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Womens Earnings and Income

Earnings and Income of U.S. Women and Men


The median annual earnings for full-time, year-round women workers in 2010 was $36,931 compared to mens $47,715.1 In 2011, the median weekly earnings for full-time working women was $684, compared to $832 for men.2 In 2011, the median weekly earnings for women in full-time management, professional, and related occupations was $941, compared to $1,269 for men. 3 In 2009, of the 32,280,000 dual-career couples, wives earned more than their husbands 28.9% of the time, up from 17.8% of the 29,755,000 dualcareer couples in 1987.4 In 2010, full-time working married women with spouses present had median usual weekly earnings of $727, somewhat higher than never married women ($591) or women of other marital status (divorced, separated, or widowed $653). 5 In 2010, married men with spouses present had median usual weekly earnings of $939, significantly higher than never married men ($608) or men of other marital status ($774). 6 In 2011, Asian women who were full-time wage and salary workers had higher median weekly earnings than women of all other races/ethnicities as well as African-American and Latino men. 7
Women and Mens Median Weekly Earnings, by Sex and Race/Ethnicity, 20118

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Womens Earnings and Income

Education is a factor in income statistics show that higher degrees lead to higher median salaries. For full-time workers data below, men earn more than women in each category.9 Degree Median weekly earnings, women $1,352 $1,362 $1,127 $909 $677 $543 Median weekly earnings, men $1,686 $1,881 $1,488 $1,188 $886 $710

Doctoral Professional Masters Bachelors Associates High school graduate, no college

Earnings for women with college degrees have increased by 33.4% since 1979 (on an inflation-adjusted basis) compared to a 19.9% increase for male college graduates.10 Between 1969-70 and 2009-2010, the percent of bachelors degrees earned by women rose from 43.1% to 57.2%, and by 2020-2021, they are projected to increase to 58.0%.11 Between 1969-70 and 2009-2010, the percent of masters degrees earned by women rose from 38.8% to 60.3%, and by 2020-2021, they are projected to increase to 60.7%.12 Between 1969-70 and 2009-2010, the percent of doctoral degrees earned by women rose from 9.6% to 51.7%, and by 2020-2021, they are projected to increase to 53.8%.13 Between 1980 and 2011, the percent of women 25 and over with four or more years of college rose from 13.6% to 30.1%.14

Economics of Marriage

The Pew Research Center looked at marriage and earnings data for women and men in the U.S. ages 30-44 in 2007. The study found that in recent decades, the economic gains usually associated with marriage have been greater for men

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Womens Earnings and Income

than for women. Women outpaced men in education and earnings growth, leading to gender role reversals in marriages economic benefits.15 In 2007, median household incomes for married women, married men, and unmarried women were about 60% higher than those of their counterparts in 1970. For unmarried men, however, the rise in median household income was 16%.16 Womens earnings grew 44% from 1970 to 2007, compared with 6% growth for men. 17 The percentage of women earning more than their husbands increased to 22% in 2007 from 4% in 1970. 18

Wage Gap in the United States

Based on median annual earnings for full-time, year-round workers, women earned 77.4% of mens earnings in 2010. 19 Based on the median weekly earnings for full-time workers, (which excludes self-employed and full-time workers who work only part of the year), in 2011 women earned 82.2% as much as men. 20 o In 1979, women earned 62.3% as much as men. 21 The earnings difference between women and men varies with age, with younger women more closely approaching pay equity than older women (2010, median weekly earnings), for full-time wage and salary workers. 22
Age Groups 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Womens % of Mens Earnings23 93.8% 90.8% 79.9% 76.5% 75.2% 75.7%

The gender wage gap also varies by industry. The biggest wage gap in the U.S. is in the Financial Activities industry, with women earning 70.5 cents for every dollar men make.24

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Womens Earnings and Income

Womens Earnings as a Percent of Mens, by Industry25


Public Administration Other Services Lesiure and Hospitality Education and Health Services Professional and Business Services Financial Activities Information Transportation and Utilities Wholesale and Retail Trade Manufacturing Construction Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Agriculture and related industries 78.5% 72.2% 83.5% 77.0% 76.6% 70.5% 75.8% 78.6% 76.0% 73.8% 92.2% 79.7% 84.6%

Male doctors make $12,000 more per year than female doctors.26 The wage gap between women and men was widest for whites and Asians in 2011. 27 Womens Earnings as a Percentage of Mens, by Race/Ethnicity28
91.1% 90.7%

82.1% 77.4%

White Women

African American Women

Asian Women

Latinas

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Womens Earnings and Income

Wage Gap Theories and Research


Although Bureau of Labor Statistics shows that womens median earnings are less than mens, the reasons behind the gap are highly debated. Some studies state that the gap can be explained to a large extent by non-discriminatory factors and are based on a division of labor in the home that relies more heavily on women than on men. Women are more likely than men to have interrupted careers, taking time off for family reasons (i.e., child care or elder care), and are more likely to work part-time. Women tend to be employed in helping and support professions, positions that are not considered comparable in pay to mens work. Women also tend to be clustered in lower-paying positions.29 Women also have fewer incentives to invest in market-based formal education and on-the-job training, and may avoid jobs that demand large investment in skills.30 Meanwhile, further studies have found that a significant wage gap exists between women and men even when expected factors like family and labor force experience were eliminated and look toward systemic discrimination as one of the explanations.31 Catalyst research has found that women MBA were being paid, on average, $4,600 less in their first job than men. This is after taking into account number of years prior experience, time since MBA, job level, global region, industry, and even parenthood.32 The Institute for Womens Policy Research finds that women earn far less than what men earn when measured over many years instead of over one year. Using what they see as a more inclusive 15-year time frame and taking into account womens lower work hours and their years with zero earnings due to family care, the report that women workers in their prime earning years earned 62% less than men, or only $0.38 for every dollar men earned. During that 15year period, the average woman earned only $273,592 (in 1999 dollars) while the average man earned $722,693 (in 1999 dollars). During that 15-year period, the more likely women are to be married and have children under 18, the more likely it is that they will be low earners and have fewer hours in the labor market. The opposite is true for men: Men who are married and have dependent children are more likely to have higher earnings and work longer hours.33

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Womens Earnings and Income

Earnings and Income of Canadian Women and Men


For full-time workers in 2011, women earned 82.6% of mens earnings, based on average weekly wages. In 1997, the wage gap was 77.2% for fulltime workers.34 Year 1997 2000 2005 2010 2011 Women % of Mens Earnings for Full-Time Workers35 77.2% 76.6% 79.8% 81.6% 82.6%

For all workers, including full- and part-time, women earned 75.6% of mens earnings in 2011, based on average weekly wages.36 In Canada, 18% of dual-earner wives are now their families' primary breadwinners when measured in hourly earnings, bringing in more than 55% of the household income.37 o This is up from 14% in 1997. 38

Gender Pay Gap Globally


Gaps in earnings of women and men vary from country to country. Korea and Japan have the highest gender wage gap, at 39% difference and 28% difference between women and mens salaries. Hungary is the lowest with 4%.39

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Womens Earnings and Income

Gender Wage Gap by Country, 200940


Australia Austria Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland UK

16% 19% 9% 20% 18% 12% 20% 13% 22% 10% 4% 13% 10% 20% 12% 28% 39% 17% 8% 9% 10% 16% 12% 15% 20% 20%

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Womens Earnings and Income

Female to Male Ratio for Estimated Earned Income, by Country, 201041

0.89 0.82 0.77 0.67 0.56 0.52 0.49 0.75 0.7 0.66 0.66 0.61 0.65 0.55 0.48 0.42 0.31 0.24 0.19 0.81 0.74 0.69 0.65 0.64 0.54 0.51 0.44 0.41 0.57 0.83 0.82

0.88

0.71

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Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Bolivia Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Cambodia Canada China Costa Rica Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Finland France Germany Hungary India Indonesia Italy Japan Korea Mexico Netherlands Saudi Arabia Spain Sweden Switzerland UK US

Womens Earnings and Income

Wage Gap by Industry for Select Countries


The Americas Brazil Gender Wage Gap by Industry in 200742
70.6% 53.5% 39.2% 8.6% 5.5% 2.3% 38.6% 21.8%

Canada In 2010, the female to male median earnings ratio was 77.6 and the female to male average earnings ratio was 73.6.43 o In 2000, the female to male median earnings ratio was 71.7, and the female to male average earnings ratio was 70.644

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Mexico Gender Wage Gap by Industry in 200845


35.8% 28.2% 17.7% 6.1% 0.5% 6.8% 40.8% 1.5% 26.8% 18.6% 29.8% 23.3% 19.9% 16.9% 16.1% 13.0%

17.4%

Asia-Pacific Australia Gender Wage Gap by Industry in 201046


32.1% 22.6% 15.8% 16.4% 18.0% 16.8% 12.5% 6.0% 8.3% 9.5% 24.9% 27.2% 16.3% 16.9%

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Womens Earnings and Income

Japan Gender Wage Gap by Industry in 200847


28.5% 23.0% 12.9% 15.6% 16.0% 13.5% 29.3%

11.9% 7.1% 0.3% 4.4%

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Womens Earnings and Income

Middle East Egypt Gender Wage Gap by Industry in 200748


51.8%

36.0%

36.1% 35.6% 31.4%

33.3%

31.4%

19.0%

12.9% 0 13.4% 11.9% 2.1%

12.8% 4.4%

UPDATED on August 13, 2012

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Womens Earnings and Income

SOURCES

U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement, "Table PINC-05: Work Experience in 2010--People 15 Years Old and Over by Total Money Earnings in 2010, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex" (2011). "Table PINC-05. Work Experience in 2010--People 15 Years Old and Over by Total Money Earnings in 2010, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex," 2Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, "Table 39: Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Detailed Occupation and Sex, 2011" (2012). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat39.htm 3 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, "Table 39: Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Detailed Occupation and Sex, 2011" (2012). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat39.htm 4 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 25: Wives Who Earn More Than Their Husbands, 1987-2009, Women in the Labor Force: A Databook: 2011 (2011). http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-table25-2011.pdf 5 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 1: Median Usual Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers, by Selected Characteristics, 2010 Annual Averages, Highlights of Womens Earnings in 2010 (July 2011). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2010.pdf 6 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 1: Median Usual Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers, by Selected Characteristics, 2010 Annual Averages, Highlights of Womens Earnings in 2010 (July 2011). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2010.pdf 7 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, "Table 37: Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Selected Characteristics, 2011" (2012). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat37.htm 8 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, "Table 37: Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Selected Characteristics, 2011" (2012). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat37.htm 9 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 17: Median Usual Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers 25 Years and Over by Educational Attainment and Sex, 2010 Annual Averages, Women in the Labor Force: A Databook (2011 Edition). http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlftable17-2011.pdf 10 Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Chart 3: Percent Change of Constant-Dollar Median Usual Weekly Earnings, by Educational Attainment and Sex, 19792010," Highlights of Womens Earnings in 2010 (July 2011). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2010.pdf 11 Digest of Education Statistics, "Table 283: Degrees Conferred by Degree-Granting Institutions, by Level of Degree and Sex of Student: Selected Years, 1869-70 through 2020-21," Digest of Education Statistics 2011 (2012). http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d11/tables/dt11_283.asp 12 Digest of Education Statistics, "Table 283: Degrees Conferred by Degree-Granting Institutions, by Level of Degree and Sex of Student: Selected Years, 1869-70 through 2020-21," Digest of Education Statistics 2011 (2012). http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d11/tables/dt11_283.asp
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Digest of Education Statistics, "Table 283: Degrees Conferred by Degree-Granting Institutions, by Level of Degree and Sex of Student: Selected Years, 1869-70 through 2020-21," Digest of Education Statistics 2011 (2012). http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d11/tables/dt11_283.asp 14 Digest of Education Statistics, Table 8: Percentage of Persons Age 25 and Over and of Persons 25 to 29 Years Old with High School Completion or Higher and a Bachelor's or Higher Degree, by Race/Ethnicity and Sex: Selected Years, 1910 through 2011, Digest of Education Statistics 2011 (2012). http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d11/tables/dt11_008.asp 15 Pew Research Center, New Economics of Marriage: The Rise of Wives (2010). http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1466/economics-marriage-rise-of-wives?src=prc-latest&proj=peoplepress 16 Pew Research Center, New Economics of Marriage: The Rise of Wives (2010). http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1466/economics-marriage-rise-of-wives?src=prc-latest&proj=peoplepress 17 Pew Research Center, New Economics of Marriage: The Rise of Wives (2010). http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1466/economics-marriage-rise-of-wives?src=prc-latest&proj=peoplepress 18 Pew Research Center, New Economics of Marriage: The Rise of Wives (2010). http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1466/economics-marriage-rise-of-wives?src=prc-latest&proj=peoplepress 19 U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) Supplement, "Table PINC-05. Work Experience in 2010--People 15 Years Old and Over by Total Money Earnings in 2010, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex. http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/032011/perinc/new05_000.htm 20 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, "Table 39: Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Detailed Occupation and Sex, 2011" (2012). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat39.htm 21 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 14: Median Usual Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers, in Current Dollars, by Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity, 19792010 Annual AveragesWomen's Earnings as Percent of Men's, Highlights of Womens Earnings in 2010 (July 2011): pg. 62. http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2010.pdf 22 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 1: Median Usual Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers, by Selected Characteristics, 2010 Annual Averages, Highlights of Womens Earnings in 2010 (July 2011): pg. 9. http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2010.pdf 23 Bureau of Labor Statistics, , Table 1: Median Usual Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers, by Selected Characteristics, 2010 Annual Averages, Highlights of Womens Earnings in 2010 (July 2011): pg. 9. http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpswom2010.pdf 24 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Womens Earnings and Employment by Industry, 2009, TED: The Editors Desk (February 16, 2011). http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2011/ted_20110216.htm 25 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Womens Earnings and Employment by Industry, 2009, TED: The Editors Desk (February 16, 2011). http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2011/ted_20110216.htm 26 Fawcett, Nicole, Male Doctors Make $12K More Per Year Than Female Doctors, University of Michigan Health News (June 12, 2012). http://www.uofmhealth.org/news/salary-gap-0612 27 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, "Table 37: Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Selected Characteristics, 2011" (2012). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat37.htm
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Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, "Table 37: Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Wage and Salary Workers by Selected Characteristics, 2011" (2012). http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat37.htm 29 Deborah Kolb, Judith Williams, and Carol Frohlinger, Confronting the Gender Gap in Wages, Womens Media (April 14, 2009). http://www.womensmedia.com/money/107-confronting-the-gender-gapin-wages.html; Ariane Hegewisch, Claudia Williams, and Amber Henderson, The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation, Institute for Women's Policy Research (April 2011). http://www.iwpr.org/publications/pubs/the-gender-wage-gap-by-occupation-updated-april-2011 30 Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, Gender Differences in Pay, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 14, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 75-99. 31 Robert G. Wood, Mary E. Corcoran, & Paul N. Courant, Pay Differences among the Highly Paid: The Male-Female Earnings Gap in Lawyers Salaries, Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 11, no. 3 (July 1993): 417-440.; Catherine J. Weinberger, Race and Gender Wage Gaps in the Market for Recent College Graduates, Industrial Relations, vol. 37, no. 1 (1998): 67-87. 32 Nancy M. Carter and Christine Silva, Pipelines Broken Promise (Catalyst, 2010). http://catalyst.org/file/340/pipeline%27s_broken_promise_final_021710.pdf 33 Institute for Womens Policy Research, Still A Mans Labor Market: The Long-Term Earnings Gap, Research-In-Brief (February 2008). http://www.iwpr.org/publications/pubs/still-a-mans-labor-market-thelong-term-earnings-gap 34 Statistics Canada, Table 282-0072: Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Wages of Employees by Type of Work, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Sex and Age Group, CANSIM (2012). http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2820072&pattern=Labour+force+sur vey+estimates+%28LFS%29%2C+wages+of+employees+by+type+of+work%2C+North+American+Indu stry+Classification+System+sex+and+age+group&csid= 35 Statistics Canada, Table 282-0072: Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Wages of Employees by Type of Work, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Sex and Age Group, CANSIM (2012). http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2820072&pattern=Labour+force+sur vey+estimates+%28LFS%29%2C+wages+of+employees+by+type+of+work%2C+North+American+Indu stry+Classification+System+sex+and+age+group&csid= 36 Statistics Canada, Table 282-0072: Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Wages of Employees by Type of Work, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), Sex and Age Group, CANSIM (2012). http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2820072&pattern=Labour+force+sur vey+estimates+%28LFS%29%2C+wages+of+employees+by+type+of+work%2C+North+American+Indu stry+Classification+System+sex+and+age+group&csid= 37 Statistics Canada, The Family Work Week, Perspectives on Labour and Income (April 2009): "Table 6: Dual-earner Wives Contributions to Paid Hours and Earnings." http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001x/2009104/tables-tableaux/10837/tbl006-eng.htm 38 Statistics Canada, The Family Work Week, Perspectives on Labour and Income (April 2009): "Table 6: Dual-earner Wives Contributions to Paid Hours and Earnings." http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001x/2009104/tables-tableaux/10837/tbl006-eng.htm
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39 OECD, Table I: Earnings Dispersion, Gender Wage Gap and Incidence of Low Pay [1999 and 2009], OECD Employment Outlook 2011 (2012): pg. 264. http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-AssetManagement/oecd/employment/oecd-employment-outlook-2011_empl_outlook-2011-en 40 OECD, Table I: Earnings Dispersion, Gender Wage Gap and Incidence of Low Pay [1999 and 2009], OECD Employment Outlook 2011 (2012): pg. 264. http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-AssetManagement/oecd/employment/oecd-employment-outlook-2011_empl_outlook-2011-en 41 World Economic Forum, The Global Gender Gap Report 2011(2011). http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf 42 ITUC CSI IGB, Frozen in Time: Gender Pay Gap Unchanged for 10 Years (2012). http://www.ituccsi.org/IMG/pdf/pay_gap_en_final.pdf 43 Statistics Canada, Table 202-0104: Female-to-Male Earnings Ratios, by Selected Characteristics, 2010 Constant Dollars (2012). http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/pickchoisir?lang=eng&p2=33&id=2020104 44 Statistics Canada, Table 202-0104: Female-to-Male Earnings Ratios, by Selected Characteristics, 2010 Constant Dollars (2012). http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/pickchoisir?lang=eng&p2=33&id=2020104 45 ITUC CSI IGB, Frozen in Time: Gender Pay Gap Unchanged for 10 Years (2012). http://www.ituccsi.org/IMG/pdf/pay_gap_en_final.pdf 46 ITUC CSI IGB, Frozen in Time: Gender Pay Gap Unchanged for 10 Years (2012). http://www.ituccsi.org/IMG/pdf/pay_gap_en_final.pdf 47 ITUC CSI IGB, Frozen in Time: Gender Pay Gap Unchanged for 10 Years (2012). http://www.ituccsi.org/IMG/pdf/pay_gap_en_final.pdf 48 ITUC CSI IGB, Frozen in Time: Gender Pay Gap Unchanged for 10 Years (2012). http://www.ituccsi.org/IMG/pdf/pay_gap_en_final.pdf

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