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Theres a lot of surface area on this planet for solar panels.

The oceans are a vast area to utilize this solar technology. But, the weather can make the installation and use of floating solar arrays difficult. Thats not the case with LSAs (Liquid Solar Arrays) by Sunengy Pty LTD. The floating solar power units, called Liquid Solar Arrays (LSA), use concentrated photovoltaic technology where a lenses direct the light onto solar cells and move throughout the day to follow the sun.

The company says the advantage to floating a solar power plant is that it erases the need for expensive structures to protect it from inclement weather and high winds when rough weather comes along, the lenses just submerge. Floating on water, whether it be the ocean, a lake or a tiny pond, also keeps the solar cells cool, which increases their efficiency and lifespan. The LSA system is based on floating solar collectors made mostly of plastic. Each has a very small area of silicon photovoltaic cells at the water surface with a large, thin plastic focusing lens rotating slowly above to track the sun. The water cools the silicon cells

and in bad weather the lens is protected by rotating it fully under the water to avoid damage in high winds.

What is liquid solar array technology: In this technology, lens and photo voltaic cells are made to float on the water. These absorb solar energy during the day. There is no need to undertake any construction in water as these are made to float with the new technology. This can withstand all adverse weather conditions. This new technology will convert the dam into a big battery. Solar energy can be stored without any cost. Liquid Solar Array technology provides an opportunity to maintain water resources more effectively.

Special features of LSA: LSA technology is cheap and it can even withstand cyclones. Land is not needed for establishing this plant and so there will not be any problems for procuring the land. In India, there is 30 thousand square kilometers of water area and even if 1% of it is utilized for this technology, electricity that is equal to the electricity produced by 15 big thermal electricity plants can be produced.

Solar Energy Materials And Solar Cells | Types Of Solar Cells


Solar radiation received on earth in just one hour is more than what the whole worlds population consumes in one year. 3,850,000 Exajoules (EJ) amount of solar energy received by Earth Surface per year. In 2011, worldwide primary energy consumptions was 550 EJ. 7 hours of Solar Energy at Deserts can meet annual global energy requirement. Note: 1 EJ = 10
18

(i.e in the order, Joule (J), Kilo Joule, Mega joule, Giga Joule, Tera Joule, Peta Joule, Exa Joule, Zeeta Joule, Yotta Joule and so on.)

What is Photovoltaics (PV)?


Photovoltaic (phs) = light (@ Greek )and voltaic = electric (from Volta, Italian Conversion of sun light directly into electricity through semi conductor materials Electricity for 2 billion people around the world

physicist)

What is Photovoltaic (PV) systems? A PV system consist of:


Photovoltaic cells connected into modules and encapsulated Modules grouped Panels groups into arrays, A power conditioning unit, Batteries.

into panels.

History of Photovoltaics: In 1839, a young French physicist named Edmund Bacquerel discovered the photovoltaic effect. While working with two metal electrodes in an electricity-conducting solution, he noted that the apparatus generates voltage when exposed to light. When 1904, Albert Einstein published a paper on the photoelectric effect, that the general scientific community stopped looking at photovoltaic as some type of scientific hoax. 1839 1873 1883 Becquerel: Smith: Fritts: Photogalvanic effiect Photoconductivity of Se Se films solar cells

What is Solar Cell? The basic component of a PV system is solar cell. Two fundamental functions: 1. Photo-generation of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in a light-absorbing material 2. Separation of the charge carriers to a conductive contact to transmit electricity If light with adequate energy falls onto silicon arranged to form a p-n junction and penetrates to a point near the junction, then, because of the photo-electric effect, it will create free electrons near the junction. These electrons immediately move under the influence of the p-n junctions electric field. The electrons continue to move through the cell to the surface of the cell. On the way towards the surface of the cell some of the electrons may be re-absorbed by the silicon atoms, but many electrons still reach the

surface of the cell. These electrons can be collected by a metallic grid and an electric current will flow if the grid is connected to the metal contact on the other side of the cell by an external circuit.

Photovoltaic Materials:

Crystalline silicon (c-Si) Amorphous silicon (s-si) Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) III-V Family (Gallium arsenide.) Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells (DSSC) Organic Photovoltaics (OPV)