X6

Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 73 South African 1992 Database IPE100 IPE200 IPE-AA180 IP203X133X30 IP305X102X29 IP356X171X45 IP406X140X46 IP45 7X191X67 IP533X210X82 IP610X229X101 IP838X292X176 HP152X152X23 HP203X203X60 HP25 4X254X107 HP305X305X137 IT127X76X13 IT254X152X59 CP100X50 CP200X75 CP300X100 CT1 00X50X11 CT200X75X25 CT300X100X46 CT381X102X55 AE25X25X3 AE35X35X5 AE45X45X5 AE5 0X50X6 AE60X60X8 AE80X80X6 AE90X90X8 AE100X100X12 AE120X120X15 AE200X200X16 AU65 X50X6 AU80X60X8 AU100X65X10 AU125X75X8 AU150X75X15 TCI203X133X25 IPE120 IPE-AA10 0 IPE-AA200 IP254X146X31 IP305X102X33 IP356X171X51 IP406X178X54 IP457X191X75 IP5 33X210X93 IP610X229X113 IP914X305X201 HP152X152X30 HP203X203X71 HP254X254X132 HP 305X305X158 IT152X89X17 IT305X152X66 CP120X55 CP220X80 IPE140 IPE-AA120 IP152X89 X16 IP254X146X37 IP305X165X41 IP356X171X57 IP406X178X60 IP457X191X82 IP533X210X1 01 IP610X229X125 IP914X419X343 HP152X152X37 HP203X203X86 HP254X254X167 HP305X305 X198 IT178X102X22 IPE160 IPE-AA140 IP178X102X19 IP254X146X43 IP305X165X46 IP356X 171X67 IP406X178X67 IP457X191X90 IP533X210X109 IP610X229X140 IPE180 IPE-AA160 IP 203X133X25 IP305X102X25 IP305X165X54 IP406X140X39 IP406X178X75 IP457X191X98 IP53 3X210X122 IP762X267X147 HP203X203X46 HP254X254X73 HP305X305X97 HP305X305X240 IT203X102X25 HP203X203X52 HP254X254X89 HP305X305X118 HP305X305X283 IT203X152X52 CP140X60 CP240X85 CP160X65 CP260X90 CP180X70 CP280X95 CT120X55X13 CT220X80X29 CT76X38X7 CT140X60X16 CT240X85X33 CT127X64X15 CT160X65X19 CT260X90X38 CT152X76X18 CT180X70X22 CT280X95X42 CT178X54X15 AE25X25X5 AE40X40X3 AE45X45X6 AE50X50X8 AE60X60X10 AE80X80X8 AE90X90X10 AE100X10 0X15 AE150X150X10 AE200X200X18 AU65X50X8 AU90X65X6 AU100X75X6 AU125X75X10 AU150X 90X10 TCI203X133X30 AE30X30X3 AE40X40X5 AE50X50X3 AE60X60X4 AE70X70X6 AE80X80X10 AE90X90X12 AE120X12 0X8 AE150X150X12 AE200X200X20 AU75X50X6 AU90X65X8 AU100X75X8 AU125X75X12 AU150X9 0X12 AE30X30X5 AE40X40X6 AE50X50X4 AE60X60X5 AE70X70X8 AE80X80X12 AE100X100X8 AE120X1 20X10 AE150X150X15 AE200X200X24 AU75X50X8 AU90X65X10 AU100X75X10 AU150X75X10 AU1 50X90X15 AE35X35X3 AE45X45X3 AE50X50X5 AE60X60X6 AE70X70X10 AE90X90X6 AE100X100X10 AE120X 120X12 AE150X150X18 AU80X60X6 AU100X65X8 AU100X75X12 AU150X75X12 TCI254X146X31 TCI254X146X37 TCI254X146X43

74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Korean 1990 Database W594X302 W600X200 W500X200 W446X199 W396X199 W336X249 W310X305 W294X302 W250X255 W250X125 W194X150 W125X125 W588X300 W596X199 W496X199 W390X300 W350X350 W354X17 6 W304X301 W298X201 W250X250 W248X124 W200X100 W100X100 W582X300 W488X300 W440X3 00 W386X299 W344X354 W350X175 W300X305 W294X200 W248X249 W208X202 W150X150 W612X 202 W482X300 W434X299 W404X201 W344X348 W346X174 W300X300 W300X150 W244X252 W200 X204 W148X100 W606X201 W506X201 W450X200 W400X200 W340X250 W310X310 W298X299 W29 8X149 W244X175 W200X200 W150X75 L250X250X35 L175X175X15 L150X150X10 L120X120X8 L90X90X13 L90X90X6 L75X75X6 L60X6 0X6 L50X50X4 L250X250X25 L175X175X12 L130X130X15 L100X100X13 L90X90X10 L80X80X7 L70X70X6 L60X 60X5 L45X45X5 L200X200X25 L150X150X19 L130X130X12 L100X100X10 L90X90X9 L80X80X6 L65X65X8 L60X6 0X4 L45X45X4 L200X200X20 L150X150X15 L130X130X10 L100X100X8 L90X90X8 L75X75X12 L65X65X6 L50X5 0X6 L40X40X5 L200X200X15 L150X150X12 L130X130X9 L100X100X7 L90X90X7 L75X75X9 L65X65X5 L50X50X 5 C300X90 C125X65 C300X91 C100X50 C300X92 C75X40 C300X93 C300X94 M300X150 M250X125 M200X100 M150X75 M125X75

1 CHAPTER 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution In This Chapter Dynamic Analysis Input ......................................................... .....2 Dynamic Analysis Overview ............................................... ........3 Harmonic Analysis .................................................... ..................8 Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles............... ...........16 Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases ...................... .....24 Spectrum Time History .................................................. .............38 Lumped Masses................................................... ........................44 Dynamic Control Parameters........................... ............................48 Advanced Parameters ............................. .....................................81 Pulsation Loads ........................ ...................................................85 Relief Valve Thrust Load A nalysis .............................................88

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Dynamic Analysis Input Once the basic model has been constructed a dynamic analysis can be performed. A fter selecting ANALYSIS/ DYNAMICS from the CAESAR II Main Menu, the Dynamics Inp ut window appears. The analysis type is selected from the drop list on the upper left portion of th e window and the tabbed items will be modified depending on the type of analysis to be performed. If the model contains spring hangers to be designed, or single directional supports, gaps, rods, or friction, then a static analysis must be p erformed before the dynamic analysis to determine how the nonlinear supports are acting. The following sections describe the specific input for each of the opti ons available from the Dynamics Input Menu. See Chapter 8 of the User Guide for a thorough discussion of basic dynamic load cases and data, and for a descriptio n of how to interact with the dynamics input processor. The current units applicable t o the dynamics input are pulled from the piping input file (or from the Configur ation file in the event of a structural-only job).

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 3 Dynamic Analysis Overview A piping system may respond far differently to a dynamic load than it would to a static load of the same magnitude. Static loads are those which are applied slo wly enough that the system has time to react and internally distribute the loads , thus remaining in equilibrium. In equilibrium, all forces and moments are reso lved (i.e., the sum of the forces and moments are zero), and the pipe does not m ove. With a dynamic load a load which changes quickly with time the piping system may no t have time to internally distribute the loads, so forces and moments are not al ways resolved resulting in unbalanced loads, and therefore pipe movement. Since the sum of forces and moments are not necessarily equal to zero, the internally indu ced loads can be different either higher or lower than the applied loads. For this reaso n, different analysis methods must be used to determine response of a system whe n subjected to dynamic loads. CAESAR II provides several methods for analyzing d ifferent types of dynamic loadings, which help optimize the trade-off of accurac y vs. computing requirements these include harmonic solution, response spectrum meth od, and time history analysis. The force vs. time profiles of the dynamic loads most often encountered during the design of piping are usually one of three type s random, harmonic, or impulse. Each of these load profiles have a preferred solutio n method as well. These profiles, and the load types identified with them, are d escribed below. Random With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude unpredict ably with time, although there may be predominant characteristics within the loa d profile. Loads with random force/time profiles are best solved using the Spect rum method. Major types of loads with random time profiles are Wind Wind velocity ca uses forces due to the decrease of wind momentum as the air strikes the pipe, cr eating an equivalent pressure on the pipe. Wind loadings, even though they may have pr edominant directions and average velocities over a given time, are subject to gu sting, i.e., sudden changes in direction and velocity. As the observed time peri od lengthens, the observed number of changes increases in an unpredictable manne r as well, eventually encompassing nearly all directions and a wide range of vel ocities. Earthquake Seismic (earthquake) loadings are caused by the introduction of random motion (accelerations, velocities, and displacements) of the ground and c orresponding inertia loads (the mass of the system times the acceleration) into a structure through the structure-to-ground anchorage. The random ground motion is actually the sum of an infinite number of individual harmonic (cyclic) ground motions. Two earthquakes may be similar in terms of predominant direction (alon g a fault, for example), predominant harmonic frequencies (if certain of the und erlying cyclic motions tend to dominate), and maximum ground motion, but their e xact behavior at any given time may be quite different and unpredictable. Harmonic With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude following a harmonic profile, ranging from its minimum to its maximum over a fixed time p eriod. For example, the load may be described by a function of the form: F(t) = A + B cos( t + Q)

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Where: F(t) A B Q t = = = = = = force magnitude as a function of time mean force variation of maximum and minimum force from mean angular frequency (radian/sec) phase angle (radians) time (sec) Loads with harmonic force/time profiles are best solved using the Harmonic metho d. Major types of loads with harmonic time profiles are Equipment vibration If rotat ing equipment attached to a pipe is slightly out of tolerance (drive shaft out o f round, for example), it may impose a small cyclic displacement onto the pipe a t the point of attachment, where the displacement cycle would most likely corres pond to the equipment s operating cycle. The displacement at the pipe connection may be so small as to not even be noticeable, but dynamically it could cause signif icant problems. The loading vs. time can be easily predicted once the equipment s op erating cycle and variation from tolerance is known. Acoustic vibration If fluid flo w characteristics are changed within a pipe (for example if flow conditions chan ge from laminar to turbulent as the fluid goes through an orifice), slight later al vibrations may be set up within the pipe. Often these vibrations fit harmonic patterns, with predominant frequencies somewhat predictable based upon the flow conditions. For example, Strouhal s equation predicts that the developed frequency (Hz) of vibration caused by flow through an orifice will be somewhere between 0. 2 V/D and 0.3 V/D, where V is the fluid velocity (ft./sec) and D is the diameter of the orifice (ft). Wind flow around a pipe sets up lateral displacements as w ell (a phenomenon known as vortex shedding), with an exciting frequency in the a rea of 0.18 V/D, where V is the wind velocity and D is the outer diameter of the pipe. Pulsation During the operation of a reciprocating pump or a compressor, the f luid is compressed by pistons driven by a rotating shaft. This causes a cyclic c hange (vs. time) in the fluid pressure at any specified location in the system. If the fluid pressures at opposing elbow pairs or closures is unequal, this crea tes an unbalanced pressure load in the system. Since the pressure balance change s with the cycle of the compressor, the unbalanced force changes as well. (Note that the frequency of the force cycle will most likely be some multiple of that of the equipment operating cycle, since multiple pistons will cause a correspond ing number of force variations during each shaft rotation.) The pressure variati ons will continue to move along through the fluid, so in a steady state flow con dition, unbalanced forces may be present simultaneously at all elbow pairs in th e system. The load magnitudes may vary, and the load cycles may or may not be in phase with each other, depending upon the pulse velocity, the distance of each elbow pair from the compressor, and the length of the piping legs between the el bow pairs. For example, if the pressure at elbow a is denoted by Pa(t) and the p ressure at elbow b is denoted by Pb(t), then the unbalanced force acting along t he pipe between the two elbows is: F(t) = (Pa(t) - Pb(t)) A Where: A = internal area of the pipe The expression for Pa(t) can be calculated as (assuming that the pressure peak h its the elbow a at time t = 0): Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos t

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 5 Where: Pavg = dP average pressure in the line = = alternating component of the p ressure driving angular frequency of pulse If the length of the pipe between the elbows is L, then the pressure pulse will reach elbow b ts after it has passed elbow a: ts = L / c Where: c = speed of sou nd in the fluid Therefore the expression for the pressure at elbow b is: Pb(t) Where: Q = = ts p hase shift between the pressure peaks at a and b = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos ( t - Q) Combining these equations, the equation for the unbalanced pressure force acting on an elbow pair can be written as: F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos t - cos (t - L/c) ] Under steady-state conditions, a similar situation would exist at all elbow pair s throughout the piping system.

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Impulse With this type of profile, the load magnitude ramps up from zero to some value, remains relatively constant for a time, and then ramps down to zero again. For r apid ramping times, this type of profile resembles a rectangle. Loads with impul se force/time profiles are best solved using the Time History or Force Spectrum methods. Major types of loads with impulse time profiles are Relief valve When syste m pressure reaches a dangerous level, relief valves are set to open in order to vent fluid and reduce the internal pressure. Venting through the valve causes a jet force to act on the piping system; this force ramps up to its full value, fr om zero, over the opening time of the valve. The relief valve remains open (and the jet force remains relatively constant) until sufficient fluid is vented to r elief the over-pressure situation. The valve then closes, ramping down the jet f orce over the closing time of the valve. Fluid hammer When the flow of fluid through a system is suddenly halted at one point, through valve closure or a pump trip, the fluid in the remainder of the system cannot be stopped instantaneously as w ell. As fluid continues to flow into the area of stoppage (upstream of the valve or pump), the fluid compresses, causing a high pressure situation at that point . Likewise, on the other side of the restriction, the fluid moves away from the stoppage point, creating a low pressure (vacuum) situation at that location. Flu id at the next elbow or closure along the pipeline is still at the original oper ating pressure, resulting in an unbalanced pressure force acting on the valve se at or the elbow. The fluid continues to flow, compressing (or decompressing) flu id further away from the point of flow stoppage, thus causing the leading edge o f the pressure pulse to move through the line. As the pulse moves past the first elbow, the pressure is now equalized at each end of the pipe run, leading to a balanced (i.e., zero) pressure load on the first pipe leg. However the unbalance d pressure, by passing the elbow, has now shifted to the second leg. The unbalan ced pressure load will continue to rise and fall in sequential legs as the press ure pulse travels back to the source (or forward to the sink). The ramp up time of the profile roughly coincides with the elapsed time from full flow to low flo w, such as the closing time of the valve or trip time of the pump. Since the lea ding edge of the pressure pulse is not expected to change as the pulse travels t hrough the system, the ramp down time is the same. The duration of the load from initiation through the beginning of the down ramp is equal to the time required for the pressure pulse to travel the length of the pipe leg. Slug flow Most piping systems are designed to handle single-phase fluids (i.e., those which are unifor mly liquid or gas). Under certain circumstances, however, the fluid may have mul tiple phases. For example, slurry systems transport solid materials in liquids, and gases may condense, creating pockets of liquid in otherwise gaseous media. S ystems carrying multi-phase fluids are susceptible to slug flow. In general, whe n fluid changes direction in a piping system, this is done through the applicati on of forces at elbows. This force is equal to the change in momentum with respe ct to time, or Fr = dp / dt = Where: dp dt = v A = = = = change in momentum chan ge in time fluid velocity internal area of pipe v2 A [2(1 - cos )]1/2 fluid density

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 7 = inclusion angle at elbow Normally this force is constant, and is small enough that it can be easily absor bed through tension in the pipe wall, to be passed on to adjacent elbows which m ay have equal and opposite loads, zeroing the net load on the system. Therefore these type of momentum loads are usually ignored by the stress analyst. However, if the fluid velocity or density changes with time, this momentum load will cha nge with time as well, leading to a dynamic (changing) load, which may not be ca ncelled by the load at other elbows. For example, consider a slug of liquid in a gas system. The steady state momentum load is insignificant, since the fluid de nsity of a gas is effectively zero. Suddenly the liquid slug hits the elbow, inc reasing the momentum load by orders of magnitude. This load lasts only as long a s it takes for the slug to traverse the elbow, and then suddenly drops to near z ero again, with the exact profile of the slug load depending upon the shape of t he slug. The time duration of the load depends upon the length of the slug divid ed by the velocity of the fluid. Where: Fx = v2 A(1 - cos ) Fr = v2 A [2(1 - cos )]2 Fy = v2 A sin

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Harmonic Analysis Excitation Frequencies Harmonic Analysis Excitation Frequencies Starting Frequency First frequency in the user s defined excitation frequency range. The defined harmon ic displacements and forces will have the form: A*cosine(wt+p), where A is the a mplitude of the force or displacement, p is the phase angle, and is the frequenc y of the loading. Real and imaginary solutions will be developed for each freque ncy in the defined range (from which any phased solution can be calculated). For an entered frequency range to be valid there must be at least a starting freque ncy. All frequencies are entered in Hertz. Ending Frequency Last frequency in the user s defined excitation frequency range. If omitted then it defaults to the Starting frequency.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 9 Increment Frequency increment. If omitted then defaults to 1.0 Hz. The frequencies for har monic excitation are taken from each frequency range defined by the user. Indivi dual frequencies for excitation are computed using a DO LOOP type of logic as follows: X = STARTING FREQUENCY 5 CONTINUE COMPUTE SOLUTION FOR FREQUENCY X X = X + INCREMENT IF( X .LT. ENDING FREQUENCY+0.001) GO TO 5

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Using this logic the user can determine exactly which frequencies in a specified frequency range will be analyzed. The sign of the frequency increment may be mo dified by CAESAR II to properly step from the user s starting frequency to his endin g frequency. Either the starting frequency, the ending frequency, or the frequen cy increment may be given as a fraction or a whole part with fraction. Any numbe r of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the Excitation frequency data. EXAMPLES: Find harmonic solutions for the fol lowing group of equipment speeds: 100 rpm (Warm up speed) 400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2400, 2800, 3200 rpm. Speeds passed through very slowly while coming up to operating speed. 3600 rpm. Operating speed. Rotations per minute convert to cyc les per second by dividing by 60. Frequency excitation would be input. WARM UP S PEED (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 100/60 BRINGING TURBINE ON-LINE (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 400/60 3200/60 400/60 OPERATING SPEED (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 3600/60 A low frequency field vibration exists in the piping system a t about 3 Hertz. Define a 3 Hertz excitation: APPROXIMATE FIELD OBSERVED EXCITAT ION FREQUENCY (HZ) 3 The response of the piping system when the dynamic load was applied at 3 Hertz w as almost zero. This was true regardless of the magnitude of the dynamic load (i .e. the maximum conceivable varying pressure load was applied, and there were st ill no appreciable dynamic displacements when the excitation frequency was 3 Her tz). Apply the dynamic load over a range of frequencies around 3 Hertz and see i f any dynamic response can be observed. GROUP OF FREQUENCIES AROUND THE FIELD GUESS ED AT 3 HERTZ EXCITATION. THE EXCITATION FREQUENCIES DEFINED BY THE INPUT BELOW ARE : (2.5, 2.6, 2.7, ..., 3.3, 3.4, 3.5) HZ. 2.5 3.5 0.1 Load Cycles Number of cycles expected for this loading. If entered, this signals to CAESAR I I that the harmonic load case should be treated as a fatigue stress case with th e allowable stress based on the number of anticipated cycles.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 11 Harmonic Forces and Displacements Harmonic Forces Either the Harmonic Forces or the Displacements must be entered in addition to t he Excitation Frequency Data. Click the Harmonic Forces button to bring up a win dow like that shown below. Click the + button on the toolbar to add a harmonic f orce.

Force Amplitude of the harmonic force. The form of the harmonic forcing function is: F (t) = A*cosine( t- ), where F(t) is the force as a function of time. A is the max ude of the dynamic force. is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second) , and p is the phase angle (in radians). Enter the force in the units shown. These uni ts are taken from the current set which resides on the file UNITS.FIL. Direction Enter the line of action of the force as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), i.e (0.70 7,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), i.e. (1,0,1).

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Phase Enter the phase angle in degrees. The harmonic loading can start with its maximu m load at time equal to zero, or the harmonic load can start with its maximum at any time between zero and t=2*pi/w seconds. The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the dynamic load waveform. The phase angle can be calculated from the time shift using the equation: p(degrees) = 180tw/pi, where t is given in seconds and w is given in radians per second. Most frequently the phase angle is entered as either zero or 90. The phase specification is most use ful when defining eccentric loads on rotating equipment. Some of the examples th at follow discuss common applications of the phase angle input. The phase angle is a required input. If the phase angle is zero, then 0.0 must be entered ! Start Node The node where the force is to act. This entry is required. If entered without a Stop Node and Increment, then this node must exist in the piping system. If ent ered with a Stop Node and Increment, then the range of nodes identified by the l oop must include at least one node in the piping system. Stop Node Used as a part of a range of nodes Increment Used as a part of a range of nodes force loading command. This entry is optional. force loading command. This entry is optional.

EXAMPLES It is assumed that a pressure pulse traveling in the line between nodes 95 and 100 causes the line to shake at about 2 hertz. The magnitude of the pres sure loading (See the examples for calculating forces from pressures) is estimat ed to be about 460 lb. The pressure wave travels from 95 to 100. The harmonic fo rce to model this load is shown as follows. Note that the magnitude is divided b y 2 because the total variation in the dynamic load is a function of the cosine, which varies from -1 to 1. To find the true response magnitudes from a positive only harmonic load pulse, a static solution with 460/2 lb. acting in the plus X direction would have to be superimposed on the static 460/2 lb. solution to pro vide the constant shifting of the load axis (i.e. as defined in the following ex ample, there will exist a negative load at node 95 due to the negative sign on t he cosine). The pressure pulse will always be positive and so a negative load wi ll never exist. The superposition of the 460/2 static solution makes sure that t he dynamic load (and probably the resulting displacements) are always positive. 460 LB PRESSURE LOAD AT 2 HERTZ 460/2 X 0.0 95 A pump is shaking in the X-Y plane. The pump axis is along the global Z axis. Th e magnitude of the dynamic load is computed to be 750 lb. from the manufacturers provided masses and eccentricities. Apply this rotating equipment loading on th e inline pump at node 350. The X and Y loads are 90 degrees out of phase with on e another. When the X load is at its maximum the Y load is zero, and when the Y load is at its maximum the X load is zero. ESTIMATED ECCENTRIC LOAD ON INLINE PU MP DOH-V33203001 750 X 0.0 350 750 Y 90.0 350

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 13 Harmonic Displacements Displacement Amplitude of the harmonic displacement. The form of the harmonic displacement fu nction is: D(t)=(A)*cosine( t- ), where D(t) is the displacement as a function of time , A is the maximum amplitude of the dynamic displacement. is the frequency of the ex citation (in radians per second), and is the phase angle (in radians). Enter the dis placements in the units shown. Direction Enter the line of action of the displacement as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), i. e (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), i.e. (1,0 ,1).

14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Phase Enter the phase angle in degrees. The harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacement at time equal to zero, or the harmonic displacements can st art with its maximum displacements at any time between zero and t + 2 / seconds. The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the dynamic lo ad waveform. The phase angle can be calculated from the time shift using the equ ation: (degrees) = 180t / , where t is given in seconds and is given in radians per second. Most frequently the phase angle is entered as either zero or 90. The phase specification is most useful when defining eccentric displacements on rot ating equipment. Some of the examples that follow discuss common applications of the phase angle input. The phase angle is a required input. If the phase angle is zero, then 0.0 must be entered! Start Node Node where the dynamic displacement is defined. If the node is a supported node, then the dynamic displacement will be assumed to act at the support point. If t he node is not supported, then the dynamic displacement will be assumed to descr ibe the exact motion of the pipe at that point. This differentiation only become s important when the node is supported by a flexible restraint. For example, nod e 55 is supported in the Y direction by a restraint having a stiffness of 5000 l b./in. A harmonic displacement is also specified at node 55, in the Y direction. In this case, the harmonic displacement does not describe the displacement that is attached to 55! Harmonic Displacements at Compressor Flange 0.008 0.003 Y Z 0.0 0.0 330 330 If the Start Node is entered without a Stop Node and Increment, then this node m ust exist in the piping system. If the Start Node is entered with a Stop Node an d Increment, then this range of nodes must include at least one node in the pipi ng system. Stop Node Used as a part of a range of nodes force displacement loading. This entry is optional.

Increment Used as a part of a range of nodes force displacement loading. This entry is optional. EXAMPLES A large ethylene compressor shakes the node exiting the compressor fla nge in the Y direction a field measured 8 mils, and in the Z direction an amount equal to 3 mils. Define these dynamic displacements. The displacements are assu med to be simultaneous, with no phase shift. This is because the load causing th e displacements is believed to be the compressor plunger moving in the X, or axi al direction. (The displacements are skewed because the piping configuration ent ering the compressor is itself skewed.)

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 15 Applying estimated eccentric forces to the pump described in the harmonic force example did not produce the displacements witnessed in the field. Field personne l have measured the dynamic displacements in the vertical (Y) and transverse (Z) directions at the pump piping connections. The centerline of the pump, at the i ntersection of the horizontal suction and vertical discharge is node 15. The mag nitude of the Z displacement was measured to be 12 mil. The magnitude of the Y d isplacement was measured to be 3 mils. It is assumed that the vibration is due t o the rotation of the pump shaft, and so the Z and Y loads will be taken to be 9 0 degrees out of phase. HARMONIC DISPLACEMENTS MODELING PUMP VIBRATION ON THE IN LINE PUMP DOH-V33203001. MODELLING THE PUMPS DYNAMIC LOAD WITH FORCES DID NOT RE SULT IN THE DISPLACEMENTS WITNESSED BY FIELD PERSONNEL. NOW TRY IMPOSING THE DIS PLACEMENTS AND SEE WHAT THE RESULTING FORCES ARE. ALSO CHECK TO SEE IF THE ATTAC HED PIPING MOVES AROUND AS EXPECTED. Z MAGNITUDE OF THE LOAD - ZERO PHASE SHIFT 0.012 Z 0.0 15 Y MAGNITUDE OF THE LOAD - 90 DEG. PHASE SHIFT 0.003 Y 90.0 15

16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles Spectrum Definitions Name Can be any 24-character identifier. This name is associated with a particular sp ectrum or load profile. The complete definition of a shock includes its name, ra nge type, ordinate type, range interpolation method, ordinate interpolation meth od, and the shock data point table. Everything but the shock data point table ca n be entered here. There are 14 predefined spectra for which no extra definition s are required and they are: El Centro For the El Centro California N-S componen t taken from Biggs, Introduction to Structural Dynamics, and applies for systems with 5-10 percent critical damping. REG. GUIDE 1.60 1.60H.5 1.60H2 1.60H5 1.60H7 1.60 H1.0 and and and and and 1.60V.5 1.60V2 1.60V5 1.60V7 1.60V10

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 17 Each of these spectra define respectively the horizontal and vertical components for 0.5, 2, 5, 7, and 10 percent critically damped systems. Associated with eac h of these spectra is a value for the Maximum ground acceleration at the site, t he ZPA. (Zero Period Acceleration) This value defaults to 0.5 g and can be chang ed on the control parameter spreadsheet. Uniform Building Code UBCSOIL1 UBCSOIL2 UBCSOIL3 These spectra represent the normalized (horizontal) response spectra f or three soil types provided in Figure 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code, (1991 Edition). Note The spectrum name (or load profile) can be preceded by a (#) sign . The (#) sign instructs CAESAR II to read the spectrum table from a file having the same name as the spectrum with no extension. Entering the spectrum table in an ASCII file allows several jobs to access the same spectrum table data withou t the user having to retype it for each job. If data is to be read directly from within the Dynamic Output then click the Data Points button and enter the appro priate Range and Ordinate values. Range Type This entry defines the table range , or horizontal axis, and can be either Period ime". If the range type is Period then the spectrum table data must be entered i n seconds. If the range type is Frequency then the spectrum table data must be e ntered in Hertz, (cycles per second). Time may be used for Time History load pro files only, and must be entered in milliseconds (ms). Ordinate Type This entry defines the spectrum table ordinate , or vertical axis, and can be either Ac celeration, Velocity, Displacement or Force (multiplier). Any part of the word f or the ordinate type can be spelled out, but only the first letter is required. Note that acceleration units are length per second squared. Users may enter the spectrum table in g s by selecting acceleration as the ordinate type and then using a shock scale factor of 386., for length units of inches. For Time History load profiles, the only valid ordinate type is Force (multiplier). Range Interpolation Interpolation between range values may be done logarithmically or linearly (vali d input is LOG or LIN). See the examples shown for additional discussion.

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Ordinate Interpolation Interpolation between ordinate values may be done logarithmically or linearly (v alid input is LOG or LIN). See the examples shown for additional discussion. One job may have any number of different spectrum types and definitions. Special FO RCE spectrum data files are created by the DLF Spectrum generator. See the docum entation covering this item later in this chapter. When a new job is started up the 14 predefined spectra are already included in the spectrum definition list. Any combination of these predefined spectra may be used as is, deleted or used w ith any other user defined spectra. ASCII files that contain spectrum table data can contain comment lines starting with an asterisk just like regular terminal entered data lines. The user is encouraged to include the basic spectrum data de finitions in the comments for each ASCII spectrum file. See the example that fol lows.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 19 EXAMPLE The job requires that the El Centro shock be applied in the X and Z directions u sing a factor of 1.0, and in the Y direction using a factor of 0.667. There is n o spectrum definition required for this shock. El Centro is a predefined spectru m. All of its shock data resides in the CAESAR II shock database. The job requir es the use of the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 shock loads. At a maximum accele ration value of 0.25 g s, analysis is to be performed using 1.0 times the horizontal and vertical components of the shock as specified in Reg. Guide 1.60. There is no spectrum definition required for either of these two shock loads. The Reg. Gu ide 1.60 shock spectra are predefined. The user must only specify the maximum ac celeration (ZPA) of 0.25 g s on the control parameter spreadsheet, and must use the reg. guide spectra which corresponds to the anticipated system damping. Lower da mping values mean more conservative results. The job requires a shock spectrum t hat is given by the client and developed for the site. A plot of the spectrum ap pears as follows. The horizontal axis is period and the vertical axis is acceler ation. From the variation of the numbers along each axis it can be seen that a l ogarithmic interpolation for each axis should be used. Because the shock name is NOT preceded by a (#) sign the user will have to enter the points for this spec trum during this interactive input session. BENCHNO4 PERIOD ACCELERATION LOG LOG All jobs on a particular project require the use of the spectrum table shown as follows. Since we only want to type the spectrum s data points in one time, the poi nts will be entered into a file named BENCH1 . The ASCII file BENCH1 can be created usi ng any standard editor or the CAESAR II text editor. The listing of the ASCII fi le for BENCH1 is shown following the plot of the spectrum. The spectrum definiti on input for pointing to this file is: #BENCH1 PERIOD ACCEL LOG LOG Listing of ASCII file BENCH1 : SPECTRUM FOR NUCLEAR BENCHMARK NO.1. THIS SPECTRUM IS TO BE USED FOR ALL LINES ON PROJECT 1-130023-A03. FILENAME = BENCH1 RANGE TYPE = PERIOD (SECONDS) ORDINATE TYPE = ACCELERATION (IN./SEC./SEC.) INTERPOLATION FOR BOTH AX ES = LOGARITHMIC. FILE PREPARED BY M.NASH JANUARY 15, 1987 PERIOD(SEC)ACCELERATI ON(IN/SEC/SEC) 0.1698E-02 0.2800E-01 0.1450E+03 0.3800E+03

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual 0.5800E-01 0.7100E-01 0.9100E-01 0.1140E+00 0.1410E+00 0.1720E+00 0.2000E+00 0.2 500E+00 0.3230E+00 0.7750E+03 0.7750E+03 0.4400E+03 0.1188E+04 0.1188E+04 0.7000E+03 0.8710E+03 0.8 710E+03 0.4000E+03

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 21 Response Spectrum / Time History Profile Data Point Input Data points for user-defined spectra may be entered through the menu option Tool s /Spectrum Data Points. Range Spectrum table range value. There should be at least one range-ordinate pair for each spectrum. Ordinate Spectrum table ordinate value. There should be at least one range ordinate pair for each spectrum. Values may be entered in exponential format (i.e. 0.3003E+03, or 0.3423E-03, or 0.3003E3,...), or can have explicit multiplication or divisio n (i.e. 4032.3/386, or 1.0323*12). Sufficient data points should be entered to f ully describe the spectrum or load profile. There can be any number of line entr ies in the spectrum data. Data may also be read from a file using the Read From File button.

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Force Response Spectrum Definitions The CAESAR II DLF Spectrum Generator takes the time waveform of some excitation and converts it into a frequency domain dynamic load factor (DLF) curve. The fre quency domain dynamic load factor curve is written to a hard disk file and can b e read directly by CAESAR II as a FORCE response spectrum curve. Input for the Pulse T able Generator is shown as follows. DLF/Spectrum Table Generator Force Spectrum Name The force spectrum generator creates an ASCII file containing the force spectrum that corresponds to the input time history waveform. Maximum Table Frequency Enter the maximum frequency that should exist in the CAESAR II generated spectru m table. This value seldom needs to be greater than 100 HZ. If piping frequencie s greater than 100 Hz are found in the system and included in the spectrum analy sis, then the spectrum value at 100 Hz would be used. The user can decide which frequencies are important, and therefore how high the frequency must go, by look ing at the solution participation factors and the animated mode shapes. Typicall y only the lower frequencies contribute to the system displacements, forces and stresses. Number of Points in the Table This is the number of points CAESAR II will generate for the spectrum table. Usu ally 15 to 20 points are sufficient. These points are distributed in a cubic rel ationship starting from zero hertz.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 23 Create Table When the Create Table button is clicked, a dialog box will appear with the input table as displayed below. Enter the Time / Force data and click the OK button t o create the DLF curve on the hard drive. Input Table Dialog Time Enter the points that describe the time waveform to be modeled. Units for this t able are milliseconds. (1000 milliseconds equals one second.) Force Enter the forces that correspond to the points on the force/time curve. Units ar e as shown. Note that the absolute magnitude of the force is not important, only the form of the time history loading is important. The actual maximum value of the dynamic load is taken from the force pattern defined in: SPECTRUM/TIME HISTO RY FORCE SETS. There can be any number of line entries in the Excitation frequen cy data.

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases Time History Load Cases Spectrum /Time History Profile Enter the name of the shock that was defined during the Time History Definitions phase of the input. This may be any type of spectra, user defined, predefined, or read from a file. (DO NOT PRECEDE THE SPECTRUM NAME WITH A # HERE, EVEN IF TH E SPECTRUM TABLE WAS READ FROM AN ASCII DATA FILE!) Any number of shocks can be listed here. Individual contributions can be of any shock type or definition. Factor Constant by which to multiply the shock table. Usually 1.0, or if the spectrum t able data points were read in units of g s, to convert to in/sec/sec then this facto r would be 386. There are several examples that follow which illustrate various applications of this value.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 25 Direction Defines the direction of application of the shock. To define an earthquake type of loading, CAESAR II must know what the earthquake shock looks like, which comes from the shock spectrum table. CAESAR II must also know in which direction this shoc k acts. Typically a shock load case will be comprised of three shock components. One acts in the X direction, one in the Z, and one in the Y. The combination of each of these three shocks defines the earthquakes dynamic loading of the piping syst em. Skewed directions may be entered by giving a direction cosine or direction v ector. Skewed shock contributions are entered when the piping or structural syst em appears particularly sensitive to a shock along a skewed line. This most ofte n occurs when a majority of the piping system lies along a 45 degree line in the horizontal plane. An example shock input for this type of system is shown among the examples on the following pages. Any number of shock components can act in the same direction. i.e. there can be two X direction components. This usually o ccurs with independent support shock contributions where one X direction compone nt would apply to one support group and another X direction component would appl y to a different support group. (However, there can be two shock components in t he same direction without having independent support contributions defined. This would just involve defining two shock contributions in the same direction witho ut start, stop, or increment node entries.) In the simplest form of force spectr um loading there is only a single shock component in the load case, i.e. there i s only a single line of input on the load case screen. When there are multiple l ines of input on the load case screen, as when the user is analyzing a traveling pressure wave that impacts different elbowelbow pairs, there can be many compon ents to the shock load case. The combination of responses from each of these sho ck loading components can be established in one of two ways. If the Direction fi eld is the same for each load component, then the Directional Combination method will be used to combine the responses from each load component. If the Directio n field is different for each load component, then the spatial combination metho d will be used to combine the responses from each load component. The difference between Spatial and Directional combination methods is that Directional combina tions are always made before Modal combinations, while Spatial combinations can be made before or after Modal combinations, (it is user controlled). The default is to perform the Modal combinations before Spatial combinations. Either Spatia l or Directional combinations can be made using the ABS or SRSS method. Some of the following force spectrum examples illustrate these differences. Note: Since Time History combinations are all algebraic (in-phase), this entry is used as no thing more than a label during this type of analysis. Force Set # If the Spectrum/Load Profile Name describes a Force-type spectrum (rather than d isplacement, velocity, or acceleration), then the fourth entry in the load case screen is the force set number. This force set number corresponds to the loads e ntered in the Force Sets option. Examples shown on the following pages illustrat e this application. Note that if a force set # is entered, the last three fields must be left blank!

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Start Node Start node, stop node, and increment are only used to define the component of an independent support shock (ISM). This is a shock component that applies only to a group of support points. For example, different shock spectrum may have been generated for rack level piping and for ground level piping. In this case the ra ck supports would be subject to one shock excitation (influenced by the rack s respo nse to the earthquake), and the ground level supports would be subject to a diff erent shock excitation (not influenced by the rack). In this case, one node rang e would be used to define the rack support shock contributions and another would be used to define the ground support shock contributions. The range of nodes de fined by the start node, stop node, and increment must include at least one supp ort point. Stop Node Part of the range of nodes. hat follow for clarification. Increment Part of the range of nodes. or clarification. If omitted, defaults to the start node. See the examples t

Anchor Movement (Earthquake Only) This entry is only used for independent support movements. It is used to specify the absolute displacement of the restraints included in this shock case. This d isplacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load components representing t he relative displacement of the individual restraint sets. If omitted, the defau lt is taken from the lowest frequency entry of the response spectrum:specified d isplacement, velocity/frequency, or acceleration/frequency2 (where frequency is angular frequency). Directives A number of directives can be ives button. These parameters all load cases on the control need to specify any of these set for each individual load case using the Direct are optional extensions to global options set for parameter spreadsheet. Typically the user will not options.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 27 Directional Combination Method. Similar directional components will be combined using either the ABS or the SRSS summation method. If there are two shock compon ents in the X direction, the components from each shock s effect on the system will be summed absolutely. Directional combinations are performed before all other co mbinations. (There are three types of combinations: DIRECTIONAL, SPATIAL AND MOD AL). The default DIRECTIONAL combination method is ABS. Modal Combination Method . Modal (Group) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 GROUPIN G method. CAESAR II uses the Revision 1, February 1976 issue of the Regulatory Guid e 1.92. See the discussion of the SPATIAL(ABS) directive for a description of th e relationship that exits between modal and spatial response combinations. Modal (10%) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 10% method. Modal ( DSRSS) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 Double Square Ro ot of the Sum of the Squares method. Damping is assumed to be equal for all modes a nd is taken from the control parameter spreadsheet. Modal (ABS) Modal components (response quantities) will be combined absolutely. (i.e. the absolute value of each response quantity will be summed.) Modal (SRSS) Modal components will be co mbined using the square root of the sum of the squares method of combination. Sp atial Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Spatial components will be combined usin g the ABS summation method. There are typically three spatial components in a si ngle earthquake type shock load case. The three usual excitation directions are the X, Y, and Z global axes. (Although there can be any number of spatial compon ents along any global or skewed axes.) Spatial or Modal Combination First. Modal before Spatial summations are Independent. An Independent shock is one where the X, Y , Z components are random and temporally independent of one another. (i.e. time histories for each directional component of the shock are not equal.) Spatial be fore Modal summations are Simultaneous. A simultaneous shock is one where the X, Y, an d Z components are random, but temporarily the same (i.e. time histories for eac h directional component of the shock are equal). Pseudostatic Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Pseudostatic components for each ISM are added into the response quantities either absolutely or using the SRSS method of combination. Pseudosta tic combinations are performed after all spatial and modal combinations. The use r can deactivate the inclusion of pseudostatic component from the control parame ter spreadsheet. Missing Mass Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Missing mass com ponents for each shock load are added into the response quantities either absolu tely or using the SRSS method of combination. The user can deactivate the inclus ion of missing mass components from the control parameter spreadsheet. Missing m ass components are added in following modal summation. Stress Type (EXP). Stress type for the load case is set using the stress type drop list. If FATigue is se lected, the expected number of load cycles must be entered. The user can change the default stress type dynamic loads to any of the allowed stress types in CAES AR II. Available stress types are EXP, SUS, OCC, OPE, and FAT. The OCC or occasi onal stress type is the default.

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The entry of node groups causes a pseudosta tic component of the shock to be created. This pseudostatic contribution can be added or omitted from the final shock loading effects. Additional parameters can be entered on the control parameter spreadsheet. The order of input of the shoc k contributions is not important, and has no bearing on the results. There is no limit to the number of shock load cases the user can define. The dynamic output processor lets the user decide which of the Spectrum/Time History Load Cases he wants to process. Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can b e any number of line entries in the spectrum data. EXAMPLES Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of one times the El Centro earthquake in the X direction, one times the El Centro earthquake in the Z, and 0.667 times the El Centro earthquake in the Y direction. ELCENTRO ELCENTRO ELCEN TRO 1 1 0.667 X Z Y Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with the horizontal and vertical components of the Reg. Guide 1.60 shock spectra for a 2 percent critica lly damped system. The maximum ground acceleration should be 0.22 g s. The maximum g round acceleration is set on the control parameter spreadsheet and has no effect on the shock load case definitions. 1.60H2 1 1.60H2 1 1.60V2 1 X Z Y Define a shock load case that is comprised of the users shocks BENCH1 and BENCH2 . BENCH1 should act in the X and Z directions, and shock BENCH2 should act in th e Y direction. The scale factor for all shocks is 1.0. BENCH1 BENCH2 BENCH1 1 1 1 X Y Z One of the shock load cases for this particular job should excite the piping sys tem along a line that is 45 degrees off of the global axes in the horizontal pla ne. It is suspected that this direction of excitation will yield the worst possi ble results. Apply the user defined shock BENCH1 in the horizontal direction and BENCH2 in the vertical direction. BENCH1 BENCH1 BENCH2 1 1 1 (1,0,1) (-1,0,1) Y

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 29 Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of two times the El Centro earthquake in the X, Y, and Z directions. There should be tw o shock load cases in this job. The first should use an independent summation an d the second a simultaneous. The load cases would be defined as shown. (There ar e several ways to accomplish the same objective here using parameters on the con trol parameter spreadsheet, etc. Only the method using the explicit definition o f the load case combination method will be presented.) Remember that independent summation means MODAL then SPATIAL, and simultaneous means SPATIAL then MODAL. LOAD CASE 1 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS - CAESAR II s title MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL(SRSS), MOD AL COMBINATIONS FIRST ELCENTRO ELCENTRO ELCENTRO 2 2 2 X Y Z LOAD CASE 2 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS - CAESAR II s title SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL(GROUP), SPA TIAL COMBINATIONS FIRST ELCENTRO ELCENTRO ELCENTRO 2 2 2 X Y Z Define a shock case that has the user defined spectrum 1DIR acting in the Z direction only. Set the stress type for the case to be operating and use modal summations before spatial summations. Note that there is no mention of modal or spatial sum mations in the load data shown as follows (only the stress type). This is becaus e modal summation first is the CAESAR II default and would have to be changed on the c ontrol parameter spreadsheet for it not to still apply. 1DIR 1 Z STRESSTYPE(OPE) The support nodes 5, 25, 35, 45, and 56 are pipe shoes sitting o n concrete foundations. The support nodes 140, 145, 157, 160, and 180 are second level rack supports, i.e. pipe shoes sitting on structural steel beams in the s econd level of the rack. The ground level shock spectrum name is GROUND04 , and the sec ond level rack spectrum name is RACKLEVEL2-04 . Set up the shock load case to define th ese independent support excitations. Note that an option exists on the control p arameter spreadsheet to neglect the pseudostatic component of the Independent Su pport Excitation. Assume that this option is activated. The default is to includ e the pseudostatic component in an absolute (ABS) summation method. GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION GROUND04 1.0 GROUND04 1.0 GROUND04 1.0 X Y Z 5,56,1 5,56,1 5,56,1

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION RACKLEVEL2-04 RACKLEVEL2-04 RACKLEVEL2-04 1.0 1.0 1.0 X Y Z 140,180,1 140,180,1 140,180,1 Set up a shock load case, and define all combinations options explicitly. Use th e same shock components as defined in the above example, except assume that the pseudostatic component is to be added using the SRSS combination method. Also ch ange the modal summation method is SRSS. (This is the recommended method.) Note that when the modal summation method is SRSS it doesn't matter whether modal or spatial combinations are performed first. The order is only a factor when closel y spaced modes are considered as in the grouping, ten percent, and DSRSS methods . MODAL(SRSS),PSEUDOSTATIC(SRSS),SPATIAL(SRSS) GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION GROUND04 1.0 GROUND04 1.0 GROUND04 1.0 X Y Z 5,56,1 5,56,1 5,56,1 RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION RACKLEVEL2-04 RACKLEVEL2-04 RACKLEVEL2-04 1.0 1.0 1.0 X Y Y 140,180,1 140,180,1 140,180,1

The last elbow in the relief valve piping is at node 295. The spectrum name: BLAST con tains the DLF response spectrum for this relief valve s firing. SPECTRUM/TIME HISTOR Y FORCE SET #1 contains the load information and its point of application. Show the load case input that would provide the most conservative combination of moda l results. (Because there is only a single loading there is no consideration giv en to spatial or directional combinations.) Shock Name, Factor, Direction, Force Set # ABSOLUTE MODAL SUMMATION, ONLY A SINGLE LOADING COMPONENT AND SO NO CONSI DERATION GIVEN TO SPATIAL OR DIRECTIONAL COMBINATIONS. BLAST, 1, X, 1 MODAL (ABS ) Use the same example above and combine the modes using the grouping method. Th is will produce the most realistic solution. BLAST, 1, X, 1 MODAL (GROUP) There are two elbow-elbow pairs that are of significance in this job. Waterhammer load s act on the elbow at 40 in the X direction and on the elbow at 135 in the Y-dir ection. In the SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET input, force set #1 is defined as the load at 40 and force set #2 is defined as the load at 135. Add the response quantities from each load component first, using an ABS summation, and then the resulting modal response quantities second, using the grouping summation method . Two identical methods for achieving the same results are shown. Shock Name, Fa ctor, Direction, Force set # BECAUSE THE DIRECTION INPUT IS THE SAME, I.E. X , FOR CONTRIBUTIONS, THE DIRECTIONAL COMBINATION METHOD WILL GOVERN HOW THE HAMMER 40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES ARE COMBINED. HAMMER40, 1, X, 1 HAMMER135, 1, X, 2 DIRE CTIONAL (ABS), MODAL(GROUP) <or> BECAUSE THE DIRECTION INPUT IS DIFFERENT, I.E. X AL COMBINATION METHOD WILL GOVERN HOW THE HAMMER40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES ARE C OMBINED. NOTE THAT

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual ON THE DIRECTIVE LINE THE SPATIAL DIRECTIVE COMES BEFORE THE , 1 HAMMER135, 1, Y, 2 SPATIAL(ABS), MODAL(GROUP) Combining Static and Dynamic Results Static/Dynamic Combinations Load Case Defines the static or dynamic load case that is to be a part of this combination case. The load case label must always start with an S or a D for Static and Dyn amic, and must be immediately followed by a load case number. Valid entries are: S1, STATIC1, S3, STATIC3, D1, DYNAMICS1, S#1, D#1, ...etc... The user can use a ny length up to 24 characters to define the load case label so long as the name starts in an S or a D, and ends in a valid load case number. For static load cas e definitions, the static case must exist and have already been run (also, the S can t refer to a spring hanger design case). For dynamic load case definitions, the dynamic load case number refers to the shock load case. Several examples are gi ven as follows. Factor This entry is required and multiplies the response quantities from the respectiv e static or dynamic run. MODAL

DIRECTIVE. HAM

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 33 <Directive Data> The Stress Type drop list or the Directive button may be used to set optional ex tensions to global options set for all load cases on the control parameter sprea dsheet. Typically the user will not need to specify any of these options. Some o f the examples included on the following pages illustrate cases where these dire ctives provide extra desired flexibility. STRESSTYPE (EXP) STRESSTYPE (SUS) STRE SSTYPE (OPE) STRESSTYPE (OCC) STRESSTYPE (FAT) The user can change the default s tress type for the combination case to any of the four shown here. The default s tress type is OCC - occasional. COMBINATION (SRSS) COMBINATION (ABS) Defines how the load cases listed are to be combined. The ABS method takes the absolute val ue of all displacement, force, and stress data for each load case and adds them together. The SRSS method sums the square of all displacement, force, and stress data for each load case and then takes the square root of the result. Any numbe r of separate static and dynamic cases can exist in the combination load case li st provided each reference to a static or dynamic case is on a separate line. Th e order of input of the load case definitions is not important, and has no beari ng on the results. Any number of user comment lines may be included. Static case s alone can be combined without dynamic cases. Dynamic cases alone can be combin ed without static cases. EXAMPLES: The static cases run in the job were: 1 2 3 = = = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 W+P1+F1 L1 - L2 (OPE) (SUS) (EXP) The dynamic cases run in the job were: 1 2 = = Operating Basis Earthquake 1/2 th e Operating Basis Earthquake The user must combine the Operating Basis Earthquake Stresses with the Sustained static stresses. The specification for this combination case is: STATIC2 DYNAMI C1 1.0 1.0

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual <or> S2 D1 1 1 The static cases run in the job were: 1 2 3 4 5 = = = = = W + P1 + F1 W + P1 + D 1 + T1 + F1 W + P1 + D1 + T1 + F1 W + P1 + F1 L3 - L4 (For hanger design) (For h anger design) (OPE) (SUS) (EXP)

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 35 There was one dynamic load case. The user is required to turn an occasional case that is the sum of the sustained and the dynamic stresses using the SRSS combin ation method and the ABS combination method. Additionally, the user must combine the expansion static case and the dynamic case using the SRSS combination metho d. This is a total of three combination load cases. Note that since the job had hanger design the first two static load cases cannot be used in a combination ca se. The input for each case is shown as follows: COMBINATION CASE 1: * SRSS COMB INATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS) STATIC 4 DYNAMIC1 1 1 COMBINATION CASE 2: * ABS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES STRESSTYPE( OCC), COMBINATION(ABS) STATIC4 DYNAMIC1 1 1 COMBINATION CASE 3: * SRSS COMBINATION OF EXPANSION AND DYNAMIC CASES STRESSTYPE (OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS) STATIC5 DYNAMIC1 1 1 The static cases run in the job were: 1 2 3 4 5 = = = = = W+T1+P+D1+F1(OPE) W+P+ F1 U1 L1-L2 ST2+ST3 (OCC) ... Static seismic simulation

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The user is instructed to perform an SRSS combination of the static seismic case and both the sustained and operating static cases. The combination case lists f or these two cases would appear: COMBINATION CASE 1: COMBINATION(SRSS), STRESSTY PE(OCC) STATIC2 STATIC3 1 1 COMBINATION CASES 2: COMBINATION(SRSS), STRESSTYPE(OCC) STATIC1 STATIC3 1 1 The following static load cases were run: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = = = = = = = W+P1+F1 W+ T1+F1+P1+D1 W+T2+F1+P1+D1 WNC+P1+F1 W+T1+F1+P1+D1 W+P1+F1 L5-L6 (Hanger design r estrained weight case) (Hanger design load case #1) (Hanger design load case #2) (Hanger design actual cold loads) (OPE) (SUS) (EXP) Spectrum/Time History Load Cases 1 through 6 were defined by the client. The sta tic sustained stresses are to be combined with 1/2 the shock case 1 results, 1/2 the shock case 2 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 3 results. The combina tion method is to be SRSS. A second combination case is to combine 1/2 the shock case 4 results, 1/2 the shock case 5 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 6 results. These two combination load cases would be defined as shown as follows: COMBINATION CASE 1: COMBINATION(SRSS) STATIC6 DYNAMIC1 DYNAMIC2 DYNAMIC3 <or> CO MB(SRSS) S6 D1 1 0.5 1/2 1.333 1 1/2

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 37 D2 D3 0.5 1.333 COMBINATION CASE 2: COMBINATION (SRSS) STATIC6 DYNAMIC4 DYNAMIC5 DYNAMIC6 1 0.5 0.5 1.333

38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Spectrum Time History Force Maximum value of the dynamic load applied at this point. Units are as shown. Not e that the total applied force will be the product of this value, the selected f orce value from the spectrum or load profile, and the factor entered for the loa d case. Direction Direction of the dynamic load. Can be entered as X, Y, or Z or direction cosines or direction vectors. Direction cosines are entered in the form (cx,cy,cz), i.e . (0.707, 0, 0.707). Direction vectors are entered in the form: (vx, vy, vz), i. e. (1,0,1). Node Node number where the force acts. Force Set # Number to uniquely identify this particular force load pattern. See the examples that follow for clarification. This value defaults to 1. The general procedure for applying a force spectrum load is as follows: 1 Determine the pulse time his tory that acts at a single node or over a group of nodes. Only the pulse wavefor m must be the same for all nodes in group, the maximum pulse amplitude may vary. For example, a particular shock load due to ocean current loading acts over the nodes 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 on a production piping system, and the magnitud e of the dynamic loading is 50 lb. at 5, 100 lb. at 10, 200 lb. at 15, and so on up to 500 lb. at 30. Also the dynamic load as a function of time at each point is equal to half of a sine wave with a period of one second. Even though the mag nitude of the dynamic load varies over the nodes from 5 to 30, the pulse wavefor m does not (The pulse waveform is the half sine wave, and its shape is the same for each node). Thus the group of nodes from 5 to 30 can be included in the same force set #, each node having a different dynamic force magnitude. Using the CA ESAR II DLF Spectrum Generator build a DLF vs. frequency file for the time-pulse waveform. Using the Spectrum Definitions option, define the DLF vs. frequency f ile just created as a Force spectrum data file with linear interpolation along t he frequency axis and linear interpolation along the ordinate axis. (The DLF Spe ctrum Generator builds a standard shock table file. Until the type of shock data in the file is described to CAESAR II, the file can t be used.) Remember to precede the shock name with a # sign when defining it in the Spectrum Definitions so that CAE SAR II knows to read the shock table from the data file. Determine the maximum f orce magnitude that acts on each node subject to the pulse load. Using the Force Set Editor specify the maximum amplitude of the dynamic load, its direction, an d the nodes it acts on. 2 3 4 5

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 39 6 Build the Spectrum/Time History Load Cases by entering the Force spectrum name ( this is the name that is preceded by the # sign, defined in the Spectrum Definitions e ditor), the table multiplication factor (usually 1.0), a direction (this is only a label used for output processing and should be characteristic of the shock, t he actual force spectrum loads can act in multiple directions), and the Force Se t #. (The Force Set # refers to the force pattern defined in the Force Spectrum Editor in step 5 above.) It is step 6 that defines the link between the force sp ectrum and the force loading pattern. Setup any other parameters needed to run t he spectrum analysis for this job. Perform error checking, and once there are no fatal errors, run the job. 7

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual For a Time History analysis, the load profile used in step 2 would be entered di rectly in step 3, with the rest of the process remaining the same. Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the Force spectrum data. If there are multiple force spectrum components in a si ngle dynamic load case, the user should be particularly careful with the combina tion method selected. In this case, the same rules that cover earthquake shocks and components apply to force spectrum shocks and components. EXAMPLES: The node s 5, 10, and 15 define a cantilever pipe leg that is part of an offshore product ion platform. The dynamic load as a function of time is equal to a half sine wav e. The waveform is the same for all three nodes, but the maximum dynamic load on node 5 is 5030 lb., on node 10 is 10,370 lb., and on node 15 is 30,537 lb. Thre e force sets are to be built for this problem. One is with the dynamic loads act ing in the X direction. One is with the dynamic loads acting in the Z direction, and the third is with the dynamic loads acting simultaneously in the X an Z dir ections. The force spectrum input data for this job is as follows: * X DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING 5030 10370 30537 X X X 5 10 15 1 1 1 * Z DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING 5030 10370 30537 Z Z Z 5 10 15 2 2 2 * X AND Z DIRECTION WAVE/CURRENT LOADING 5030 5030 10370 10370 30537 30537 X Z X Z X Z 5 5 10 10 15 15 3 3 3 3 3 3

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 41 A relief valve at node 565 is being investigated for several different reactor d ecompression conditions. The maximum load for the first condition is 320 kips in the X direction. This is a ramped time waveform. The valve opens and closes in 5 milliseconds. The duration for the first decompression condition is 50 millise conds. The maximum load for the second decompression condition is 150 kips in th e X direction. This also is a ramped time waveform. The valve opens and closes i n 5 milliseconds and the duration for the second decompression condition is 4 se conds. The third decompression condition maximum load is 50 kips, and has the sa me time waveform as the second condition. (It is this decompression state that i s expected to be the most frequent.) There must be two shock tables defined, one for the 50 ms duration waveform, and one for the 4 second duration waveform. Th ree different maximum force patterns are defined: * REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 1 3 20000 X 565 1 * REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 2 150000 X 565 2 * REACTOR DECOMP CONDI TION 3 (MOST FREQUENT) 50000 X 565 3 A startup shock wave passes through a singl e elbow system. Nodes in the piping model are 5, 10, and 15. The system is shown as follows:

42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual As the wave starts off between 5 and 10 there is an initial dynamic axial load o n the anchor at 5. When the shock wave hits the elbow at 10, the axial load in t he 5-10 element balances the initial imbalance at node 5, and there becomes an a xial imbalance in the 10-15 element. This shock load will be modelled as two com pletely separate impacts on the piping system The first is the dynamic anchor lo ad at 5. (If 5 is a flexible anchor then this load may cause dynamic displacemen ts of the piping system and 5 will just be subject to the dynamic time history p ulse due to the shock.) Assume the anchor at 5 is a flexible vessel nozzle. The second shock load is the unbalanced dynamic pressure load in the 10-15 element t hat exists until the shock reaches the node 15. Friction in the line resisting m ovement of the shock wave is considerable. In the time the wave leaves the ancho r at 5 until it encounters the bend at 10 there is a 50% drop in the pulse stren gth as shown in the following plot.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 43 This pressure drop was computed using a transient fluid simulator. Between node 10 and node 15 the pulse strength drops even further as shown as follows. The Force Spectrum input for this loading is as shown as follows: * X DIRECTION LOAD ON FLEXIBLE ANCHOR AT 5 -5600 X 5 1 * Z DIRECTION LOAD ON ELBOW AT 10 2800 Z 10 2

44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Lumped Masses Lumped Masses Mass Enter the concentrated mass in the units shown, a positive concentrated mass is added to the mass at the node. A negative concentrated mass is subtracted from t he mass at the node and a zero entry deletes all mass for the node. Direction Can be X, Y, Z, or ALL. ALL can be abbreviated A ass is only added or subtracted for that direction. Start Node Node where the mass is to act. This node and increment, then this node with a stop node and increment then st include at least one node in the . If X, Y, or Z is entered, then the m

entry is required. If entered without a stop must exist in the piping system. If entered the range of nodes identified by the loop mu piping system. See the examples that follow.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 45 Stop Node Used as part of a range of nodes is entry is optional. lumped mass command. See the examples that follow. Th

Increment Used as part of a range of nodes lumped mass command. See the examples that follow. Th is entry is optional. There can be any number of line entries in the lumped mass data. The zero mass capability with the range of nodes entry is particularly useful w hen the user has a part of the system for which he is not interested in the mode s. That part of the system would have been modeled for its stiffness effect only . One example is structural steel models. It is not uncommon for a user to delet e all of the mass for nodes in the structural steel model. (Steel models are oft en only entered to include their stiffness effects and so the omission of their dynamic effects is often not significant.) EXAMPLES: 450 ALL 40 Note: The node r ange loop starts from node 12, which is not defined and goes through node 25 in steps of 1. Some nodes don t exist in this range but this is not an error as long as at least one node in the range defined by 12 through 25 by 1, exists in the sys tem. 0.0 ALL 12 25 1 375 A 25 50 5 0.0 0.0 X Y 1 1 600 600 1 1

46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Snubbers Snubbers Stiffness Enter the stiffness for the snubber in the units shown. If the snubber is rigid enter a value of 1.0E12. The stiffness of the snubber must be given and must be positive. Direction Enter the line of action of the snubber as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosin es or direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), and for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz). See the example that follows for the entry o f some typical skewed snubbers.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 47 Node Enter the node where the snubber acts. This is a required entry. If the snubber acts between the piping system and a fixed point in space, then leave the CNode field blank. Connecting Nodes work for snubbers just like they do for restraints . CNode If the snubber acts between one point on the piping system and another point on the piping system, then enter the node that the snubber connects to. EXAMPLES: 1 2 Add rigid snubber at node 150 in the Z direction. 1E12 Z 150 Add rigid snubbers at nodes 160, 165, and 170 in the Z direction. 1E12 Z 160 1E12 Z 165 1E12 Z 170 3 Add a rigid snubber between the structural steel node 1005 and the piping node 4 05 in the Z direction. 1E12 Z 405 1005 4 Add a 5,000 lb./in. snubber in the X and Y directions at the piping node 500. Th e X snubber should connect to the structural steel node 1050 and the Y snubber s hould connect to the overhead line at node 743. HORIZONTAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND STEEL 5000 X 500 1050. LINE VERTICAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND OVER HEAD COOLING WATER 5000 Y 500 743

48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Dynamic Control Parameters Control Parameters The type of analysis chosen by the user in the Dynamic Input Processor determine s the active Control Parameters. CAESAR II will display only this list of active Control Parameters. In addition, the calculation details can be fine-tuned usin g many of the other Control Parameters, maximizing accuracy of results for most dynamic problems. The impact and use of these parameters, as well as their techn ical bases, are described in this section. The list of the control parameters, a long with the Analysis Types for which they are active, is shown in the followin g table.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 49 Notes: X-required 1-if system has nonlinear restraints or hanger design 2-if any restra ints have friction 3-either "Max. No. of Eigenvalues" or "Frequency Cutoff" requ ired 4-if modal combination method is GROUP or 10% 5-if modal combination method is DSRSS 6-if USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 or Uniform Building Code seismic spec tra are used 7-if independent support movement (USM) loads are present 8-if pseu do-static components are inducted 9-if missing mass components are included 10-i f multiple spectrum loads are applied in the same direction Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/Time-History) The first parameter is used to select from the available dynamic analysis types, which are Harmonic (direct solution), Response Spectrum (any combination of sei smic, anchor movement, and force loadings), Modal Extraction, Range, and Time Hi story (linear modal). These analysis types are described below:

50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Harmonic Analysis Generally, the response of a system to a dynamically applied load is expressed t hrough the dynamic equation of motion: Where: M = system mass matrix = C = acceleration vector, as a function of time system damping matrix = velocity vector, as a function of time K = x(t) = F(t) = system stiffness matrix displacement vector, as a function of time applied load vector, as a function of time Unfortunately, this differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, except in a few specific cases. Harmonic analysis looks at one of these cases the set of dyna mic problems where the forces or displacements (i.e., pulsation or vibration) ac ting on the piping system take sinusoidal forms. Under harmonic loading, when da mping is zero, the dynamic equation of the system can be reduced to M (t) + K x( t) = F0 cos ( t + Q) Where: F0 = = t = Q = harmonic load vector angular forcing frequency of harmonic load (radian/sec) time phase angle (radians) This differential equation can be solved directly, yielding the nodal displaceme nts at any time (and therefrom, the system reactions, forces and moments, and st resses). The equation has a solution of the form x (t) = Where: A = vector of ma ximum harmonic displacements of system A cos ( t + Q) Since acceleration is the second derivative of displacement with respect to time , (t) = -A 2 cos t Inserting these equations for displacement and acceleration back into the basic harmonic equation of motion yields, -M A 2 cos ( t + Q) + K A cos ( t + Q) = Fo cos ( t + Q)

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 51 Dividing both sides of this equation by cos ( t + Q), -M A 2 + K A = Fo Reordering this equation, (K - M 2 ) A = Fo This is exactly the same form of the equation as is solved for all linear (stati c) piping problems. The appealing thing about this is that the solution time for each excitation frequency takes only as long as a single static solution, and, when there is no phase relationship to the loading, the results give the maximum dynamic responses directly. Due to the speed of the analysis, and because the s olutions are so directly applicable, it is advisable to make as much use of this capability as possible. Two considerations must be kept in mind: When damping i s not zero, the harmonic equation can only be solved if the damping matrix can b e defined as the sum of multiples of the mass and stiffness matrix (Rayleigh dam ping), i.e.: [C] = a [M] + b [K] On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and the constants a and b is given as Cc = Where: 2 + 2 = Undamped natural frequency of mode (rad/sec) For practical problems, to = 2 Cc / CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis; however there are still two problems. First, for multi-degree-of-freedom systems, there is not really a single b, but there must be only a single b in order to get a s olution of the harmonic equation. The second problem is that the modal frequenci es are not known prior to generation of the damping matrix. Therefore the w used in the calculation of b is the forcing frequency of the load, instead of the na tural frequency of a mode. When the forcing frequency of the load is in the vici nity of a modal frequency, this gives a good estimation of the true damping. is extremely small, and so may be ignored. Therefore the definition of reduces If multiple harmonic loads occur simultaneously, and they are not in phase, syst em response is the sum of the responses due to the individual loads: x(t) = S Ai cos ( t + Qi) Where: Ai = displacement vector of system under load i Qi = phase angle of load i

52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual In this case, an absolute maximum solution cannot be found. Rather, solutions fo r each load, and the sum of these, must be found at various times in the load cy cle. These combinations should then be reviewed in order to determine which one causes the worst load case. Alternatively, CAESAR II can select the frequency/ph ase pairs which maximize the system displacement. Note: Damped harmonics will al ways cause a phased response. The biggest use by far of the harmonic solver is in analyzing low frequency fiel d vibrations resulting from either fluid pulsation or out-of-round rotating equi pment displacements. The approach typically taken towards solving this type of p roblem is described briefly below: 1 A potential dynamic problem is first identi fied in the field either in terms of large cyclic vibrations or high stresses (fatig ue failure) being present in an existing piping system, raising questions of whe ther this represents a dangerous situation. As many symptoms of the problem (qua ntifiable displacements, overstress points, etc.) are identified as possible, fo r future use in refining the dynamic model. A model of the piping system is buil t using CAESAR II. This should be done as accurately as possible, since system, as well as load, characteristics affect the magnitude of the developed response. Particular attention should be paid when modeling the area where the vibration occurs. This might include accurately representing valve operators, flange pairs , orifice plates and other in-line equipment. It may also be a good idea to add additional nodes in the area of the vibration. The engineer next postulates the cause of the load, and from that, an estimate of the frequency, magnitude, point , and direction of the load. This is somewhat difficult because the dynamic load s can come from many sources. Dynamic loads may be due to internal pressure puls es, external vibration, flow shedding at intersections, two phase flow, etc., bu t in almost all cases, there is some frequency content of the excitation that co rresponds to (and therefore excites) a system mechanical natural frequency. If t he load is caused by equipment, then the forcing frequency is probably some mult iple of the operating frequency; if the load is due to acoustic flow problems, t hen the forcing frequency can be estimated through the use of Strouhal s equations ( from fluid dynamics). Using the best assumptions available, the user should esti mate the magnitudes and points of application of the dynamic load. The loading i s then modeled using harmonic forces or displacements (normally depending upon w hether the cause is assumed to be pulsation or vibration) and several harmonic a nalyses are done, sweeping the frequencies through a range centered about the ta rget frequency (in order to account for uncertainty). The results of each of the analyses are examined for signs of large displacements, indicating harmonic res onance. If the resonance is present, the results of the analysis are compared to the known symptoms from the field. If they are not similar (or if there is no r esonance), this indicates that the dynamic model is not a good one, so it must b e improved, either in terms of a more accurate system (static) model, a better e stimate of the load, or a finer sweep through the frequency range. Once the mode l has been refined, this step is repeated until the mathematical model behaves j ust like the actual piping system in the field. At this time, there is a good mo del of the piping system and a good model of the loads (or, more accurately, a g ood model of the relationship of the load characteristics to the system characte ristics). The results of this run are evaluated in order to determine whether th ey indicate a problem. Since harmonic stresses are cyclic, they should be evalua ted against the endurance limit of the piping material; displacements should be reviewed against interference limits or esthetic guidelines. 2 3

4 5

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 53 6 If the situation is deemed to be a problem, its cause must be identified, where the cause is normally the excitation of a single mode of vibration. For example, the Dynamic Load Factor for a single damped mode of vibration, with a harmonic load applied is DLF = Where: 1 + (2Cc [1 ( f m) 2 f m) 2 m) 2 ] + (2Cc f DLF = dynamic loading factor Cc = ratio of system damping to ical damping = f critical damping, where

= forcing frequency of applied harmonic load = natural frequency of mode of vibr ation n

A modal extraction of the system is done; one (or more) of these modes should ha ve a natural frequency close to the forcing frequency of the applied load. The g uilty mode can be further identified as that one having a shape very similar to the shape of the total system vibration, since this mode shape has certainly bee n dynamically magnified far beyond the other modes (and thus predominates in the final vibrated shape). 7. Once the guilty mode has been identified, it must be eliminated. This is done most easily by adding a restraint at a high point (and in the direction thereof) of the mode shape. If this cannot be done, the mode ma y also be altered by changing the mass distribution of the system. If no modific ation of the system is possible, it may be possible to alter the forcing frequen cy of the load. If the dynamic load was postulated to be due to internal acousti cs, it is recommended that the pipe not be rerouted at this point, as rerouting the pipe will change the internal flow conditions (which may resolve or amplify the problem, but in either case will void CAESAR II s good model of the system). Afte ifying the system, the harmonic problem (using the single forcing frequency dete rmined as a good model ) is then re-run, and the stresses, displacements, etc. are re-e valuated. 8. If the dynamic problem has been adequately solved, the system is no w re-analyzed statically to determine the effects of any modifications on the st atic loading cases. (Remember, adding restraint normally increases expansion str esses, while adding mass increases sustained stresses.) The user may process out put from a harmonic analysis in two ways: Use of the output processor to review displacement, restraint, force, or stress data either graphically or in report f orm. Animation of the displacement pattern for each of the frequency load cases. Note: The results of harmonic dynamic loads cannot be combined using the Static/ Dynamic Combination option.

54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Spectrum Analysis A spectrum analysis represents an attempt to estimate the maximum response devel oped in a system during a transient load. The results are a statistical summatio n of the maximum displacements, forces, reactions, stresses, etc; the individual responses do not represent an actual physical loading case in that the maxima m ay all occur at different times. Spectrum analyses are especially useful when th e loading profile is random, or otherwise not known exactly, such as with seismi c loads. CAESAR II provides the ability to perform two types of spectrum analyse s (which may be combined): for seismic and force loadings. Seismic loadings may be evaluated either uniformly over the entire system, or applied through individ ual support groups (with corresponding anchor movements). Force spectra analyses may be used to analyze impulse loadings, such as those due to relief valve, flu id hammer, or slug flow. These two types are described in the following paragrap hs. Seismic Spectrum Analysis. Seismic loads cannot be solved through time histo ry analyses, since earthquakes cause random motion, which may be different for e ach earthquake, even those occurring at the same site. To simplify the analytica l definition of the earthquake, it is necessary to get the expected random wavef orm of acceleration (or velocity or displacement) vs. time into some simple freq uencycontent plot. The most predominantly used frequency-content plot is the res ponse spectrum. A response spectrum for an earthquake load can be developed by p lacing a series of single degree-of-freedom oscillators on a mechanical shake ta ble and feeding a typical (typical for a specific site) earthquake time history throug h it, measuring the maximum response (displacement, velocity, or acceleration) o f each oscillator. The expectation is that even though all earthquakes are diffe rent, similar ones should produce the same maximum responses, even though the ti me at which they occur will differ with each individual occurrence. (Responses w ill be based on the maximum ground displacement and acceleration, the dynamic lo ad factors determined by the ratios of the predominant harmonic frequencies of t he earthquake to the natural frequencies of the oscillators, and system damping. ) Response spectra for a number of damping values can be generated by plotting t he maximum response for each oscillator. A plot of a set of typical response spe ctra is shown in the following figure.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 55 Seismic response spectra resemble harmonic Dynamic Load Factor curves, since sei smic loads evidence strong harmonic tendencies. As damping value increases, the system response approaches the ground motion. Seismic spectra usually also show strong evidence of flexible, resonant, and rigid areas. Spectra may have multipl e peaks due to filtering by the building and/or piping system; however multiple peaks are usually enveloped in order to account for uncertainties in the analysi s. Seismic response spectra peaks are typically spread to account for inaccuraci es as well. The idea behind the generation of the response spectra is that a sys tem s modes of vibration will respond to the load in the exact same manner as will a single degree-of-freedom oscillator. System response may be plotted in terms of displacement, velocity, or acceleration, since these terms of the spectra are a ll related by the frequency: d=v/ Where: d = displacement from response spectrum at frequency v = velocity from response spectrum at frequency = angular frequen cy at which response spectrum parameters are taken a = acceleration from respons e spectrum at frequency Response Spectrum analysis proceeds according to the fol lowing steps: 1 2 3 Modes of vibration are extracted from the system using an Ei gensolver algorithm. Each mode has a characteristic frequency and mode shape. Th e maximum response of each mode under the applied load is determined from the sp ectrum value corresponding to the mode s natural frequency. The total system respons e is determined by summing the individual modal responses, using methods that re flect the time independence of the responses and the portion of system mass allo cated to each mode. =a/ 2 There are four major sources of earthquake spectra available to the CAESAR II us er: Predefined El Centro (available in the CAESAR II database spectrum name = ELCENT RO): This data is taken from J. Biggs Introduction to Structural Dynamics and is ba sed on the north-south component of the May 18, 1940 El Centro California earthq uake. The recorded maximum acceleration was 0.33 g. The spectrum provided here i s intended to apply to elastic systems having 5 to 10 percent critical damping. Predefined Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 (Available in the CAESAR II database): The predefined spectrum names are: 1.60H.5 1.60H2 1.60H5 1.60H7 1.60V.5 1.60V2 1.60V5 -1.60V7 --Horizontal/vertical,0.5% damping Horizontal/vertical,2.0% dampi ng Horizontal/vertical,5.0% damping Horizontal/vertical,7.0% damping -Horizontal /vertical,10.0% damping 1.60H10 1.60V10

56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual These spectra are constructed according to the instructions given in Regulatory Guide 1.60 for seismic design of nuclear plants. They must also be scaled up or down by the maximum ground acceleration (ZPA zero period acceleration), which can be specified in the CAESAR II control parameter spreadsheet. Predefined Uniform Bu ilding Code (Available in the CAESAR II database). The predefined spectrum names are: UBCSOIL1 UBCSOIL2 UBCSOIL3 Spectrum for rock and stiff soils Spectrum for deep cohesionless or stiff clay soils Spectrum for soft to medium clays and sand s

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 57 These spectra represent the normalized response spectra shapes (for three soil t ypes) provided in Figure 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code (1991 Edition). When used, they must be scaled by the ZPA, which is the product of Z and I (Where Z i s the seismic zone coefficient and I is the earthquake importance factor, from U BC Tables 23-I and 23-L, respectively). The ZPA can be specific using the CAESAR II control parameter spreadsheet. User defined spectra: User defined spectra ma y be entered with period or frequency as the range, and displacement, velocity, or acceleration as the ordinate. These spectra may be read in from a text file o r entered directly into a spectrum table during dynamic input processing. Indepe ndent Support Motion Applications. Earthquake ground motions are caused by the p assing of acoustic shock waves through the earth s soil. These waves are usually hun dreds of feet long. If supports having foundations in the soil are grouped toget her within a several hundred foot radius of each other they will typically see e xactly the same excitation from the earthquake. If all of the supports for a par ticular piping system are attached directly to ground type supports, each suppor t will be excited by an essentially identical time waveform. This type of excita tion is known as uniform support excitation. Often pipe is supported from rack, building, or vessel structures as well as from ground type supports. These inter mediate structures serve to, in some cases, filter and in some cases accentuate the effect of the earthquake. In this situation, the supports attached to the in termediate structure are not exposed to the same excitation as those that are at tached directly to ground foundations. To accurately model these systems differe nt shocks must be applied to different parts of the piping system. This type of excitation is known as independent support motion (ISM) excitation. While the di fferent support groups are exposed to different shocks, there are also relative movements between support groups that don t exist for uniform support excitation. Th e movement of one support group relative to another is termed pseudostatic displ acement, or seismic anchor movements. For uniform support excitation there are s patial and modal response components available for combination. For independent support excitation there are spatial and modal response components available for each different support group, plus pseudostatic components of the earthquake th at must be added into the dynamic response as well. The major difference when ru nning ISM type earthquake loads comes while building the shock load cases. Where as in the uniform excitation case the shock acts implicitly over all of the supp orts in the system, in the ISM case different shocks act on different groups of supports. The shock load case input form appears: Shock Name Factor Dir Start Node Stop Node Incr Anchor Mvmt Name, Factor, and Direction are all that is entered for uniform support excitati ons. For ISM type shocks, the group of nodes over which the shock acts must be s pecified as well, using the Start Node, Stop Node, and Increment entries. The An chor Movement entry is used to explicitly define the seismic displacement of the restraint set. This displacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load com ponents. If omitted, the program defaults to the displacement derived from the r esponse spectrum entry corresponding to the lowest frequency. Force Spectrum Ana lysis. A similar method can be followed for non-random loads, such as an impulse load for which the force vs. time profile is known. A look at the equation for the earthquake problem explains why the force spectrum solution is very similar to the earthquake solution: Mx(t ) + Kx(t ) = Mxg (t ) The term on the right hand side is nothing more than a dynamic force acting on the piping system, i.e. F = Ma, so the analogous equat ion to be solved for the force spectrum problem is: Mx(t ) + Kx (t ) = F (t )

58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Where: F = the dynamic load (water hammer or relief valve) Instead of the displa cement, velocity, or acceleration spectrum used for the seismic problem, a Dynam ic Load Factor spectrum is used for a force spectrum problem. A DLF spectrum giv es the ratio of the maximum dynamic displacement divided by the maximum static d isplacement. Whereas the earthquake response spectrum analysis method started wi th the time history of an earthquake excitation, the force spectrum analysis met hod is done in exactly the same way except that the analysis starts with the force v s. time profile. Just as for the earthquake, this time history loading can be ap plied to a shake table of single degree-of-freedom bodies, with a response spect rum (in this case, DLF vs. natural frequency) being generated by dividing the ma ximum oscillator displacements by the static displacements expected under the sa me load. An alternate means of generating a response spectrum for an impulse loa d is to numerically integrate the dynamic equation of motion for oscillators of various frequencies under the applied load. This can be done using the Pulse Tab le/DLF Spectrum Generator available from the CAESAR II Main Dynamics Menu. The u ser may process output from a spectrum analysis in two ways: Use of the output p rocessor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors, included mass/force, displacements, restraint loads, forces, or stresses in repo rt form. Dynamic results also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and shock load responsible for that contribution. Animation of the individ ual mode shapes extracted for the spectrum analysis. Modal Extraction. A modal e xtraction performs only an Eigensolution (an eigensolution is also performed as the initial step of the spectrum or modal time history analyses). The Eigensolut ion algorithm uses an iterative method to solve for natural frequencies and mode shapes of a piping or structural system. Each mode of the piping system is asso ciated with a shape and a frequency, which together define the system s tendency to vibrate; the mode shape defining the shape the system would like to take when it vibrates, and the natural frequency defining the desired speed of the vibration . The eigensolver returns a set of these for each mode, with the dimensionless m ode shape called an eigenvector, and the frequency returned as the square of the angular frequency ( 2), known as the eigenvalue. Given the eigenvalue, the moda l frequency can be expressed in angular frequency (radians per second), cyclic f requency (Hz), or period (seconds per cycle): eigenvalue angular frequency cycli c frequency period = = = = 2 (radians squared per second squared) (radians per second) / 2 (Hz, or cycles per second) 2 / (seconds per cycle) The absolute magnitude of a mode shape displacement computed by an eigensolver i s unknown, with only the shape being given (i.e. only the ratios of the displace ments at various degrees of freedom are known for each mode, with these ratios b eing constant for each mode). One eigenpair can potentially be calculated for ea ch degree of freedom in the model that contains some nonzero mass (node point) a nd some non-rigid stiffness (i.e., is not fully restrained). CAESAR II omits rot ational degrees of freedom from dynamic models in order to simplify the calculat ion this is usually acceptable since rotational modes of vibration usually have very high frequencies, and correspondingly very low mode participation factors. The user may process output from a modal analysis in two ways: Use of the output pro cessor to review the natural frequencies and mode shapes in report form. Animati on of the individual mode shapes.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 59 Time History Time history analysis is a more accurate, more computationally intensive analyti cal method than is response spectrum analysis, and is best suited to impulse loa dings or other transient loadings where the profile is known. This method of ana lysis involves the actual solution of the dynamic equation of motion throughout the duration of the applied load and subsequent system vibration, providing a tr ue simulation of the system response at all times. As noted previously, the dyna mic equation of motion for a system is Mx(t ) + Cx(t ) + Kx(t ) = F (t ) This differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, but may be integrated us ing numeric techniques by slicing the duration of the load into many small time steps. Based on an assumption of the behavior of the system between time slices (i.e., that the change in acceleration between time slices is linear), the syste m accelerations, velocities, displacements, and correspondingly, the reactions, internal forces, and stresses can be calculated at successive time steps. Since the total response of a system is equivalent to the sum of the responses of its individual modes of vibration, the above equation can be simplified (assuming th e damping matrix C is orthogonal), using the transformation x = FX, to be expres sed in modal coordinates: x(t ) + C x(t ) + gx(t ) = h1 F (t ) Where: x(t) C = i = acceleration vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time i diagonal damping matrix, where entry Ci = angular frequency of mode i ci = = ci ratio of damping to critical damping for mode i velocity vector (in modal coordi nates), as a function of time displacement vector (in modal coordinates), as a f unction of time diagonal stiffness matrix, where entry i (t) = x(t) = = = i 2

60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual This transformation represents N (where N is the number of modes of vibration ex tracted) uncoupled second order differential equations, which can then be integr ated and summed (using the in-phase, algebraic summation method) to give the tot al system response. The CAESAR II program uses the Wilson method (an extension o f the Newmark method) to integrate the equations of motion, which provides an un conditionally stable algorithm, regardless of time step size chosen. Only one dy namic load may be defined for a time history analysis (this dynamic load case ma y be used in as many static/dynamic combination load case as necessary). However , the single load case may consist of multiple force profiles applied to the sys tem simultaneously, or sequentially. Each force vs. time profile is entered as a spectrum with an ordinate of FORCE (in current units) and a range of TIME (in m illiseconds). The profiles are defined by entering the time and force coordinate s of the corner points defining the profile. (Note that a time can only be enter ed once, and that times with zero force outside of the defined profile need not be entered explicitly.) For example, the profiles shown in the following figure are entered as: TIME (MS) 0.0 10.0 20.0 FORCE 0.0 300.0 1000.0 TIME (MS) 20.0 60.0 30.0 FORCE 1000.0 1000.0 0.0

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 61 The load profiles must then be linked with force sets (indicating magnitude, dir ection, and location of the applied load) in the shock case. The magnitude of th e applied load is determined by the product of the profile force, the force set magnitude, and the scale in the shock case. Currently only forces, not moments o r restraint displacements, may be entered in the time history load profile. Howe ver, moments can be modeled using force couples, and restraint displacements can be simulated by entering forces equal to the desired displacement times the res traint stiffness in the direction of the displacement). The user may process out put from a Time History analysis in three ways: 1 Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors, included ma ss/force, displacements, restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form. CA ESAR II s implementation of time history analysis provides two types of results lts case containing the maximum individual components (axial stress, X-displacem ent, MZ reaction, etc.) of the system response, along with the time at which it occurred, and several (the actual number is determined by user request) results cases representing the actual system response at specific times. Dynamic results also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and transient load responsible for that contribution. Animation of the shock displacement for the transient load cases. During animation, the displacements, forces, moments, stre sses, and other data associated with individual elements may be displayed at eve ry time step and for the dynamic load alone, or for any of the static/dynamic co mbinations. Animation of the individual mode shapes included in the time history response. 2 3

one resu

62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status (Active for: Harmonic, Spectrum, Modal, Range, and Time History) Currently all o f CAESAR II s dynamic analyses act only on linear systems, so any non-linearities mu st be linearized prior to analysis. This means that one-directional restraints w ill not lift off and reseat, gaps will not open and close, and friction will not act as a constant effort force. Therefore, for dynamic analyses, all non-linear effects must be modeled as linear for example, a one-directional restraint must be modeled as either seated (active) or lifted off (inactive), and a gap must be ei ther open (inactive) or closed (active). This process is automated when the stat ic load case is selected here CAESAR II automatically activates the non-linear restr aints in the system to correspond to their status in the selected load case (the user may think of this as being the loading condition for example Operating of the syst em at the time at which the dynamic load occurs). It must be noted that this aut omated linearization does not always provide an appropriate dynamic model, and i t may be necessary to select other static load cases or even to manually alter t he restraint condition in order to simulate the correct dynamic response. A stat ic load case must precede the dynamics job whenever one or more of the following situations occur: There are spring hangers to be designed in the job. The stati c runs must be made in order to determine the spring rate to be used in the dyna mic model. There are non-linear restraints, such as one-directional restraints, large-rotation rods, bi-linear restraints, gaps, etc. in the system. The static analysis must be made in order to determine the active status of each of the res traints for linearization of the dynamic model. There are frictional restraints in the job, i.e. any restraints with a nonzero j (mu) value. The most common arr angement of static loads during typical CAESAR II analyses are shown below: Exam ple 1 analysis containing no hanger design: 1 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE) 2 = W+P1+F1 (SUS ) 3 = L1-L2 (EXP) In this case, if the operating condition is most likely to exi st throughout the duration of the dynamic transient, the correct entry for this parameter is 1. If the installed condition is more likely to exist during the tr ansient, the entry for this parameter should be 2. It is extremely unlikely that the expansion case (3) would be correct here, since it does not represent the s ystem status at any given time, but rather represents the difference between the first two cases. Example 2 analysis containing hanger design: 1 = W+P1+F1 (For hang er design) 2 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (For hanger design) 3 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE) 4 = W+P 1+F1 (SUS) 5 = L3-L4 (EXP) In this case, the correct static load cases to use ar e those in which the selected spring hangers have been included; if the operatin g condition is the correct load case, the entry for this parameter should be 3. For the installed condition, an entry of 4 is correct.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 63 Stiffness Factor for Friction (0.0 - Not Used) (Active for: Harmonic, Spectrum, Modal, Range, and Time History) As noted above, all of CAESAR II s dynamic analyses are currently linear, so non-linear effects mus t be linearized. Modeling of friction in dynamic models presents a special case, since friction actually impacts the dynamic response in two ways static friction (p rior to breakaway) affects the stiffness of the system, by providing additional restraint, while kinetic friction (subsequent to breakaway) actually affects the damping component of dynamic response; due to mathematical constraints, damping is ignored for all analyses except time history and harmonics (for which it is only considered on a system-wide basis). CAESAR II allows friction to be taken i nto account through the use of this Friction Stiffness Factor. CAESAR II approxi mates the restraining effect of friction on the pipe by including stiffnesses tr ansverse to the direction of the restraint at which friction was specified. The stiffness of these frictional restraints is computed as: Kfriction = (F) (j) (Fact) Wh ere: Kfriction = stiffness of frictional restraint inserted by CAESAR II F j = t he force at the restraint taken from the static solution = mu, friction coeffici ent at restraint, as defined in the static model Fact = Friction Factor from the control spreadsheet This factor should be adjust ed as necessary in order to make the dynamic model simulate the system s actual dyna mic response (note that use of this factor does not correspond to any actual dyn amic parameter, but is actually a tweak factor to modify system stiffness). Entering a friction factor greater than zero causes these friction stiffnesses to be inser ted into the dynamics job. Increasing this factor correspondingly increases the effect of the friction. Entering a friction factor equal to zero ignores any fri ctional effect in the dynamics job.

64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (0-Not used) (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) The first stage of the Spectrum, Modal, and Time History analyses, is the use of the Eigensolver algorithm to ex tract the piping system s natural frequencies and mode shapes. For the Spectrum and Time History analyses, the response under loading is calculated for each of the modes, with the system response being the sum of the individual modal responses. Obviously, the more modes that are extracted, the more the sum of those modal r esponses resembles the actual system response. The problem is that this algorith m uses an iterative method for finding successive modes, so extraction of a larg e number of modes usually requires much more time than does a static solution of the same piping system. The object is to extract sufficient modes to get a suit able solution, without straining computational resources. CAESAR II permits the user to specify either through a mode number cutoff or a frequency cutoff the number of modal responses to be included in the system results. This parameter is used, in combination with the Frequency Cutoff described below, to limit the maximum num ber of modes of vibration to be extracted during the dynamic analysis. If this p arameter is entered as 0, the number of modes extracted is limited only by the f requency cutoff (and potentially, the number of degrees-of-freedom in the system model). If the analyst is more interested in providing an accurate representati on of the system displacements, it may only be necessary to request the extracti on of a few modes, allowing a rapid calculation time. However, if an accurate es timate of the forces, stresses, etc. in the system is the objective, calculation time grows as it becomes necessary to extract far more modes. This is particula rly true in the case when solving a fluid hammer problem in the presence of axia l restraints; often modes with natural frequencies of up to 300 Hz can be large contributors to the solution. The usual procedure for determining how many modes are sufficient is to extract a certain number of modes and review the results; then to repeat the analysis while extracting 5 to 10 additional modes, and compa ring the new results to the old. If there is a significant change between the re sults, a new analysis is made, again extracting 5 to 10 more modes above those t hat were extracted for the second analysis. This iterative process continues unt il the results taper off, becoming asymptotic. This procedure has two drawbacks, the first one obvious the time involved in making the multiple analyses, as well as the time involved in extracting the potentially large number of modes. The seco nd drawback, occurring with Spectrum analysis, is less obvious a degree of conservat ism is introduced when combining the contributions of the higher order modes. Po ssible spectral mode summation methods include SRSS, ABSOLUTE, and GROUP all methods that combine modal results as same-sign (positive) values. In reality, theory s tates that the rigid modes actually act in phase with each other, and should the refore be combined algebraically, thus permitting the response of some rigid mod es to cancel the effect of other rigid modes (this is actually what occurs in a time history analysis). Because of this conservatism, it is actually possible to get results which exceed twice the applied load, despite the fact that the Dyna mic Load Factor (DLF) of an impulse load cannot be greater than 2.0. An alternat ive method of ensuring that sufficient modes are considered in the dynamic model is through the use of the Included Mass Data Report. This report (available fro m the Dynamic Output Screen) is compiled for all spectrum and time history shock cases, whether missing mass (see description in the section Include Missing Mas s Components) is to be included or not. It displays the percent of system mass a long each of the three global axes, as well as the percent of total force, which has been captured by the extracted modes. The percent of system mass active alo ng each of the three global axes (X-, Y-, and Z-) is calculated by summing the m odal mass (corresponding to the appropriate directional degree-of-freedom) attri buted to the extracted modes and dividing that sum by the sum of the system mass acting in the same direction:

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 65 % Active Massx = 100( M e [i ] M [ i ]) summed over i = 1 to n, by 6 (X-direction degrees of freedom) % Active MassY = 100( M e [i ] M [ i ]) summed over 1 = 2 to n, by 6 (Y-direction degrees of freedom) % Active Massz = 100( M e [i ] M [ i ]) summed over 1 = 3 to n, by 6 (Z-direction degrees of freedom) Where: Me = masses M = vector (by degree-of-freedom) of sum (over all extracted modes) of effective modal vector corresponding to main diagonal of system mass m atrix The maximum possible percent of active mass which is theoretically possible is o f course 100%, with 9095% usually indicating that a sufficient number of modes h ave been extracted to provide a good dynamic model. The percent of active force is calculated by the following factors: separately summing the components of the effective force acting along each of the three directional degrees-of-freedom c ombining them algebraically doing the same for the applied load taking the ratio of the effective load divided by the applied load For example: Fex = Fe[i] Fx = F[i]

66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual summed over i = 1 to n, by 6 (X - direction degrees of freedom) Fey = Fe[i] Fy = F[i] summed over i = 2 to n, by 6 (Y - direction degrees of freedom) Fez = Fe[i ] Fz = F[i] summed over i = 3 to n, by 6 (Z - direction degrees of freedom) = 100* % Active Force [ Fe x 2 + Fe y 2 + Fe z 2 ] [ Fx 2 + Fy 2 + Fz 2 ] Where: = effective force (allocated to extracted modes) acting X-, Y-, FeX,FeY,FeZ and Z-axes, respectively Fr = FX,FY,FZ F = ve forces (allocated to extracted modes) = total system forces global X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively vector of total system along the global vector of effecti acting along the forces

The maximum possible percent which is theoretically possible for this value is a lso 100%; however, in practice it may be higher, indicating an uneven distributi on of the load and mass in the system model. There is nothing inherently wrong w ith an analysis where the included force exceeds 100% if the missing mass correction is included, the modal loadings will be adjusted to conform to the applied load ing automatically. Often the percent of included force can be brought back under 100% by extracting a few more modes. At other times, the situation can be remed ied by improving the dynamic model through a finer element mesh, or, more import antly, equalizing the mass point spacing in the vicinity of the load.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 67 Frequency Cutoff (HZ) (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) As noted above, CAESAR II permit s the user to specify either a number of modes or a frequency cutoff for extract ing modes to be considered in the dynamic analysis. Modal extraction ceases when the Eigensolver extracts either the number of modes requested, or extracts a mo de with a frequency above that of the Frequency Cutoff, whichever comes first. O ne recommendation for selection of a frequency cutoff point is that the user ext ract modes up to, but not far beyond, a recognized rigid frequency, and then include t he missing mass correction (discussed in the section Include Missing Mass Compon ents). Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the response spectrum s resonant p eak will provide a non-conservative result, since resonant responses may be miss ed. During spectrum analysis, using a cutoff frequency to the right of the peak, but still in the resonant range, will yield either overly- or underly-conservat ive results, depending upon the method used to extract the ZPA from the response spectrum. (In the case of time history analysis, selecting a cutoff frequency t o the right of the peak, but still in the resonant range, will probably yield no n-conservative results, since the missing mass force is applied with a dynamic l oad factor of 1.0). Extracting a large number of rigid modes for calculation of the dynamic response may be conservative in the case of Spectrum analysis, since all spectral modal combination methods (SRSS, GROUP, ABS, etc.) give conservati ve results versus the algebraic combination method (always used during time hist ory analysis), which gives a more realistic representation of the net response o f the rigid modes. Based upon the response spectrum shown in the following figur e, an appropriate cutoff point for the modal extraction would be about 33 Hz. No n-conservative cutoff (Misses amplification of any modes in resonant range) Cons ervative cutoff (Multiplies missing mass contribution by excessive DLF 1.6) Optimal cutoff (Includes all modes in resonant range, uses low DLF 1.05 for missing mass contrib ution, minimizes combination of rigid modes) Conservative Cutoff (Too many rigid modes combined using non-conservative summation methods)

68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual When the analysis type is SPECTRUM, MODES, or TIMEHIST, either this parameter or the previous one must be entered. Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) (Active for: Spectrum/GROUP and Time History) This parameter does double duty, d epending upon the analysis type. For a Spectrum analysis type with GROUP modal C ombination Method (as defined by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this parameter sp ecifies the frequency spacing defining each modal group i.e., the percent (of the ba se frequency) between the lowest and highest frequency of the group. Regulatory Guide 1.92 specifies the group spacing criteria as 10% (entered here as 0.1), so it is unlikely that the user would ever wish to change the Closely Spaced Mode Criteria from the CAESAR II default value of 0.1. The GROUP modal combination me thod is described in detail in the section Modal Combination Method found later in this chapter. For a Time History analysis type, this parameter is used to ent er the length of the time slice, in milliseconds, to be used by the program duri ng its step-by-step integration of the equations of motion for each of the extra cted modes (CAESAR II uses the unconditionally stable Wilson q integration metho d, so any size time step will provide a solution, with a smaller step providing greater accuracy and more strain on computational resources). The time step should b e sufficiently small that it can accurately map the force vs. time load profile (i.e., the time step should be smaller than typical force ramp times). Additiona lly, the time step must be small enough that the contribution of the higher orde r modes is not filtered from the response. For this reason, it is recommended th at the time step should be selected such that Time Step (in seconds) times Maxim um Modal Frequency (in Hz) be less than 0.1. For example, if the modal frequency cutoff is set to 50 Hz, the time step should be set to a maximum of 2 milliseco nds: 0.002 sec x 50 Hz = 0.1

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 69 Load Duration (Time History or DSRSS Method) (Sec.) (Active for: Spectrum/DSRSS and Time History) This parameter is used to specify the duration of the applied dynamic load. For a Time History analysis, this para meter is used to specify the total length of time (in seconds) over which the dy namic response is to be simulated. The load duration, divided by the time step s ize (see the previous section) gives the total number of integration steps makin g up the solution (currently CAESAR II limits the number of time steps to 5000, or as permitted by available memory and system size). It is recommended that, if possible, the duration be at least equal to the maximum duration of the applied load, plus the period (in seconds) of the first extracted mode. This allows sim ulation of the system response throughout the imposition of the external load, p lus one full cycle of the resulting free vibration. After this point, the respon se will die out, according to the damping value used. For example, if the applie d load is expected to last 150 milliseconds, and the lowest extracted frequency is 3 hz, the load duration should be set to a minimum of 0.150 plus 1/3, or 0.48 3 seconds. For a Spectrum analysis using the Double Sum (DSRSS) modal Combinatio n Method (as defined by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this parameter is used to specify the duration of the earthquake, in seconds. This duration is used to com pute the modal correlation coefficients based on empirical data. The DSRSS modal combination method is described in detail in the section Modal Combination Meth od later in this chapter. Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (Ratio of Critical) (Active for: Spectrum/DSRSS, Harmonics, and Time History) This parameter is used to specify the system damping value, as a ratio of critical damping. Typical va lues for piping systems, as recommended in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 and ASME Code Case N-411, range from 0.01 to 0.05, based upon pipe size, earthquake sever ity, and the system s natural frequencies. Generally, damping cannot be considered i n the mathematical solutions required for spectrum or harmonic analysis. It is t herefore ignored (or solved as specialized cases) in most analyses, and must be instead considered through adjustment of the applied loads (generation of the re sponse spectrum) and/or system stiffness. For a Time History analysis, damping i s used explicitly, since this method uses a numeric solution to integrate the dy namic equations of motion. For a Spectrum analysis using the Double Sum (DSRSS) modal Combination Method (as defined by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), the dampin g value is used in the computation of the modal correlation coefficients. (Note that CAESAR II does not permit the specification of damping values for individua l modes.) The DSRSS modal combination method is described in detail in the secti on Modal Combination Method later in this chapter. For a Harmonic analysis, this ratio is converted to Rayleigh Damping, where the damping matrix can be express ed as multiples of the mass and stiffness matrices: [C] = a [M] + b [K]

70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and the constants a and b is given as: Where: = undamped natural frequency of mode (radians/sec) For many practical pro blems, a is extremely small, and so may be ignored, reducing the relationships t o: =0 = 2 Cc / CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis, with th e exception that a single b is calculated for the multi-degree-of-freedom system , and the w used is that of the load forcing frequency. When the forcing frequen cy is in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives an accurate estimate of t he true damping value.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 71 ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC- G's)/# Time History Output Cases (Active for: Spectrum/1.60/UBC and Time History) This parameter does double duty , depending upon the analysis type. When used with certain pre-defined normalize d response spectra, it is used as the acceleration factor (in g's) by which the spectrum is scaled. For example, when a spectrum analysis uses one of the pre-de fined spectra names beginning with "1.60" (i.e., 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7), CAESAR II c onstructs an earthquake spectrum according to the instructions given in USAEC (n ow USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.60. That guide requires that the shape of the respo nse spectrum be chosen from the curves shown in the following figures, based upo n the system damping value (for example, the .5 or 7 in the spectrum names 1.60H .5 or 1.60V7). If the analysis uses one of the predefined spectra names beginnin g with "UBC" (i.e., UBCSOIL1), CAESAR II uses the normalized seismic response sp ectra for the corresponding soil type from Table 23-3 from the Uniform Building Code (1991 Edition). Both the Reg Guide 1.60 and the UBC curves are normalized t o represent a ground acceleration (ZPA) of lg; the true value is actually site d ependent. Therefore, entering ZPA value here appropriately scales any Regulatory Guide 1.60 or the Uniform Building Code response spectra.

72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual When performing Time History analysis, this parameter is used to specify the num ber of distinct times at which the results of the load cases (the dynamic load a s well as all static/dynamic combinations) should be generated. In addition, CAE SAR II generates one set of results (for each load case) containing the maximum of each output value (displacement, force, stress, etc.) along with the time at which it occurred. The times for which results are generated are determined by d ividing as evenly as possible the load duration by the number of output times for ex ample, if the load duration is 1 second, and 5 output cases are requested, resul ts will be available at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 milliseconds (in addition t o the maximum case). The total number of results cases generated for an analysis is the product of the number of load cases (one dynamic case plus the number of static/dynamic combination cases) times the number of results cases per load (o ne maxima case plus the requested number of output cases). Currently the total n umber of results cases is limited to 99: (1 + # Static/Dynamic Combinations) x ( 1 + # Output Cases) <= 99 At least one output case (in addition to the automatic ally generated maxima case) must be requested; more than one is not really neces sary, since the worst case results are reflected in the Maxima case and individu al results at every time step are available through the ELEMENT command when ani mating the Time History results.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 73 Re-use Last Eigensolution (Active for: Spectrum and Time History) When repeating a dynamic analysis, this parameter may be set to Yes, causing CAESAR II to skip the eigensolution (reusing the results of the earlier analysis), and only perform the computations for displace ments, reactions, forces, and stresses. Activating this option is only valid aft er an initial eigensolution has been performed and is still available. Additiona lly, the mass and stiffness parameters of the model must be unchanged or the pre vious eigensolution is invalid. Spatial or Modal Combination First (Active for: Spectrum) This directive tells CAESAR II whether to combine the Spa tial components or the Modal components of the load case first. When performing a spectrum analysis, each of the modal responses must be summed. In addition, if multiple shocks have been applied to the structure in more than one direction, the results from different directions must be combined for example, spatially combin ing the X-direction, Y-direction, and Zdirection results. The question arises as to whether the spatial summations should precede or follow the modal summations . A difference in the final results (of Spatial first vs. Modal first) arises wh enever different methods are used for the spatial and modal combinations. The co mbination of Spatial components first implies that the shock loads are dependent , while the combination of Modal components first implies that the shock loads a re independent. Dependent and Independent refer to the time relationship between the X, Y, and Z components of the earthquake. With a dependent shock case, the X, Y, and Z components of the earthquake have a direct relationship a change in the shock along one direction produces a corresponding change in the other direction s. For example, this would be the case when the earthquake acts along a specific direction having components in more than one axis such as when a fault runs at a 30 a ngle between the X- and Z-axes. In this case, the Z-direction load would be a sc aled (by a factor of tan 30), but otherwise identical version of the X-direction l oad. In this case, spatial combinations should be made first. An Independent sho ck is one where the X, Y, and Z time histories produce related frequency spectra but have completely unrelated time histories. It is the Independent type of ear thquake that is far more common, and thus in most cases the modal components sho uld be combined first. For example, IEEE 344-1975 (IEEE Recommended Practices fo r Seismic Qualification of Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stati ons) states: Earthquakes produce random ground motions which are characterized by s imultaneous but statistically INDEPENDENT horizontal and vertical components.

74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual This is usually less of an issue for force spectrum combinations, since normally there are no separate spatial components to combine i.e., there are not X-, Y-, and Z-shocks acting simultaneously. However, in the event that there is more than o ne potential force load (such as when there is a bank of relief valves that can fire individually or in combination), the spatial combination method may be used to indicate the independence of the loadings. For example, if two relief valves may or may not fire simultaneously (i.e., they are independent), the two shocks should be defined as being in different directions (for example, Xand Y-), and the combination method selected should be Modal before Spatial. If under certain circu mstances, the two valves will definitely open simultaneously (i.e., the loadings are dependent), the combination method should be Spatial before Modal . (Otherwise, th e direction defined for a force spectrum loading has no particular meaning.) Nuc lear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) describes the requireme nts for combining spatial components when performing seismic response spectra an alysis for nuclear power plants. Note: Since all Time History combinations are d one algebraically (in-phase) this parameter has no effect on Time History result s. Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (Active for: Spectrum) This parameter is used to define the method for combining the spatial contributions of the shocks in a single spectrum load case. This op tion is only used for spectrum runs with more than a single excitation direction . Since directional forces are usually combined vectorially, this points to a Sq uare Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) combination method as being most appr opriate. An Absolute method is provided for additional conservatism. Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this parameter has no effect on Time History results. Modal Combination Method (GROUP/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (Active for: Spectrum) During a spectrum analysis, responses are calculated for each of the individual modes; these individual responses are then combined to ge t the total system response. Considering that the response spectrum yields the m aximum response at any time during the course of the applied load, and consideri ng that each of the modes of vibration will probably have different frequencies, it is probable that the peak responses of all modes will not occur simultaneous ly. Therefore an appropriate means of summing the modal responses must be consid ered. Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) defines the re quirements for combining modal responses when performing seismic response spectr a analysis for nuclear power plants. The four options presented there are also a vailable, along with one other, for modal combinations under nonnuclear seismic and force spectrum analyses. There are five available modal combination methods: Grouping Method Ten Percent Method Double Sum Method Absolute

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 75 Square Root of the Sum of the Squares Grouping Method This method is defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The Grouping Method attem pts to eliminate the drawbacks of the Absolute and SRSS methods (see below) by a ssuming that modes are completely correlated with any modes with similar (closel y spaced) frequencies, and are completely uncorrelated with those modes with wid ely different frequencies. Therefore, the total system response is calculated as R= N 1/ 2 ! k =1 Rk 2 + P q =1 + j l =i + j m =i Rlq Rmq " (where 1 m) Where: R = total system response of the element N = number of significant modes considered in the modal response combination Rk = the peak value of the response of the element due to the kth mode P = number of groups of closely-spaced modes (where modes are considered to be closely-spaced if their frequencies are withi n 10% of that of the base mode in the group), excluding individual separated mod es. No mode can be in more than one group. i = number of first mode in group q j = number of last mode in group q Rlq = response of mode l in group q Rmq = resp onse of mode m in group q Effectively, this method dictates that the responses o f any modes which have frequencies within 10% of each other first be added toget her absolutely, with the results of each of these groups then combined with the remaining individual modal results using the SRSS method. Note: The 10% figure controlling the definition of a group may be changed by usi ng the Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) parameter. For m ore information see the corresponding section earlier in this chapter. Ten Percent Method This method is defined in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The Ten Percent Metho d is similar to the Grouping method in that it assumes that modes are completely correlated with any modes with similar (closely spaced) frequencies, and are co mpletely uncorrelated with those modes with widely different frequencies. The di fferences between this one and the preceding method is that the Grouping Method assumes that modes are only correlated with those that fall within the group -i. e., are within a 10% band, while this method assumes that modes are correlated w

ith those that fall within 10% of the subject modeeffectively creating a 20% ban d - 105 up and approximately 10% down. The total system response is calculated a s R= N 1/ 2 ! k =1 Rk 2 + 2 Ri R j " (Where i j)

76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Where: Ri, Rj = the peak value of the response of the element due to the ith and jth mode, respectively, where mode i and j are any frequencies within 10% of th e each other, Where: (fi, fj) / fi = frequencies of modes i and j, respectively Note: The 10% figure controlling the definition of closely spaced frequencies ma y be changed by using the Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (m s) parameter. (See description in corresponding section earlier in this chapter) . Double Sum Method (DSRSS) This method is also defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. This combination met hod is the most technically correct for earthquake loads, in that an attempt is made to estimate the actual intermodal correlation coefficient based upon empiri cal data. The total system response is calculated as Where: Rs = eks = = k the peak value of the response of the element due to mode s intermodal correlati on coefficient [ 1 + {( k k 's ') /( k' k + s' s )}2 ]-1 ' = [ 1 - k2 ]1/2 [ 1 - s2 ]1/2 k s ' = s k' = s' = k k + 2 / ( td s + 2 / ( td ) ) s = =

frequency of mode k, rad/sec frequency of mode s, rad/sec ratio of damping to cr itical damping of mode k, dimensionless ratio of damping to critical damping of mode s, dimensionless duration of earthquake, sec s k = s = td = Note: The load duration (td) and the damping ratio ( ) may be specified by using th e Load Duration (Time History or DSRSS method) (sec.) and Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (ratio of critical) parameters described in the corresponding sections found earlier in this chapter. Absolute Method This method states that the total system response is equal to the sum of the abs olute values of the individual modal responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS method with all correlation coefficients equal to 1.0, or the G rouping method, with all modes being closely spaced.) The total system response is calculated as: R= N i =1 Ri

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 77 This method gives the most conservative result, since it assumes that the all ma ximum modal responses occur at exactly the same time during the course of the ap plied load. This is usually overly-conservative, since modes with different natu ral frequencies will probably experience their maximum DLF at different times du ring the load profile. Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) This method states that the total system response is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual modal responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS method with all correlation coefficients equal to 0. 0, or the Grouping method, with none of the modes being closely spaced.) The tot al system response is calculated as: R= N 1/ 2 ! i =1 Ri2 " This method is based upon the statistical assumption that all modal responses ar e completely independent, with the maxima following a relatively uniform distrib ution throughout the duration of the applied load. This is usually non-conservat ive, especially if there are any modes with very close frequencies, since those modes will probably experience their maximum DLF at approximately the same time during the load profile. Note: Since all Time History combinations are done alge braically (in-phase) this parameter has no effect on Time History results. Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N) (Active for: Spectrum/ISM) This option is only used when Independent Support Mot ion (anchor movement) components are part of a shock load case. The excitation o f a group of supports produces both a dynamic response and a static response. Th e static response is due to the movement of one group of supports or anchors rel ative to another group of supports/anchors. These static components of the dynam ic shock loads are called pseudostatic components. USNRC recommendations, as of August 1985, suggest that the following procedure be followed for pseudostatic compone nts: 1 2 3 4 For each support group, the maximum absolute response should be cal culated for each input direction. Same direction responses should then be combin ed using the absolute sum method. Combination of the directional responses shoul d be done using the SRSS method. he total response should be formed by combining the dynamic and pseudostatic responses, using the SRSS method. Therefore pseudostatic components should be included whenever Independent Suppor t spectral loadings are used.

78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Include Missing Mass Components (Y/N) (Active for: Spectrum and Time History) During spectrum (either seismic or force spectrum) or time history analyses, the response of a system under a dynamic lo ad is determined by superposition of modal results. One of the advantages of thi s type of modal analysis is that usually only a limited number of modes are exci ted and need to be included in the analysis. The drawback to this method is that although displacements may be obtained with good accuracy using only a few of t he lowest frequency modes, the force, reaction, and stress results may require e xtraction of far more modes (possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptabl e accuracy is attained. CAESAR II provides a feature, called the Missing Mass Corre ction, which helps solve these problems. This feature offers the ability to include a correction which represents the contribution of the higher order modes not ex plicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response, thus providing greater accura cy without additional calculation time. When this option is activated (by enteri ng Yes for this parameter), the program automatically calculates the net (in-pha se) contribution of all non-extracted modes and combines it with the modal contr ibutions avoiding the long calculation time associated with the extraction of the hi gh order modes and the possible excessive conservatives of the summation methods . This feature is described in Chapter 6 of this manual. Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS) (Active for: Spectrum) This directive specifies the method by which the pseudost atic responses (see description in the earlier section Include Pseudostatic (Anc hor Movement) Components (see "Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)" on page 77)) are to be combined with the dynamic (inertial) responses; t herefore it is applicable only when there is at least one Independent Support Mo tion excitation component in a shock load case. Pseudostatic combinations are do ne after all directional, spatial, and modal combinations. Absolute combination gives conservative results, but, as noted in the section Include Pseudostatic (A nchor Movement) Components, the USNRC recommends using the SRSS method for pseud ostatic combinations. Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (Active for: Spectrum) This directive defines the method used to combine the mis sing mass/force correction components (see description in an earlier section, In clude Missing Mass Components (see "Include Missing Mass Components (Y/N)" on pa ge 78)) with the modal (dynamic) results. Research suggests that the modal and r igid portions of the response are statistically independent, so the SRSS combina tion method (CAESAR II s default) is usually most accurate. The Absolute combination method provides a more conservative result, based upon the assumption that the modal maxima occur simultaneously with the maximum ground acceleration. Missing mass components are combined following the modal combination. Note: Even though missing mass components may be included during Time History analyses, all Time H istory combinations are done algebraically (in-phase), so this parameter has no effect on Time History results.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 79 Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (Active for: Spectrum) This directive specifies the method used for combining sh ock components acting in the same direction. This directive is used most typical ly with Independent Support Motion load cases, where it defines the way in which responses from different support groups caused by excitation in the same direct ion are combined. Additionally, if there are multiple uniform shock spectra acti ng in the same direction (although this is unusual), this directive would govern their combination. In general, directional combinations should be made using th e absolute method. (As noted in the earlier section, Include Pseudostatic (Ancho r Movement) Components (see "Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components ( Y/N)" on page 77), this is the USNRC recommendation for directional combination of pseudostatic responses.) However, in the case of force spectrum loads, if sev eral loads (for example, several relief valve loads) are all defined with the sa me shock direction , using an SRSS combination method would be a way of modeling these as independent loads, while using the Absolute method would model them as depend ent loads. Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no effect on Time History results. Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues (Y/N) (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) In almost all cases, the eigenso lver will detect modal frequencies from the lowest frequency to the highest. Som etimes, when there is some strong directional dependency in the system, the mode s may converge in the wrong order. This could cause a problem if the eigensolver reaches the cutoff number of modes (i.e., 20), but has not yet found the 20 mod es with the lowest frequency (it may have found modes 1 through 18, 20, and 21, and would have found number 19 next). CAESAR II checks for this anomaly using th e Sturm Sequence calculation. This procedure determines the number of modes that should have been found between the highest and lowest frequencies found, and co mpares that against the actual number of modes extracted. If those numbers are d ifferent, the user is given a warning. For example, if 22 natural frequencies ar e extracted for a particular system, and if the highest natural frequency is 33. 5 Hz, the Sturm Sequence check makes sure that there are exactly 22 natural freq uencies in the model between zero and 33.5+p Hz, where p is a numerical toleranc e found from: p= 10Log10 [(Highest Eigenvalue)-(Number of Significant Figures+1.5)] 2n

80 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The Sturm Sequence check would fail in the case where there are two identical fr equencies at the last frequency extracted. The significance of this failure can only be estimated by the user. For example, consider a system with the following natural frequencies: 0.6637 1.2355 1.5988 4.5667 4.5667 If the user asks for only the first four natural frequencies, a Sturm Sequence f ailure would occur because there are five frequencies, rather than four, which e xist in the range between 0.0 and 4.5667 + p (where p calculates to 0.0041). To correct this problem, the user can do either of the following: Increase the freq uency cutoff by the number of frequencies not found. (This number is reported by the Sturm Sequence Check.) Increase the cutoff frequency some small amount, if the frequency cutoff terminated the eigensolution. This will usually allow the l ost modes to fall into the solution frequency range. Fix the subface size at 10 and rerun the job. Increasing the number of approximation vectors improves the p ossibility that at least one of them will contain some component of the missing modes, allowing the vector to properly converge. The default here is Yes, and should b e left alone unless the user has some specific reason for deactivating the check .

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 81 Advanced Parameters Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) This is the approximate number o f significant figures in the computed eigenvalues ( 2, where is the angular freq uency in rad/sec). For example, using the default value of 6, if a computed eige nvalue was 44032.32383, then the first digit to the right of the decimal is prob ably the last accurately computed figure. The eigenvectors, or mode shapes, are computed to half as many significant figures as are the eigenvalues. If the eige nvalues have 6 significant figures of accuracy, then the eigenvectors have 3. Th is number should typically never be decreased. Increases to 8 or 10 are not unus ual but result in slower solutions with typically little change in response resu lts.

82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Jacobi Sweep Tolerance (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) Eigen analyses are done using an NxN subspace for calculating the natural frequencies and mode shapes for a redu ced problem. The first step is to perform a Jacobi denationalization of the subs pace. Iterations are performed until the off-diagonal terms of the matrix are ap proximately zero. The off-diagonal terms are considered to be close enough to ze ro when their ratio to the on-diagonal term in the row is smaller the Jacobi Swe ep Tolerance. The default is 1.0E-12. Users wishing to change this value should be aware of the computer s precision (the IEEE-488 double precision word on the IBM PC has approximately 14 significant figures) and the approximate size of the ondiagonal coefficients in the stiffness matrix for the problem to be solved (whic h may be estimated from simple beam expressions). Decomposition Singularity Tolerance (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) During the eigensolver s decompositi on of what may be a shifted stiffness matrix, a singularity check is performed t o make sure that the shift is not too close to an eigenvalue that is to be calcu lated. If a singular condition is detected, a new shift, not quite as aggressive as the last one, is computed and a new decomposition is attempted. If the new c omposition fails, a fatal error is reported from the eigensolver. In certain cas es, increasing the singularity tolerance is warranted and eliminates this fatal error. Values should not be entered greater than 1.0 E13. Singularity problems m ay also exist when very light, small diameter piping is attached to very heavy, large diameter, or when very, very short lengths of pipe are adjacent to very, v ery long lengths of pipe. Subspace Size (0-Not Used) (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) During an eigensolution, the NDO FxNDOF problem constructed by the user is reduced to an NxN problem during each subspace iteration, where N is the subspace size. If a zero is entered in this f ield, CAESAR II selects what is expected to be an optimal subspace size (so this value usually need not be changed); if a non-zero value is entered here, it wil l override CAESAR II s calculation and will be used as the subspace size. CAESAR II fault is to use the square root of the bandwidth (with a minimum of 4) as the su bspace size, resulting in sizes of 4 to 8 for typical piping configurations. Inc reasing the subspace size slows the eigensolution, but increases the numerical s tability. Values in the range between 12 and 15 should probably be used when unu sual geometries or dynamic properties are encountered, or when a job is large (h as 100 elements or more, and/or requires that 25 or more frequencies be extracte d).

s de

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 83 No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0 - Not Used) (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) A zero in this field lets CAESAR II select what it thinks will be the most optimal shifting strategy for the eig en problem to be solved. One way to speed the eigensolution is to improve the co nvergence characteristics. The convergence rate for the lowest eigenpair in the subspace is inversely proportional to 1/ 2, where 1 is the lowest eigenvalue in the current subspace and 2 is the next lowest eigenvalue in the current subspace . A slow convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of approximately one, and a fast convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of zero. The shift is employed to get the convergence rate as close to zero as possible. The cost of each shift is one decomposition of the system set of equations. The typical shift value is equal to the last computed eigenvalue plus 90 percent of the difference between this value and the lowest estimated eigenvalue still non converged in the subspace. As 1 is shifted closer to zero, the ratio 1/ 2 will b ecome increasingly smaller thus increasing the convergence rate. In certain inst ances where eigenvalues are very closely spaced, shifting can result in eigenval ues being lost (the Sturm Sequence Check will detect this condition). A large va lue entered for this parameter will effectively disable shifting, so no eigenval ues will be missed; however, the solution will take longer to run. When the syst em to be analyzed is very large, shifting the set of equations can be very time consuming in these cases, the user is advised to set this parameter to somewhere bet ween 4 and 8. No. of Iterations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed) (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) A zero in this field lets CAESAR II compute what it thinks is an optimal number of subspace iterations per shift . This parameter, along with the next one (% of iterations per shift before orth ogonalization) can work together to control solution shifting. These two paramet ers are used to limit the number of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalizations that are per formed. Trying to limit this number is very dangerous for small subspace problem s, but less dangerous when the subspace size is large (around 10-20 percent of t he total number of eigenpairs required). The Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is b y default performed once during each subspace iteration. This orthogonalization makes sure that the eigenvector subspace does not converge to an already found e igenpair. When a large number of eigenpairs are to be computed this repeated com putation can appreciably slow down the extraction of the highest eigenpairs. Pro per setting of these parameters can cause the eigensolution to perform the ortho gonalization every second, third, fourth, etc. iteration, thus speeding the solu tion. Unfortunately, once orthogonalized, the subspace may still converge to ear lier eigenpairs during subsequent non-orthogonalized subspace iteration passes. Users setting these parameters are urged to use caution. The Force Orthogonalization A fter Convergence (see "Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)" on page 84) parameter (see corresponding section later in this chapter) should probably also be set if the frequency of orthogonalization is slowed.

84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Percent of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) CAESAR II computes a number of i terations per shift that are to be performed, which the user can alter if desire d. A maximum of N eigenpairs can conceivably converge per subspace pass, where N is the subspace size (although this is highly unlikely). By default a Gram-Schm idt orthogonalization is performed for each subspace pass. This directive allows the user to alter this default. For example, if there are 12 iterations per shi ft, and the percentage of iterations per shift is 50 percent (an entry of 0.50), the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization would be performed every 6 iterations. Users employing this option should also set the Force Orthogonalization After Converg ence (see "Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)" on page 84) directiv e to Yes . The Percent of Iterations per Shift Before Orthogonalization parameter is mo st often used in conjunction with the No. of Iterations per Shift (see "No. of I terations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed)" on page 83) parameter because then the u ser knows exactly how many iterations will go by without an orthogonalization. Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) This parameter is only needed fo r eigensolutions for which the Percent of Iterations per Shift Before Orthogonal ization (on page 84) (the previous section) has been set to a non-zero value. Wh en set to Yes in this case, whenever a subspace pass that sees at least one eigenpair convergence completes, a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is performed whether the specified percentage of iterations has been completed or not. Use Out-Of-Core Eigensolver (Y/N) (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) This parameter is used primarily as a benchmarking and debugging aid. When entered as Yes , the outof-core eigensolver is automatically invoked regardless of the problem size. Using this solver can t ake considerably more time than the in-core solver, but should in all cases prod uce exactly the same results. Note that if the problem is too big to fit into th e in-core solver (the capacity of which is based upon the amount of available ex tended memory), the out-of-core solver will be invoked automatically this parameter does not need to be changed to have this automatic switch occur when necessary. Frequency Array Spaces (Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History) This is the maximum number of ei genpairs that can be extracted for the problem. The default value of 100 is arbi trary. If the user needs to extract more than 100 eigenpairs, then some number g reater than the number to be extracted must be entered.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 85 Pulsation Loads Unexpectedly, and sometimes after support changes or process modifications, an o perating line will begin experiencing large amplitude, low frequency vibration. The first step in the solution is the construction of the dynamic model. Particu lar attention should be paid when modeling the piping system in the area of the field vibration. This might include accurately representing valve operators, inline flange pairs, orifice plates and measuring equipment. It is also a good ide a to add extra nodes in the area where vibration is experienced. The extra nodes would be put at bend near nodes and at span midpoints. The next step is the eigenvalu e/eigenvector extraction. If the system is large, then degrees of freedom far re moved from the area of local vibration should be eliminated. (6-10) natural freq uencies should be extracted. Natural frequencies and mode shapes define the syst ems tendency to vibrate. The mode shapes extracted should show how the system in the a rea of the local vibration problem is tending to displace. In most cases acousti c resonances are coupled with mechanical resonances to produce the large amplitu de vibrations experienced in the field. Very typically one of the first mode sha pes will show exactly the shape displayed by the pipe vibrating in the field. If the mode shapes extracted do not show movement in the area of the local vibrati on, then not enough degrees of freedom were removed from other areas. If the low est mode shape in the area of the local vibration problem is above (15) Hz. then there is a good possibility that either the vibration is mechanically induced o r the fluid pulsation peak pressures are very high. Either of these cases may re present critical situations which should be evaluated by an expert. When the mod e shape is identified which corresponds to the observed field vibration, the pul sation load model can be developed. Pulsation loads will exist at closed ends, a t bends, and at changes in diameter. Harmonically varying forces are put at thes e points in an attempt to get the mathematical model to vibrate like the real pi ping system. The driving frequency for the applied harmonic load should be equal to the frequency that pressure pulses are introduced into the line. The magnitu de of the harmonic load can be estimated within a range of tolerances. The actua l design value is selected from this range such that resulting displacements of the model are close to those observed in the field. Output from the harmonic ana lysis can be processed in the static output processor and maximum restraint load s due to the dynamic forces calculated. It is critical when redesigning supports for dynamic loads that static thermal criteria are not violated by any new supp ort configuration designed. Important: Static thermal criteria and dynamic displ acement criteria must be satisfied simultaneously. The ultimate objective of the harmonic analysis will be to find the elbow pair whose unbalanced load results in the observed field vibration. Unbalanced loads exist between adjacent elbows because the pressure peak in the traveling wave hits each elbow at a slightly di fferent time.

86 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual If the pressure at elbow a is denoted by Pa(t) and the pressure at elbow b t), then the unbalanced force which acts along the pipe connecting the two elbow s is: F = A * Pa(t) - A * Pb(t) EQ. (1)

is den

Where A is the inside area of the pipe. The expression for Pa(t) can be found as suming the pressure peak hits the elbow a at time t = 0: Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos t Where: (Pavg) - average pressure in the line, (dP) ( ) - alternating component of the pressure, (Pmax-Pmin) - driving frequency. EQ. (2)

If the straight pipe between the elbows a and b is (L) inches long, then the pres hat has just passed elbow a will get to elbow b (ts) seconds later, where (ts) = ) being the speed of sound in the fluid. (Remember, pressure pulses travel at th e speed of sound, not the speed of the fluid ! ! !) The expression for the press ure at b can now be written: Pb(t) = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos ( t + Q) Q= * (ts). (Where Q i s in radians, and EQ.(3) is in radians/second)

Q is the phase shift between the pressure peaks at a and b , Combining equations 1 the unbalanced pressure force can be written: F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos t - cos ( t-Q) ] This function has a maximum: Fmax = 0.5(dP)A sin Q/cos (Q/2) and a period of 1/w, and will be approximated with: f(t) = 0.5(dP)A (sin Q/cos (Q/2)) cos t The formulation of the harmonic loads can be summarized as follows: 1 2 Decide w hich elbow-elbow pair is most likely to have an unbalanced force which could cau se the displacements observed in the field. Find upper and lower estimates for t he following variables: dP Alternating pressure in the line (Pmax - Pmin) Driving fr equency. c Speed of sound in the fluid. L Length between the two elbows. A Area o pipe.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 87 3. Find the time it takes the pressure wave to get from one elbow to the other. ts = L / (c-) (c-) is the lower estimate for the speed of sound in the fluid. 4. Find the largest estimated magnitude of the unbalanced pressure force: Fmax = ( 0.5) (dP+)A * sin [( +) (ts)] / cos [( t) (ts)/2] (dP+) is the upper estimate fo r the alternating pressure. ( +) is the upper estimate for the driving frequency . 5. Run a single harmonic analysis with a force of F = Fmax [cos ( t)] acting a long the axis of the pipe between the two elbows. If the pattern of the displace ment approximately that seen in the field, and if the magnitude of the calculate d displacement is greater than or equal to the magnitude of the displacement in the field, then the harmonic load to be used for the design of the new restraint s has been found.

88 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis There can be two types of destructive dynamic forces associated with relief devi ces: Thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface Acoustic shock due to the sudden c hange in fluid momentum and the associated traveling pressure wave(s). The analy st must evaluate the effective contribution of both types of loads. Dynamic forc es associated with relieving devices can cause considerable mechanical damage to equipment and supports. The discussion below concerns only the thrust at the va lve/atmosphere interface. The acoustic traveling pressure wave can be dealt with similar to the water hammer problem, addressed elsewhere. The first step in per forming a relief load analysis is to compute the magnitudes of the relieving thr ust forces. For open-type vent systems CAESAR II has a RELIEF LOAD SYNTHESIZER t hat will make these computations automatically for the user. There are two proce dures incorporated into the synthesizer, one is for gases greater than 15 psig, and the other is for liquids. Both are discussed as follows. Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig CAESAR II assumes that a successful vent stack/relief system design maintains th e following gas properties:

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 89 The input for the gas relief load synthesis is shown as follows: Line Temperature Enter the stagnation condition temperature of the gas to be relieved. (Usually j ust the gas temperature upstream of the relief valve.) Line Pressure Enter the stagnation pressure of the gas to be relieved. (Usually just the gas p ressure upstream of the relief valve.) Note that stagnation properties can vary considerably from line properties if the gas flow velocity in the line is high. ID of Relief Valve Orifice Enter the flow passage inside diameter for the smallest diameter in the relief v alve throat. (This information is usually provided by the relief valve manufactu rer). ID of Relief Valve Piping Enter the inside diameter of the piping attached directly to the exhaust of the relief valve. ID of Vent Stack Piping If CAESAR II is to size the vent stack then leave this ID blank. If the vent sta ck piping is the same size as the relief valve piping, i.e. it is one-in-the-sam e, then this field may be left blank. Otherwise enter the inside diameter of the vent stack piping.

90 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Length of the Vent Stack Enter the length of the vent stack. This is a required entry. Add double the len gths of fittings and elbows (or compute the appropriate equivalent lengths for n on-pipe fittings and add the lengths). Some typical values for these constants a re given below: Ratio of Gas-Specific Heats Superheated Steam Saturated Steam Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Acetylene Ammonia n-Bu tane Ethane Ethylene Methane Propane (k) 1.300 1.100 1.399 1.288 1.232 1.304 1.093 1.187 1.240 1.226 1.127 Gas Constant (R) Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Acetylene Ammonia n-Butane Ethane Ethylene Methane Propa ne (ft. lbf./lbm./deg. R 55.16 35.11 59.35 90.73 26.59 51.39 55.09 96.33 35.05

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 91 Does the Vent Pipe Have an Umbrella Fitting (Y/N) Enter a Y or a N. See the following figures to determine if the connection of th e vent stack to the vent piping is via an umbrella fitting.

92 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Should CAESAR II Size the Vent Stack (Y/N) Enter a Y if CAESAR II should size the vent stack. The sizing algorithm searches through a table of available inside pipe diameters starting at the smallest dia meter until a vent stack ID is found that satisfies the thermodynamic criteria s hown in the figure above. The computed ID is automatically inserted into the inp ut. Example input and output from the relief load synthesizer is shown and discu ssed as follows: Relief Load Synthesis Input (Gas) Relief Load Synthesis Output (Gas)

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 93 Computed Mass Flowrate (Vent Gas) This is CAESAR II s computed gas mass flow rate based on choked conditions at the re lief orifice. If greater mass flow rates are expected, then the error in either the approach used by CAESAR II or in the expected mass flow rate should be inves tigated. Thrust at Valve Pipe/Vent Pipe Interface If there is an umbrella fitting between the vent stack and the relief valve pipi ng then this is the thrust load that acts back on the relief valve piping. (See the following figure.) If the vent stack is hard piped to the relief valve pipin g then this intermediate thrust will be balanced by tensile loads in the pipe an d can be ignored. Thrust load acts directly on valve opening. Only the valve pipe/vent stack interface thrust acts in this configuration. Thrust at the Vent Pipe Exit When there is an elbow in the vent stack piping, this is the thrust load that ac ts on the elbow just before the pipe opening into the atmosphere. (See the follo wing figures for clarification.)

94 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening This is the estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that will be super imposed on the line pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pre ssure wave will move back through the relief system piping similar to the pressu re wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated as (Po-Pa)*Ap, where Po is the stagnation pressure at th e source, Pa is atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header piping. Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing This is the estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that will be super imposed on the line pressure when the relief valve slams shut. This positive pre ssure wave will move back through the relief system piping similar to the pressu re wave in the supply side piping of a water hammer type system. The magnitude o f this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the gas density, c is the speed of sound in the gas and dv is the change in the velocity of the gas. Thermodynamic Entropy Limit /Subsonic Vent Exit Limit These values should always be greater than 1. If either of these computed limits fall below 1.0 then the thermodynamic assumptions made regarding the gas proper ties are incorrect and the computed thrust values should be disregarded. Valve Orifice Gas Conditions /Vent Pipe Exit Gas Conditions/Subsonic Velocity Ga s Conditions These are the thermodynamic properties of the gas at three critical points in th e relief system. These three points are shown in the figure on the opposite page . The entire formulation for the thrust gas properties is based on an ideal gas equation of state. If the pressures and temperatures displayed above for the gas being vented are outside of the range where the ideal gas laws apply then some alternate source should be sought for the computation of the system s thrust loads. In addition, all three of these points should be sufficiently clear of the gas s aturation line. When the exit gas conditions become saturated, the magnitude of the thrust load can be reduced significantly. In this case the manufacturer shou ld be consulted. In several instances at COADE, saturated exhaust thrust loads w ere 50 to 75% less than the CAESAR II computed values. Relief Load Synthesis for Liquids CAESAR II assumes that the liquid vent system has one of the two following confi gurations:

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 95 The input for the liquid relief load synthesis is shown as follows:

Relief Valve or Rupture Disk Enter RV if the relieving device is a relief valve and RD if the relieving device re disk. If the user has his own relief exit coefficient it can be entered here in place of the letters RV or RD. An entry of zero represents No appreciable hea d loss due to the relief opening configuration. The exit coefficient for a relie f valve is 0.25 and for a rupture disk is 0.5. Supply Overpressure Enter the stagnation, or zero velocity pressure in the fluid upstream of the rel ief valve. ID Relief Orifice or Rupture Disk Opening Enter the manufacturers inside diameter of the contracted opening in the particu lar relieving device. (For special purpose calculations this ID may be equal to the ID of the Relief exit piping.) ID Relief Exit Piping Enter the inside diameter of the piping connected to the downstream side of the relief valve. ID Manifold Piping If the relief exit piping runs into a manifold then enter the inside diameter of the manifold. Leave this field blank or zero if there isn't a manifold. ID Supply Header Enter the inside diameter of the supply header.

96 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Fluid Density Enter the specific gravity of the fluid being relieved. Length of Relief Exit Piping Enter the equivalent length of the relief exit piping. Add twice the piping leng th for fittings and elbows, or the calculated fitting equivalent length. Length of Manifold Piping Enter the equivalent length of the manifold piping, if any. If there isn't a man ifold system then leave this field blank or zero. Add twice the piping length fo r fitting and elbows. If the manifold is not filled by the relieving fluid then leave the manifold length zero. Fluid Bulk Modulus Enter the bulk modulus of the fluid. If omitted a valve of 250,000 psi will be u sed as the default. Some typical values for use are given as follows. These are the values for an isothermal compression as taken from Marks Standard Handbook for Engineers, p. 3-35, 8th edition. Supply Header Pipe Wall Thickness Enter the wall thickness of the supply header. Note: When running the relief loa d synthesis for liquids, the error message: NUMERICAL ERROR OR NO FLOW CONDITION DETECTED, means a physically impossible configuration was described. Flashing o f volatile relief liquids is not considered. If the relieving liquid flashes in the exhaust piping as its pressure drops to atmospheric then some other means sh ould be used to compute the resulting gas properties and thrust Loads. Output From the Liquid Relief Load Synthesizer Computed Mass Flow rate The computed exhaust mass flow rate in U.S. Gallons per minute. CAESAR II makes the necessary pressure drop calculations between the stagnation pressure upstrea m of the relief device and atmospheric conditions at the exit of the manifold. Thrust at the End of the Exit Piping The computed thrust load at the last cross section in the exit piping. If there is no manifold then this is the external thrust load that acts on the piping sys tem. If there is a manifold then this thrust is opposed by tension in the pipe w all at the junction of the exit piping and manifold. See the figures that follow for clarification. Thrust at the End of the Manifold Piping The computed thrust load at the last cross section in the manifold piping. If th ere is no manifold system then this thrust will be equal to the thrust at the en d of the exit piping. See the figures that follow for clarification.

Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 97 Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening This is the estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that will be super imposed on the line pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pre ssure wave will move back through the relief system piping similar to the pressu re wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated as (Po-Pa)*Ap, where Po is the stagnation pressure at th e source, Pa is atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header piping. Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing This is the estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that will be super imposed on the line pressure when the relief valve slams shut. This positive pre ssure wave will move back through the relief system piping similar to the pressu re wave in the supply side piping of a water hammer type system. The magnitude o f this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the gas density, c is the speed of sound in the gas and dv is the change in the velocity of the gas.

98 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Orifice Flow Conditions/Exit Pipe End Flow Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Con ditions These are the computed fluid properties at the three critical cross-sections in the relief piping. If pressures or velocities here do not seem reasonable then s ome characteristic of the relief model is probably in error. Note: If the L dimensions are significant in any of the previous figures (several feet ) then unbalanced thrust loads will act between the elbow-elbow pairs that is ve ry similar to a water hammer load. Water hammer pulses travel at the speed of so und in the fluid, while the fluid/atmosphere interface pulses travel at the velocity o f the flowing fluid. For this reason, these unbalanced loads can cause significa nt piping displacements in much shorter pipe runs. The magnitude of these loads is equivalent to the computed thrust and the duration may be found from the comp uted fluid velocity and distance between each elbow-elbow pair.

1 CHAPTER 6 Technical Discussions In This Chapter Rigid Element Application ...................................................... ....2 Cold Spring .............................................................. ...................4 Expansion Joints........................................... ...............................7 Hanger Sizing Algorithm........................ .....................................10 Class 1 Branch Flexibilities............ .............................................14 Modeling Friction Effects ...... .....................................................17 Nonlinear Code Complianc e .......................................................19 Sustained Stresses a nd Nonlinear Restraints ...............................20 Static Seismic Loads . ..................................................................24 Wind Loads ................................................................................ .27 Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading ..............................30 Eva luating Vessel Stresses ........................................................ ..44 Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction....................................... ..49 Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II........................................... .54 Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping.......................................... ...70 Code Compliance Considerations ........................................... ....93 Local Coordinates ....................................................... ................127

2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Rigid Element Application CAESAR II forms rigid elements by multiplying the wall thickness of the element by 10. The inside diameter, and the weight of the element, remain unchanged. The rigid element in CAESAR II is rigid relative to the pipe around it. If a 6-in. line t ies into a 72-in. heat exchanger, then the rigid elements modeling the heat exch anger should have a diameter closer to 72 than 6. The user that is sensitive to the rigidness of the rigid element can increase or decrease the diameter or wall thick ness of the rigid to simulate any order of magnitude stiffness. Rigid Material Weight The weight of the rigid element is entered by the user. If no value is input the n the weight of the rigid is taken to be zero. The entered weight is the weight of the rigid excluding insulation or fluid. If the weight of the rigid element i s entered as zero or blank, then no additional weight due either to insulation o r fluid will be added. Rigid Fluid Weight CAESAR II automatically adds fluid loads for rigid elements if a non-zero fluid density is entered on the pipe spreadsheet. The fluid weight in a rigid element is assumed to be equal to the fluid weight in an equivalent straight pipe of sim ilar length and inside diameter. Rigid Insulation Weight CAESAR II also automatically adds insulation loads if the line containing the ri gid element is insulated. The insulation weight for the rigid is assumed to be e qual to 1.75 times the insulation for an equivalent length of straight pipe of e qual outside diameter. The cumulative rigid element weight calculation is as fol lows: Weight = 0.0 Weight = Wu + Wf + 1.75Wi Wu Where: Wu Wf Wi = = = User enter ed rigid weight Calculated fluid weight for equivalent straight pipe Calculated insulation weight for equivalent straight pipe Wu > = 0.0 0.0

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 3 The user s entered weight for the rigid element is not reflected in the Thermal Expa nsion/Pipe Weight Report optionally printed during error checking. Stresses are not calculated on Rigid elements since they are often used to simulate component s that have variable cross-sections along the length of the element, i.e. a valv e, and is normally not of concern for this type of analysis anyway. Forces and M oments are not normally printed on nodes between two rigid elements, but can be by selecting the appropriate check box found in Kaux-Special Execution Parameter s from the Piping Input Spreadsheet. Zero-weight rigids ("dummy" rigids) are oft en used to model components whose weight is not important to the analysis, but w here thermal growth may be a consideration. Dummy rigids are often used to model restraints. Tie rods in an expansion joint, rod hangers, and trunnions are exam ples of restraints modeled as dummy rigids. Dummy rigids may also be used to pro vide connectivity between the center line of an element and its outside edge. Th e most common example of this is the addition of a dummy rigid that runs from th e node at the center line of the vessel to the edge where a nozzle is to be conn ected. Sometimes equipment is modeled through a series of rigid elements. This i s particularly true when multiple nozzles are attached and the equipment is rest rained such that the interactions between the various nozzles must be taken into account due to the thermal growth of the attached piping system. The use of dum my rigids is explained in the CAESAR II Applications Guide in various sections a s appropriate to a particular modeling technique.

4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Cold Spring Cold spring is the process of offsetting (or pre-loading) the piping system with displacement loads (usually accomplished by cutting short or long the pipe runs between two anchors) for the purpose of reducing the absolute expansion load on the system. Cold spring is used to do the following: hasten the thermal shakedo wn of the system in fewer operating cycles reduce the magnitude of loads on equi pment and restraints, since often, only a single application of a large load is sufficient to damage these elements Several things should be considered when using cold spring: Cold reactions on eq uipment nozzles due to cold spring should not exceed nozzle allowables. The expa nsion stress range should not include the effect of the cold spring. The cold sp ring should be much greater than fabrication tolerances. Note: No credit can be taken for cold spring in the stress calculations, since the expansion stress pro visions of the piping codes require the evaluation of the stress range, which is unaffected by cold spring (except perhaps in the presence of non-linear boundar y conditions, as discussed below). The cold spring merely adjusts the stress mea n, but not the range. Many engineers avoid cold spring due to the difficulty of maintaining accurate records throughout the operating life of the unit. Future a nalysts attempting to make field repairs or modifications may not necessarily kn ow about (and therefore include in the analysis) the cold spring specification. Due to the difficulty of properly installing a cold sprung system, most piping c odes recommend that only 2/3 of the specified cold spring be used for the equipm ent load calculations. The cold spring amount is calculated as: Ci = 1/2Li dT

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 5 Where: Ci = length of cold spring in direction i (where i is X, Y, or Z), (inche s) Li = total length of pipe subject to expansion in direction i, (inches) = mea n thermal expansion coefficient of material between ambient and operating temper ature, (in/in/F) dT = change in temperature, (F)

6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Note that the 1/2 in the equation for the cold spring amount is used such that t he mean stress is zero. In some cases it is desirable to have the operating load on the equipment as close to zero as possible. In this latter case the 1/2 shou ld be omitted. The maximum stress magnitude will not change from a system withou t cold spring, but will now exist in the cold case rather than the hot. To model a cold spring in CAESAR II specify the elements as being made of cut short or c ut long materials. Cut short describes a cold sprung section of pipe fabricated short by the amount of the cold spring, requiring an initial tensile load to clo se the final joint. Cut long describes a cold sprung section of pipe fabricated long by the amount of cold spring, requiring an initial compressive load to clos e the final joint. The software models cut shorts and cut longs by applying end forces to the elements sufficient to reduce their length to zero (from the defin ed length) or increase their length to the defined length (from zero) respective ly. (It should be remembered to make the lengths of these cold spring elements o nly 2/3 of their actual lengths to implement the code recommendations.) This is effectively what occurs during application of cold spring. The end forces applie d to the elements are then included in the basic loading case F (for force), whe reby they can be included in various load combinations. Special material numbers 18 and 19 are used to signal CAESAR II that the element currently in the spread sheet actually represents a length of pipe that is to be cut short or long durin g fabrication. Material # 18 - Cut Short Material # 19 - Cut Long The user shoul d be sure to reset the material property on the element following the cold sprin g element. The following load cases are recommended when analyzing a cold spring system: Load Case 1 (OPE) W+T1+P1+CS includes all of the design cold spring W+P1+CS incl udes all of the design cold spring but not the temperature. W+P1 standard sustai ned case for Code Stress check L1-L2 expansion case for code stress check. RUN # 1 Load Case 2 (OPE) Load Case 3 (SUS) Load Case4 (EXP) Cold spring is allowed to reduce the magnitude of equipment loads because, often , only a single application of a large load is sufficient to cause damage to rot ating machinery. Cold spring does not change the range of stresses that the piping sys tem is subject to, and so, no allowance is given for stress reduction. (The maxi mum value of the stress is lowered, but the range is unchanged.) Both the sustai ned loads and the operating loads should be within the manufacturer s allowables for the particular piece of equipment. If the designer isn't careful, the installat ion of the cold spring in the ambient state can overload a piece of rotating equ ipment as the unit starts up.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 7 Expansion Joints To define an expansion joint, activate the Expansion Joint check box (see "Expan sion Joints" on page 19) on the pipe element spreadsheet. Expansion joint elemen ts may have a zero or nonzero length. The expansion joint will have a zero lengt h if the Delta fields in the spreadsheet are left blank or zero. The expansion j oint will have a nonzero length if at least one of the element s spreadsheet Delta f ields is non-blank and non-zero. When an expansion joint has a finite length CAE SAR II evenly distributes the expansion joint stiffnesses over the entire length of the element. This will usually result in a more accurate stiffness model in what is typically a very sensitive area of the piping system. Four stiffnesses d efine the expansion joint Axial Stiffness Transverse Stiffness Bending Stiffness Torsional Stiffness These stiffnesses are defined as shown in the following fig ure:

8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The transverse and the bending stiffnesses are directly related when a finite le ngth joint is defined. In this case the bending stiffness should be left blank a nd the transverse stiffness entered. CAESAR II will compute the proper bending s tiffness from the relationship between the bending and transverse stiffnesses. B ending stiffnesses from manufacturers catalogs should generally only be entered for zero length expansion joints modeling hinges or gimbals. Before a manufactur ers bending stiffness is used for a finite length bellows it should be multiplie d by 4.0 (note that in this case the transverse stiffness would be left blank). Torsional stiffnesses are often not given by expansion joint manufacturers. In t his case the user is recommended to insert a large torsional stiffness value and ensure that the resulting load on the bellows is not excessive. When the piping system is tight, and the diameter large, the magnitude of this large torsional stiffn ess can significantly effect the magnitude of the torsion carried by the bellows , i.e. stiffnesses of 100,000 in.lb./deg. and 1E12 in.lb./deg. can produce consi derably different torsional load results. The tendency would be to go with the l arger stiffness, i.e. being conservative, except that the torsional stiffness va lue is probably closer to the 100,000 in.lb./deg. In the instance where the largene ss of the torsional stiffness value is important, the manufacturer should be presse d for his best-guess at the stiffness, or the following equation should be used to get an estimate, which the user can then conservatively increase to get reasonable torsional loads on the bellows and surrounding equipment. The equation for estim ating bellows torsional stiffness is ( Re)3 (t )( E ) (1 + ) L Where = Re = t E L = = = = 3.14159 Expansion joint eff ective radius Bellows thickness Elastic Modulus Poisson s Ratio Flexible bellows len gth

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 9 When the expansion joint has a zero length, none of the expansion joint stiffnes ses are related. The user must be sure that a value is entered into all four of the Stiffness fields. CAESAR II will calculate pressure thrust on the expansion joint if the bellows effective id is given in the expansion joint auxiliary scre en. The mathematical model for pressure thrust applies a force equal to the pres sure times the effective area of the bellows at either end of the expansion join t. The force will tend to open the bellows if the pressure is positive, and clos e the bellows if the pressure is negative. Users should note that this model doe s not exactly distribute the pressure loads correctly in the vicinity of the exp ansion joint. In most cases the misapplied load does not effect the solution. Th ere are two components of the pressure thrust to be applied in practice, rather than the one component applied in the model. The first component is equal to the pressure times the inside area of the pipe and acts at the first change in dire ction of the pipe on either side of the expansion joint. This load will tend to put the pipe wall between the change in direction and the expansion joint in ten sion. The second component is equal to the pressure times the difference between the bellows effective area and inside pipe area. This load acts at the end of t he expansion joint and tends to open the bellows up, putting the pipe between th e expansion joint and the change in direction in compression. In the mathematica l model the full component of the pressure thrust force is placed on the ends of the bellows instead of having a portion shifted out on either side of the expan sion joint. A large number of expansion joint examples can be found in Chapter 5 of the Applications Guide.

10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Hanger Sizing Algorithm The basic function of the hanger design algorithm is to calculate the hot load a nd travel for user-specified hanger locations. Once the hot load and travel are known, spring tables are entered and the theoretical cold load is calculated for each spring in the table. Spring Design Requirements The smallest single spring that satisfies all design requirements is selected as the designed spring. The spring design requirements are 1 2 3 Both hot and the cold loads must be within the spring allowed working range. If the user specifie d an allowed load variation then the absolute value of the product of the travel and the spring rate divided by the hot load must be less than the specified var iation. If the user specified some minimum available clearance then the spring s elected must fit in this space. If a single spring cannot be found that satisfies the design requirements, CAESA R II will try to find two identical springs that do satisfy the requirements. If satisfactory springs cannot be found, CAESAR II recommends a constant effort su pport for the location. There are several variations of this approach that arise due to the different design options available in CAESAR II, but for the most pa rt the general algorithm remains unchanged.

Restrained Weight Case Hanger hot loads are calculated in the restrained weight case. In any job, if a hanger is to be designed, the first analysis case that must be run is the restrained weig ht case. This case usually includes weight, pressure and concentrated loads. For th e restrained weight run, rigid Y restraints are placed at each hanger location, a ors to be freed are properly released. Loads on the Y restraints at hangers, calculate d from the restrained weight case, are the hanger hot design loads.

Operating Case Immediately after the restrained weight case, an operating analysis is performed. The raints are removed from the hanger locations and the hot loads just calculated a re inserted. Any anchors that were freed for the restrained weight analysis are fixed. The operating case vertical displacement at each hanger location defines that h anger s travel. If there were single directional restraints or gaps in the system tha nged status in the operating case then the possibility exists that loads on hang ers will be redistributed. When a nonlinear status change is detected CAESAR II reruns the restrained weight case with the restraints left as they were at the end of the operating case. New restraint loads are calculated and another operating cas e is run to get the updated travel. The operating case must always be the second load case in the set of defined analysis cases. The user has the ability to define th e restrained weight or operating load cases for hanger design any way he sees fit. For simplicity, CAESAR II recommends the load cases it thinks should be run wheneve r it detects the first attempt to analyze a particular system. The user can acce pt or reject CAESAR II s recommendations. The user that sets up his own hanger desig n load cases should be sure he understands exactly what is done in the restrained w eight and operating passes of the hanger design algorithm. Installed Load Case If the user requested the calculation of the actual hanger installed loads, the third analysis level combination case must define the weight configuration that will exist in the field when the spring is installed. Typically this case includ es weight without fluid contents and concentrated loads. The theoretical cold, o r installed, load is the load on the spring when the pipe has exactly zero displ acement. The actual installed load may differ from the theoretical installed loa d by (K)(d), where (K) is the spring stiffness and (d) is the displacement of th e pipe in the installed condition. In essence, the actual installed load is calc ulated by taking the piping system and freezing all displacements at zero. With the pi pe in this condition, the hangers are installed and the theoretical cold load is applied. The pipe is then defrosted and allowed to adjust its weight position due to the hanger, restraint, and anchor stiffnesses and the installed hanger loads. On ce the system settles out, the total load on each of the hangers is read and rec orded as the actual hanger installed load.

12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Setting Up the Spring Load Cases The load cases that must exist for hanger design, as described above, are Restra ined Weight Operating Installed Weight ...if the user requested actual hanger in stalled loads. After the hanger algorithm has run the load cases it needs to siz e the hangers. The newly selected springs are inserted into the piping system an d included in the analysis of all remaining load cases. The spring rate becomes part of the global stiffness matrix, and is therefore added into all subsequent load cases. Hanger installed loads are concentrated forces and are only included in subsequent load cases that contain the first concentrated force set, (i.e., +H). The user may specify any number of his own load cases after the required sp ring load cases are set up. Spring hanger design does not affect CAESAR II s ability to check code compliance. In fact, in CAESAR II s recommended load cases, the norma l code compliance cases always follow the set of load cases required for hanger design. Multiple operating case spring hanger design implies that hanger loads a nd travels from more than one operating case are included in the spring hanger selecti on algorithm. Each spring in a multiple operating case hanger design has a multi ple load case design option. This design option tells CAESAR II how the multiple loads and travels for a single hanger are to be combined to get a single design load and travel. The set-up of the analysis cases is slightly different for mul tiple operating case hanger design, and as might be expected, the difference is that now there is more than one operating case. The actual number of operating c ases is specified by the user on the Hanger Design Control dialog and can be up to 9. Load cases that must be set up for a multiple load case hanger design that considers two hanger design operating cases are: Restrained Weight (this doesn' t change) Operating case #1 Operating case #9 Installed Weight ...if the user requested that actual installe d loads are to be calculated. Constant Effort Support The specification of the support load for a constant effort hanger completely de fines the hanger location. If the user enters this value it will be included in all hanger design runs and all analysis cases following the hanger cases that in clude concentrated loads in their formulation. This value is the load on each su pport at this location.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 13 Including the Spring Hanger Stiffness in the Design Algorithm The operating cases for hanger travel are normally analyzed with no stiffness in cluded at the hanger locations (hence these cases are traditionally referred to as "free thermal" cases). However, when the piping system is very flexible, or t he selected springs are very stiff, the actual resulting spring loads in the hot condition can vary significantly from the theoretically calculated results. In that case, CAESAR II offers the option to include (via an iterative process) the stiffness of the selected springs in the operating cases for hanger travel. Thi s can be activated by setting the Hanger Stiffness Load Case option to "As Desig ned" for that operating case. (Activating the Configure/Setup option "Include Tr avel cases to default to "As Designed".) The user is warned that selection of th is option may lead to convergence problems. If this option is used, it is very i mportant that the hanger load in the cold case (In the physical system) be adjus ted to match the reported hanger Cold Load. Spring Hanger Hot Loads for as desig ned springs are always included in all Operating Hanger Travel cases. Cold loads can be included in subsequent load cases through the use of the H load componen t. (Note that applying thermal and displacement effects to the system should mak e the Cold Load move to the Hot Load in the operating case.) Other Notes on Hanger Sizing Users should note that whenever a hanger location is found to hold the pipe down, a be ep and a warning message is flashed to the user. These locations in output are f lagged as zero load constant effort supports. These supports are usually found t o be at poor hanger design locations. Hanger design load cases, unless specifica lly designed with a "KEEP" status by the user, show up in the output report as b eing NOT ACTIVE. Results from these analysis are reflected in the spring hanger table only.

Class 1 Branch Flexibilities This analytical option was added to CAESAR II for the following reasons: Automat ic local flexibilities at intersections help the user bound the true solution. B ecause the computer time to do an analysis is getting less expensive, more frequ ently an analyst is running several solutions of the same model using slightly d ifferent input techniques to determine the effect of the modeling difference on the results. (This gives the analyst a degree of confidence in the numbers he is getting.) For example, structural steel supporting structures may be modeled to see the effect of their stiffnesses, nozzle flexibilities may be added at vesse l connections to see how these features redistribute load throughout the model, friction is added to watch its effect on displacements and equipment loads, and with CAESAR II users may include Class 1 intersection flexibilities. The charact eristic that makes this option convenient to use is that the use can turn the Cl ass 1 flexibilities on and off via a single parameter in the setup file. There is odification to the input required. In WRC 329, there are a number of suggestions made to improve the stress calculations at intersections. These suggestions are fairly substantial, and are given in order of importance. The most important it em, as felt by Rodabaugh in improving the stress calculations at intersections i s given, in part, as follows: In piping system analyses, it may be assumed that the flexibility is represented by a rigid joint at the branch-to-run centerlines ju ncture. However, the Code user should be aware that this assumption can be inacc urate and should consider the use of a more appropriate flexibility representati on. User of the Class 1 branch flexibility feature may be summarized as follows:The user adds the option: CLASS_1_BRANCH_FLEX to the setup file. This option is a f lag, and merely has to appear in the setup file to activate the option. Where re duced branch geometry requirements are satisfied, CAESAR II constructs a rigid o ffset from the centerline of the header pipe to its surface, and then adds the l ocal flexibility of the header pipe, between the end of the offset, at the heade r, and the start of the branch. Stresses computed for the branch, are for the po int at its connection with the header. Where reduced branch geometry requirement s are not satisfied, CAESAR II constructs a rigid offset from the centerline of the header pipe to its surface. The branch piping starts at the end of this rigi d offset. There is NO local flexibility due to the header added. (It is deemed t o be insignificant.) Stresses computed for the branch, are for the point at its connection with the header. The reduced branch geometry requirements checked by CAESAR II are d/D Where: d = Diameter of branch D = Diameter of header T = Wall thickness of header 0.5 and D/T 100.0

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 15 When the Class 1 branch flexibilities are used, intersection models in the analy sis will become stiffer when the reduced geometry requirements do not apply, and will become more flexible when the reduced geometry requirements do apply. Stif fer intersections typically carry more load, and thus have higher stresses (lowe ring the stress in other parts of the system that have been unloaded ). More flexible i ntersections typically carry less load, and thus have lower stresses, (causing h igher stresses in other parts of the system that have picked up the extra load). The b ranch flexibility rules used in CAESAR II are taken from ASME III, Subsection NB , (Class 1), 1992 Edition, Issued December 31, 1992, from Code Sections NB-3686. 4 and NB-3686.5. When the reduced branch rules apply, the following equations ar e used for the local stiffnesses: TRANSLATIONAL: AXIAL CIRCUMFERENTIAL LONGITUDI NAL = = RIGID RIGID = RIGID ROTATIONAL: AXIAL CIRCUMFERENTIAL LONGITUDINAL = = RIGID (kx)d/EI = (kz)d/EI Where: RIGID d E I D T Tb kx kz = = = = = = = = = 1.0E12 lb./in. or 1.0E12 in.lb ./deg. Branch diameter Young s Modulus Cross Section Moment of Inertia Header diamet er Header thickness Branch fitting thickness 0.1(D/T)1.5[(T/t)(d/D)]0.5(Tb/T) 0. 2(D/T)[(T/t)(d/D)]0.5(Tb/T)

Users are referred to WRC 329 Section 4.9 Flexibility Factors. A brief quote from this section follows: The significance of k depends upon the specifics of the piping sys Qualitatively, if k is small compared to the length of the piping system, including th e effect of elbows and their k-factors, then the inclusion of k for branch connections will have only minor effects on the calculated moments. Conversely, if k is large com pared to the piping system length, then the inclusion of k for branch connections will have major effects. The largest effect will be to greatly reduce the magnitude of the calculated moments acting on the branch connection. To illustrate the pot ential significance of k s for branch connections, we use the equation [above] to cal e k for a branch connection with D=30 in., d=12.75 in. T=t=0.375 in.: k = 0.1(80)1.5(0 .425)0.5 * (1.0) = 46.6 This compares to the more typical rigid-joint interpreta tion that k=1, rather than k=46.6 ! Further discussion in section 4.9 illustrates a dditional problems that can arise by overestimating the stiffness at branch conn ections. Problems arise by believing mistakenly that the stress at the intersection is too high. Further reference should be made to this section in WRC 329. The bran ch automatic flexibility generation can be used where the user has only defined the branch element in the model, i.e. has left the header piping out of the anal ysis. In this case there will be no offset equal to one-half of the header diameter ap plied to the branch end. A partial intersection is one where either the header pipe is not modelled, is modelled with a single element, or is part of a geometric inte rsection where the header pipes are not colinear. In the case where there is no header pipe going to the intersection there will be no modification to the model for the class 1 branch flexibilities. When at least a single header pipe is rec ognized, the local flexibility directions are defined by the branch alone and in accordance with the CAESAR II defaults for circumferential and longitudinal dir ections for the branch and header. Users are recommended to build full intersect ion models at all times (not only when employing the class 1 branch flexibility. ) In most cases building full intersection models will eliminate problems caused by the assumptions necessary when a partial intersection is described. In the e quations in NB-3686.5 for tn, the thickness of the branch pipe is used in all ca ses. When branches are skewed with respect to the header pipe, and where the two header pipes are colinear, the local Class 1 flexibilities are still taken to b e the longitudinal and circumferential directions that are tangent to the header surface at its intersection with the branch. Class 1 branch flexibilities can b e formed at both ends of a single pipe element. Note: The offsets necessary to f orm the class 1 intersections are automatically generated by CAESAR II. There is no extra input required by the user to have CAESAR II build these intersections . (If there are already user-defined offsets at an intersection end, the compute d offset to get from the header centerline to its surface along the centerline o f the branch will be added to the already entered user offset.) Automatic offset s will be generated providing that the distance from the header centerline to th e header surface along the branch centerline is less than or equal to 98% of the total pipe straight length. When a bend curved element is part of an intersecti on model, the offset and flexibility calculations will not be performed.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 17 Modeling Friction Effects There are two approaches to solving the friction problem; insert a force at the node which must be over come for motion to occur, or insert a stiffness which ap plies an increasing force up to the value of Mu * Normal force. CAESAR II uses t he restraint stiffness method. (An excellent paper on this subject is Inclusion of a Support Friction Into a Computerized Solution of a Self-Compensating Pipeline by J. Sobieszczanski, published in the Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Enginee ring for Industry, August 1972. A summary of the major points of this paper can be found below.) Ideally, if there is motion at the node in question, the fricti on force is equal to (Mu * Normal force). However, since we have a non-rigid sti ffness at that location to resist the initial motion, the node can experience di splacements. The force at the node will be the product of the displacement and t he stiffness. If this resultant force is less than the maximum friction force (M u * Normal force), the node is assumed to be not sliding, even though we see displacem ents in the output report. The maximum value of the force at the node is the fri ction force, Mu * Normal force. Once this value is reached, the reaction at the node stops increasing. This constant force value is then applied to the global l oad vector during the next iteration to determine the nodal displacements. Basic ally here is what happens in a friction problem. 1 2 3 The default friction stiffness is 1,000,000 lb./in. This value should be decreased to improve convergence. Unti l the horizontal force at the node equals Mu * Normal force, the restraint load is the displacement times the friction stiffness. Once the maximum value of the friction force is reached, the friction force will stop increasing, since a cons tant effort force is inserted.

18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual By increasing the friction stiffness in the setup file, the displacements at the node will decrease to some degree. This may cause a re-distribution of the load s throughout the system. However, this could have adverse affects on the solutio n convergence. If problems arise during the solution of a job with friction at s upports, reducing the friction stiffness will usually improve convergence. Sever al runs should be made with varying values of the friction stiffness to insure t he system behavior is consistent. Summary of J. Sobieszczanski s ASME Paper For dry friction, the friction force magnitude is a step function of displacement. This discontinuity determines the problem as intrinsically nonlinear and eliminates t he possibility of using the superposition principle. The friction loading on the pipe can be represented by an ordinary differential equation of the fourth orde r with a variable coefficient that is a nonlinear function of both dependent and independent variables. No solution in closed form is known for an equation of t his type. Solution has to be sought by means of numerical integration to be carr ied out specifically for a particular pipeline configuration. Dry friction can b e idealized by a fictitious elastic foundation, discretized to a set of elastic (spring) supports. A well-known property of an elastic system with dry friction constraints is that it may attain several static equilibrium positions within li mits determined by the friction forces. THE WHOLE PROBLEM THEN HAS CLEARLY NOT A DETERMINISTIC, BUT A STOCHASTIC CHARACTER.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 19 Nonlinear Code Compliance Nonlinear piping code compliance can be directly satisfied by 1 2 3 Performing a n operating and sustained analysis of the system including in each case the effe ct of nonlinear restraints. Subtracting the sustained case displacements from th e operating case displacements to find the displacement range. Calculating the expansi on stresses from the displacement range solved for in #2 above. Approximate approaches usually involve some combination of the above. The approx imate combination used depends typically on the inherent limitations of the base program. In several commonly used programs, the approach taken is 1 2 3 Formula te and solve for operating case displacements including an iteration to deal wit h the effect of nonlinear restraints in the system. Run the thermal-only analysi s of the system to calculate expansion stresses with restraints in the same cond ition as they were at the end of #1. Run the weight+pressure only analysis of th e system to calculate sustained stresses, again with restraints in the same cond ition as they were at the end of #1. This alternate approach is identical to the first method only when the sustained analysis final stiffness matrix is the same as the operating analysis final sti ffness matrix. The resulting error in the displacement range can be found from { [Fo] - [Fs]}fs. Where: [Fo] is the operating analysis final flexibility matrix. (i.e. the inverse of the stiffness matrix.) [Fs] is the sustained analysis final flexibility matrix. fs is the sustained analysis load vector. CAESAR II uses th e exact method described above for calculating the expansion stress range. In ad dition CAESAR II scans the user s input and recommends loading cases and combination s for performing the operating, sustained and expansion stress calculations. Thi s recommendation can prove very useful when performing spring hanger analysis of a multiple operating case system.

20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints The proper computation of sustained stresses has been an issue since the late 19 70s, when computerized pipe stress analysis programs first attempted to address the problem of non-linear restraints. The existing piping codes offered little g uidance on the subject, since their criteria were developed during the era when all analyses were considered to behave in a strictly linear fashion. The problem arises because the codes require that a piping system be analyzed separately fo r sustained loadings the engineer must determine which stresses are caused by whic h loadings. Sustained loads are force loadings which are assumed not to change, while expansion loadings are displacement loadings which vary with the system op erating conditions. Determination of the sustained loads is the simple part most e verybody agrees that those forces consist of weight, pressure, and spring preloa ds these forces remain relatively constant as the piping system goes through its t hermal growth. However, confusion occurs when the status of nonlinear restraints change (pipes lift off of supports, gaps close, etc.) as the pipe goes from its hot to cold state in this case, which boundary conditions should be used when eva luating the applied forces? Or in other words, what portion of the stress in the operating case is caused by weight loads, and what portion is caused by expansi on effects? (Note that there is no corresponding confusion on the question of ca lculating expansion stresses, since the codes are explicit in their instructions that the expansion stress range is the difference between the operating and col d stress distributions, both of which are known.) The obvious answer to this que stion, to the developers of some pipe stress programs, was that the sustained st ress calculation should be done using the operating, or hot boundary condition. This compounded the problem, in that the laws of superposition no longer held in o ther words, the results of sustained (W+P) and thermal (T) cases, when added tog ether, did not equal the results of the operating (W+P+T) case! One pioneering p rogram, DYNAFLEX, attempted to resolve this by introducing the concept of the therm al component of weight an oxymoron, in our opinion. Other programs, notably those whi ch came from the mainframe/linear analysis world, had to approximate the behavio r of these non-linear restraints. Their approach to the problem is to run an ope rating case, obtain the restraint status, and modify the model according to thes e results. All subsequent load cases analyzed use this restraint configuration. The fact that the laws of static superposition didn't hold was hopefully not not iced by the user. CAESAR II, on the other hand, represents new technology, devel oped expressly for operation on the PC, and therefore incorporates directly the effects of non-linear restraints. This is done by considering each load case ind ependently the restraint configuration is determined for each load case by the pro gram as it runs, based upon the actual loads which are considered to be present. Some users have asserted that there are actually two sustained load cases. In f act, there has been a B31.3 code interpretation that indicates that the sustaine d stress may also be checked with the operating restraint configuration. Calcula ting the sustained stresses using the operating restraint status raises several other issues; what modulus of elasticity should be used, and which sustained str esses should be used for occasional cases.

It is COADE s assertion that there is only one sustained case (otherwise it is not sust ained ) there can be, however, multiple sustained stress distributions. The two most a pparent are those associated with the cold (installed) and hot (operating) confi gurations, however, there are also numerous in-between, as the piping system loa d steps from cold to hot. Whether the true sustained load case occurs during the insta lled or operating case is a matter of the frame of reference. If an engineer fir st sees a system in its cold condition, and watches it expand to its operating c ondition, it appears that the first case (since weight and pressure primary loads ar e present) is the sustained case, and the changes he viewed are thermal effects (due to heat up) secondary loads due to displacements. If a second engineer first sees the same system in the operating case and watches it cool down to the cold case, he may believe that the first case he saw (the operating case) is the sust ained case, and changes experienced from hot to cold are the thermal expansion e ffects (the thermal stress ranges are the same in both cases). Consider the furt her implications of cryogenic systems where changes from installed to operating ar e the same as those experienced by hot systems when going from operating to inst alled. Once elastic shakedown has occurred, the question becomes clouded even fu rther, due to the presence of thermally induced pre-stresses in the pipe during both the cold and hot conditions. We feel either the operating or installed case (or some other one inbetween) could justifiably be selected for analysis as the sustained case, as long as the program is consistent. We have selected the inst alled case (less the effect of cold spring) as our reference sustained case, sin ce thermal effects can be completely omitted from the solution (as intended by t he code), and this best represents the support configuration when the sustained loads are initially applied. If the pipe lifts off of a support when going from installed to operating, we view this as a thermal effect consistent with the pipin g codes view of thermal effects as the variation of stress distribution as the pipi ng system goes from cold to hot (this view is explicitly corroborated by one cod e the French petrochemical code, which states that weight stress distributions due to thermal growth of the pipe should be considered as expansion stresses). For example, we feel that a change in a rigid support load from 2,000 lbs to zero sh ould be treated no differently than would be a variable spring load changing fro m 6,000 lbs to 4,000 lbs (or another rigid support load going 2,000 lbs to 1 lb) . In the former case, if the pipe became overstressed , it would yield, and sag back to the support, relieving the stress. This process is identical to the way that al l other expansion stresses are relieved in a piping system. We are confident tha t our interpretation is correct. However, we understand that our users may not a lways agree with us that is why CAESAR II provides the greatest ability to custom tailor the analysis to one s individual specifications. If desired, a hot sustained c an be analyzed by adding two load cases to those normally recommended by CAESAR II. This would be done by assuming that the pipe expands first, and then the sus tained loads are applied (this is of course an idealized concept, but the stress es can only be segregated by segregating the applied loads, so the sustained loa ds can only be applied either before, or after, the expansion loads). Following are the default load cases, as well as those required for a hot sustained. Default W+P1+T1(OPE) W+P1(SUS) L1-L2(EXP) New W+P1+T1(OPE) W+P1(SUS) T1 (EXP) L1-L2(EXP) L1-L3(SUS)

22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual In the new load case list, the second case still represents the cold sustained, while the fourth case represents the expansion case (note that L1-L2, or W+P1+T1 -W-P1, equals T1, with non-linear effects taken into account). The third case re presents the thermal growth of the weightless, non-pressurized pipe, against the non-l inear restraints. The fifth case (L1-L3, or W+P1+T1-T1, equals W+P1) represents the application of weight and pressure to that expanded case, or the hot sustained cas e. Note that when the piping system is analyzed as above, the actual effects of the non-linear restraints are considered (they are not arbitrarily removed from the model), and the laws of superposition still hold. An alternative school of t hought believes that a "hot sustained" is only valid if (1) the sustained, prima ry loads are applied, (2) all springs are showing their Hot Load settings, and ( 3) any supports that lift off (or otherwise become non-active) have been removed from the model. An analysis such as this is achievable by setting the "Keep/Dis card" status of the Restrained Weight case (the first hanger design load case) t o "Keep", thus permitting the results of that case to be viewable as for any oth er load case. The Restrained Weight case automatically removes restraints that b ecome non-active during the designated operating case, and apply the Hot Load at each of the hanger locations.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 23 Notes on Occasional Load Cases Several piping codes require that the stresses from occasional loads (such as wi nd or earthquake) be added to the sustained stresses (due to weight, pressure, a nd other constant loads) before comparing them to their allowables. This combina tion is easily created in CAESAR II: CASE # 1 2 3 4 5 W+P+F1 WIND U1 L1+L2 L1+L3 (OCC) (OCC) (OCC) (SUS) :Sustained stresses :Wind load set (OCC) :Uniform (g) l oad set for earthquake :Code stresses for wind * :Code stresses for earthquake* * Scalar Summation Method required If nonlinear effects are modeled in the syste m these combinations may not be so straight forward. Friction, one-direction res traints and double-acting restraints with gaps are the nonlinear items which pre sent this complication. Wind loading on a long vertical run of pipe with a guide will serve as an example. Assume there is a one inch gap between the pipe and g uide. Under normal operation, the pipe moves 3/4 inch towards the stop leaving a gap of 1-3/4 inch on either side of the pipe and a 1/4 inch gap on the other si de. If wind loads are analyzed alone, the pipe is allowed to move 1 inch from it s center point in the guide to the guide stop. Since occasional loads are usuall y analyzed with the system in operation, the pipe may be limited to a 1/4 inch m otion as the gap is closed in one direction, and 1-3/4 inch if the gap is closed in the opposite direction. With nonlinear effects modeled in the system, the oc casional deflections (and stresses) are influenced by the operating position of the piping. The following list of CAESAR II load cases take this point into cons ideration. Note that the load cases shown below are only for wind acting in one direction, i.e., +X. Depending on the system, the most critical loads could occu r in any direction, i.e., +/-X, +/-Z or skewed in an XZ direction. The intention of the following load case construction is to find the occasional load s effect on the piping system in the operating condition. The stress due to the moment chang e from the operating to the operating plus wind case is added to the stress from the sustained case. The isolated wind effect on the piping system in the operat ing condition in is computed in Case 5. Case 6 adds the stresses from Case 5 to the sustained stresses from Case 2. CASE # 1 2 3 4 5 6 W+T+P W+P W+T+P+WIND L1-L 2 L3-L1 L2+L5 (OPE) (SUS) (OPE) (EXP) (OCC) (OCC) :Operation analysis :Sustained stresses :Operating analysis with wind :Expansion stresses (Algebraic summation ) :Wind s net deflection (Algebraic summation) :Code stresses for wind (Scalar summa tion)

24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Static Seismic Loads Static earthquake loads are applied in a manner very similar to static wind load s. The static loading magnitude is considered to be in direct proportion to the element s weight. Earthquake load magnitudes are given in terms of the gravitational acceleration constant, i.e. g s. If an earthquake is modeled as having a 0.5-g load in the X direction, then half of the systems weight is turned into a uniform lo ad and applied in the X direction. Earthquake static load cases are set up exact ly as they are for wind occasional loads, i.e. the same load case, nonlinearity, and directional sensitivity logic. In some cases the client specifies the magni tude of the earthquake loading in g s and the direction(s). In others, the analysis is left to the sole discretion of the analyst. It is not unusual to see only X o r X-Y components of an earthquake. It is not uncommon to see Y only components, or X, Y, and Z simultaneous components. Dynamic earthquakes are discussed later in this chapter, in the dynamic analysis and output chapters, and in the screen reference chapter. The ASCE #7 method for determining earthquake coefficients is described below. Once calculated, the gfactors should be entered as uniform loa ds on the piping spreadsheet. Note: The Uniform Load in G's (on page 112) check box must also be enabled in the spreadsheet special execution parameters. The to tal lateral force at the base of a structure is to be computed from: V = ZIKCSW

Where: V - total lateral force or shear at the base Z numerical coefficient from tab le 22 K numerical coefficient from table 23 C numerical coefficient from Sect. 9.4 S so ctor from table 25 W total dead load The g-factor can be found by dividing Eq. 6 thr ough by W. g s = V/W = ZIKCS

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 25 The product CS does not need to exceed the value 0.14. Use this value as a conse rvative maximum. The following table provides the seismic zone coefficient (Z) . Seismic Zone Coefficient, Z 4 3 2 1 0 1 3/4 3/8 3/16 1/8 From the following table, the importance factor can be found: (However use a val ue for I = 1.0. The categories in this table are identical for those used in the wind load calculation.) The following table shows K varying from 0.67 to 2.0. U se K=2.0 for Structures other than buildings. So the equation for the g ces to: g = Z (1.0) (2.0) (0.14) and for the various value of Z:

load: g =

26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Seismic Zone 4 3 2 1 0 Product (1)(1)(2)(0.14) (3/4)(1)(2)(0.14) (3/8)(1)(2)(0.14) (3/16)(1)(2)(0.14) (1/8)(1)(2)(0.14) "g" Load 0.28 0.21 0.105 0.0525 0.035 Seismic Zones from A58.1 - 1982 fig. 13, p.50 ASCE #7 - 1990 is the 1990 revision to ANSI A58.1 1982. There are no revisions t o this code which affect CAESAR II. ASCE #7 - 1993 has completely changed the ap proach for "static" seismic analysis. These changes are not addressed by this di scussion.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 27 Wind Loads Wind loads are generated by multiplying the pipe exposed area, including insulat ion, and considering angle to the wind, by the equivalent wind pressure and the pipe shape factor. There are typically three different ways to get at the equiva lent wind pressure: ASCE #7 (1995) Pressure vs. elevation table entry Velocity v s. elevation table entry The total wind force on the element is calculated from F = PeqSA Where: F = the total wind force on the element Peq = the equivalent wi nd pressure (dynamic pressure) S = the pipe element wind shape factor A = the pi pe element exposed area as shown in the figure as follows: Peq is calculated for each end of the element and the average taken. The average applies uniformly ov er the whole length of the element. Note, the wind force is applied in the three global directions as a function of the element direction cosines. If the user enters a velocity vs. elevation table then the velocity is converted to a dynamic pressure using the following equation: P = 1/2 V2 where V is the w ind velocity and is the air density. The WIND SHAPE FACTOR is entered on the pipe spreadsheet and, for cylindrical el ements, the value from Table 12 is between 0.5 and 0.7. A value of 0.65 is typic al. The wind shape factor as entered is distributive. This means that the shape factor applies for all following elements until zeroed or changed. Important The user does not have to enter the shape factor on each pipe spreadsheet. Zero (or turn "Off") the wind shape factor if the piping system runs inside of building or sim ilarly protective structure. Wind load data is entered on the Wind Loads (on pag e 59) tab of the Static Load Case Builder. Up to four different wind loads can b e entered per analysis. These typically might be set up to model wind loads in t he +X, -Y, and -Z directions. The ASCE #7 ( 1995) Method for computing equivalen t pressure requires several computerized table look ups and interpolation. The u ser enters the following parameters: 1 Basic wind speed (mph) - The minimum allo wed basic wind speed is 85 mph. This does not include averages for abnormally hi gh wind loading events such as hurricanes or tornadoes. ASCE #7 refers to fig. 6-1 for basic wind speeds in the continental United State s. The following description is a crude representation of Figure 1:

28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual California Other West Coast Areas Great Plains Non-Coastal Eastern United States Gulf Coast Florida Miami New England Coastal Areas 2 Wind Exposure Options Larg e oily center Urban, suburban, and wooded areas Open terrain Flat coastal areas 3 Structural Classification Options 85 mph (124.6 ft/sec) 85 mph (124.6 ft/sec) 90 mph (132.0 ft/sec) 90 mph (132.0 ft/sec) 130 mph (190.6 ft/sec) Carolinas 130 mph (190.6 ft/sec) 145 mph (212.6 f t/sec) 120 mph (176.0 ft/sec) Everything except the following options (used most often) Primary occupancy more than 100 people Essential facilities, i.e. hospitals Failure represents low haz ard 4 Topographic Factor Parameters (sec. 6.5.5) Height of hill or escarpment Cr est distance Height above ground level Distance from crest to site Hill type The following d pressure: 1 ha), Zg, from q. 6-2 (p.34) procedure from the appendix is used to calculate the effective win 2 3 4 5 6 Get the Importance Factor from Table 6-2 (p.17) Get (Alp Table C 6-2. Calculate Kz from Eq. C2 (p.152) Calculate Kzt from E Calculate qz from Eq. 6-1, (p.17) Calculate Gz from sec 6.6

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 29 7 Calculate the effective wind pressure from PRESSURE = Gz * qz * Shape Factor Note: Winds of 20 to 40 mph can cause vortex shedding and excitation in the 30 H z and higher range that can cause fatigue failure in smaller line sizes particul arly susceptible to fatigue type failures. To analyze vortex shedding, use harmo nic analysis methods. Elevation The accurate elevation of each individual piping element may, or may not be impo rtant depending on the total height, diameter and rigidity of the piping system and attachments. By default, CAESAR II starts the first node on the first elemen t at an elevation of 0.0. If this is not close enough to the true elevation then the user should set the true coordinates of the piping system through the comma nd EDIT - GLOBAL. This presents a dialog requesting coordinates for the first no de of any disconnected section. The coordinates for up to 100 node points can be specified and saved as part of the input data from the model.

30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading Ocean waves are generated by wind and propagate out of the generating area. The generation of ocean waves is dependent on the wind speed, the duration of the wi nd, the water depth, and the distance over which the wind blows is referred to a s the fetch length. There a variety of two dimensional wave theories proposed by various researchers, but the three most widely used are the Airy (linear) wave theory, Stokes 5 th Order wave theory, and Dean's Stream Function wave theory. T he later two theories are non-linear wave theories and provide a better descript ion of the near surface effects of the wave. (The term two dimensional refers to the uni-directional wave. One dimension is the direction the wave travels, and the other dimension is vertical through the water column. Two dimensional waves are not found in the marine environment, but are somewhat easy to define and det ermine properties for, in a deterministic sense. In actuality, waves undergo spr eading, in the third dimension. This can be easily understood by visualizing a s tone dropped in a pond. As the wave spread, the diameter of the circle increases . In addition to wave spreading, a real sea state includes waves of various peri ods, heights, and lengths. In order to address these actual conditions, a determ inistic approach can not be used. Instead, a sea spectrum is utilized, which may also include a spreading function. As there are various wave theories, there ar e various sea spectra definitions. The definition and implementation of sea spec tra are usually employed in dynamic analysis. Sea Spectra and dynamic analysis w ill not be discussed in this article.) The linear or Airy wave theory assumes th e free surface is symmetric about the mean water level. Furthermore, the water p article motion is a closed circular orbit, the diameter of which decays with dep th. (The term circular should be taken loosely here, the orbit varies from circu lar to elliptical based on whether the wave is in shallow or deep water.) Additi onally, for shallow water waves, the wave height to depth ratio (H/D) is limited to 0.78 to avoid breaking. (None of the wave theories address breaking waves!) The figure below shows a typical wave and associated hydrodynamic parameters. SWL - The still water level. L - The wave length, the horizontal distance betwee n successive crests or troughs. H- The wave height, the vertical distance betwee n the crest and trough. D - The water depth, the vertical distance form the bott om to the still water level. # - The surface elevation measured from the still w ater level.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 31 Ocean Wave Particulars The Airy wave theory provides a good first approximation to the water particle b ehavior. The nonlinear theories provide a better description of particle motion, over a wider range depths and wave heights. The Stokes 5th wave theory is based on a power series. This wave theory does not apply the symmetric free surface r estriction. Additionally, the particle paths are no longer closed orbits, which means there is a gradual drift of the fluid particles, i.e. a mass transport. St okes 5th order wave theory however, does not adequately address steeper waves ov er a complete range of depths. Dean s Stream Function wave theory attempts to addres s this deficiency. This wave theory employs an iterative numerical technique to solve the stream function equation. The stream function describes not only the g eometry of a two dimensional flow, but also the components of the velocity vecto r at any point, and the flow rate between any two streamlines. The most suitable wave theory is dependent on the wave height, the wave period, and the water dep th. Based on these parameters, the applicable wave theory can be determined from the figure below (from API-RP2A, American Petroleum Institute - Recommended Pra ctice 2A).

32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Applicable Wave Theory Determination The limiting wave steepness for most deep water waves is usually determined by t he Miche Limit: H / L = 0.142 tanh( kd ) Where: H is the wave height L k d is th e wave length is the wave number (2 )/L is the water depth Pseudo-Static Hydrodynamic Loading CAESAR II allows individual pipe elements to experience loading due to hydrodyna mic effects. These fluid effects can impose a substantial load on the piping ele ments in a manner similar to, but more complex than wind loading. The various wa ve theories incorporated into CAESAR II as well as the various types of current profiles are discussed below. The wave theories and the current profile are used to compute the water particle velocities and accelerations at the node points. Once these parameters are available, the force on the element can be computed us ing Morrison s equation: F = 1/2 * Where - is the fluid density Cd- is the drag coef ficient D - is the pipe diameter U - is the particle velocity Cm - is the inerti al coefficient A - is the particle acceleration The particle velocities and acce lerations are vector quantities which include the effects of any applied waves o r currents. In addition to the force imposed by Morrison s equation, piping elements are also subjected to a lift force and a buoyancy force. The lift force is defi ned as the force acting normal to the plane formed by the velocity vector and th e element s axis. The lift force is defined as: Fl = 1/2 * Where - is the fluid dens ity Cl - is the lift coefficient D - is the pipe diameter U - is the particle ve locity * Cl * D * U2 * Cd * D * U * |U| + /4 * * Cm * D2 * A

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 33 The buoyancy force acts upward, and is equal to the weight of the fluid volume d isplaced by the element. Once the force on a particular element is available, it is placed in the system load vector just as any other load is. A standard solut ion is performed on the system of equations which describe the piping system. (T he piping system can be described by the standard finite element equation: [K] { x} = {f} Where [K] - is the global stiffness matrix for the entire system {x} is the displacement / rotation vector to solve for {f} - is global load vector T he element loads generated by the hydrodynamic effects are placed in their prope r locations in {f}, similar to weight, pressure, and temperature. Once [K] and { f} are finalized, a standard finite element solution is performed on this system of equations. The resulting displacement vector {x} is then used to compute ele ment forces, and these forces are then used to compute the element stresses.) Ex cept for the buoyancy force, all other hydrodynamic forces acting on the element are a function of the particle velocities and accelerations. AIRY Wave Theory Implementation Airy wave theory is also known as linear wave theory, due to the assumption that the w ave profile is symmetric about the mean water level. Standard Airy wave theory a llows for the computation of the water particle velocities and accelerations bet ween the mean surface elevation and the bottom. The Modified Airy wave theory al lows for the consideration of the actual free surface elevation in the computati on of the particle data. CAESAR II includes both the standard and modified forms of the Airy wave theory. To apply the Airy wave theory, several descriptive par ameters about the wave must be given. These values are then used to solve for th e wave length, which is a characteristic parameter of each unique wave. CAESAR I I uses Newton-Raphston iteration to determine the wave length by solving the dis persion relation, shown below: L = (gT2 / 2 ) * tanh(2 D / L) Where g - is the a cceleration of gravity T - is the wave period D - is the mean water depth L - is the wave length to be solved for Once the wave length (L) is known, the other w ave particulars of interest may be easily determined. The parameters determined and used by CAESAR II are: the horizontal and vertical particle velocities ( UX and UY ), the horizontal and vertical particle acceleration ( AX and AY ), and t he surface elevation above (or below) the mean water level ( ETA ). The equation s for these parameters can be found in any standard text (such as those listed a t the end of this section) which discusses ocean wave theories, and therefore wi ll not be repeated here.

34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual STOKES Wave Theory Implementation The Stokes wave is a 5th order gravity wave, and hence non-linear in nature. The solution technique employed by CAESAR II is described in a paper published by S kjelbreia and Hendrickson of the National Engineering Science Company of Pasaden a California in 1960. The standard formulation as well as a modified formulation (to the free surface) are available in CAESAR II Stokes 5th Order Wave Theory. The solution follows a procedure very similar to that used in the Airy wave, cha racteristic parameters of the wave are determined by using Newton-Raphston itera tion, followed by the determination of the water particle values of interest. Th e Newton-Raphston iteration procedure solves two non-linear equations for the co nstants beta and lambda. Once these values are available, the other twenty const ants can be computed. After all of the constants are known, CAESAR II can comput e: the horizontal and vertical particle velocities ( UX and UY ), the horizontal and vertical particle acceleration ( AX and AY ), and the surface elevation abo ve the mean water level (ETA). Stream Function Wave Theory Implementation In addition to the forces imposed by ocean waves, piping elements may also be su bjected to forces imposed by ocean currents. There are three different ocean cur rent models in CAESAR II; linear, piecewise, and a power law profile. The linear current profile assumes that the current velocity through the water column vari es linearly from the specified surface velocity (at the surface) to zero (at the bottom). The piece-wise linear profile employs linear interpolation between spe cific depth/velocity points specified by the user. The power law profile decays the su rface velocity to the 1/7 power. While waves produce unsteady flow, where the pa rticle velocities and accelerations at a point constantly change, current produc es a steady, non-varying flow. Ocean Currents In addition to forces imposed by ocean waves, piping elements may also be subjec ted to forces imposed by ocean currents. There are three different ocean current models in CAESAR II; linear piece-wise linear profile, and a power law profile. The linear current profile assumes that the current velocity though the water c olumn varies linearly from the specified surface velocity (at the surface to zer o (at the bottom). The piece-wise linear profile employs linear interpolation be tween specific "depth /velocity" points specified by the user. The power law pro file decays the surface velocity to the 1/7 power. While waves produce unsteady flow, where the particle velocities and accelerations at a point constantly chan ge, current produces a steady, non-varying flow.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 35 Technical Notes on CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading The input parameters necessary to define the fluid loading are described in deta il in the next section. The basic parameters describe the wave height and period , and the current velocity. The most difficult to obtain, and also the most impo rtant parameters, are the drag, inertia, and lift coefficients, Cd, Cm, and Cl. Based on the recommendations of API RP2A and DNV (Det Norske Veritas), values fo r Cd range from 0.6 to 1.2, values for Cm range from 1.5 to 2.0. Values for Cl s how a wide range of scatter, but the approximate mean value is 0.7. The inertia coefficient Cm is equal to one plus the added mass coefficient Ca. This added ma ss value accounts for the mass of the fluid assumed to be entrained with the pip ing element. In actuality, these coefficients are a function of the fluid partic le velocity, which varies over the water column. In general practice, two dimens ionless parameters are computed which are used to obtain the Cd, Cm, and Cl valu es from published charts. The first dimensionless parameter is the Keulegan-Carp enter Number, K. K is defined as: K = Um * T / D Where: Um - is the maximum flui d particle velocity T - is the wave period D - is the characteristic diameter of the element. The second dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds number, Re. Re is defined as Re = Um * D / Where: Um - is the maximum fluid particle velocity D - is the characteristic diameter of the element. - is the kinematic viscosity o f the fluid (1.26e-5 ft2/sec for sea water).

36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Once K and Re are available, charts are used to obtain Cd, Cm, and Cl. (See Mech anics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structures by T. Sarpkaya, Figures 3.21, 3.22, and 3.25 for example charts, which are shown in the figures below.)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 37 In order to determine these coefficients, the fluid particle velocity (at the lo cation of interest) must be determined. The appropriate wave theory is solved, a nd these particle velocities are readily obtained. Of the wave theories discusse d, the modified Airy and Stokes 5th theories include a modification of the depth -decay function. The standard theories use a depth-decay function equal to cosh( kz) / sinh(kd), Where: k - is the wave number, 2 /L L - is the wave length d - i s the water depth z - is the elevation in the water column where the data is to be determined The modified theories include an additional term in the numerator of this depth-decay function. The modified depth-decay function is equal to cosh ( d) / sinh(kd), Where: - is equal to z / (d + #)

The term d represents the effective height of the point at which the particle ve locity and acceleration are to be computed. The use of this term keeps the effec tive height below the still water level. This means that the velocity and accele ration computed are convergent for actual heights above the still water level. A s previously stated, the drag, inertia, and lift coefficients are a function of the fluid velocity and the diameter of the element in question. Note that the fl uid particle velocities vary with both depth and position in the wave train (as determined by the applied wave theory). Therefore, these coefficients are in fac t not constants. However, from a practical engineering point of view, varying th ese coefficients as a function of location in the Fluid field is usually not imp lemented. This practice can be justified when one considers the inaccuracies inv olved in specifying the instantaneous wave height and period. According to Sarpk aya, these values are insufficient to accurately predict wave forces, a consider ation of the previous fluid particle history is necessary. In light of these unc ertainties, constant values for Cd, Cm, and Cl are recommended by API and many o ther references. The effects of marine growth must also be considered. Marine gr owth has the following effects on the system loading: the increased pipe diamete rs increase the hydrodynamic loading; the increased roughness causes an increase in Cd, and therefore the hydrodynamic loading; the increase in mass and added m ass cause reduced natural frequencies and increase the dynamic amplification fac tor; it causes an increase in the structural weight; and possibly causes hydrody namic instabilities, such as vortex shedding. Finally, Morrison s force equation is based the small body assumption. The term small refers to the diameter to wave is ratio exceeds 0.2, the inertial force is no longer in phase with the accelera tion of the fluid particles and diffraction effects must be considered. In such cases, the fluid loading as typically implemented by CAESAR II is no longer appl icable. Additional discussions on hydrodynamic loads and wave theories can be fo und in the references at the end of this article.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 39 Input: Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters in CAESAR II The hydrodynamic load analysis requires the specification of several measurable parameters which quantify the physical aspects of the environmental phenomenon i n question. Note: Users can enter four different wave loads here. Use the Editin g Load Case buttons to move up or down between the Wave Load Input Spreadsheets. The necessary hydrodynamic parameters are discussed in the following paragraphs and a CAESAR II hydrodynamic loading dialog is shown in the figure below. Wave Loading Editing in the Load Case Editor Current Data Profile Type This entry defines the interpolation method used by CAESAR II to determ ine the current velocity as a function of depth. Available options for this entr y are: a power law profile, a piece-wise linear profile, and a linear profile. T he power law profile determines the current velocity at depth D according to the equation: Vd = Vs * [di / D]p Where Vd - is the velocity at depth di Vs - is th e specified velocity at the surface D - is the water depth p - is the power, set to 1/7

40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The piece-wise linear profile performs a linear interpolation of a velocity vers e depth table (provided by the user) to obtain the current velocity at depth di. When this type profile is specified, a table of depths and velocities must be p rovided. The table should start at the surface (a depth of zero) and progress in the direction of increasing depth, to the sea bed. The linear profile also perf orms a linear interpolation to obtain the current velocity at depth di. However, this method assumes the current velocity varies linearly from the specified sur face velocity to zero at the sea bed. Current Speed This entry defines the current speed at the surface. The units for this entry are (length/time) as defined by the active units file at the time of input. This value should always be a positi ve entry. Current Direction Cosines These entries define the direction of fluid tr ansport due to the current. These fields are unitless, and follow the standard s oftware global axis convention.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 41 Wave Data Wave Theory Indicator This entry specifies which wave theory is to be used to comp ute the water particle velocities and accelerations. The wave theories presently available are: Standard Airy Wave This is also known as linear wave theory. Discu ssion of this theory can be found in the previously mentioned references. Modifi ed Airy Wave This is a modification of the standard Airy theory which includes the free surface effects due to the wave. The modification consists of determining a depth scaling factor equal to the depth divided by the depth plus the surface elevation. Note that this scale factor varies as a function of the location in t he wave train. Standard Stokes 5th Wave This is a 5th order wave theory, also disc ussed in the previously mentioned references. Modified Stokes 5th Wave This is a m odification of the standard Stokes 5th theory. The modification is the same as a pplied to the Airy theory. Stream Function Wave This is Dean s Stream Function theory, also discussed in the previously mentioned references. Modified Stream Function Wave This is Dean s Stream Function theory, modified to directly consider current in the wave solution. Stream Function Order When the Stream Function theory is activa ted, the solution order must be defined. Typical values for the stream function order range from 3 to 13 (see API-RP2A figure). Water Depth This entry defines the vertical distance (in units of length) from the still water level (the surface) to the sea bed. Wave Height This entry defines the height of the incident wave. T he height is the vertical distance (in units of length) from the wave crest to t he wave trough. Wave Period This entry defines the time span (in seconds) for two successive wave crests to pass a fixed point. Wave Kinematic Factor Because the tw o dimensional wave theories do not account for spreading, a reduction factor is often used for the horizontal particle velocity and acceleration. Wave kinematic measurements support values in the range of 0.85 to 0.95. Refer to the applicab le offshore codes before using this item. Wave Direction Cosines These entries def ine the direction of wave travel. These fields are unitless, and follow the stan dard software global axis convention. Wave Phase Angle This entry defines the posi tion of the wave relative to the starting node of the piping system. The phase a ngle is a measure (in degrees) of position in the wave train, where 0 is the wav e crest, 180 is the wave trough, and 360 is the following crest. Since the wave propagates over the piping structure, each point in the structure experiences al l possible wave phase angles. One analysis technique specifies the wave phase at the system origin, and then the phase at each node point in the model is determ ined. From these exact phase locations, the water particle data is computed from the wave theory.

42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Alternatively, a conservative engineering approach is to use the same phase angl e (usually zero) for all points in the model. This technique produces higher loa ds, however, the extra conservatism is warranted when given the unknowns in spec ifying environmental data. Seawater Data Free Surface Elevation This entry defines the height of the free surface, from the global system origin. If the system origin is at the free surface, this entry s hould be specified as zero. If the system origin is at the sea bottom, this entr y is equal to the water depth. By default, the first node in a CAESAR II model i s at an elevation of zero. This elevation can be changed using the [Alt-G] key s equence. Kinematic Viscosity This entry is used to define the kinematic viscosity of water. This value is used to determine the Reynolds number, which is subseque ntly used to determine they hydrodynamic coefficients Cd, Cm, and Cl. Typical va lues of kinematic viscosity for sea water are listed in the table below. Temp De g (F) 60 50 40 30 (ft2/sec) 1.26e-5 1.46e-5 1.55e-5 2.00e-5 Temp (C) 15.556 10.0 00 4.444 -1.111 (m2/sec) 1.17058e-6 1.35639e-6 1.44000e-6 1.85807e-6 Fluid Weight Density - This entry defines the weight density of the fluid. For s ea water, this value is approximately .037037 pounds per cubic inch (.001025 kg/ cm3, 1.0256SG). Piping Element Data Element Exposure In implementing hydrodynamic loading in a software program, one m ust be able to indicate that elements are either exposed to the fluid or not exp osed to the fluid. In CAESAR II, this is accomplished by a set of radio buttons, which indicate that the particular element is exposed to hydrodynamic loads, wind loa ds, or not exposed. This specification carries forward for all subsequent elemen ts, until changed. Hydrodynamic Coefficients Piping elements which are to be subje cted to hydrodynamic loading must have a drag (Cd), an inertia (Cm), and a lift (Cl) coefficient defined. The specification of these items is optional. A user m ay specify these values as constants to be applied to all subsequent exposed ele ments, regardless of depth or phase position in the wave. Alternatively, these v alues may be left blank, which will cause CAESAR II to interpolate their values from the charts previously discussed. Marine Growth This entry defines the amount of marine growth on the piping elements. The value of this entry is used to incr ease the diameter of the piping elements. The units for this field are the curre nt diameter units. The diameter used in the computation of the hydrodynamic forc es is equal to the pipe diameter plus twice the marine growth entry. References 1 2 Mechanics of Wave Forces On Offshore Structures, Turgut Sarpkaya and Michael Isaacson, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982, ISBN 0-442-25402-4. Handbook of Ocea n and Underwater Engineering, Myers, Holm, and McAllister, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1969, ISBN 07-044245 -2.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 43 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fifth Order Gravity Wave Theory, Lars Skjelbreia and James Hendrickson, National Engineering Science Co., Pasadena, California, 1960. Planning and Design of Fix ed Offshore Platforms, McClelland and Reifel, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1986, I SBN 0-442-25223-4. Intercomparison of Near-Bottom Kinematics by Several Wave The ories and Field and Laboratory Data, R. G. Dean and M. Perlin, Coastal Engineeri ng, #9 (1986), p399-437. A Finite Amplitude Wave on a Linear Shear Current, R. A . Dalrymple, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 79, No 30, 1974. Application o f Stream Function Wave Theory to Offshore Design Problems, R. G. Dean, OTC #1613 , 1972. Stream Function Representation of Nonlinear Ocean Waves, R. G. Dean, Jou rnal of Geophysical Research, Vol 70, No 18, 1965. American Petroleum Institute - Recommended Practice 2A (API-RP2A), American Petroleum Institute, July 1993. 10 Improved Algorithm for Stream Function Wave Theory, Min-Chih Huang, Journal o f Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, January 1989. 11 Stream Functi on Wave Theory with Profile Constraints, Min-Chih Huang, Journal of Waterway, Po rt, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, January/February 1993.

44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Evaluating Vessel Stresses The ASME Section VIII, Division 2 code provides for a fairly elaborate procedure to analyze the local stresses in vessels and nozzles. Only the elastic analysis approach will be discussed in this manual. The user should always refer to the applicable code if any of the limits described in this section are approached, o r if any unusual material, weld, or stress situation exists, or there are non-li near concerns such as the material's operation in the creep range. The first ste p in the procedure is to determine if the elastic approach is satisfactory. Sect ion AD-160 contains the exact method and basically states that if all of the fol lowing conditions are met, then fatigue analysis need not be done: 1 The expecte d design number of full-range pressure cycles does not exceed the number of allo wed cycles corresponding to an Sa value of 3Sm (4Sm for non-integral attachments ) on the material fatigue curve. The Sm is the allowable stress intensity for th e material at the operating temperature. The expected design range of pressure c ycles other than startup or shutdown must be less than 1/3 (1/4 for non-integral attachments) the design pressure times (Sa/Sm), where Sa is the value obtained on the material fatigue curve for the specified number of significant pressure f luctuations. The vessel does not experience localized high stress due to heating . The full range of stress intensities due to mechanical loads (including piping reactions) does not exceed Sa from the fatigue curve for the expected number of load fluctuations. 2 3 4 Once the user has decided that an elastic analysis will be satisfactory, either a simplified or a comprehensive approach may be taken to the vessel stress evalu ation. Both methods will be described in detail below, after a discussion of the Section VIII Div. 2 Requirements. ASME Section VIII Division 2 - Elastic Analysis of Nozzle Ideally, in order to address the local allowable stress problem, the user should have the endurance curve for the material of construction and complete design p ressure / temperature loading information. If any of the elastic limits are appr oached, or if there is anything out of the ordinary about the nozzle/vessel conn ection design, the code should be carefully consulted before performing the loca l stress analysis. The material Sm table and the endurance curve for carbon stee ls are given in this section for illustration. Only values taken directly from t he code should be used in design. There are essentially three criteria that must be satisfied before the stresses in the vessel wall due to nozzle loads can be considered within the allowables. These three criteria can be summarized as: Pm < kSmh Pm + Pl + Pb< 1.5kSmh Pm + Pl + Pb + Q < 3Smavg

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 45 Where Pm, Pl, Pb, and Q are the general primary membrane stress, the local prima ry membrane stress, the local primary bending stress, and the total secondary st resses (membrane plus bending), respectively; and K, Smh, and Smavg are the occa sional stress factor, the hot material allowable stress intensity, and the avera ge material stress intensity (Smh + Smc) / 2. Due to the stress classification d efined by Section VIII, Division 2 in the vicinity of nozzles, as given in the T able 4-120.1, the bending stress terms caused by any external load moments or in ternal pressure in the vessel wall near a nozzle or other opening, should be cla ssified as Q, or the secondary stresses, regardless of whether they were caused by sustained or expansion loads. This causes Pb to disappear, and leads to a muc h more detailed classification: Pm General primary membrane stress (primarily due to internal pressure) Pl Local primary membrane stress, which may include --Membrane s tress due to internal pressure --Local membrane stress due to applied sustained forces and moments Q Secondary stresses, which may include --Bending stress due to i nternal pressure --Bending stress due to applied sustained forces and moments -Membrane stress due to applied expansion forces --Bending stress due to applied expansion forces and moments --Membrane stress due to applied expansion moments Each of the stress terms defined in the above classifications contain three part s: two stress components in normal directions and one shear stress component. To combine these stresses, the following rules apply: Compute the normal and shear components for each of the three stress types, i.e. Pm, Pl, and Q; Compute the stress intensity due to the Pm and compare it against kSmh; Add the individual n ormal and shear stress components due to Pmand Pl; compute the resultant stress intensity and compare its value against 1.5kSmh; Add the individual normal and s hear stress components due to Pm, Pl, and Q, compute the resultant stress intens ity, and compare its value to against 3Smavg. If there is an occasional load as well as a sustained load, these types may be repeated using a k value of 1.2. Th ese criteria can be readily found from Figure 4-130.1 of Appendix 4 of ASME Sect ion VIII, Division 2 and the surrounding text. Note that the primary bending str ess term, Pb, is not applicable to the shell stress evaluation, and therefore di sappears from the Section VIII, Division 2 requirements. Under the same analogy, the peak stress limit may also be written as: Pl + Pb + Q + F < S a The precedi ng equation need not be satisfied, provided the elastic limit criteria of AD-160 is met based on the statement explicitly given in Section 5-100, which is cited below: If the specified operation of the vessel meets all of the conditions of AD160, no analysis for cyclic operation is required and it may be assumed that the peak stress limit discussed in 4-135 has been satisfied by compliance with the applicable requirements for materials, design, fabrication, testing and inspecti on of this division.

46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Procedure to Perform Elastic Analyses of Nozzles The procedure for checking stresses in vessel shells using WRC 107 can be summar ized as follows: 1 2 3 Check geometric limitation to see whether WRC 107 is appl icable; If yes, check to see whether or not the elastic approach as outlined in Section VIII, Division 2, AD160 is satisfactory; Compute the sustained, expansio n and occasional loads in the vessel shell due to the applied nozzle loads. Cons ider the local restraint configuration in order to determine whether or not the axial pressure thrust load (P * Ain) should be added to the sustained (and occas ional loads). If desired by the user, this thrust load will be automatically cal culated and added to the applied loads. Calculate pressure stresses, Pm, on the vessel shell wall in both longitudinal and circumferential (hoop) directions for both sustained and occasional cases. Notice that two different pressure terms a re required in carrying out the pressure stress calculations. P is the design pr essure of the system (sustained), while Pvar is the DIFFERENCE between the peak pressure and the design pressure of the system, which will be used to qualify th e vessel membrane stress under the occasional load case. The Pm stresses will be calculated automatically if a pressure value is enter by the user. 4 Note: 1 2 Run WRC 107 to calculate the Pl, and Q stresses as defined earlier. Note that th e local stresses due to sustained, expansion and occasional loads can now be com pute simultaneously. Various stress components can be obtained from combining th e stress intensities computed from applying the sustained, expansion and occasio nal loads, if applicable. These stress intensities can then be used to carry out the stress summations and the results are used to determine acceptability of th e local stresses in the vessel shell. Notice now CAESAR II can provide the WRC 1 07 stress summation module in line with the stress calculation routines Under the above procedure, the equations used in CAESAR II to qualify the variou s stress components can be summarized as follows: Pm(SUS) < Smh Pm(SUS + OCC) < 1.2Smh Pm(SUS) + Pl(SUS) < 1.5Smh Pm(SUS + OCC) + Pl(SUS + OCC) < 1.5(1.2)Smh Pm (SUS + OCC) + Pl(SUS + OCC) + Q(SUS + EXP + OCC) < 1.5(Smc + Smh)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 47 Description of Alternate Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Nozzle Analysis The most difficult problem associated with the comprehensive ASME Sect. VIII, Di v. 2 nozzle/vessel analysis involves the pressure calculation. Hoop and longitud inal hand pressure calculations can not be considered dependable, and axial pres sure loading on the junction is often calculated incorrectly or omitted. A small er, yet significant problem with the comprehensive calculation is the time it ta kes to organize and manipulate the stress data. For these reasons, an alternate simplified approach was developed. To eliminate the concern for pressure, both t he pressure term in the loading on the left side of the inequality and the press ure term in the allowable on the right side of the inequality are cancelled. The first check is Pm (due to pressure) must be less than or equal to 1.0 Smh. Assu ming that the area reinforcement around the nozzle will satisfy the pressure req uirements, let this first check equal the maximum value. The second check is Pm + Pl + Pb must be less than or equal to 1.5 Smh. Subtracting the stresses due to pressure (assumed equal to Smh) reduces this check to: Pl + Pb (due to external sustained forces without pressure) < 0.5 Smh. Unfortunately, the third check on the Pm + Pl + Q terms are at the root of an application controversy. There are primarily three schools of thought: Pm+Pl+Q is an operating loading condition, a nd as such, includes the loads due to pressure and weight. Pm+Pl+Q is the range of loads, i.e. the expansion loading condition, and as such, excludes the effect s of sustained, or primary loads. Primary sustained loads, such as weight and pr essure, should be excluded. Pm+Pl+Q is the range of loads and should exclude the primary load weight, but should include the varying pressure load at least in t hose thermal load cases where the system goes from a startup (ambient temperatur e and pressure condition to operating condition). For the simplification, it is assumed that the Pm component due to pressure should be included in both the lef t and right side of the Pm+Pl+Pb+Q < 3Sm inequality, thus assuming that the area reinforcement requirements are exactly satisfied, i.e. Again, letting Pm = Sm a nd subtracting this pressure term from the expansion allowable (Pm + Pl + Q < 3Sm) pro vides a simplified allowable limit. The expansion (or operating, or both) loads from the CAESAR II restraint report should satisfy the computed stress requireme nt: Pl + Pb + Q (operating or expansion excluding pressure) < 2Sm. In summary En sure proper nozzle reinforcement for pressure and assume pressure stresses are a t their maximum. Compare primary stresses (without pressure) to 1/2 Smh. Compare stresses due to the sum of primary and secondary loads to 2Sm(avg); where Sm(av g) is the average of the hot and cold allowable stress intensities (Smh & Smc).

48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Elastic Nozzle Analysis 1 Perform a CAESAR II analysis of the piping loads on the vessel/nozzle junction . Use WRC 297 flexibilities to compute loads more accurately, but less conservat ively (or do two analysis, one with flexibilities and one without). From this an alysis the user should have sustained, operating, and expansion loads on the ves sel/nozzle junction. Find Smh and Smc from the Sect. VIII allowable stress table s. Smh is the vessel material hot allowable, and Smc is the vessel material cold allowable. Run WRC 107 with the sustained loads on the vessel/nozzle junction f rom CAESAR II, and make sure that the computed stress intensities are less than 0.5 Smh. This conservatively considers bending stresses from internal pressure a nd sustained moments to have a primary classification; if it fails, the stresses must be reviewed in more detail. Run WRC 107 with the operating loads on the ve ssel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure that the computed stress inte nsities are less than Smh + Smc. Run WRC 107 with the expansion loads on the ves sel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure that the computed stress inten sities are less than Smh + Smc. 2 3 4 5 Should any of the checks described fail, then the more comprehensive analysis (d escribed earlier) of the junction should be performed.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 49 Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction The response of a system under a dynamic load is often determined by superpositi on of modal results, with CAESAR II specifically providing the spectral analysis method for use. One of the advantages of modal analysis is that usually only a limited number of modes are excited and need be included in the analysis. The dr awback to this method is that although displacements may be obtained with good a ccuracy using only a few of the lowest frequency modes, the force, reaction, and stress results may require extraction of far more modes (possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is attained. CAESAR II s Missing Mass option offers the ability to include a correction which represents the quasistatic con tribution of the higher order modes not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynam ic response, thus providing greater accuracy with reduced calculation time. The dynamic response of a linear multi-degree-of-freedom system is described by the following equation: Ma(t) + Cv(t) + Kx(t) = F(t) Where: M = n x n mass matrix of system C = n x n damping matrix of system K = n x n stiffness matrix of system a(t) = n x 1, time-dependent acceleration vector v(t) = n x 1, time-dependent ve locity vector x(t) = n x 1, time-dependent displacement vector F(t) = n x 1, tim e-dependent applied force vector Assuming harmonic motion and neglecting damping , the free vibration eigenvalue problem for this system is K% - M% Where: % = n x n mode shape matrix 2 2 =0 = n x n matrix where each diagonal entry is the frequency squared of the corresp onding mode The modal matrix % may be normalized such that %T M % = I (where I is the n x n identity matrix) and %T K % = 2. The modal matrix % may be partitioned into two submatrices: % = [ %e %r ] Where: %e = mode shapes extracted for dynamic analysi s (i.e., lowest frequency modes) %r = residual (non-extracted) mode shapes (corr contribution) esponding to rigid response, or the missing mass

50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The extracted mode shapes are orthogonal to the residual mode shapes, or: %eT x %r = 0 The displacement components can be expressed as linear combinations of th e mode shapes: x = %Y = %e Ye + %r Yr = xe + xr Where: x = total system displace ments xe = system displacements due to extracted modes xr = system displacements due to residual modes Y = generalized modal coordinates Ye = partition of Y mat rix corresponding to extracted modes Yr = partition of Y matrix corresponding to residual modes The dynamic load vector can be expressed in similar terms: F = K % Y = K %e Ye + K %r Yr = Fe + Fr Where: F = total system load vector Fe = load vector due to extracted modes Fr = load vector due to residual modes Y = genera lized modal coordinates Ye = partition of Y matrix corresponding to extracted mo des Yr = partition of Y matrix corresponding to residual modes Normally, modal s uperposition analyses completely neglect the rigid response the displacements X r caused by the load Fr. This response, of the non-extracted modes, can be obtaine d from the system displacement under a static loading Fr. Based upon the relatio nships stated above, Fr can be estimated as follows: F = K % e Ye + K % r Yr Mul tiplying both sides by %eT (and considering that %eT %r = 0): %eT F = %eT K %e Y e + %eT K %r Yr = %eT K %e Ye Substituting %eT F = Ye = %eT 2 e 2 e -2 e for %eT K %e and solving for Ye: Ye F The residual force can now be stated as Fr = F - K %e Ye = F - %eT K %e -2 e F

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 51 As seen earlier %T M % 2 =I 2 = %T K % 2 e 2 e Substituting %eT M%e Fr = F - %eT M %e for %eT K %e: -2 e F = F - %eT M %e F Therefore, CAESAR II calculates the residual response (and includes it as the mi ssing mass contribution) according to the following procedure: 1 The missing mas s load is calculated for each individual shock load as Fr = F - %eT M %e F Note: The load vector F represents the product of the force set vector and the rigid DLF for force spectrum loading; the product of the mass matrix, ZPA, and directional vector for non-ISM seismic loads; and the product of the mass matrix, ZPA, and displacement matrix (under unit ISM support displac ement) for seismic anchor movement loads. Note that the missing mass load will v ary, depending upon the number of modes extracted by the user and the cutoff fre quency selected (or more specifically, the DLF or acceleration corresponding to the cutoff frequency). "Rigid, for the purposes of determining the rigid DLF, or th e ZPA, may be designated by the user, through a setup parameter, to be either th e DLF/acceleration associated with the frequency of the last extracted mode, or the true spectral DLF/ ZPA that corresponding to the largest entered frequency of th e input spectrum. 2 The missing mass load is applied to the structure as a stati c load. The static structural response is then combined (according to the user-s pecified combination method) with the dynamically amplified modal responses as i f it were a modal response. Actually this static response is the algebraic sum o f the responses of all non-extracted modes representing in-phase response, as would be expected from rigid modes. The Missing Mass Data report is compiled for all shock cases, whether missing mass is to be included or not. The percent of mass active is calculated according to: % Active Mass = 1 - ( Fr[i] / summed over i = 1 to n F [i]) 3

52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The maximum possible percent that is theoretically possible for this value is of course 100%, however numerical inaccuracies may occasionally cause the value to be slightly higher. If the missing mass correction factor is included, the perc ent of mass included in the correction is shown in the report as well. Since CAE SAR II s procedure assumes that the missing mass correction represents the contribut ion of rigid modes, and that the ZPA is based upon the spectral ordinate value a t the frequency of the last extracted mode, it is recommended that the user extr act modes up to, but not far beyond, a recognized rigid frequency. Choosing a cutoff f requency to the left of the spectrum s resonant peak will provide a nonconservative result, since resonant responses may be missed. Using a cutoff frequency to the right of the peak, but still in the resonant range, will yield conservative resu lts, since the ZPA/rigid DLF will be overestimated. Extracting a large number of rigid modes for calculation of the dynamic response may be conservative, since all available modal combination methods (SRSS, GROUP, ABS, etc.) give conservati ve results versus the algebraic combination method which gives a more realistic representation of the net response of the rigid modes. Based upon the response s pectrum shown below, an appropriate cutoff point for the modal extraction would be about 33 Hz. CAESAR II provides two options for combining the missing mass correction with th e modal (dynamic) results SRSS and Absolute. The Absolute combination method of cour se provides the more conservative result, and is based upon the assumption that the dynamic amplification is going to occur simultaneously with the maximum grou nd acceleration or force load. Literature (References 1, 2) states that the moda l and the rigid portions of the response to typical dynamic loads are actually s tatistically independent, so that an SRSS combination method is a more accurate representation of reality. For this reason, CAESAR II s default missing mass combina tion method is SRSS. References 1 2 A. K. Gupta, Response Spectrum Method in Seismic Analysis and Design of Stru ctures, CRC Press, 1990 K. M. Vashi, Computation of Seismic Response from Higher Fr equency Modes, ASME 80C2/PVP-50, 1980

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 53 3 O. E. Hansteen and K. Bell, On the Accuracy of Mode Superposition Analysis in Struc tural Dynamics, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Volume 7, John Wile y & Sons, Ltd., 1979

54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II For most piping codes supported by CAESAR II, performance of fatigue analysis is an extension to, rather than an explicit part of, the code requirements (howeve r, it is an explicit part of the IGE/TD/12 Pipework Stress Analysis for Gas Indu stry Plant code). Fatigue Basics Piping and vessels have been known to suffer from sudden failure following years of successful service. Research done during the 1940s and 1950s (primarily adva nced by A. R. C. Markl s Piping Flexibility Analysis, published in 1955) provided an nation for this phenomenon, as well as design criteria aimed at avoiding failure s of this type. The explanation was that materials were failing due to fatigue, a process leading to the propagation of cracks, and subsequent fracture, followi ng repeated cyclic loading. Steels and other metals are made up of organized pat terns of molecules, known as crystal structures. However, these patterns are not maintained throughout the steel producing an ideal homogeneous material, but ar e found in microscopic isolated island-like areas called grains. Inside each gra in the pattern of molecules is preserved. From one grain boundary to the next th e molecular pattern is the same, but the orientation differs. As a result, grain boundaries are high energy borders. Plastic deformation begins within a grain t hat is both subject to a high stress and oriented such that the stress causes a slippage between adjacent layers in the same pattern. The incremental slippages (called dislocations) cause local cold-working. On the first application of the stress, dislocations will move through many of the grains that are in the local area of high stress. As the stress is repeated, more dislocations will move thro ugh their respective grains. Dislocation movement is impeded by the grain bounda ries, so after multiple stress applications, the dislocations tend to accumulate at grain boundaries, eventually becoming so dense that the grains lock up, causing a loss of ductility and thus preventing further dislocation movement. Subsequent a pplications of the stress cause the grain to tear, forming cracks. Repeated stre ss applications cause the cracks to grow. Unless abated, the cracks propagate wi th additional stress applications until sufficient cross sectional strength is l ost to cause catastrophic failure of the material. The fatigue capacity of a mat erial can be estimated through the application of cyclic tensile/compressive dis placement loads with a uniaxial test machine. A plot of the cyclic stress capaci ty of a material is called a fatigue (or endurance) curve. These curves are gene rated through multiple cyclic tests at different stress levels. The number of cy cles to failure usually increases as the applied cyclic stress decreases, often until a threshold stress (known as the endurance limit) is reached below which n o fatigue failure occurs, regardless of the number of applied cycles. An enduran ce curve for carbon and low alloy steels, taken from the ASME Section VIII Divis ion 2 Pressure Vessel Code is shown in the following figure.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 55 Fatigue Analysis of Piping Systems The IGE/TD/12 code does, on the other hand, present specific requirements for tr ue fatigue evaluation of systems subject to a cyclic loading threshold. Furtherm ore, ASME Section III, Subsection NB and ASME Section VIII Division 2 provide gu idelines by which fatigue evaluation rules may be applied to piping (and other p ressure retaining equipment). These procedures have been adapted, where possible , to CAESAR II s methodology. To perform fatigue analyses: 1 Assigning fatigue curve data to the piping material: This is done on the Allow able auxiliary screen. Fatigue data may be entered directly, or read in from a t ext file (a number of commonly used curves have been provided). Users may define their own fatigue curves as defined later in this section. Defining the fatigue load cases: This may be done in either the static or dynamic load case builders . For this purpose, a new stress type, FAT, has been defined. For every fatigue case, the number of anticipated cycles must also be defined. Calculation of the fatigue stresses: This is done automatically by CAESAR II the fatigue stresses, un less explicitly defined by the applicable code are calculated the same as CAESAR II calculates stress intensity, in order to conform to the requirements of ASME Section VIII, Division 2 Appendix 5. (The IGE/TD/12 is currently the only pipin g code supported by CAESAR II which does have explicit instructions for calculat ing fatigue stresses.) The equations used in the calculation of fatigue stresses are documented at the end of this section. Determination of the allowable fatig ue stresses: Allowables are interpolated logarithmically from the fatigue curve based upon the number of cycles designated for the load case. For static load ca ses, the calculated stress is assumed to be a peak-to-peak cyclic value (i.e., t hermal expansion, settlement, pressure, etc.), so the allowable stress is extrac ted directly from the fatigue curve. For harmonic and dynamic load cases, the ca lculated stress is assumed to be a zero-to-peak cyclic value (i.e., vibration, e arthquake, etc.), so the extracted allowable is divided by 2 prior to use in the comparison. 2 3 4

56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual 5 Determination of the allowable number of cycles: The flip side of calculating th e allowable fatigue stress for the designated number of cycles is the calculatio n of the allowable number of cycles for the calculated stress level. This is don e by logarithmically interpolating the Cycles axis of the fatigue curve based upon the calculated stress value. Since static stresses are assumed to be peak-to-peak c yclic values, the allowable number of cycles is interpolated directly from the f atigue curve. Since harmonic and dynamic stresses are assumed to be zero-to-peak cyclic values, the allowable number of cycles is interpolated using twice the c alculated stress value. Reporting the results: CAESAR II provides two reports fo r viewing the results of load cases of stress type FAT. The first of these is th e standard stress report, which displays the calculated fatigue stress and fatig ue allowable at each node. Stress reports may be generated individually for each load case, and show whether any of the individual load cases in isolation would fail the system. 6 However, in those circumstances where there is more than one cyclic load case po tentially contributing to fatigue failure, the Cumulative Usage report is approp riate. In order to generate this report, the user selects all of the FAT load ca ses which contribute to the overall system degradation. The Cumulative Usage rep ort lists for each node point the usage ratio (actual cycles divided by allowabl e cycles), and then sums these up for total Cumulative Usage. A total greater th an 1.0 indicates a potential fatigue failure. Static Analysis Fatigue Example Consider a sample job that potentially has several different cyclic load variati ons: 1 2 3 4 Operating cycle from ambient (70F) to 500F (12,000 cycles anticipated) Shut down external temperature variation from ambient (70F) to -20F (200 cycles anti cipated) Pressurization to 1800 psig (12,000 cycles anticipated) Pressure fluctu ations of plus/minus 30 psi from the 1800 psig (200,000 cycles anticipated)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 57 In order to do a proper fatigue analysis, these should be grouped in sets of loa d pairs which represent the worst-case combination of stress ranges between extr eme states. These load variations can be laid out in graphical form. The figure below shows a sketch of the various operating ranges this system experiences. Ea ch horizontal line represents an operating range. At the each end of each horizo ntal line, the temperatures and pressures defining the range are noted. At the c enter of each horizontal line, the number of cycles for each range is defined.

58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Using this sketch of the operating ranges, the four fatigue load cases can be de termined. The procedure is as follows. Case 1: Cover the absolute extreme, from 20F a nd 0 psi to 500F and 1830 psi. This occurs 200 times. As a result of this case, th e cycles for the ranges defined must be reduced by 200. The first range (-20,0 t o 70,0) is reduced to zero, and has no contribution to additional load cases. Th e second range (70,0 to 500,1800) is reduced to 11,800 cycles. The third and fou rth ranges are similarly reduced to 199,800 cycles. These same steps can be used to arrive at cases 2 through 4, reducing the number of considered cycles at each step . This procedure is summarized in the table below. Segment Case Initial After 1 After 2 After 3 After 4 200 0 0 0 0 12,000 11,800 0 0 0 200, 000 200, 000 200, 000 12,000 0 200,000 199,800 188,000 0 0 -20, 0 to 70, 0 70, 0 to 500, 1800 500, 1700 to 500, 1800 500, 1800 to 500, 1830 This table is then used to set the load cases as cycles between the following lo ad values: Between -20F, 0 psig and 500F, 1830 psig (200 cycles) Between 70F, 0 psig a nd 500F, 1830 psig (11,800 cycles) Between 500F, 1770 psig and 500F, 1830 psig (188,00 0 cycles) Between 500F, 1770 psig and 500F, 1800 psig (12,000 cycles) These temperat ures and pressures are entered as operating conditions accordingly:

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 59 Static Analysis Fatigue Example It is next necessary to enter the fatigue curve data for the material. This is d one by clicking the Fatigue Curves button, revealing the Material Fatigue Curve dia log box. This can be used to enter the fatigue curve for the material (note: for the IGE/ TD/12 code it is necessary to enter five sets of fatigue curves, for f atigue classes D, E, F, G, and W). Up to eight Cycle vs. Stress data points may be entered to define the curve; interpolations are made logarithmically. Cycle/S tress pairs should be entered in ascending order (ascending by cycles). Stress v alues should be entered as allowable Stress Range, rather than allowable Stress Amplitude.

60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Material Fatigue Curves Dialog Fatigue curves may be alternatively acquired from a text file, by clicking on th e Read from file button. This displays a list of all \CAESAR\SYSTEM\*.FAT files. Read from File Dialog Shipped with the program are the following fatigue curve files (the user may eas ily construct additional fatigue curve files, as described in Appendix A below): 5-110-1A.FAT 5-110-1B.FAT 5-110-2A.FAT 5-110-2B.FAT 5-110-2C.FAT ASME Section V III Division 2 Figure 5-110.1, UTS < 80 ksi ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.1, UTS = 115-130 ksi ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.2, Curve A ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.2, Curve B ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5-110.2, Curve C

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 61 In this case, for A106B low carbon steel, operating at 500F, 5-110-1A.FAT is the a ppropriate selection. This fills in the fatigue curve data: A106B Low Carbon Steel Example Fatigue Curve Data At this point, the job can be error checked, and the load cases can be set up. T he static load case builder offers a new stress type, FAT (fatigue). Selecting t his stress type does the following: 1 2 3 4 invites the user to define the numbe r of cycles for the load case (dragging the FAT stress type into the load case o r pressing the Load Cycles button opens the Load Cycles field), causes the stres s range to be calculated as per the fatigue stress method of the governing code (currently this is stress intensity for all codes except IGE/TD/12), causes the calculated stress range to be compared to the full value extracted from the fati gue curve, and indicates that the load case may be included in the Cumulative Us age report.

62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The last four load cases represent the load set pairs defined earlier. Example with Fatigue Load Cases Defined in the Load Case Editor Once the job has been run, note that the presence of a FAT stress type adds the Cumulative Usage report to the list of available reports. Static Output Processor

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 63 The fatigue stress range may be checked against the fatigue curve allowable for each load case by simply selecting it along with the Stresses report. Review of each load case shows that all stress levels pass. Example of a Fatigue Stress Report However, this is not a true evaluation of the situation, because it is not a cas e of either-or. The piping system is subjected to all of these load cases throughout i ts expected design life, not just one of them. Therefore, we must review the Cum ulative Usage report, which shows the total effect of all fatigue load cases (or any combination selected by the user) on the design life of the system. This re port lists for each load case the expected number of cycles, the allowable numbe r of cycles (based upon the calculated stress), and the Usage Ratio (actual cycl es divided by allowable cycles). The Usage Ratios are then summed for all select ed load cases; if this sum exceeds 1.0, the system has exceeded its fatigue capa bilities. In this case, it is apparent that the sum of all of the cyclic loading s at node 115 can be expected to fail this system:

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 65 Fatigue Capabilities in Dynamic Analysis Fatigue analysis capability is also available for harmonic and dynamic analyses as well. Harmonic load cases are entered as they always have been; they may be d esignated as being stress type FAT simply by entering the number of expected loa d cycles on the harmonic input screen: Harmonic Input Screen This produces the same types of reports as are available for the static analysis ; they can be processed as discussed earlier.

66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Static Output Processor The only difference between the harmonic and static fatigue analyses is that for harmonic jobs, the calculated stresses are assumed to be zero-to-peak calculati ons, so they are compared to only half of the stress value extracted from the fa tigue curve. Likewise, when creating the Cumulative Usage report, the number of allowable cycles is based upon twice the calculated stress. For other dynamic ap plications (response spectrum and time history), the stress type may be identifi ed as fatigue by selecting the stress type from the drop list for the Load Case or Static/Dynamic Combination, and by entering the number of expected cycles in the provided field. Note that as with the harmonic analyses, the calculated stre sses are assumed to be zero-to-peak calculations, so they are compared to only h alf of the stress value extracted from the fatigue curve. Likewise, when creatin g the Cumulative Usage report, the number of allowable cycles is based upon twic e the calculated stress.

Creating the .FAT Files The .FAT file is a simple text file, containing the data points necessary to des cribe the fatigue curve for the material, for both butt welded and fillet welded fittings. A sample FAT file is shown below. * ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 FATI GUE CURVE * FIGURE 5-110.1 * DESIGN FATIGUE CURVES FOR CARBON, LOW ALLOY, SERIES 4XX, * HIGH ALLOY AND HIGH TENSILE STEELS FOR TEMPERATURES NOT * EXCEEDING 700 F * FOR UTS <= 80 KSI * 0.5000000 - STRESS MULTIPLIER (PSI); ALSO CONVERTS AMPLI TUDE TO FULL RANGE * 10 100 1000 10000 100000 500000 1000000 0 * This text file can be created using any available text editor. Any line beginning with an aster isk is treated as a comment line. It is highly recommended that comment lines be used so that the data can be related back to a specific material curve. The fir st actual data line in the file is a stress multiplier. This value is used to ad just the data values from zero to peak to peak to peak and/or to convert the stre o psi (the entered values will be divided by this number -- i.e., if the stress values in the file represent a stress amplitude, in psi, rather than a range, th is "stress multiplier should be 0.5). Following this line is the fatigue curve d ata table. This table consists of eight lines, of two columns. The first column is the Cycle column, the second column is the Stress column. For each value in t he cycle column, the corresponding stress value from the material fatigue curve should be listed in the stress column. 580000.0 205000.0 83000.0 38000.0 20000.0 13500.0 12500.0 0.0

Fatigue curves intended for use in the IGE/TD/12 code are built slightly differe nt. The first data line contains not one, but three values: the stress multiplier desc ribed above, a modulus of elasticity correction , and a modulus of elasticity multipl correction factor is divided by this to convert to psi) upon file read, the modulus of elasticity correction is inserted into the appropriate field on the fatigue curv e screen. Furthermore, the IGE/TD/12 fatigue files include five fatigue curves ( sequentially Fatigue Class D, E, F, G, and W), rather than one. Optional comment lines may be used to separate the tables these comments aid in the readability of the data file. The format of the IGE/TD/12 fatigue files can best be determined by reviewing the contents of the file TD12ST.FAT. In all tables, the number of cycles increases as you work down the table. If there is not enough data to util ize all eight lines, unused lines should be populated with zeroes. Calculation of Fatigue Stresses For the IGE/TD/12 piping code, the computation of fatigue stresses are detailed in Section 5.4.4 of that code. This section of the code states: "The principal s tress in any plane can be calculated for any set of conditions from the followin g formula:" 1 2 ! ( Sh + Sa ) ( Sh Sa )2 + 4Sq 2 " Where, Sh = Hoop stress Sa = Axial stress Sq = Shear stress "This should be used for establishing the range of stress, due regard being paid to the direction and sign." For all other piping codes in CAESAR II, the fatigue stress is computed as the s tress intensity, as follows: 3D Maximum Shear Stress Intensity (Default) SI = Maximum of: S1OT - S3OT S1OB S3OB Max(S1IT,RPS) - Min(S3IT,RPS) Max(S1IB,RPS) - Min(S3IB,RPS) Where: S1OT=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top = (SLOT+HPSO)/2.0+(((SLOT-HPSO)/2.0)2 +TSO2)1/2

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 69 S3OT=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Top =(SLOT+HPSO)/2.0-(((SLOT-HPSO)/2.0)2+ TSO2) 1/2 S1IT=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Top =(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0+(((SLIT-HPS I)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2 S3IT=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Top =(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0-(( (SLIT-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2 S1OB=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top =(SLOB+HP SO)/2.0+ (((SLOB-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2 S3OB=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Bo ttom =(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0- (((SLOB-HPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2 S1IB=Maximum Principal Stre ss, Inside Bottom =(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0+ (((SLIB-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2 S3IB=Minimum P rincipal Stress, Inside Bottom =(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0- (((SLIB-HPSI)/2.0)2+TSI2) 1/2 R PS=Radial Pressure Stress, Inside HPSI=Hoop Pressure Stress (Inside, from Lame's Equation) HPSO=Hoop Pressure Stress (Outside, from Lame's Equation) SLOT=Longit udinal Stress, Outside Top SLIT=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Top SLOB=Longitudina l Stress, Outside Bottom SLIB=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Bottom TSI=Torsional S tress, Inside TSO=Torsional Stress, Outside

70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping Underlying Theory The behavior of steel and other homogeneous materials has been long understood, permitting their widespread use as construction materials. The development of th e piping and pressure vessel codes (Reference 1) in the early part of this centu ry led to the confidence in their use in piping applications; the work of Markl et. al. in the 1940 s and 1950 s was responsible for the formalization of today s pipe s methods, leading to an ensuing diversification of piping codes on an industry by industry basis. The advent of the digital computer, and with it the appearanc e of the first pipe stress analysis software (Reference 2), further increased th e confidence with which steel pipe could be used in critical applications. The 1 980 s saw the wide spread proliferation of the micro computer, with associated pipe stress analysis software, which in conjunction with training, technical support, and available literature, has brought stress analysis capability to almost all engineers. In short, an accumulated experience of close to 100 years, in conjunc tion with ever improving technology has led to the utmost confidence on the part of today s engineers when specifying, designing, and analyzing steel, or other meta llic, pipe. For fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and other composite piping m aterials, the situation is not the same. Fiberglass reinforced plastic was devel oped only as recently as the 1950 s, and did not come into wide spread use until a d ecade later (Reference 3). There is not a large base of stress analysis experien ce, although not from a lack of commitment on the part of FRP vendors. Most vend ors conduct extensive stress testing on their components, including hydrostatic and cyclic pressure, uniaxial tensile and compressive, bending, and combined loa ding tests. The problem is due to the traditional difficulty associated with, an d lack of understanding of, stress analysis of heterogeneous materials. First, t he behavior and failure modes of these materials are highly complex and not full y understood, leading to inexact analytical methods, and a general lack of agree ment on the best course of action to follow. This lack of agreement has slowed t he simplification and standardization of the analytical methods into universally recognized codes (BS 7159 Code (Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced Pla stics Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites) and UKOOA Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of GRP Piping Offshore being notable exception s). Secondly, the heterogeneous, orthotropic behavior of FRP and other composite materials has hindered the use of the pipe stress analysis algorithms developed for homogeneous, isotropic materials associated with crystalline structures. A lack of generally accepted analytical procedures has contributed to a general re luctance to use FRP piping for critical applications. Stress analysis of FRP com ponents must be viewed on many levels. These levels, or scales, have been called Micro-Mini-Macro levels, with analysis proceeding along the levels according to the nciple (Reference 4).

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 71 Micro-Level Analysis Stress analysis on the Micro level refers to the detailed evaluation of the individual materials and boundary mechanisms comprising the composite material. In general , FRP pipe is manufactured from laminates, which are constructed from elongated fibers of a commercial grade of glass (called E-glass), which are coated with a coupling agent or sizing prior to being embedded in a thermosetting plastic mate rial, typically epoxy or polyester resin. This means, on the micro scale, that a n analytical model must be created which simulates the interface between these e lements. Since the number and orientation of fibers is unknown at any given loca tion in the FRP sample, the simplest representation of the micro-model is that o f a single fiber, extending the length of the sample, embedded in a square profi le of matrix. Evaluation of this model requires use of the material parameters o f 1 2 3 the glass fiber the coupling agent or sizing layer (normally of such mic roscopic proportion that it may be ignored) the plastic matrix It must be considered that these material parameters may vary for an individual material based upon tensile, compressive, or shear applications of the imposed s tresses, and typical values vary significantly between the fiber and matrix (Ref erence 5): Young's Modulus Material Glass Fiber Plastic Matrix tensile (MPa) 7.25 x 103 2.7 5 x 103 Ultimate Strength tensile (MPa) 1.5 x 103 7.0 x 101 Coefficient of Therm al Expansion m/m/C 5.0 x 10-6 7.0 x 10-3 The following failure modes of the composite must be similarly evaluated: failur e of the fiber failure of the coupling agent layer failure of the matrix failure of the fiber-coupling agent bond failure of the coupling agent-matrix bond Beca use of uncertainties about the degree to which the fiber has been coated with th e coupling agent and about the nature of some of these failure modes, this evalu ation is typically reduced to failure of the fiber failure of the matrix failure of the fiber-matrix interface

72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Micro-Level GRP Sample-- Single Fiber Embedded in Square Profile of Matrix Stresses in the individual components can be evaluated through finite element an alysis of the strain continuity and equilibrium equations, based upon the assump tion that there is a good bond between the fiber and matrix, resulting in compat ible strains between the two. For normal stresses applied parallel to the glass fiber: (f = (m = af af / Ef = am / Em = am Ef / Em Where: (f ( af = = = = = strain in the fiber strain in the matrix normal stress parallel to fiber, in the fiber modulus of elasticity of the fiber axial normal stress parallel to fiber, in the matrix modulus of elasticity of the matrix Ef = am E Due to the large ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber to that of the matrix, it is apparent that nearly all of the axial normal stress in the fiber-m atrix composite is carried by the fiber. Exact values are (Reference 6): af = = L / [ + (1- )Em/Ef] / [ Em/Ef + (1- )] am L Where: L = nominal longitudinal stress across composite = glass content by volume

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 73 The continuity equations for the glass-matrix composite seem less complex for no rmal stresses perpendicular to the fibers, since the weak point of the material seems to be limited by the glass-free cross-section shown in the following figur e. For this reason, it would appear that the strength of the composite would be equal to that of the matrix for stresses in this direction; in fact, its strengt h is less than that of the matrix due to stress intensification in the matrix ca used by the irregular stress distribution in the vicinity of the stiffer glass. (Since the elongation over distance D1 must be equal to that over the longer dis tance D2, the strain, and thus the stress at location D1 must exceed that at D2 by the ratio D2/D1.) Maximum intensified transverse normal stresses in the compo site are: * = Where: b ! (1 2 )1.25 + 2 ( Em E f ) /(1 Vm ) " (1 + 0.85 )[1 + (2 + 3 2 )1 ( Em E f )(1 Vm )] = intensified normal stress transfer to the fiber, in the composite = nominal tr ansverse normal stress across composite ^ V = Poisson Note: am Because of the Poisson effect, this stress produces an additional s' am equal to the following: = Vm Shear stress can be allocated to the individual components again through the use of continuity equations; it would appear that the stiffer glass would resist th e bulk of the shear stresses; however, unless the fibers are infinitely long, al l shears must eventually pass through the matrix in order to get from fiber to f iber. Shear stress between fiber and matrix can be estimated as qo = T(1-p)1.25 +p(G m /G f ) (1+0.6rp 2 )1-r( 2rp3 n)1-(G m /G f ) s ratio of the matrix

74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Where: ,ab = intensified shear stress in composite T = nominal shear stress acro ss composite Gm = shear modulus of elasticity in matrix Gf = shear modulus of el asticity in fiber Determination of the stresses in the fiber-matrix interface is more complex. The bonding agent has an inappreciable thickness, and thus has an indeterminate stiffness for consideration in the continuity equations. Also, th e interface behaves significantly differently in shear, tension, and compression , showing virtually no effects from the latter. The state of the stress in the i nterface is best solved by omitting its contribution from the continuity equatio ns, and simply considering that it carries all stresses which must be transferre d from fiber to matrix. Once the stresses have been apportioned, they must be ev aluated against appropriate failure criteria. The behavior of homogeneous, isotr opic materials such as glass and plastic resin, under a state of multiple stress is better understood. A failure criterion for isotropic material reduces the co mbined normal and shear stresses (sa, sb, sc, tab, tac, tbc) to a single stress, an equivalent stress, which can be compared to the tensile stress present at failure in a material under uniaxial loading, i.e. the ultimate tensile stress, Sult. Di fferent theories, and different equivalent stress functions f(sa, sb, sc, tab, t ac, tbc) have been proposed, with possibly the most widely accepted being the Hu ber-von Mises-Hencky criterion, which states that failure will occur when the eq uivalent stress reaches a critical value the ultimate strength of the material: eq = -{1/2 [( a b )2 + ( a c )2 + ( b c )2] + 6(,ab2 + ,ac2+ ,bc2)} Sult This theory does not fully cover all failure modes of the fiber, in that it omit s reference to direction of stress (i.e., tensile vs. Compressive). The fibers, being relatively long and thin, predominantly demonstrate buckling as their fail ure mode when loaded in compression. The equivalent stress failure criterion has

been corroborated (with slightly non-conservative results) by testing. Little i s known about the failure mode of the adhesive interface, although empirical evi dence points to a failure criterion which is more of a linear relationship betwe en the normal and the square of the shear stresses. Failure testing of a composi te material loaded only in transverse normal and shear stresses are shown in the following figure; the kink in the curve shows the transition from the matrix to the interface as the failure point.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 75 Mini-Level Analysis Although feasible in concept, micro level analysis is not feasible in practice. This is due to the uncertainty of the arrangement of the glass in the composite the thousands of fibers which may be randomly distributed, semi-randomly oriented (a lthough primarily in a parallel pattern), and of randomly varying lengths. This condition indicates that a sample can truly be evaluated only on a statistical b asis, thus rendering detailed finite element analysis inappropriate. For mini-le vel analysis, a laminate layer is considered to act as a continuous (hence the c ommon reference to this method as the continuum method) material, with material proper ties and failure modes estimated by integrating them over the assumed cross-sect ional distribution, i.e., averaging. The assumption regarding the distribution o f the fibers can have a marked effect on the determination of the material param eters; two of the most commonly postulated distributions are the square and the hexagonal, with the latter generally considered to be a better representation of randomly distributed fibers. The stress-strain relationships, for those section s evaluated as continua, can be written as: (aa = aa /EL - (V L/EL) bb - (V L/EL) cc

76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual (bb = -( VL/EL) (cc = -( VL/EL) (ab = ,ab / 2 GL (bc = ,bc / 2 GT (ac = ,ac / 2 GL Where: aa + bb /ET - (VT/ET) bb cc aa - (VT/ET) + cc /ET (ij = strain along direction i on face j ij , ,ab = stress (normal, shear) along direction i on face j EL = modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in longitudinal direction VL = Pois son s ratio of laminate layer in longitudinal direction ET = modulus of elasticity o f laminate layer in transverse direction VT = Poisson s ratio of laminate layer in t ransverse direction GL = shear modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in longit udinal direction GT = shear modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in transvers e direction These relationships require that four moduli of elasticity (EL, ET, GL, and GT) and two Poisson s ratios (VL and VT) to be evaluated for the continuum. Extensive research (References 4 - 10) has been done to estimate these parameter s. There is general consensus that the longitudinal terms can be explicitly calc ulated; for cases where the fibers are significantly stiffer than the matrix, th ey are: EL = EF + EM(1 - ) GL = GM + / [ 1 / (GF - GM) + (1 - ) / (2GM)] VL = VF + VM(1 - ) Parameters in the transverse direction cannot be calculated; only th eir upper and lower bounds can. Correlation with empirical results have yielded approximations (Reference 5 and 6): GT = GM (1 + 0.6- ) / [(1 - )1.25 + VT = VL (EL / ET) Use of these parameters permits the development of the homogeneous mat erial models which facilitate the calculation of longitudinal and transverse str esses acting on a laminate layer. The resulting stresses may be allocated to the individual fibers and matrix using relationships developed during the micro ana lysis. (GM/GF)]

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 77 Macro-Level Analysis Where Mini-level analysis provides the means of evaluation of individual laminat e layers, Macro-level analysis provides the means of evaluating components made up of multiple laminate layers. It is based upon the assumption that not only th e composite behaves as a continuum, but that the series of laminate layers acts as a homogeneous material with properties estimated based on the properties of t he layer and the winding angle, and that finally, failure criteria are functions of the level of equivalent stress. Laminate properties may be estimated by summ ing the layer properties (adjusted for winding angle) over all layers. For examp le ELAM|| = (1 / tLAM)(E||k Cik + E^k Cjk) tk Where: ELAM|| tLAM = E^k = Cik = Cjk = tk = = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity of laminate thickness of laminate Longitudinal modulus of elasticity of laminate layer k tra nsformation matrix orienting axes of layer k to longitudinal laminate axis trans formation matrix orienting axes of layer k to transverse laminate axis thickness of laminate layer k Once composite properties are determined, the component stiffness parameters may be determined as though it were made of homogeneous material i.e., based on compo nent cross-sectional and composite material properties. Normal and shear stresse s can be determined from 1) forces and moments acting on the cross-sections, and 2) the cross-sectional properties themselves. These relationships can be writte n as aa = = =

Faa / Aaa Mba / Sba Mca / Sca Fbb / Abb Mab / Sab Mcb / Scb Fcc / Acc Mac / Sa Sbc bb cc

78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual ,ab = ,ac = ,ba = ,bc = ,ca = ,cb = Where: ij

Fab / Aab Mbb / Rab Fac / Aac Mcc / Rac Fba / Aba Maa / Rba Fbc / Abc Mcc / Rbc F / Aca Maa / Rca Fcb / Acb Mbb / Rcb = normal stress along axis i on face j force acting along axis i on face j area re sisting force along axis i on face j moment acting about axis i on face j sectio n modulus about axis i on face j shear stress along axis i on face j torsional r esistivity about axis i on face j Fij = Aij = Mij = Sij = ,ij = Rij = Using the relationships developed under macro, mini, and micro analysis, these s tresses can be resolved back into local stresses within the laminate layer, and from there, back into stresses within the fiber and the matrix. From these, the failure criteria of those microscopic components, and hence, the component as a whole, may be checked. Implementation of Macro-Level Analysis for Piping Systems The macro-level of analysis described above is the basis for the preeminent FRP piping codes in use today, including the BS 7159 Code (Design and Construction o f Glass Reinforced Plastics Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites) and t he UKOOA Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of GRP Piping Offsho re. BS 7159 uses methods and formulas familiar to the world of steel piping stre ss analysis in order to calculate stresses on the cross-section, with the assump tion that FRP components have material parameters based on continuum evaluation or test. All coincident loads, such as thermal, weight, pressure, and axial exte nsion due to pressure need be evaluated simultaneously. Failure is based on the equivalent stress calculation method; since one normal stress (radial stress) is traditionally considered to be negligible in typical piping configurations, thi s calculation reduces to the greater of (except when axial stresses are compress ive): S eq S eq = = Sx + 4t Sh + 4t 2 2 2 (when axial stress is greater than hoop) 2 (when hoop stress is greater than axial)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 79 A slight difficulty arises when evaluating the calculated stress against an allo wable, due to the orthotropic nature of the FRP piping normally the laminate is de signed in such a way to make the pipe much stronger in the hoop, than in the lon gitudinal, direction, providing more than one allowable stress. This is resolved by defining the allowable in terms of a design strain ed, rather than stress, i n effect adjusting the stress allowable in proportion to the strength in each di rection i.e., the allowable stresses for the two equivalent stresses above would b e (ed ELAMX) and (ed ELAMH) respectively. In lieu of test data, system design st rain is selected from Tables 4.3 and 4.4 of the Code, based on expected chemical and temperature conditions. Actual stress equations as enumerated by the BS 715 9 Code are shown below: 1 C Combined stress: straights and bends: =( =( 2 f +4 +4 2 0.5 S ) (d ELAM (d ELAM or C 2 X 2 0.5 S ) Where: C = combined stress = circumferential stress = P + B S =torsional stress = MS(Di + 2td) / 4I = longitudinal stress = P XP X + XB = circumferential pressure stress = mP(Di + td) / 2 td = circumferential bending stress = [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIF i)2 + Mo SIF o)2] 0.5 (for bends, = 0 for s traights) B

MS = torsional moment on cross-section D = internal pipe diameter td I P = desig n thickness of reference laminate = moment of inertia of pipe = internal pressur e m = pressure stress multiplier of component Mi = in-plane bending moment on cros s-section SIF i = circumferential stress intensification factor for in-plane mom ent M = out-plane bending moment on cross-section SIF = circumferential stress i ntensification factor for out-plane moment XP = longitudinal pressure stress = P(Di + td) / 4 td

80 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual XB = longitudinal bending stress = [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFxi)2 + Mo SIFxo)2]0.5 SIF = longitudinal stress intensification factor for in-plane moment SIF = longi tudinal stress intensification factor for out-plane moment 2 CB Combined stress: branch connections: = (( P + bB )2 + 4 2 0.5 SB ) ed ELAM Where: CB = branch combined stress = circumferential pressure stress = mP(Di + tM) / 2 tM = non-directional bending stress = [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFBi)2 + Mo SIFBo)2]0 .5 = branch torsional stress = MS(Di + 2td) / 4I P bB SB tM = thickness of the reference laminate at the main run SIFBi = branch stress i ntensification factor for in-plane moment SIFB = branch stress intensification f actor for out-plane moment 3 When longitudinal stress is negative (net compressi ve): - Vfx Where: Vfx = Poisson s ratio giving strain in longitudinal direction caus ed by stress in circumferential direction ( = design strain in circumferential d irection ELAM = modulus of elasticity in circumferential direction x ( ELAM

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 81 The BS 7159 Code also dictates the means of calculating flexibility and stress i ntensification (k- and i-) factors for bend and tee components, for use during t he flexibility analysis.

82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual BS 7159 SIF Factors for Bends The BS 7159 Code imposes a number of limitations on its use, the most notable be ing the limitation of a system to a design pressure of 10 bar, the restriction t o the use of designated design laminates, and the limited applicability of the k - and i- factor calculations to pipe bends (i.e, mean wall thickness around the intrados must be 1.75 times the nominal thickness or less).

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 83 BS 7159 SIF Factors for Tees This code appears to be more sophisticated, yet easy to use, than any available alternative, so it is recommended here that its calculation techniques be applie d even to FRP systems outside its explicit scope, with the following recommendat ions: Pressure stiffening of bends should be based on actual design pressure, ra ther than allowable design strain. Design strain should be based on manufacturer s t est and experience data wherever possible (with consideration for expected opera ting conditions). Fitting k- and i- factors should be based on manufacturer s test o r analytic data if available. The UKOOA Specification is similar in many respect s to the BS 7159 Code, except that it simplifies the calculational requirements in exchange for imposing more limitations and more conservatism on the piping op erating conditions. Rather than explicitly calculating a combined stress, the sp ecification defines an idealized envelope of combinations of axial and hoop stre sses which cause the equivalent stress to reach failure. This curve represents t he plot of: ( x/ Where: x-all x-all )2 + ( hoop / hoop-all )2 - [ x hoop /( x-all hoop-all )] 1.0 = allowable stress, axial = allowable stress, hoop hoop-all The Specification conservatively limits the user to that part of the curve falli ng under the line between x-all (also known as sa(0:1)) and the intersection poi nt on the curve where hoop is twice sx-(a natural condition for a pipe loaded on ly with pressure), as shown in the following figure. CAESAR II UKOOA Envelope Graphics An implicit modification to this requirement is the fact that pressure stresses are given a factor of safety (typically equal to 2/3) while other loads are not. This gives an explicit requirement of Pdes Where: Pdes = allowable design press

ure f1 f2 f3 LTHP

84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual f1 = factor of safety for 97.5% lower confidence limit, usually 0.85 f2 = system factor of safety, usually 0.67 f3 = ratio of residual allowable, after mechanic al loads = 1 - (2 a b a b ) / (r f1 LTHS) = axial bending stress due to mechanical loads aa(0:1) b r= a(0:1) / a(2:1) = long term axial tensile strength in absence of pressure load a(2:1) = long term axial tensile strength under only pressure loading LTHS = long term hydrostatic strength (hoop stress allowable) LTHP = long term h ydrostatic pressure allowable Note: This has been implemented in the CAESAR II p ipe stress analysis software as: Code Allowable (f1 f2 LTHS) / 2.0 Code Stress a b (f2 /r) + PDm / (4t) Where: P = design pressure D = pipe mean diameter t = pipe wall thickness and ifactors for bends are to be taken from the BS 7159 Code, while no such factors a re to be used for tees. The UKOOA Specification is limited in that shear stresse s are ignored in the evaluation process; no consideration is given to conditions where axial stresses are compressive; and most required calculations are not ex plicitly detailed.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 85 FRP Analysis Using CAESAR II Practical Applications CAESAR II has had the ability to model orthotropic materials such as FRP almost since its inception. It also can specifically handle the requirements of the BS 7159 Code and the UKOOA Specification. FRP material parameters corresponding to those of many vendors lines are provided with CAESAR II and may be pre-selected by the user to be the default values whenever FRP piping is used. Other options, as to whether the BS 7159 pressure stiffening requirements should be carried out u sing design strain or actual strain can be set in CAESAR II s configuration module a s well. The FRP Properties Table of the Configuration Setup Dialog

86 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Special Execution Parameters for Activating the Orthotropic Material Model

Selecting material 20 Plastic (FRP) activates CAESAR II s orthotropic material mode brings in the appropriate material parameters from the pre-selected materials. The orthotropic material model is indicated by the changing of two fields from t heir previous isotropic values: Elastic Modulus (C) > Elastic Modulus/axial an a . These changes are necessary due to the fact that orthotropic models require more material parameters than do isotropic. For example, there is no longer a single modulus of elasticity for the material, but now two axial and hoop. There is no l onger a single Poisson s ratio, but again two Vh/a (Poisson s ratio relating strain i axial direction due to stress-induced strain in the hoop direction) and Va/h (P oisson s ratio relating strain in the hoop direction due to stress-induced strain in the axial direction). Also, unlike isotropic materials, the shear modulus does not follow the relationship G = 1 / E (1-V), so that value must be explicitly in put as well.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 87 Example of Orthotropic Parameters Required in Piping Input In order to minimize input, a few of these parameters can be combined, due to th eir use in the program. Generally, the only time that the modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction, or the Poisson s ratios are used during flexibility analysis is when calculating piping elongation due to pressure (note that the modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction is used when determining certain stress allowab les for the BS 7159 code): dx = ( Where: dx = extension of piping element due to pressure x x / Ea - Vh/a * hoop / Eh ) L = longitudinal pressure stress in the piping element Ea = modulus of elasticity in the axial direction Vh/a = Poisson s ratio relating st rain in the axial direction due to stress-induced strain in the hoop direction hoop = hoop pressure stress in the piping element Eh = modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction L = length of piping element

88 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual This equation can be rearranged, to require only a single new parameter, as dx = ( Note: x hoop * (Ea / Eh * Vh/a)) * L / Ea In theory, that single parameter, (Ea / Eh * Vh/a) is identical to Va/h. The shear modulus of the material is required in ordered to develop the stiffnes s matrix; in CAESAR II, this value, expressed as a ratio of the axial modulus of elasticity, is brought in from the pre-selected material, or can be changed on a problem-wise basis using the special execution parameter screen accessed by th e Kaux menu from the piping spreadsheet (see figure). This screen also shows the coeff icient of thermal expansion (extracted from the vendor file or entered by the us er) for the material, as well as the default laminate type, as defined by the BS 7159 Code: Type 1 All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with an internal and an external surface tissue reinforced layer. Type 2 Chopped strand mat (CSM) and w oven roving (WR) construction with an internal and an external surface tissue re inforced layer. Type 3 Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construc tion with an internal and an external surface tissue reinforced layer. The latte r is used during the calculation of flexibility and stress intensification facto rs for piping bends. Bend and tee information may be entered easily through use of auxiliary spreadsheets. Bend radius and laminate type may be changed on a ben d by bend basis, as shown in the corresponding figure. BS 7159 fabricated and mo ulded tee types are specified by defining CAESAR II tee types 1 and 3 respective ly at intersection points. CAESAR II automatically calculates the appropriate fl exibility and stress intensification factors for these fittings as per code requ irements.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 89 Required code data may be entered on the ALLOWABLES auxiliary spreadsheet; with the program providing fields for CODE (both number 27 BS 7159 and 28 UKOOA are avail able). After selection of BS 7159, CAESAR II provides fields for entry of the fo llowing code parameters: SH1,2,3 = longitudinal design stress = (d ELAMX Kn1,2,3 = cyclic reduction factor (as per BS 7159 paragraph 4.3.4) Eh/Ea = ratio of hoo p modulus of elasticity to axial modulus of elasticity K = temperature different ial multiplier (as per BS 7159 paragraph 7.2.1)

90 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual After selection of UKOOA, CAESAR II provides fields for entry of the following c ode parameters: SH1,2,3 = hoop design stress = f1 * LTHS R1,2,3 = ratio r ( a(0:1) / a(2:1) ) f1 = system factor of safety (defaults to 0.67 if omitted) K = temperature diffe rential multiplier (same as BS 7159) These parameters need only be entered a sin gle time, unless they change at some point in the system.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 91 Performing the analysis is even simpler than the system modeling. CAESAR II eval uates the operating parameters and automatically builds the appropriate load cas es; in this case three are built: Operating (includes pipe and fluid weight, tem perature, equipment displacements, pressure, etc.). This case is used to determi ne maximum code stress/strain, operational equipment nozzle and restraint loads, hot displacements, etc. Cold (same as above, except excluding temperature and e quipment movements). This case is used to determine cold equipment nozzle and re straint loads. Expansion (cyclic stress range between the cold and hot case). Th is case may be used to evaluate fatigue criteria as per paragraph 4.3.4 of the B S 7159 Code. After analyzing the response of the system under these loads, CAESA R II presents the user with a menu of possible output reports. Reports may be de signated by selecting a combination of load case and results type (displacements , restraint loads, element forces and moments, and stresses). From the stress re port, the user can determine at a glance whether the system passed or failed the stress criteria. For UKOOA code, the piping is considered to be within allowabl es when the operating stress falls within the idealized stress envelope (indicat ed by the straight line in the following figure). Conclusion A reliable, powerful, yet easy to use, pipe stress analysis program with world w ide acceptance is now available for evaluation of FRP piping systems as per the requirements of the most sophisticated FRP piping codes. This means that access to the same analytical methods and tools long enjoyed by engineers using steel p ipe is available to any potential user of FRP piping ensuring that design.

References 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Cross, Wilbur, An Authorized History of the ASME Boiler an Pre ssure Vessel Code, ASME, 1990 Olson, J. and Cramer, R., Pipe Flexibility Analysis U sing IBM 705 Computer Program MEC 21, Mare Island Report 277-59, 1959 Fiberglass Pi pe Handbook, Composites Institute of the Society of the Plastics Industry, 1989 Hashin, Z., Analysis of Composite Materials a Survey, Journal of Applied Mechanics, . 1983 Greaves, G., Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Pipe Design, Ciba-Geigy Pipe Systems Puck, A. and Schneider, W., On Failure Mechanisms and Failure Criteria of Filament -Wound GlassFibre/Resin Composites, Plastics and Polymers, Feb. 1969 Hashin, Z., The E lastic Moduli of Heterogeneous Materials, Journal of Applied Mechanics, March 1962 Hashin, Z. and Rosen, B. Walter, The Elastic Moduli of Fibre Reinforced Materials, Jou rnal of Applied Mechanics, June 1964 Whitney, J. M. and Riley, M. B., Elastic Prope rties of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials, AIAA Journal, Sept. 1966 10 Walpole, L. J., Elastic Behavior of Composite Materials: Theoretical Foundations , Advances in Applied Mechanics, Volume 21, Academic Press, 1989 11 BS 7159: 1989 tish Standard Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced P lastics (GRP) Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites 12 UK Offshore Opera tors Association Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of GRP Pipin g Offshore 1994 Bri

Code Compliance Considerations General Notes for All Codes This section comprises general notes that cover code compliance. The first sever al pages contain information that applies to all of the codes. The last pages co ntain code-specific discussions. The user is urged to review the general notes o nce, highlighting those that apply to his specific type of problem. He is also r ecommended to review the notes for the particular piping code to be used. Chapte r 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 1) of the Technical Reference M anual gives details about the various parameters that can be used in the CAESAR II setup file. Many of these parameters are discussed from an application point-ofview in the text that follows. Users not familiar with the setup file should see Ch apter 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 1) of the Technical Referen ce Manual. An SIF of 2.3 is used for threaded joints for all codes. An SIF of 1. 2 is used for double welded slip-on flanges for all codes. An SIF of 1.6 is used for lap joint flanges with B16.9 stub ends for all codes. The only piping codes that cannot take advantage of the WRC 329 options, or the option to use the ASM E NC and ND rules for reduced intersections, are BS806 and the Swedish Power Met hod 1. These codes have no provision for using the effective section modulus, an d any extrapolation of the ASME methods into these codes at this time is conside red unwarranted. The Weld ID on the SIF & TEE Auxiliary field is used in the cal culation of the Bonney Forge Sweepolet and Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet. If the user can be sure that the welds for these fittings will be finished or dressed, then the specification of the Weld ID will result in lower stress intensificatio n factors. Bend SIF overrides by the user effect the entire cross section of the bend, and as such cannot be specified for only a single point on the bend curva ture. The user s defined SIF should be specified for the bend TO node. CAESAR II will apply this SIF, (in place of the code s SIF) over the entire bend curvature, i.e. f rom weldline to weldline. The default fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) bend a nd intersection SIF is 2.3. This value is used for all bends and for all interse ctions unless otherwise modified by the user. Flexibility factors for FRP bends are 1.0. Users modifying these values are cautioned that SIFs generated from ste el fatigue tests may not be applicable as a basis for SIFs for FRP fittings. At this time stress intensification factors cannot be less than 1.0. Because origin al SIF work used girth butt welds as a basis, some manufacturers are generating SIFs for their fittings that are less than 1.0 implying that the fitting is stro nger than a girth butt weld. CAESAR II does not permit the use of these reduced SIFs at this time. The REDUCED_INTERSECTION calculations discussed at length in the following text apply whenever d/D < 0.975. Where (d) is the outside diameter of the branch, and (D) is the outside diameter of the header. WRC 329/330 for t he codes: B31.3, B31.4, B31.11, and B31.1 (1967) does the following: 1 2 Include torsional stresses in all stress calculations, (i.e. Sustained and Occasional) Use a torsional SIF of (r/R) io.

94 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual 3 4 Compute i(ib) from: 0.6(R/T)**2/3 [1+0.5(r/R)**3](r/rp) For i(ob) use 1.5(R/T)** 2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (r/rp), and i(ob)(t/T)>1.5 when (r/R) < 0.9., use 0.9(R/T)**2/3 (r/rp), and i(ob)(t/T)>1.0 when (r/R) = 1.0 , and use interpolation when 1.0 > (r/R) > 0.9 5 6 For ir use 0.8 (R/T)**2/3 (r/ R), and ir > 2.1 If a radius at the junction is provided greater than the larger of t/2 or T/2, then the calculated SIFs may be divided by 2.0, but with ib>1.5 and ir>1.5. WRC 329/330 for the codes: B31.1, B31.8, ASME III NC & ND, Navy 505, Z183, Z184, and Swedish Method 2, do the following: 1 For ib, use 1.5(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (r/rp), and ib(t/T)>1.5 when (r/R) < 0.9. use 0.9(R/T)**2/3 (r/rp), and ib(t/T)> 1.0 when (r/R) = 1.0, and use interpolation when 1.0 > (r/R) > 0.9 2 3 For ir, u se 0.8 (R/T)**2/3 (r/R), and ir > 2.1 If a radius at the junction is provided gr eater than the larger of t/2 or T/2, then the calculated SIFs may be divided by 2.0, but with ib>1.5 and ir>1.5.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 95 Bonney Forge Sweepolets tend to be a little more conservative because they are u sed for fittings in the Nuclear industry. The Bonney Forge Sweepolet equations c an generate SIFs less than one because they are stronger than the girth butt wel d used as the unity basis for the code fitting SIFs. CAESAR II does not permit S IFs of less than 1.0. If a Bonney Forge Sweepolet SIF is generated that is less than 1.0, 1.0 will be used. Even though CAESAR II allows the specification of tw o element intersections, the user cannot specify two SIFs at a single node and g et an increased SIF. For example a socketweld SIF and an intersection SIF cannot be specified at the same point. For two element joints the largest diameter and the smallest T is used when discrepancies exist between the two adjoining pipes . When the two element fitting is a socket weld then the largest T is used. Thes e selections are made to generate the largest SIFs and thus the most conservativ e stress calculations for under specified fittings. Note: The mismatch given for girth butt welds is the average mismatch and not the maximum mismatch. Users mu st make sure that any maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied themselves. If a fillet leg is given in conjunction with a socket weld SIF definition, then bo th socket weld types result in the same SIF. The B31.3 sustained case SIF factor in the setup file affects all of the following codes: B31.4, B31.8, B31.11, Nav y 505, Z662, and B31.1 (1967). The default for the B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR=1.0 . The calculation for the corroded effective section modulus is made from (pi)(r 2)te where (r) is the average cross sectional radius of the non-corroded pipe an d (te) is the corroded thickness. The thickness (te) is selected based on the no ncorroded thicknesses of the branch and header, i.e. the lesser of Th and iTb. T he resulting value has the corrosion subtracted from it before the effective sec tion modulus calculation is made. The Maximum Shear Stress is always calculated with the corroded wall thickness, regardless of the setting of the ALL_STRESS_CA SES_CORRODED flag in the setup file. If different piping codes are used in one j ob. The code reported at the top of the output stress report will be the code th at was last encountered during model input. SIFs, allowables and code equations are all computed in accordance with the code that is varying with the input. The following piping codes do not, by default, include torsion in the sustained or occasional stress calculations: B31.3 B31.4 B31.8 B31.11 Navy 505 Z662 B31.1 (1967)

96 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Torsion is not added because these codes instruct the user to add the longitudinal stresses due to weight, pressure and other sustained loadings. Torsional shear stre sses are not longitudinal stresses. The user can request that torsion be added i nto the sustained and occasional stress equations by putting the parameter: ADD_ TORSION_IN_SL_STRESS=YES in the setup file. The torsion stress is still however not intensified, as it is in the power piping codes. This lack of intensificatio n is considered an oversight, and is corrected in WRC 329. The user can implemen t this fix in his running of any of the above codes by putting the parameter: US E_WRC330 in the setup file. Note that the radius given in CAESAR II is always th e equivalent closely spaced miter radius. The radius calculation given for widely spac ed miters in the piping codes is only to be used when the user breaks the widely spaced miter bend down into individual single cut miters as recommended. B31.1 and the ASME Section III piping codes provide stress intensification factors for reduced branch ends. None of the other piping codes provide these SIFs. The RED UCED INTERSECTION=<option> parameter in the setup file allows the user of other piping codes to access these improved SIFs for reduced fittings. Users taking ad vantage of this option should review the notes associated with the B31.1 and the ASME Section III codes that follow to make sure that any other parameters or in put associated with the reduced intersection calculations are set as necessary. When the user requests pressure stiffening for those codes that do not normally provide it, the pressure stiffening is applied for all bends and for both miter types. The defaults for the occasional load factor from the setup file used in t he evaluation of the allowable stress, is given in the text that follows for eac h of the piping codes. B31.1: The occasional load factor is 1.15. B31.3: The occ asional load factor is 1.33. B31.4: This is 0.8Sy as defined in the most recent edition of B31.4. OCC does not effect a B31.4 analysis in CAESAR II. B31.5: The occasional load factor is 1.33. B31.8: An occasional case is not specifically de fined. If the user enters an OCC load case the allowable will default to 1.0 tim es the sustained allowable stress, i.e. OCC=1.0 B31.11: This is 0.88Sy as define d in the most recent edition of B31.11 OCC does not effect a B31.11 analysis in CAESAR II. ASME Section III NC and ND: The default value of OCC is 1.2 so, the o ccasional stress allowable is 1.8 (1.2 X 1.5) Sh but not greater than 1.5 Sy. If OCC is set to 1.5 or 2.0, the allowable is set to the minimum of 2.25 Sh/1.8 Sy (Level C) or 3.0 Sh/2.0Sy (Level D). Note in the latter two cases, Sm should be entered for Sh. Navy 505: Occasional cases are not addressed but will default t o the method used in B31.1, and an OCC value of 1.15 will be used as the default . Z662: Occasional cases not defined, but if entered by the user the allowable f or the case will default to 1.0 times the sustained allowable. BS806: The occasi onal load case is not defined. If entered the allowable stress for the OCC load case will be K Sh, (the occasional load factor times the sustained allowable). T he default for k is 1.0. Swedish Method 1: OCC is not used. The load cases are not dif ferentiated. The same allowable Sigma(ber)/1.5 is used for all load cases. Swedi sh Method 2: An OCC default of 1.2 as recommended in the Swedish Piping Code is used. B31.1(1967): OCC default is 1.15. Stoomwezen: OCC default is 1.2. RCC-M C& D: OCC default is 1.2.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 97 CODETI: OCC default is 1.15. NORWEGIAN: OCC default is 1.2. FBDR: OCC default is 1.15 BS 7159: The occasional load case is not defined. UKOOA: The occasional lo ad case is not defined. IGE/TD/12: Occasional stress increases are addressed is Table 4 of the code. The occasional factor in the setup file has no bearing on t his code. The occasional load factor can be changed from the program defaults vi a the setup file. The value should be entered in percent. To get an occasional l oad factor of 1.5, the user would enter 50.0 Intersections are not FULL intersections in CAESAR II whenever the branch outside diameter is less than 0.975 times the h eader outside diameter. When there are multiple piping codes in the same piping job, and a piping code change occurs at an intersection, if the intersection is completely defined with three pipes framing into the intersection then the pipin g code used to generate the SIF equations will be that one associated with the f irst header pipe framing into the intersection. If the intersection is only part ially defined, then the piping code will be selected from the first pipe framing into the intersection point. The material, thermal expansion, and modulus of el asticity data are for the B31 piping codes. Users may enter their own material a nd thermal expansion properties if desired. There is a small difference between USE_WRC330 and REDUCED_INTERSECTION =WRC330. The first applies for all full and reduced intersections that are not welding tees or reinforced tees. The latter a pplies only for reduced fittings that are not welding tees or reinforced fabrica ted tees. A fitting is reduced when d/D is less than 0.975. The Bonney Forge SIF Data came from the technical flyer: Bonney Forge Stress Intensification Factors Bulle tin 789/SI-1, Copyright 1976. The ASME piping codes primarily combine moments fo r thermal expansion stresses. When there is any tendency for large axial forces to exist in the pipe these code equations are not adequate. An example of this i s for a buried, or partially buried pipe. Here the axial stresses can be very hi gh. B31.4 directs the user to compute a longitudinal stress for completely restr ained pipe. CAESAR II allows the user to specify just how much of the pipe is bu ried. This longitudinal stress is then added to the stress calculations for ther mal and will contribute to a failure prediction that might have otherwise been i gnored. Similar effects can be achieved in CAESAR II by using the axial soil res traint and telling the setup file to include F/A components in the stress calcul ations. Users should be aware that for any type of problem, if large axial loads are developed because of the design, the piping code may not be adequately cons idering it.

98 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Code-Specific Notes B31.1 Pressure stiffening is implemented by default. Users may deactivate pressure sti ffening for B31.1 runs by entering the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in t he setup file. Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the co de providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. B31.1 does not by default ad d F/A into the stress calculation. F/A and the pressure stresses are added to th e bending stress (whether the tensile or compressive component of bending), to p roduce the largest longitudinal stress component. This is true for all codes ins ofar as the addition of axial and pressure terms are concerned. The user can cau se CAESAR II to include the axial force terms into the code stress by inserting the parameter ADD_F/ A_IN_STRESS=YES to the setup file. The F/A forces discussed here are structural forces developed in the piping independent of pressure PD/4 t forces. In 1980 B31.1 added a reduced branch stress intensification factor equ ation to Appendix D. This equation came directly from ASME Section III. B31.1 co ntinued however to use the effective section modulus calculation for the branch. The ASME Section III rules clearly stated that the branch section modulus, NOT the effective section modulus should be used with the new SIF. B31.1 s using of the effective section modulus produced unnecessarily high calculated stresses. This error was corrected in the 1989 version of B31.1. Prior to Version 3.0 CAESAR II users had two options: Use the pre-1980 version of the B31.1 SIF rules. Use the very conservative, post-1980 B31.1 SIF rules. In version 3.0 (and later) these options also exist, except that the section modulus problem is corrected. For us ers that wish to run version 3.0 (and later) just like they ran version 2.2, i.e . without the section modulus correction, they can do so by putting the paramete r: B31.1_REDUCED_Z_FIX=NO in the setup file. The reduced intersection branch SIF s were not intended for reinforced or welding tees. Conservative results are pro duced, but the original researchers did not intend for the SIFs to be used for t hese fittings. The CAESAR II user can disable the reduced branch fitting calcula tions for reinforced or welded tees by putting the parameter NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_ RFT_AND_WLT in the setup file. This will produce less conservative results, but can, in some cases be justified. B31.1 102.3.2 (c) tells the user to divide the allowable stresses coming from the stress tables in Appendix A by the applicable weld joint factors listed in Para. 102.4.3. Stress allowables for B31.1 are cal culated from: Expansion Allowable = Sustained Allowable = Occasional Allowable = Where: f = Cyclic reduction factor Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency Cold Allo wable Stress f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh) - Sl ] Sh/Eff Sh/Eff * (Occ) Eff = Sc =

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 99 Sh = Sl = Occ = Hot Allowable Stress Sustained Stress Occasional Load Factor (Default = 1.15) Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept t he same in the B31.1 stress calculation. The B31.1 criteria B length for closely space d miters is not checked by CAESAR II. For reducers B31.1 states that the Flexibi lity Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha * SQRT(D2/t2) Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end an d D2 and t2 are the diameter and thickness of the small end. Alpha is the reduce r cone angle in degrees. Where: Alpha = atan[ length / (D1-D2)/2 ] Note: Alpha c annot exceed 60 and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 can not exceed 100. B31.3 Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing th e bend is not a widely spaced miter. Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique. Since the B31.3 piping code gives the equation for the expansion stress explicitly, and since that equa tion does not include the longitudinal stress due to axial loads in the pipe, CA ESAR II does not include the F/A component of the stress in the expansion stress equation. (The code also says that the user may wish to add in the F/A componen t where it may be significant.) Users can change this by placing the parameter: ADD_F/ A_IN_STRESS=YES to the setup file. The F/A longitudinal stress component is by default added to the code stress component for all other stress categories . The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl s original basis for SIFs. No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without undercut . Codes that do differentiate use 1.3 for socket welds with no undercut, and 2.1 fo r all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all B31.3 socket welds (unless a fillet weld leg length is specified). Stress allowables for B31.3 are calculated from: Expansion Allowable = Sustained Allowable = Occasional Allowable = f [ (1.25/Eff )(Sc+Sh) - Sl ] Sh/Eff Sh/Eff * (Occ)

100 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Where: f Eff = Sc = Sh = Sl = Occ = = Cyclic reduction factor Weld Joint Efficiency (Only for pre-1980 B31.3) Cold Allowable Stress Hot Allowa ble Stress Sustained Stress Occasional Load Factor (Default = 1.33) For B31.3 the flag ALL_STRESS_CASES_CORRODED=NO flag in the setup file returns t he corroded stress calculations to the way they were performed in the 2.2 versio n of CAESAR II. The corrosion is removed from the sustained and occasional stres s calculations. See Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual for the setup fi le parameter B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR=<nnn>. This value can have a considerable impact on the sustained case stress calculations. Pressure effects on miters ar e allowed in the B31.3 piping code. For reducers B31.3 states that the Flexibili ty Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0. B31.4 Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users ma y turn pressure stiffening off by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENIN G=NO in the setup file. Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl s original basis for SIFs. Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique. The Allowables for B31.4 are calculated from: Expansion Allowable = Sus tained Allowable = Occasional Allowable = Operating Allowable = axial stress is tensile Where: Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress (0.72)(Sy) (0.75)(0.72)(Sy) ( 0.8)(Sy) (0.9)(Sy) if the axial stress is compressive, no code check done if the

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 101 B31.4 does not use EFF, (found in the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field). The min imum yield stress is all that is required to compute flexibility stress allowabl es. B31.4 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections. B31.4 does not include a provision for the liberal allowable. Th is particular option is not used for B31.4 stress allowable calculations. The oc casional load factor (used in the other piping codes for determining the allowab le stress for occasional load sets) is not used in B31.4, as the allowable stres s is expressly given as 0.8 times the minimum yield stress. CAESAR II assumes th at 419.6.4(b) establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stress at 90 % of Sy; when the net axial stress is compressive (i.e., when longitudinal press ure stresses can be ignored in underground pipes). The last sentence in the para graph establishes that: Beam bending stresses shall be included in the longitudinal stress for those portions of the restrained line which are supported above grou nd. CAESAR II users have two options for including this axial stress in their analy ses: 1 Include axial friction restraints and include the ADD_F/A parameter into the setup file. Set the fac value to 0.001 to indicate that the line is buried, so lon gitudinal pressure stresses are not present, so the hoop stress component must b e considered. Use the fac value to have CAESAR II compute the axially-restrained include it during stress calculations. If a nonzero fac value is entered, the pressure plus axial loads in the pipe are multiplied by (1-Fac). This gives a more reali stic estimation of the axial stress in the pipe when the user has included both of the effects above. 2 Users should note that paragraph 419.6.4(b) requires 1) the reduction of the axi al expansion stress by the product of Poisson s ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addiction of the hoop stress to the axial stress. The latter represen ts the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive, imp lying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress in buried pipe (the pressure loads are transmitted directly to the soil). CAESAR II handles this case in the Operating Load Case, where the hoop stress is added in and the allowable stress is set to 0.9 Sy whenever the axial stress is compressive. If fac is set to 0.001, th e piping element is considered to be buried, so the longitudinal pressure stress is replaced by the product of Poisson s ratio and the hoop stress, in keeping with the spirit of paragraph 419.6.4(b). fac is automatically set to 0.001 when B31.4 pipe is sent through CAESAR II's buried pipe modeler. The stress due to axial force w ill also be included for these elements. The fac variable should probably not be set t o 1.0 with B31.4 and thermal expansion cases where the user is going from one th ermal state to another state, i.e. where the case is of the form: DS1-DS2, and b oth DS1 and DS2 contain temperatures. In this case the thermal expansion used in the restrained pipe calculation comes from the last thermal specified in the lo ad case definition. In the example above the thermal expansion associated with t he DS2 load case. The base hoop stress on OD flag in the setup file is used by B 31.4 when the hoop stress is calculated for the restrained pipe longitudinal str ess calculation. The default is to base the hoop stress calculation on the avera ge diameter, and the equation PD/2t. In the mechanical stress calculations the h oop stress is based on the inside diameter. (This is the hoop stress that is pri nted in the 132 column CAESAR II stress report.) For reducers B31.4 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0.

102 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual B31.4 Chapter IX Chapter IX presents the offshore requirements of the B31.4 code. All Stress Inte nsification Factors, Flexibility Factors, and section moduli are calculated exac tly as in the standard B31.4 Code. Stress calculations are made using the uncorr oded wall thickness. Operating, Sustained, or Occasional load cases are treated identically (there is no provision for a code check for an Expansion load case, so no Expansion cases are generated under this code). For these load cases, thre e stress calculations are done, each with a different allowable. The stress calc ulation causing the highest percent of allowable is reported in the stress repor t, along with its specific allowable. These stress checks are: Hoop Stress: Long itudinal Stress: Equivalent Stress: Where: Sh = (Pi Pe) D / 2t Pi = internal press ure Pe = external pressure D = outer diameter t = wall thickness F1 = hoop stres s design factor (0.60 or 0.72, see Table A402.3.5(a) of the B31.4 Code) Sy = spe cified minimum yield strength SL = Sa + Sb or Sa - Sb, whichever results in grea ter stress value Sa = axial stress (positive tensile, negative compressive) Sb = bending stress Se = 2[((SL - Sh)/2)2 + St2]1/2 St = torsional stress Sh <= F1 S y |SL| <= 0.8 Sy Se <= 0.9 Sy B31.5 For reducers B31.5 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also stat es the SIF is 1.0.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 103 B31.8 Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users ma y turn pressure stiffening off by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENIN G=NO in the setup file. Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl s original basis for SIFs. No differen tiation is made between socket welds with and without undercut . Codes that do differen tiate use 1.3 for socket welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all B31.8 socket welds (unless a fillet weld leg length is sp ecified). B31.8 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculat ion at intersections. The allowables used for B31.8 are Expansion Allowable Sust ained Allowable Occasional Allowable Operating Allowable = = = = (0.72)(Sy) (0.7 5)(Sy) (0.75)(Sy)*(Occ) (Sy) Where: Occ Sy = = is the occasional load factor (Default=1.0) is the specified m inimum yield stress

104 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual In B31.8 Table E1, note 8 to this table allows ii=io. This produces more conserv ative results and is recommended by Rodabaugh in WRC 329, and so is the CAESAR I I default for SIFs. The only time the SIFs are kept different is when d/D is bet ween 0.5 and 1.0. In this case the out-of-plane stress intensification factor as computed is multiplied by 1.5. See note 10 to Table E1. In this case ii = 1.5*i o. Where d/D is less than 0.5 there is no change to the SIF. (ii=io). There is no eral allowable calculation for B31.8. The OCC occasional load default for B31.8 is 1.0. There is no provision in B31.8 for occasionally acting loads, and the stres s summation discussion in 833.4(c) includes: the longitudinally bending stress due to external loads, such as weight of pipe and contents, wind, etc.... There is no d ifferentiation between the weight load and the wind load. The user must interpre t the intention of the code in this case. For reducers B31.8 states that the Fle xibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*a lpha* (D2/t2)^2/3 Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large en d and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thickness of the small end. Alpha is the re ducer cone angle in degrees. Where: Alpha = atan[ length / (D1-D2)/2] Note: exce ed 100. Alpha cannot exceed 60 and the larger of D1/SQRT(t1) and D2/SQRT(t2) can n ot B31.8 Chapter VIII Chapter VIII presents the offshore requirements of the B31.8 code. All Stress In tensification Factors, Flexibility Factors, and section moduli are calculated ex actly as in the standard B31.8 Code. Stress calculations are made using the unco rroded wall thickness. Operating, Sustained, or Occasional load cases are treate d identically (there is no provision for a code check for an Expansion load case , so no Expansion cases are generated under this code). For these load cases, th ree stress calculations are done, with different allowables. The stress calculat ion causing the highest percent of allowable is reported in the stress report, a long with its specific allowable. These stress checks are: Hoop Stress: Longitud inal Stress: Equivalent Stress: Where: Sh = (Pi Pe) D / 2t Pi = internal pressure Pe = external pressure Sh <= F1 S T |SL| <= 0.8 S Se <= 0.9 S

lib

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 105 D = outer diameter t = wall thickness F1 = hoop stress design factor (0.50 or 0. 72, see Table A842.22 of the B31.8 Code) S = specified minimum yield strength T = temperature derating factor (see Table 841.116A of the B31.8 Code) Note: The p roduct of S and T (i.e., the yield stress at operating temperature) is required in the SH field of the CAESAR II input SL = maximum longitudinal stress (positiv e tensile, negative compressive) Se = 2[((SL - Sh)/2)2 + Ss2]1/2 Ss = torsional stress B31.11 Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users ma y turn pressure stiffening off by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENIN G=NO in the setup file. Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl s original basis for SIFs. Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique. The Allowables for B31.11 are calculated from: Expansion Allowable Sust ained Allowable Occasional Allowable Operating Allowable check done if the axial stress is tensile Where: Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress = = = = (0.72)(Sy) (0.75)(0.72)(Sy) (0.88)(Sy) (0.9)(Sy) if the axial stress is compressive, no co de

B31.11 does not use EFF, (found in the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field). The mi nimum yield stress is all that is required to compute flexibility stress allowab les. B31.11 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections. B31.11 does not include a provision for the liberal allowable. This particular option is not used for B31.11 stress allowable calculations. Th e occasional load factor (used in the other piping codes for determining the all owable stress for occasional load sets) is not used in B31.11, as the allowable stress is expressly given as 0.88 times the minimum yield stress. CAESAR II assu mes that 1119.6.4(b) establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stres s at 90% of Sy; when the net axial stress is compressive (i.e., when longitudina l pressure stresses can be ignored in underground pipes). The last sentence in t he paragraph establishes that: Beam bending stresses shall be included in the longi tudinal stress for those portions of the restrained line which are supported abo ve ground. CAESAR II users have two options for including this axial stress in thei r analyses: 1 Include axial friction restraints and include the ADD_F/A paramete r into the setup file. Set the fac value to 0.001 to indicate that the line is buried, so longitudinal pressure stresses are not present, so the hoop stress component must be considered. Use the fac value to have CAESAR II compute the axially-restrai ss and include it during stress calculations. If a nonzero fac value is entered, the p ressure plus axial loads in the pipe are multiplied by (1-Fac). This gives a mor e realistic estimation of the axial stress in the pipe when the user has include d both of the effects above. 2 Users should note that paragraph 1119.6.4(b) requires 1) the reduction of the ax ial expansion stress by the product of Poisson s ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addition of the hoop stress to the axial stress. The latter represen ts the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive, imp lying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress in buried pipe (the pressure loads are transmitted directly to the soil). CAESAR II handles this case in the Operating Load Case, where the hoop stress is added in and the allowable stress is set to 0.9 Sy whenever the axial stress is compressive. If fac is set to 0.001, th e piping element is considered to be buried, so the longitudinal pressure stress is replaced by the product of Poisson s ratio and the hoop stress, in keeping with the spirit of paragraph 1119.6.4(b). fac is automatically set to 0.001 when B31.11 pip e is sent through CAESAR II's buried pipe modeler. The stress due to axial force will also be included for these elements. The fac variable should probably not be set to 1.0 with B31.11 and thermal expansion cases where the user is going from one thermal state to another state, i.e. where the case is of the form: DS1-DS2, an d both DS1 and DS2 contain temperatures. In this case the thermal expansion used in the restrained pipe calculation comes from the last thermal specified in the load case definition. In the example above the thermal expansion associated wit h the DS2 load case. The base hoop stress on OD flag in the setup file is used b y B31.11 when the hoop stress is calculated for the restrained pipe longitudinal stress calculation. The default is to base the hoop stress calculation on the a verage diameter, and the equation PD/2t. In the mechanical stress calculations t he hoop stress is based on the inside diameter. (This is the hoop stress that is printed in the 132 column CAESAR II stress report.) For reducers B31.11 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also sta tes that the SIF is 1.0.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 107 ASME III Subsections NC and ND Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pre ssure stiffening on bends in the analysis by including the parameter USE_PRESSUR E_STIFFENING=YES in the configuration file. Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. The minimum SIF for reinforced and unreinforced fabricated tees is 2.1. B1 and B2 are calculated according to ASME NC and ND. Equations used are shown in the H elp screens for B1 and B2. If in the odd situation where the user is using the A SME III piping code, and is running dynamics, and is calling one of the dynamic case expansion, and has the liberal allowable flag turned on, the liberal allowa ble request will be ignored, and the difference between Sh and Sl will not be ad ded to the expansion allowable. This is more of a programming decision than an i nterpretation of the piping code or a recommendation for doing dynamic analysis. Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors are the same for the ASME S ection III piping codes. When using USE_WRC330 with ASME NC or ND, for all inter sections that are not welding tees or reinforced fabricated tees, the approximat e section modulus is used for the stress calculations, i.e. pi*r2*t. This includ es all reduced intersections and all d/D ratios. Users that DO NOT wish to use t he branch stress intensification factors found in Appendix D of the Code for wel ding and reinforced reducing tees, should put the flag: NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_A ND_WLT in the setup file. The allowables for ASME III NC and ND are computed fro m Expansion Allowable = Sustained Allowable = f( 1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (Sh-Sl) 1.5S h (If not at an intersection) Occasional Allowable = 1.8Sh not greater than 1.5Sy (If OCC=1.2); 2.25Sh not gre ater than 1.8Sy (If OCC=1.5); 3.0Sh not greater than 2.0Sy (If OCC=2.0) Where: f = Cyclic reduction factor Cold Allowable Hot Allowable Sustained stress from PD /4t+0.75iMb. Material Yield Stress = Occasional factor from the CAESAR II config uration file Sc = Sh = Sl = Sy = OCC

108 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual For two pipe intersections, i.e. butt welds, socket welds, etc. B1 and B2 factor s are 1.0. If the ratio of the average branch to average run radius is less than 0.5 then the reduced intersection rules are applied to the B1 and B2 calculatio ns regardless of the intersection type. If the reduced intersection rules do not apply then the rules for butt welded fittings are used, i.e. B2b= B2r = 0.4 * ( R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0, 0.5 * (R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0. Users can always modify the B1 and B2 values for any node in the SIF&TEE Auxilia ry field. B1 and B2 values modified on an auxiliary field only apply for that el ement, regardless of whether the node is an intersection or not. When r/R < 0.5 the following equations are used for B1 and B2: B2b= B2r = C2b= C2r = 0.50 C2b b ut not < 1.0, 0.75 C2r but not < 1.0, 3(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (t/T)(r/rp), but no t < 1.5 1.15(r/t)**1/4 but not < 1.5. WRC329 does result in smaller branch SIFs than ASME NC and ND, and the same run SIFs. The branch SIFs are smaller by a factor of 2. This is when d/D<0.5, and WR C 329 corrects the Mob inconsistency when d/D is between 0.5 and 1. Thus in the lower ranges of d/D ratios WRC 329 is less conservative than the present codes a nd in the higher ranges WRC 329 is more conservative than the present codes. The Pvar value in the allowable stress spreadsheet is for the DIFFERENCE between th e operating pressure and Pmax to be used in eq 11. This is because of the way th e occasional stresses are formed in CAESAR II, i.e. the direct addition of two s tress components. So we are computing the sustained stress (including pressure) and adding it to the occasional stress, including the stress difference between the operating pressure and the peak pressure that is to be used in the ASME occa sional stress equation 11. The equations 10 or 11 are satisfied by using as the allowable for the iMc/Z stress as the maximum of either f(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) or f( 1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (Sh-Sl) where Sl is the sustained stress as defined by equati on 11 as PDo/4tn+0.75iMa/Z. The CAESAR II approach taken for ASME NC and ND for moment summations at intersections to satisfy equations 8 and 9 is the same as f or equations 10 and 11, i.e. the SRSS of the moments at each end of the pipe fra ming into the intersection is found. The cumulative moment summation rules for a single intersection as per NB 3683.1 are not adhered to. In addition the effect ive section modulus rules of NC and ND are used for all intersection stress calc ulations, i.e. for equations 8 and 9. (The NB subsection is used to get the valu es for B1 and B2 only, and to compute the local flexibility if requested) Becaus e of this approach in CAESAR II, there is no allowable calculated for intersecti on points and sustained or occasional loads. The sustained case SIF factor is no t used in the ASME class 2 or 3 calculations. For reducers NC states that the Fl exibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01* alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 109 Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 ar e the diameter and thickness of the small end. Alpha is the reducer cone angle i n degrees. Where: Alpha = atan[ length / (D1-D2)/2 ] Note: Alpha cannot exceed 6 0 . The larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100. B1=.5 if alpha 30 , 1.0 if 30 < alpha 60 B2 = 1.0. For reducers ND states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2) Where D1 and t1 are the dia meter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thicknes s of the small end. Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees. Where: Alpha = a tan[ length / (D1-D2)/2 ] Note: There is an error in the code, the code states n ote 12 however, they meant note 14. Alpha cannot exceed 60 . The larger of D1/t1 a nd D2/t2 can't exceed 100. B1=.5 if alpha 30 , 1.0 if 30 < alpha 60 B2 = 1.0.

110 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual CANADIAN Z662 Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pre ssure stiffening on bends by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file. Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in t he code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. There is no limit in Z6 62 for the beneficial effect of the pad on an intersection. Most codes limit the pad thickness to 1.5 times the header thickness. For Z662 CAESAR II will not li mit the pad thickness. The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this wa s Markl s original basis for SIFs. Inplane and outplane stress intensification facto rs for intersections are the same. No differentiation is made between socket wel ds with and without undercut. Codes that do differentiate use 1.3 for socket welds wit h no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all Z662 socket welds (unless a fillet weld leg length is specified). This code has no provisio n for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections. The allow able stresses are computed from Expansion Allowable = Sustained Allowable = Occa sional Allowable = Operating Allowable = = Where: Sy = Fac = T = Eff = Occ = L = Specified Minimum Yield Stress Construction Design Factor Temperature De-rating Factor Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency Occasional Load Factor (=1.0) Locatio n Factor (0.72)(Sy)(T) (Sy)(Fac)(T)(L) (Sy)(Fac)(T)(Occ)(L) 0.9(Sy)(T) If pipe i s buried and axial stress is compressive (Sy)(T) If pipe is not buried and axial stress is compressive

CAESAR II assumes that Section 4.6.2 of the Z662 code establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stress of 0.9 x S x T whenever the net axial stress is compressive in the absence of bending stress, and an allowable operating stre ss of S x T when the net axial stress is compressive in the presence of bending stress. Users should note that Section 4.6.2 requires 1) the reduction of the ax ial expansion stress by the product of poisson s ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addition of the hoop stress to the axial stress. The latter represen ts the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive, imp lying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress in buried pipe (the longitud inal pressure thrust loads are transmitted directly to the soil). CAESAR II hand les these requirements, in the OPERATING load case, in the following manner: 1 I f FAC is set to 1.0, the implication is that the piping system is fully restrain ed (in the axial direction) as described in Section 4.6.2.1, and the operating s tress is calculated as: Sh + E a (T2 - T1) - v Sh < 0.9 S x T If FAC is set to 0 .001, the implication is that the piping system is buried, but the soil supports are modeled (rather than just assumed to be fully rigid). This setting removes the longitudinal pressure stress from the equation (as described above), takes b ending stresses into consideration, as required by Section 4.6.2.2.1. In this ca se, the operating stress is calculated as: Sh +Fax/A + Sb - v Sh < S x T If FAC is set to 0.0, the implication is that the piping system is either not restraine d, or is a freely spanning or above ground portion of a restrained line, as descr tion 4.6.2.2.1. In this case, the longitudinal pressure stress is restored, so t his formula only comes into effect if the net axial stress (including pressure) is compressive, in which case the operating stress is calculated as: Sh +Slp + F ax/A + Sb < S x T For those elements for which the net axial stress is longitudi nal, no operating code stress check is done. Users should note that CAESAR II do es not check for buckling, as required by Section 4.6.2.2.2. 2 3 4 5 For reducers Z662 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The Code also state s that the SIF is 1.0.

112 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual NAVY 505 Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pre ssure stiffening on bends in the analysis by including the parameter USE_PRESSUR E_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file. Modifications resulting from flanged ends ar e permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl s original basis for SIFs. Navy 505 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections. Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersec tions are the same. Navy 505 has no provision for a liberal allowable, i.e. adding the difference between Sh and Sl to the allowed expansion stress range. This flag i n the control parameter spreadsheet has no affect on 505 runs. Navy 505 does use Eff in computing the cold and the hot allowable. The use of this parameter is s ubject to some speculation however. Navy 505 has no specific allowable for occas ional loads. An occasional load factor, similar to B31.1 s will be used, and the occ asional allowable calculated from kSh. The allowable stresses for Navy 505 are c alculated from: Expansion Allowable = Sustained Allowable = Occasional Allowable = Where: f = Cyclic reduction factor Joint Efficiency (Not explicitly in the Co de) Cold Allowable Stress Hot Allowable Stress Occasional Load Factor (Default=1 .15) f/Eff(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) Sh/Eff Sh/Eff * Occ Eff = Sc = Sh = Occ = The B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR can be used for 505 to multiply the stress intensi fication factors for sustained and occasional loads to be more in line with the current B31.1 practice.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 113 BS806 For BS806 the maximum hot stress case is considered to be the operating load cas e. Operating load case allowables are only given as per BS806 when the creep rup ture strength governs the stress range allowable. See BS806 sect 4.11.2. BS806 S IFs printed are fti and fto for bends, and Bi and Bo for intersections. Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure st iffening on bends by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file. Modifications due to flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bend types. This includes closely and widely spaced mitered bends. There is no l imit in BS806 to the beneficial effect of the pad on an intersection. Most codes limit the pad thickness to 1.5 times the header thickness. For BS806, CAESAR II will not limit the pad thickness. The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0 , as this was Markl s original basis for SIFs. Important When there is more than one thermal case to evaluate, the following note should be read carefully concernin g CAESAR II's application of BS806. Note: Re: BS806 4.11.3.1 paragraph 2, for sectionalized systems: At this time CA ESAR II only makes the moment summation on a load case by load case basis, and d oes not take the largest moments for an axis for any combination of load cases. The CAESAR II method was set up to allow the user to make, and combine the effec ts of each of the load transients that the piping system undergoes. This is, for the most part the method used in the B31/ASME piping codes. The BS806 method wi ll be conservative in that it uses what is basically a shakedown approach and co mputes a single worst case moment difference. The CAESAR II approach still satis fies the shakedown theory, but computes the moment range for each different load traversed. The BS806 method of combining the maximum moment range will be more conservative. The BS806 approach also eliminates the need to know where on the p ipe the stress is the highest. In reference to the moment tables in Appendix F, CAESAR II users can get the moment difference between any two load cases, but no t the maximum moment difference for any of the three moment axes as requested by the sectionalized piping rules. In satisfying 4.11.3.1(a) CAESAR II uses the mo ment difference between the cold and the hot case to compute the stress. Only a single modulus of elasticity can be entered for a single element for each job. D ifferent elements can have different moduli of elasticity, but that modulus cann ot be varied between load cases in the same run, i.e. cold and hot moduli of ela sticity cannot be used in the same run at this time. For BS806 in 4.11.5.2 the v alue of n is always taken as 1.0., i.e. all branches are of the non-interacting type. See 4.11.4.2 for the definition of n for interacting branches (n is defined in the fou rth paragraph of 4.11.4.2). The CAESAR II equation modeling of the BS806 SIF cur ves for bends is shown in the following plots.

114 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual The BS 806 allowable stresses are calculated as follows: Expansion Allowable = S ustained Allowable = Occasional Allowable = Operating Allowable = Where: H = Sc = Multiplication Factor (0.9 or 1.0 from CAESAR II) 0.2% proof stress at room te mperature lesser of (H)(Sc)+(H)(Sh) <or> (H)(Sc)+F Sy (Sy)(Occ) S avg rupture at design temperature

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 115 Sh = F = Occ = 0.2% proof stress at design temperature Mean stress to failure in design life at design temperature. Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.0) The pressure calculation at intersections is made as required in BS806 4.8.5.1 E q. (17). The pressure stress as per 17 is computed and then combined with the be nding and torsional moments at each of the intersection ends 1, 2 and 3 respecti vely. The m factor is computed as required with a value of n=1, i.e. for non-interacti ng intersections. BS806 does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations. Swedish Method 1 and 2 Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Swedish Code. Users may inc lude pressure stiffening on bends in the analysis by including the parameter USE _PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file. Modifications due to flanged ends ar e permitted in the code for all bends providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. The Swedish Method 1 cannot take advantage of the WRC330 recommendations. WRC 330, if requested is ignored. The Swedish Method 1 has no provision for usi ng an effective section modulus calculation at intersections. Inplane and outpla ne stress intensification factors for intersections are kept the same. The Swedi sh Code item 9 is dealt with as a US tapered transition. Also items 10 and 11 in the Swedish table 9:2 correspond to items 8 and 9 in the CAESAR II nomenclature . The Allowable Stress for Method 1 is calculated from: Sber Allowable Where: Sh F Fac = = lesser of Sh <or> F (Fac)(Sber) / 1.5 = = = Yield stress at temperature Creep rupture stress at temperature Usually 1.5, for prestressed pipe 1.35. The Allowable Stress for Method 2 is calculated from: Expansion Allowable Sustai ned Allowable = = f ( 1.17S1 + 0.17S2 ) Sh

116 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Occasional Allowable Where: f = = Sh * Occ Cyclic reduction factor lesser of Sc <or> 0.267Sy lesser of Sh <or> 0.367Sy Allo wable stress at room temperature (Stn2) Allowable stress at design temperature ( Stn1) Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature Occasional Load Factor (Defa ult=1.2) S1 = S2 = Sc = Sh = Sy = Occ = If the weld is ground flush inside and out then the SIF of a girth butt weld can be taken to be 1.0. A weld ID = 1, informs CAESAR II that the weld is finished and ground flush, and will result in a girth butt weld SIF of 1.0. Swedish metho ds 1 and 2 Beta in the code is entered in the Pvar field on the Allowable Stress Auxiliary screen. Pvar is entered in percent, i.e. 10.0 for ten percent. The de fault if no value is entered is 10 percent. Limits on the reasonable beta s that use rs may enter for the Swedish piping code is 0.1 to 25%. Anything entered less th an 0.1 will be taken to be 10% and anything entered greater than 25% will be tak en to be 25%. If no value is entered then beta will default to 10%. Note that 10 % is entered in the Pmax field as 10.0. This applies equally for Swedish Method 1 and Method 2. The USE_PDo/4t line for the setup file causes the Swedish method 1 code compliance to use the thin walled equations as given in the codes for st ress calculations. The user of Swedish Method 1 should note that implied in the CAESAR II allowable calculation is the assumption that the SIGMA(tn) multiplier is 1.5 for piping that is not prestressed. Users of prestressed pipe (i.e. cold sprung) should change Fac on the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field to be 1.35 as direct ed in the Swedish code. Note: The corroded section modulus is used for all stres s calculations as per the definition of Di in the Swedish code. The default occa sional load factor for Swedish Method 2 is 1.2. The Swedish piping codes allow t he pad thickness on an intersection to reduce stresses up to pad thickness of 2. 5 times the header wall thickness. This is greater than most code s value of 1.5 tim es the header wall thickness. For reducers the Swedish piping codes states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 117 Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 ar e the diameter and thickness of the small end. Alpha is the reducer cone angle i n degrees. Where: Alpha = atan[length / (D1-D2)/2 ] B31.1 (1967) The 1967 B31.1 piping code uses ii=io for full sized intersections for both the header and the branch, and for reduced intersections uses ii=0.75io + 0.25 for b oth the header and the branch. Pressure stiffening is not defined by default. Us ers may activate pressure stiffening for B31.1 (1967) runs by entering the param eter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file. Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bends providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter. The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this wa s Markl s original basis for SIFs. No differentiation is made between socket welds w ith and without undercut. Codes that do differentiate use 1.3 for socket welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all socket welds (u nless a fillet weld leg length is specified). The B31.1 (1967) allowable stresse s are computed from: Expansion Allowable Sustained Allowable Occasional Allowabl e Where: f Eff Sc Sh Sl Occ = = = = = = Cyclic reduction factor Longitudinal Wel d Joint Efficiency Cold Allowable Stress Hot Allowable Stress Sustained Stress O ccasional Load Factor (Default=1.15) = = f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh) - Sl ] Sh/Eff = S h/Eff * Occ Stoomwezen SC SH1 SH2 SH3 = = = = the yield stress at room temperature, referred to as Re i n the code. the yield stress at design temperature, referred to as Re (um) in th e code. not used not used

118 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual FN = the average creep stress to produce one percent set, referred to as Rrg in the code. F2 is the average creep tensile stress to produce rupture, referred to as Rmg in the code. F3 is the minimum creep tensile stress to produce rupture, referred to as Rmmin in the code. EFF SY FAC for details. PVAR = = = = the cycli c reduction factor, referred to as Cf in the code. the tensile strength at room temperature, referred to as Rm in the code. a constant whose value is either 0.4 4 or 0.5. Refer to Stoomwezen Section 5.2 the Cm coefficient in the code whose v alue is usually 1.0. Stoomwezen does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations. RCC-M Subsection C and D Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the code. Users may include pre ssure stiffening on bends in the analysis by including the parameter. USE_PRESSU RE_STIFFENING=YES in the configuration file. Modifications resulting from flange d ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely spaced miter . In-plane and out-of-plane stress intensification factors are the same for thes e piping codes. Users who do not wish to use the stress intensification factor f or branch connections found in Figure C3680.1 of the code for welding and reinfo rced reduced tees, should set NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_ AND_WLT=YES in the configu ration file. The allowables for RCC-M C and D are computed from: Expansion Allow able = Sustained Allowable = Occasional Allowable = F (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh)+(Sh - SS l) Sh OCC + Sh (Defaults to 1.2, Level B) (Use OCC = 1.8 for Level C) (Use OCC = 2.4 for Level D) Where: F Sc Sh Ssl = = = = Cyclic reduction factor Cold allowa ble Hot allowable Sustained stress (PD/4t + 0.75i Mb/Z) Occasional factor from t he CAESAR II configuration file) OCC =

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 119 The Pvar value in the allowable stress spreadsheet is for the DIFFERENCE between the design pressure and Pmax to be used in equation 10. Equations 7 or 8 are sa tisfied by using as the allowable for the i Mc/Z stress the maximum of either F (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) or F (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (Sh - Ssl) where Ssl is the sustained stress as defined by equation 6. For reducers RCC-M states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also stat es that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2) Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thick ness of the small end. Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees. Where: Alpha = atan[ length / (D1-D2)/2 ] Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60 and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100. CODETI Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bend s, including widely spaced miters. Inplane and outplane stress intensification f actors of intersections are kept separate and unique. Since the CODETI piping co de gives the equation for the expansion stress explicitly, and since that equati on does not include the longitudinal stress due to axial loads in the pipe, CAES AR II does not include the F/A component of the stress in the expansion stress e quation. Users can change this by setting ADD_F/A_IN_STRESS=YES to the configura tion file. The F/A longitudinal stress component is by default added to the code stress component for all other stress categories. Stress allowables for CODETI are calculated from Expansion Allowable = Sustained Allowable = Occasional Allow able = F [1.25 (Sc + Sh)] - Sl Sh OCC x Sh Where: F Sc Sh Sl = = = = Cyclic reduction factor Cold allowable stress Hot allo wable stress Sustained stress OCC = Occasional load factor from configuration (defaults to 1.15)

120 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Pressure stiffening of bends is automatically included as directed by the code. Users may deactivate it by setting the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in t he configuration file. Flexibility coefficients and stress intensification facto rs are phased in for bends with an included angle between 15 and 45. Their value is 1.0 for smaller than 15 bends. The stress intensification factor of fabricated tee s having an angle of incidence other than 90 are increased by dividing them by (si n a)3/2. Recommended occasional load factors are 1.15, 1.2, and 1.3, as per Code Table C3.3. CODETI requires that when the design temperature is such that the cree p characteristics are determinant, and if a section of the piping presents local ly weaker characteristics, the sum of the primary and secondary stresses must not e xceed the value FF (from Section C1.4.3). This requirement has not been implemen ted in CAESAR II and has been left to the user to verify. For reducers CODETI st ates that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0. Norwegian (TBK 5-6) Pressure stiffening of bends is required for flexibility factors only and is don e that way, by default. Users may deactivate pressure stiffening completely by s etting USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the configuration file. Pressure stiffening may be activated for stress intensification factors as well by setting USE_PRES SURE_-STIFFENING=YES. The Norwegian Code does not by default add F/A into the st ress calculation. The user can cause CAESAR II to include the axial force term i nto the code stress by setting ADD_F/A_IN_STRESS=YES in the configuration file. The code uses a circumferential weld strength factor (Z) when calculating longit udinal pressure stress. This value is entered as EFF. The cyclic reduction facto r should be calculated as F = (7000/Ne)0.2 (where Ne is the number of anticipate d cycles), and may be as high as 2.34, but shall not be greater than 1.0 when Rm governs the expansion stress allowable. In-plane and out-of-plane stress intens ification factors for bends and intersections are kept the same in the stress ca lculation. Stress allowables for the Norwegian Code are Expansion allowable = Su stained allowable = Occasional allowable = Where: Sr = Minimum of 1.25F1 + 0.25F 2; Fr x Rs - F2; or Fr (1.25 R1 + 0.25 R2) (The latter for higher temperatures; above 425C for austenitic stainless steel, or above 370C for other materials) F2 = O CC Hot allowable stress (entered in Sh) = Occasional load factor from the config uration file (defaults to 1.2) Sr + F2 - SSUS F2 Occ x F2

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 121 SSUS = F1 = Fr = Rs = R1 = R2 = Rm = Sustained stress Allowable stress at ambient (entered in Sc) Cyclic reduction fa ctor Permissible extent of stress for 7000 cycles (from Code Table 10.2) Smaller of F1 and 0.267 RM Smaller of F2 and 0.367 RM Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature Stress intensification factors for fitting types 6 (branch with raised edge radi us), 7 (branch on locally thickened pipe), 13 (conical reducer with knuckles), a nd 14 (reducer without knuckles) have not been implemented in CAESAR II and are the responsibility of the user to enter manually. The Norwegian code offers an a lternative stress analysis method in Appendix D. CAESAR II does not implement th at method. For reducers the Norwegian code states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2) Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 ar e the diameter and thickness of the small end. FDBR The FDBR code is similar to B31.1 in most aspects. However, the following differ ences should be noted. For reinforced tees, FDBR limits the pad thickness to a m aximum equal to the header thickness. If a pad thickness greater than the header thickness is entered, the program overrides it with the header thickness. Reduc ed intersections are treated as in ASME NC, not as in B31.1. The SIF values for butt welds differ from B31.1. FDBR uses either 1.0 or 1.8, depending on the thic kness. FDBR requires the use of the Hot Modulus of Elasticity in the flexibility analysis. Additionally, the computation of the Expansion Case Allowable Stress incorporates the ratio of Ehot to Ecold. The user can override the program compu ted ratio by manually entering it in the FAC field. For reducers FDBR states tha t the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0. 5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2) Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and thickness of the small end. Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees. Where: Alpha = atan[ length / (D1-D2)/2 ]

122 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60 and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100. BS 7159 The BS 7159 Code for Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Pipe requires that a si ngle load case (OPE) be evaluated. For that case, the following combined stress requirements must be met: If Sx is tensile: 2 S x + 4 ( S s ) 2 < Sh and S 2 E 2 + 4S s < S h ----Ex or, if Sx is compressive: E S and v Sx < Sh - ---Ex

S x < 1.25S h Where: P ( Dm ) ( i si Mi ) + ( i xo Mo ) S x = -- ----------- + --- ------- ------------------- --- -------------- ---( 4t d ) Z or 2 2 P ( Dm ) ( i xi M i ) + ( ix o Mo ) F x S x = ----------- ----------- ---------------------- --- --- - ------ --------- --- -( 4t d ) A Z 2 2 (if F x P( D m ) ---- > -- --------------A ( 4t d ) , and it is compressive) MT S s = ---------(2 Z ) mP ( Dm ) S = -- ------ -------- --- 2t d for straight pipe

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 123 mP ( Dm ) ( i M i ) + ( i Mo ) S = ----------- --- - + ---- -- ----- ----- --- ----------- --- -------------- --2t d Z mP ( Dm ) ( i xi Mi ) + ( i xo M o ) ----------- --- --- --S = -- --------- + ---- -- --------- ------ --------- --------- 2t d Z Where Dm & td are always for the run pipe 2 2 2 2 for bends for tees, BS 7159 allowables are based on material design strain ed . Therefore allowable stresses differ in the axial and hoop directions by the ratio of the axial and h oop moduli of elasticity: Sh = (dEx SHOOP = ((dEx) (Eh/Ex) The ratio Eh/Ex is entered in the allowable stress Eff field; if omitted, it def aults to 1.0 (isotropic material). Pressure stiffening of bends is done assuming the bends are fully pressurized up to the design strain of the components (as p er the code requirements). This can be deactivated by setting USE_PRESSURE_STIFF ENING = NO in the configuration file. BS 7159 does not by default add F/A into t he stress calculation (unless this puts an element into compression as described above). The user can cause CAESAR II to include the axial force term into the c ode stress by setting ADD_F/A_IN_STRESS = YES in the configuration file. The fat igue factor Kn is used inversely relative to the cyclic reduction factor in most codes, so its value should be greater than or equal to 1.0 (allowable stress is divided by this number). Kn is calculated as: Kn = 1.0 + 0.25 (As/ n) (Log10(n) - 3.0) Where: As = n stress range during fatigue cycle maximum stress during fatigue cycle number of cycles during design life = = n Kn is entered in the Cyclic Reduction Factor field(s).

124 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual BS 7159 requires that the temperature of the pipe material be considered as bein g typically only 80% 85% of the difference between the fluid and the ambient tem peratures. This reduction factor K is entered in the allowable stress FAC field; if omitted, it defaults to 1.0. The stress intensity and flexibility factors of bends vary based on laminate type: All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction wi th internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer Chopped strand mat (CSM ) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface tissue r einforced layer Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer The laminate type may be entered in the Bend Type field, or a type default may be set in the Special Execution Parameter screen. BS 7159 does not make mention of reducers for SIF ca lculations. UKOOA The UKOOA (United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association) Specification and Reco mmended Practice for the Use of GRP Piping Offshore is similar in many respects to the BS 7159 Code, except that it simplifies the calculational requirements in exchange for imposing more conservatism on the piping operating conditions. Rat her than explicitly calculating a combined stress, the specification defines an idealized envelope of combinations of axial and hoop stresses which cause the eq uivalent stress to reach failure. This curve represents the plot of: ( x/ Where: x-all -all )2 + hoop / hoop-all )2 - [ x hoop /( x-all hoop-all )] 1.0 = = allowable stress, axial allowable stress, hoop hoop-all The Specification conservatively limits the user to that part of the curve falli ng under the line between sx-all (also known as sa(0:1)) and the intersection po int on the curve where shoop is twice sx-(a natural condition for a pipe loaded

only with pressure). An implicit modification to this requirement is the fact th at pressure stresses are given a factor of safety (typically equal to 2/3) while other stresses are not. This gives an explicit requirement of: Pdes Where: Pdes = f1 f2 f3 = = = = r a(0:1) f1 f2 f3 LTHP allowable design pressure factor of safety for 97.5% lower confidence limit, usu ally 0.85 system factor of safety, usually 0.67 ratio of residual allowable, aft er mechanical loads = 1 - (2 sab) / (r f1 LTHS) sa(0:1) / sa(2:1) axial bending stress due to mechanical loads = = long term axial tensile strength in absence o f pressure load a b

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 125 a(2:1) = long term axial tensile strength in under only pressure loading = = long term hy drostatic strength (hoop stress allowable) long term hydrostatic pressure allowa ble LTHS LTHP Note: This has been implemented in the CAESAR II pipe stress analysis software as: Cod e Stress a b Code Allowable (f1 f2 LTHS) / 2.0 (f2 /r) + PDm / (4t) Where: P Dm t = = = design pressure pipe mean diameter pipe wall thickness On the Allowable auxiliary screen, the product of f1 and LTHS is entered in the SH1, SH2, SH3 fields; r is entered in the F1, F2, F3 fields; f2 is entered in th e EFF field; and the temperature reduction factor K (described for BS 7159 above ) is entered in the FAC field if omitted, it defaults to 1.0. K- and i-factors for bends and tees are taken from (laminate types may be entered in the Bend Type f ields), and bending and pressure stresses are calculated as described in, the BS 7159 Code. Note: UKOOA refers to BS7159 for SIF calculations. IGE/TD/12 CAESAR II performs calculations as per the IGE/TD/12 Edition 2 code requirements . The complexity of these requirements far exceeds what can be described here. I t is recommended that the user acquire a copy of this code from the Internationa l Institution of Gas Engineers & Managers or request COADE s supplementary IGE/TD/12 documentation. Note: The current implementation of the IGE/TD/12 code has yet n ot been granted approval for use on Transco projects.

126 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Det Norske Veritas (DNV) This code is entitled Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems. The Allowable Stress Desig n (ASD) provisions of the code are implemented here, rather than the limit state requirements. Since the DNV code does not provide any guidance on Stress Intens ification Factors, Flexibility Factors, or section moduli; these are calculated as per the B31.1 Power Code (this decision was based upon an informal poll of ex perts and users of the DNV Code). All stress calculations are made using the cor roded wall thickness. Operating, Sustained, or Occasional load cases are treated identically (there is no provision for a code check for an Expansion load case, so no Expansion cases are generated under this code). For these load cases, thr ee stress calculations are done, with different allowables. The stress calculati on causing the highest percent of allowable is reported in the stress report, al ong with its specific allowable. These stress checks are: Hoop Stress: Sh Hoop S tress: Sh ns SMYS nu SMTS n SMYS n SMYS Longitudinal Stress: SL Equivalent Stress: Se Where: Sh = (Pi Pe) (D t) / 2t Pi = in ternal pressure Pe = external pressure D = outer diameter t = wall thickness ns = hoop stress yielding usage factor (see Tables C1 and C2 of the DNV Code) SM YS = specified minimum yield strength, at operating temperature nu = hoop stress bursting usage factor (see Tables C1 and C2 of the DNV Code) SMTS = specified m inimum tensile strength, at operating temperature SL = maximum longitudinal stre ss n = equivalent stress usage factor (see Table C4 of the DNV Code) Se = [Sh2 + SL2 - ShSL + 3t2]1/2 t = torsional stress DNV does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 127 Local Coordinates Many analytical models in engineering are based upon being able to define a real physical object mathematically. This is accomplished by mapping the dimensions of the physical object into a similar mathematical space. Mathematical space is usually assumed to be either two-dimensional or threedimensional. For piping ana lysis, the three dimensional space is necessary, since almost all piping systems are three dimensional in nature. Two typical three-dimensional mathematical sys tems are shown below in Figure 1. Both of these systems are Cartesian Coordinate Sy stems . Each axis in these systems is perpendicular to all other axes. Figure 1 Typical Cartesian Coordinate Systems

In addition, for these Cartesian coordinate systems, the right hand rule is used to de fine positive rotation about each axis, and the relationship, or ordering, betwe en the axes. Before illustrating the right hand rule , there are several traits of the systems in Figure 1 that should be noted. Each axis can be thought of as a number l ine , where the zero point is the point where all of the axes intersect. While only t sitive side of each axis is shown in Figure 1, each axis has a negative side as well. The direction of the arrow heads indicates the positive direction of each a ure 1, the X axis has one arrowhead, the Y axis has two arrowheads, and the Z heads. The circular arcs labeled RX , RY , and RZ define the direction of s. (This point will be discussed later.) Any point in space can be mapped to the se coordinate systems by using its position along the number lines. For example, a point 5 units down the X axis would have a coordinate of (5.0, 0.0, 0.0). A point 5 units down the X axis and 6 units down the Y axis would have a coordinate of (5. ).

128 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Notice that if the system on the right side of Figure 1 is rotated a positive 90 degrees about the X axis, the result is the syst em on the left side of Figure 1. The coordinate system on the left side of Figur e 1 is the default CAESAR II global coordinate system. In this system, the X and Z ne the horizontal plane, and the Y axis is vertical. (The other coordinate system in F igure 1 can be obtained in CAESAR II by selecting the Z-axis Vertical option, discusse d later in this chapter.) All further discussion in this chapter will target thi s default coordinate system, unless otherwise noted. Other Global Coordinate Systems There are other types of coordinate systems that can be used to mathematically m ap a physical object. A Polar coordinate system maps points (in a two dimensional spac e) using a radius and a rotation angle, (r, theta). A Cylindrical coordinate system ma ps points using a radius, a rotation angle, and an elevation, (r, theta, z). The origin in this system could be considered the center of the bottom of a cylinde r. Cylindrical coordinates are convenient to use when there is an axis of symmetry in the model. A Spherical coordinate system maps points using a radius and two rotation a ngles, (r, theta, phi). The origin in this system could be considered the center of a sphere. Spherical coordinates are convenient to use when there is a point which is the center of symmetry in the model. Typically, none of these coordinate syst ems are easily used to map piping systems. Most piping software deals exclusivel y with the Cartesian coordinate system.

The Right Hand Rule In the Cartesian coordinate system, each axis has a positive and a negative side, as p reviously mentioned. Translations, straight-line movement, can be defined as mov ement along these axes. Rotation can also occur around these axes, as illustrate d by the arcs in Figure 1. A standard rule must be applied in order to define th e direction of positive rotation about these axes. This standard rule (known as the right hand rule ) is: Put the thumb of your right hand along the axis, in the pos direction of the axis. The direction your fingers curl is positive rotation abo ut that axis. This is best illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2 The Right Hand Rule

The right hand rule can also be used to describe the relationship between the three ax es. Mathematically, the relationship between the axes can be defined as: X cross Y = Z Y cross Z = X EQ 1 EQ 2

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 129 Z cross X = Y Where cross EQ 3 Physically, using your right hand, what do the above equations mean? This questi on is best answered by Figure 3. Figure 3 The Right Hand Rule - Continued indicates the vector cross product .

The left pane of Figure 3, corresponds to vector equation 3 above. Similarly, th e center pane in Figure 3 also corresponds to vector equation 3 above. The right pane in Figure 3 corresponds to vector equation 2 above. All panes of Figure 3 refer to the left hand image of Figure 1. Straight-line movement along any axis can be therefore described as positive or negative, depending on the direction o f motion. This straight-line movement accounts for three of the six degrees of f reedom associated with a given node point in a model. (Analysis of a model requi res the discretization of the model into a set of nodes and elements. Depending on the analysis and the element used, the associated nodes have certain degrees of freedom. For pipe stress analysis, using 3D Beam Elements, each node in the m odel has six degrees of freedom.) The other three degrees of freedom are the rot ations about each of the axes. In accordance with the right hand rule , positive rotati on about each axis is defined as shown in Figures 1 and 2. When modeling a syste m mathematically, there are two coordinate systems to deal with, a global (or mo del) coordinate system and a local (or elemental) coordinate system. The global or model coordinate system is fixed, and can be considered a constant characteri stic of the analysis at hand. The local coordinate system is defined on an eleme ntal basis. Each element defines its own local coordinate system. The orientatio n of these local systems varies with the orientation of the elements. Note: An i mportant concept here (which will be reiterated later) is the fact that local co ordinate systems are defined by, and therefore associated with, elements. Local coordinate systems are not defined for, or associated with, nodes.

130 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Pipe Stress Analysis Coordinate Systems As noted previously, most pipe stress analysis computer programs utilize the 3D Beam Element. This element can be described as an infinitely thin stick, spannin g between two nodes. Each of these nodes has six degrees of freedom - three tran slations and three rotations. Piping systems (models) are constructed by definin g a series of elements, connected by nodes. These pipe elements are typically de fined as vectors, in terms of delta dimensions referenced to a global coordinate syste m. Several example pipe elements are shown below in Figure 4. Figure 4 - Example Pipe Elements

For most pipe stress applications, there are two dominant global coordinate syst ems to choose from, either Y axis or Z axis up. These two systems are depicted in As previously noted, the global coordinate system is fixed. All nodal coordinate s and element delta dimensions are referenced to this global coordinate system. For example, in Figure 4 above, the pipe element spanning from node 10 to node 2 0 is defined with a DX (delta X) dimension of 5 ft. Additionally, node 20 has a global X coordinate 5 ft. greater that the global X coordinate of node 10. Simila s could be made about the other two elements in Figure 4, only these elements ar e aligned with the global Y and global Z axes. In CAESAR II, the user can choose two global coordinate systems shown in Figure 1. By default, the CAESAR II glob al coordinate system puts the global Y axis vertical, as shown in the left half of Fig ure 1, and in Figure 4. There are two ways to change the CAESAR II global coordi nate system so that the global Z axis is vertical. The first method is to modify the c onfiguration file in the current data directory. This can be accomplished from t he Main Menu, by selecting TOOLS\CONFIGURE SETUP. Once the configuration dialog appears, select the Geometry tab, as shown in Figure 5. On this tab, check the Z Axis Up check box, as shown in the figure below.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 131 Figure 5 - Geometry Configuration Once the Z Axis Vertical check box is activated, the CAESAR II global coordinate system will be in accordance with the right half of Figure 1. This configuratio n affects all new jobs created in this data directory. Existing jobs with the Y axis v ertical are not affected by this configuration change. The second method to obta in a global coordinate system with the Z axis vertical is to switch coordinate systems from within the input for the specific job at hand. This can be accomplished fr om the Special Execution Parameters dialog of the piping input processor. This d ialog is shown below in Figure 6.

132 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Figure 6 - Special Execution Parameters Dialog Checking the Z Axis Vertical check box will immediately change the orientation o f the global coordinate system axis, with corresponding updates to the element d elta dimensions. However, the relative positions and lengths of the elements are not affected by this switch.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 133 Defining a Model Using the CAESAR II default coordinate system (Y axis vertical), and assuming th e system shown below in Figure 7, the corresponding element definitions are give n in Figure 8. Figure 7 - Sample Piping Model Figure 8 - Sample Piping Model Element Definitions For this sample model, most of the element definitions are very simple: The firs t element, 10-20, is defined as 5 ft. in the positive global X direction. This element starts at the model origin. The second element, 20-30, is defined as 5 ft. in t he positive global Y direction. This element begins at the end of the first element, s ince both elements share node 20. The third element, 30-40, is defined as 5 ft. in the negative global Z direction. Note in Figure 8 that the delta dimension for this element is a negative number. This is necessary to define the element in a nega tive direction. The fourth element, 40-50, runs in both the positive global X and nega tive global Y directions, this element slopes to the right and down. This element is d efined with delta dimensions in both the DX and DY fields. Notice that these del ta dimensions are equal in magnitude; therefore this element slopes at 45 degree s.

134 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Continuing the model, from node 50, along t he same 45 degree slope can be rather tedious, since most often only the overall element length is know, not its components in the global directions. In CAESAR II this can be best accomplished by activating the Direction Cosine dialog box, shown below in Figure 9. The Direction Cosine dialog can be activated by clickin g the Browse button next to the DY field. Using this dialog box, the element len gth can be entered, and CAESAR II will determine the appropriate components in t he global directions, based on the current direction cosines (which default to t hose of the preceding element). Figure 9 - Direction Cosine Dialog CAESAR II provides an additional coding tool, for longer runs of pipe with unifo rm node spacing. An element break option is provided, which allows an element to be br oken into equal length segments, given a node number increment. In the preceding example, the model is defined solely using delta dimensions . By constructing the mode l in this fashion, it is assumed that the world coordinates of node 10 (the firs t node in the model) are at (0., 0., 0.). This assumption is acceptable in all b ut a one instance, when environmental loads are applied to the model. In this in stance, the elevation of the model is critical to the determination of the envir onmental loads, and therefore must be specified. In CAESAR II, the specification of the starting node of the model can be accomplished using the [Alt+G] key com bination, and all nodal coordinates will be displayed as absolute coordinates. Regardl ess of whether or not the global coordinates of the starting node are specified, the model relative geometry will plot the same. Once a model has been defined, there are a number of operations that can be performed on the entire system, or on any section of the system. These operations include: Translating the model: t ranslation can be accomplished by specifying the global coordinates of the start ing node of the model. If the model consists of disconnected segments, CAESAR II requests the coordinates of the starting node of each segment. Rotating the mod el: rotation can be accomplished by using the [LIST] processor or by clicking th e button. The [LIST] processor presents the model in a spreadsheet, or grid, for mat, as shown in Figure 8. Options in this processor allow the model (or any sub -section of the model) to be rotated about any of the three global axes, a speci fied amount. For example, if the model shown in Figures 7 and 8 is rotated a (ne gative) -90 degrees about the global Y axis, the result is as shown in Figure 10.

Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 135 Figure 10 - Example of Model Rotation Duplicating the model: duplication can also be accomplished by using the [LIST] processor. The entire model, or any sub-section of the model, can be duplicated. Using Local Coordinates When analyzing a piping system, there are a number of items that must be checked and verified. These items include: Operating loads on restraints and terminal p oints Hanger design results Equipment Evaluations Expansion joint evaluation Maximum operating displacements Code stresses for code cases Vessel Nozzle Evaluation

Restraint loads and displacements are checked in the global coordinate system. T his is necessary because restraint loads and displacements are nodal quantities. Element loads and stresses are most often evaluated in their local coordinate s ystem. A good example illustrating the use of a local (element) coordinate syste m is the free body diagram, of forces and moments. The forces and moments in thi s free body diagram remain the same, regardless of the position of the element i n the global coordinate system. Note however, that each element has its own loca l coordinate system. Furthermore, the local coordinate system of one element may be different from the local coordinate system of a different element. While the global coordinate system is typically referred to using the capital letters X , Y ordinate systems use a variety of nomenclature. In almost all cases, local coord inate systems use lower case letters. Typical local coordinate system axes are: xyz , d uvw . CAESAR II uses xyz to denote the local element coordinate system. The loca e system for an element is related to the global coordinate system through a rul e. There may be a number of such rules, depending on the type of element. In CAE SAR II, the following rules are used to define the local coordinate systems of t he piping elements in a model.

CAESAR II Local Coordinate Definitions Rule 1 - Straight Pipe: For straight pipe elements, the local x axis always points fro m the From Node to the To Node . The local y axis can be found by the vector ocal x axis with the global Y axis. Applying the right hand rule , this loca orming the following steps: 1 2 Lay your right hand on the pipe, with the wrist at the From Node , and the fingers pointing to the To Node . Align or rotate your h the global Y axis points perpendicularly out from the palm. The thumb is now aligned with the local y axis for this element.

The local z axis can be found by the vector cross product of the local x and loca ption to this rule is the case of a vertical element. In this case, the local x axis i s still aligned in the From - To direction. However, you can t cross a vertical bal Y , so the local y axis was arbitrarily assigned to align with the global X elements of the model in Figure 7 are reproduced below in Figure 11, along with their local coordinate systems. Notice that each of these straight elements has its own local coordinate system, and that in this model, they are all aligned di fferently. Figure 11 - Local Coordinate Systems for Straight Elements (1)

In Figure 11, the positive direction of the local x axis for each element is defined a ccording to the From - To definition of the element. For example, the local x axi t 10-20 is aligned with the positive global X axis, because that is the direction defi ned in moving from node 10 to node 20. The local x axis of element 30-40 is aligned wi th the negative global Z axis, because that is the direction defined in moving from no de 30 to node 40. Figure 11 should be studied to ensure a good understanding of how the local element coordinate system can be defined based on the definition o f the element, especially with regard to the skewed element 40-50. As an additio nal example, the local element coordinate systems for the rotated system of Figu re 10 are shown below in Figure 12.

138 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual Figure 12 - Local Coordinate Systems for Straight Elements (2)

Rule 2 - Bend Elements: For the near weld line of bend elements, the local x axis d along the incoming tangent, in the From

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