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LECTURE 2.

1: THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM


Maam Glenn Medina De La Salle University

Spectroscopy
- A science that deals with the interaction of matter and radiation - Spectroscopic methods are classified according to the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum
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Spectrochemical Methods
- Include the tools used for molecular structure elucidation and the qualitative and quantitative determination of organic and inorganic compounds

Spectrophotometry
Any technique that uses light to measure chemical concentrations

Colorimetry
A procedure based on visible light absorption
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LIGHT: What Is It?


Described as particle-like and wave-like in nature Stream of Photons
Photons - bundles/packets of energy released when the electrons fall.

Light waves consist of perpendicular, oscillating electric and magnetic fields

LIGHT: Particles or Waves?


Wave Model of Light Explains most properties of light Particle Theory of Light Photoelectric Effect

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
electrons are ejected from the surface of certain metals exposed to light of at least a certain minimum frequency; proves that light is composed of particles called photons The # of e- ejected is proportional to the intensity of light

Properties of LIGHT
Wavelength () crest to crest distance between waves Frequency () number of complete oscillations of wave per second
Hertz (Hz) 1 oscillation per second

Waves are a type of disturbance that can propagate or travel. Waves carry information and energy. Properties of a wave

wavelength () crest

Equilibrium position

amplitude (A) trough velocity (v)

All radiation (including visible light) travels as Electromagnetic waves. That is, waves of electric and magnetic fields travelling together.

What are some examples of objects with magnetic fields:

What are some examples of objects with electric fields:

Anything with too many or too few electrons!

Properties of LIGHT

=c
c = speed of light (2.998 x 108 m/s in vacuum) In another medium, the speed of light is

c/n where n = refractive index

Properties of LIGHT

E = h E = hc/
where h = Plancks constant -34 Js] [6.626 x 10

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum


The complete spectrum or continuum of light including radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays

Electromagnetic Waves
Speed in Vacuum 300,000 km/sec 186,000 mi/sec 186,000 Speed in Other Materials Slower in Air, Water, Glass

RADIO WAVES

RADIO WAVES
= 1 x 102 meters (LONGEST) Least energetic, lowest frequency used mainly for communications. divided into: Long Wave [1~2 km in ] Medium Wave [100m in ] - "AM" stations VHF (Very High Frequency) [2m in ] - "FM" radio stations UHF (Ultra High Frequency) [ < 1m] used for Police radio communications, military aircraft radios and television transmissions.

MICROWAVES

MICROWAVES
= 1 x 10-4 to 1 x 102 m Discovered by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864. Uses: Microwave oven Transmitting information from one place to another because microwave energy can penetrate haze, light rain and snow, clouds, and smoke. Radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) - short- microwaves that can be used to locate objects such as airplanes and ships at sea. Communication satellites

MICROWAVES and MRI


MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Production of pictures of tissues in the human body A person is placed in a machine that gives out short bursts of radiowaves which cause the atoms to line up in the same direction (due to the magnetic field) The atoms return to their original directions at different rates The pictures generated can show clear images of muscles and other soft tissues that do not show up on x-rays Application: brain disorder determination

INFRARED
: 7.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-4 meters. Infra means below; Infrared rays have a lower frequency than red rays Half the sun's rays are infrared rays. Uses: TV remote control. Infrared lamps to treat skin diseases Burglar alarms

VISIBLE

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VISIBLE
: 380 780 nm
the only electromagnetic waves we can see. We see these waves as the colors of the rainbow. Red has the longest and violet has the shortest. When all the waves are seen together, they make white light.

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VISIBLE
Rainbow refraction of white light Sun - natural source for visible light waves Our eyes see the reflection of this sunlight off the objects around us. Color of an object = color of light reflected. All other colors are absorbed.
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Scattering

Reflection

Scattering

Blue Sky, Red Sunset, White Clouds

Blue sky - blue light (shorter wavelength) is more scattered into sky. Red sunset all blue lights are scattered; only red light is left after long path.

Blue Sky, Red Sunset, White Clouds contd

White clouds cloud droplets/ice crystals scatter all wavelengths uniformly.

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ULTRAVIOLET
: 180 380 nm Ultraviolet means beyond violet Invisible to the human eye
Bees, birds, butterflies and other insects can see UV light. Germicidal lamps to sterilize equipment Treatment of acne and jaundice Can cause skin cancer and eye damage (so eyeglasses and sunblocks should be worn)

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X-RAYS
: 2x10-11 to 2x10-8 m First by Wilhelm Roentgen, a German scientist who found them quite by accident Roentgen called it "X" to indicate it was an unknown type of radiation.

X-RAYS
Medical analysis Dentists use them to find complications, cavities and impacted teeth. Because your bones and teeth are dense and absorb more X-rays then your skin does, silhouettes of your bones or teeth are left on the X-ray film while your skin appears transparent. Metal absorbs even more X-rays - can you see the filling in the image of the tooth?

GAMMA RAYS
: 3 x 1011 m and down can be produced in labs through the process of nuclear collision and also through the artificial radioactivity that accompanies these interactions. generated by radioactive atoms and in nuclear explosions. Uranium and other naturally occurring radioactive elements, which emit alpha and beta particles from their nuclei while transforming into new elements, also emit gamma rays.

Uses:

GAMMA RAYS

used in nuclear reactors and atomic bombs. used in medicine to kill and treat certain types of cancers and tumors. examine metallic castings or welds in oil pipelines for weak points. kill pesticides and bugs in food. often used as food preservative. The radioisotopes preserve foods.

GAMMA RAYS
Protection Fe - 0.5 thick 4 of H2O . 0.25 Pb

Time to think..
1. What is the relationship between frequency and wavelength? 2. What is meant by spectrum? 3. What does ROY G BV mean? 4. Can you actually see x-rays? 5. Which color is more energetic, red or yellow? 6. Which type of wave travels faster, gamma or radio? 7. Why are microwaves more dangerous than radio waves?

Answers
1. Frequency and wavelength are properties of waves and since speed is constant for em waves, as frequency increases, wavelength decreases. 2. Spectrum is a continuum of all electromagnetic waves 3. ROY G BIV is the difference colors of the visible light in order of longest wavelength to shortest wavelength. 4. X-rays can not be seen, only the waves in the visible light portion are visible. 5. Yellow is higher energy than red because it has a shorter wavelength and higher frequency. 6. Both travel at the same speed, 300,000 km/s (all em waves travel at the same speed) 7. Microwaves have a higher frequency than radio and carry more energy.