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    LATEX


   
   



20112012
(MEd ).

.
1 . .
4.2.25 . .
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( )
.
pattern
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1 (2011-2012)
. ,
.
2012
.. ,
(PhD, MSc)


1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1 . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.4 . . . . . . . . .
1.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.6 , . . .
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1 . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.2 . . . . . . . . .
1.3.3 . . . . . . . . .
1.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.1
1.4.2 .
1.4.3 . . . .
1.4.4 . . . . . . .
1.4.5 . . . . .
1.4.6 . . . . . . . .
1.4.7 .
1.4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.9 . . . . . .
1.4.10 . . .
iii

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1
1
3
4
4
6
6
7
13
16
16
17
18
19
20
20
21
22
24
27
27
29
30
31
32

1.4.11 . . . . . . . . .
1.4.12
1.4.13 . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1 Pons Asinorum . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 ,
2.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.7 Euler-Venn . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.8 R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.14 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.15 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 . . . . . . .
2.2.5 : A B . . . . . . .
2.2.6 : A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.7 : A B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.8 : A B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.9 : A B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.10 . . . .

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33
37
43
44
44
47
48
48
50
51
51
52
52

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55
55
55
55
56
57
58
58
58
59
63
64
65
66
67
67
69
70
71
73
75
79
79
79
80
80
81
82

3 , , ,
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
3.1.1 ( ) = 2 2 + 2 . . . . . . . . . .
3
3.1.2 ( ) = 3 32 + 3 2 3 . . . . .
3.1.3 2 2 = ( ) ( + ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.7 .
3.1.8 - . .
3.1.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.10
3.1.11 - .
3.1.12 . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.6 . . . . . . . .
3.2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 x + = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 x + = 0 . . . .
3.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.4 x2 + x + = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5 x2 + x + = 0 .
3.3.6 Vieta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 x + > 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 () . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 x + , 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.4 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.5 x2 + x + > 0, 0 . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.6 x2 + x + > 0, 0 . . . . .
3.4.7 x2 + x + , 0 . . . . . .
3.4.8 x2 + x + > 0, 0 . . . . .

85
85
85
87
88
90
96
99
100
100
101
102
103
103
105
105
107
109
112
113
115
116
120
121
122
124
126
129
131
133
133
136
137
139
142
142
144
147

4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 . . .
4.1.2
4.1.3

151
151
151
154
156

. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .

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4.1.4 . . . . . . . . .
4.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.8 . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.9 . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 . . . .
4.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4 x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.6 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.7 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.8 x = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.10 f (x) = x + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.11 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.12 y = 1 x + 1 , y = 2 x + 2 .
4.2.13 x + = 0 x + > 0 . . . . .
4.2.14 f (x) = x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.15 f (x) = x2 + x + . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.16 f (x) = x2 + x + > 0. . . . . . .
4.2.17 f (x) = x2 + x + > 0 ; . . . . .
4.2.18 f (x) = x2 + x + > 0. . . . . . . . .
4.2.19 f (x) = x2 + x + . . . . . . .
4.2.20 f (x) = x2 + x + > 0. . . . .
4.2.21 f (x) = x2 + x + < 0 . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.22 f (x) = x2 + x + . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5.1 1
5.2 2
5.3 3
5.4 4
6

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159
162
168
169
170
173
175
176
177
181
181
184
190
191
193
198
202
203
204
208
210
212
216
219
222
223
226
227
229
230
233
235
237
237
248
256
279
289

. .

1.1

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
0, 1 0, 2
1 .. .

. 0 .
1. 2011; 20112011;
a;

:

2+3=5

5 + 11 = 16

32 + 39 = 71

32 39
61. ,
+ .
.
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23=6

5 11 = 55

32 39 = 1248

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1

1.1.

2. , 6.
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7 2 = 5 =
2 7 = 5
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4

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5
5 8 = = 0, 625
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..
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1.


0.
0 :

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1.2

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2 7 = 5
5 . 5.
:

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1.2.

,
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(2) + 7 = 5
(2) 7 = 14
6 12 = 6

(8) + (7) = 15
(8) (7) = 56
12 (6) = 18

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1.2.1
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2
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..
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1.



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1.

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180 .
2

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1.2.

1. .
.

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3 :

3 4 = 2 2 .
4 :

4 8 = 2 2 2 .
5 ;
; 16
. :

5 16 = 2 2 2 2 .


http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

1.

2 2 2 ... 2 ;

. 6 32 .
:

6 2 2 2 2 2 = 32
31 .3

. .
, .
2. .

2 + 8 = 10 , 12 + 24 = 36, 18 + 24 = 42, 100 + 98 = 198


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.
3


Moser.

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

4 6 3 +23 2 18+24
24



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

Leo Moser
1921-1970

10

1.2.

.
. 2
8, 12 24 ...
+ .
+ .
. .
:
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, = 2 = 2 .
+ . 2 + 2
2 ( + ).
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:

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= 2 =





4 . :
1.2.1. .
;
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1.2.2. .
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:

+ =2



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= 2 =


:
1.2.3. .
2)
6. 1.2.3.
4
, ( ), ( ), (
( )



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

1.

11



1.2.4. 1) .
2) .
. 1) = 2 + 1, = 2 + 1 ,
.

= (2 + 1) (2 + 1)

= 4 + 2 + 2 + 1
2 4, 2, 2

= 2 (2 + + ) + 1

= 2 + +
2 (
), .
.

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.

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http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

12

1.2.

1.2.5.
.
.
1 . = 2
= 2 + 1 .

+ = 2 + 2 + 1 = 2 ( + ) + 1 = 2 + 1
= + . + .
2
. , + ,
. x = +
:
1 x
2 x
.
. ;
+ = x x .

=x
: .

1.2.3 . (
) ( ). ,
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1. ...
(
).
. Q.E.D.
quod erat demonstrandum
( ).
2. 1.2.5
( ).
.
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.


http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

1.

13

( 1.2.5
).
( ) .

:
-

7. , .
( ) :
1. + + 2011
2. + 1
3. +
4. 2 + 1

8. + 1 .
.
9. ( + 1) .
1.2.6

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2. 0 -
2 2 .
2 + 1 .
0 2
3 3
..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

14

1.2.

3
3 3 .
.
3 + 1 3 + 2.
3

3 + 1

3 + 2

-3

-9

-8

-7

-2

-6

-5

-4

-1

-3

-2

-1

10

11

4 4
4 .
4 4 + 1 4 + 2 4 + 3.
:

3, 3 + 1, 3 + 2 .
4, 4 + 1, 4 + 2, 4 + 3 .
10. 3 + 1
3 + 2 (, )
3 .
11.
4 + 2 4 + 3 (, )
4 + 2 .
x y , y
x x y z


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..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

1.

15

y = xz . y x y
x x y .
3.
3 3
1 3 = (1) (3).

12 36 3
3 12 = 36.
y = xz y xz x.
z x
:

... 5x,

4x,

3x,

2x,

x,

0 x,

2x,

x,

3x,

4x,

5x ...

12. 12
= 1 a, = (1) (a):

1 a.
:
1. 0.
2. 1.
3. 1, .

1. 0
2. 1
3. 1,
2 x 3 x 4 x
x 1, 0 2 3 4
...
0,
1, 1 .
1 .
0, 1, 1 2, 4, ....
. 0, 1, 1
2, 4, ... .
.
..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

276 .. - 195 ..

16

1.3.

1.1: 1 400

2 4, 6 ... 3.
6, 9 ..
1 400.
.

.

1.3

1.3.1
( )

1
,
2

5
,
3

3
,
4

6
3


( 0).

5 .

50
14
8
1
36
=
=
=
=
72 100 28 16 2
5

. 1.4.12



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1.

17


() . (
). (
)
.
4. :

7
125 25 144 9 77
=
=
=
60
12
64
4 121 11
13.
1.3.2

122 70 71
, 80 , 81
56

1.2.2

= = .

= , , .
.
:


= 0.

0 0

14. ( , , )
15.

23589878123459
12345923589878

78123459235898
;
58987812345923

16. x, y
x;

x3
y

, >
< .

>

<

> .
< .

17.

11
28

33
94

50
83

18.

11
17

.
..
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18

1.3.

1.3.3
, ,
:

, 0
0.

( ..) .
5
5. 34 + 84

:
21

63 5
58 17
3 5
3
5
+
= +
=
+
=
=
4 84 4 84 84 84 84 21

3 84 + 4 5 272 17
3 5
+
=
=
=
4 84
4 84
336 21
19.
1. A =

11
5

3
8

2. B =

11
5

3
8

3. =

5
4

2
15

4. =

2
3
5
6

x
zx z
x. zx z
.
6. 45 :

(6)

24
4
4
= , (5) = 4,
5
5
5

(1)

4
4
4
= , 0 = 0,
5
5
5



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(3)

4
12
= ,
5
5

4 4
= ,
5 5

(2)

4 8
= ,
5 5

4
8
= ,
5
5
4 8
=
5 5

..
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1.

19

7
:

1.3.4



. :
1. 12

2. 13

3. 14 .
4. 15
...
6 .
> 0
0

6

..
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20

1.4

1.4.

1.4.1


.

. :
;
;
;7
O
0. E
1. OE 1.
E B
BE = OE . E OE
1 B
. OEB
1 1. OB .
O OB A
OE OE
OB .

A ;
;
. , , :

()

7

.
.
.



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1.

21

() ,
.
OEB
:

2 = 12 + 12

2 = 2 ()
2

(), () ( ) = 2

2 = 2 2 ( )
() 2 ( 2 )
. 2
. .
2 = = =
. . = 2
2 = (2)2 = 42 ( )

42 = 2 2

22 = 2

. , .
.
. A
.
. .

.
, .

.
.
= = =
1.4.2

(1.1)


, , 4 .
19 :
..
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22

1.4.

.. 6
7 6 7 :
6 + 7 13.
12
2 10 3
13 .
: ,
.
:
= = + = + =
(1.2)
.
.
= x = y + = x + y .
= y y = + y = x + .
= .
= ,
. + = +
= .
:
= + = + =

(1.3)

+

. ( )
.
20. = 3 + 2 = 3 + 2.
21. x = x x + = x + .
1.4.3


. :
: + = + =


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(1.4)

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1.

23

(1.4) :
.
: + ( + ) = ( + ) + ( ) = ( )

(1.5)

. (1.5)
(
)

.
:

+ ( + ) = ( + ) + = + +
( ) = ( ) =

.

+ + + = ( + ) + ( + )
( ( ( ))) = ( ) ( )
:

+ 0 = 1 =

(1.6)

(3)
:
. 0
1
. .
:
0 0 + =
0 + 0 = 0 0 + 0 = 0 0 = 0 .
: + () = 0

1
= 1, ( 0)

(1.7)

( )
.


1 .
:
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( + ) = +

(1.8)



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24

1.4.

8

:
.
( + ) = +
. .

.

:

= + ()

(1.9)

(1.10)

22. : 1 + 671 + 999


23.

12
19

+3+

7
19

24. A + B = 7 3A + 3B .
25. :
1. 6x + 12
2. 3 +
3. A + B + A + B

1.4.4
1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, ,
9 .
:

( + ) = () + ()

1 1
1
=

(1.11)

:
( ) ( )
( ) (
)10
8

.
9
.
10
.
.
:



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1.

25

+ = +
=
= 0 =

(1.12)

:
7. x+3 = 7+3 3
x + 3 = 7 + 3 x = 7.
(x + y) = a

(x + y) = a
 x + y = .
0 ( ):
0x=0
(1.13)
0
.
:
= 0 = 0 = 0

(1.14)


.
8. x

(x 1) (x + 1) (x 3) = 0
x 1 = 0
x + 1 = 0 x 3 = 0. x.
x = 1 x = 1 x = 3.
:

() = () = ()

(1.15)

() () =

(1.16)

( ...) = () + () + () + ...

(1.17)

26.

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26

1.4.

1. x (y + z t)

3. (x) (y + z t)

2. (x + ) (y + z t)

4. ( + ) ( + )

27. :
1.

1
2

1
3

2.

1
2

( 13 14 )

1
4

28. A =
1. x = 1, y = 2

xy+1
.
x+y

3.

4.

1
x+1

1
y2

A
2. x = 14 , y = 8

29. :
1.

2
3
5
7

2.

x
y

3.
4.

x
y

30. 2x + 5 = 2y + 5 x = y
31. :
1. 5 3 + 15

4. ab + 5b + 6a + 30

2. pc + qc + pd + qd

5. ab 5b 6a + 30

3. ab bd + ae de

6. 2ab 10a + 3b 15

32. :
1.

x+x
x+x

4.

xm+xn+3m+3n
2xm+2xn3m3n

2.

++

5.

2t+2t+s+s
2t2t+ss

3.

xaxbya+yb
xa+xbyayb

6.

xyxy+
xy+xy

33. y (y 1) (y 2) (y 3) = 0.
(y + 1) (y + 2) (y + 3);
34. ( ) ( 1 1 ) = 0 = .
35. ; ;


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1.

1.4.5

27


,
, . 2x 2 x ( ) ( ).
3 7 37 3 45
19
3 45 ( 12
5 5 )
. a +
a + (). ( + )
+ + .
:
.

11 .
36. 12 2 + 3 4
37. 12 2 3 4

1.4.6



.
:

a + + ... +

a ...

1, 2, 3
.

. ,
.
.
.

0. 0 = 0 0 = 1 0.

= () () = (a) + () + ... + ()

11

..
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28

1.4.

1 1 1
1
1
= ( ) = ... =
a
a a
a a

a + + ... +
> 0

= 0
0
=

(a) + () + ... + () < 0

a ...

1
=

1 1
1
1

a a ... a = a

>0

a 0, = 0
<0

1 1

= 2 2

...
...
...

1, 2, ...
. .
.
(1) ; = 0 (1) = (1)0 = 1. = 2
:
1


















! 


















! 


















!
(1) = (1) (1) ... (1) = (1) (1) (1) (1) ... (1) (1) = 1 1 ... 1 = 1

, = 2 + 1 (1)
(1) (1) 1
1 1. 0

(1) 1 1
. :

(1) = {

1 =
1 =
3

38. A = (1) + 24 + 31
3

39. ( 12 )


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1.

1.4.7

29


( )
( , 0, 0):

+ = ( + )

= ( )
() = () a
( + ) = +
( ) =

= +

(1.18)

(1.19)

( ) =

(1.20)

() =

(1.21)


( ) =

(1.22)

. .
40. :
1. 24

4. 52

2. 42

5. 23

3. 25

6. (3)

41. = 5 = 12 + .
42. = p +1 = q p, q
.
43. :
1. ( 23 )

3. ( 23 )

2. ( 65 )

4. ( 53 )

44. :
1. 3 5
2.

3
5

1
5 (3
)2

5. (4 )
3

3. (2 )

4. (2 3 4 ) (2 3 4 )

6. ((3 )

6 2

(5 ) )

45. :

..
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30

1.4.

1. 22 + 32 (3)
9

2. 29 + (2) + 20

51

3. (t)
2 +

4.

51

+ t51 + (t)

+ t51

46. + = ,
.

47. =
> .

48. :
1. x2 + 2 x x

4. a13 b11 a14 b12

2. x2 + x x

5. x2 y 4 + x2 b3 + a4 y 4 + a4 b3

3. x5 y 2 + x4 y 3

6. 162 4 2 44 + 2

49. :
1.

x3 a+x3 b2 +y 4 a+y 4 b2
x3 a2 +x3 b+y 4 a2 +y 4 b

3.

5x2 yz 2
5x2 y+10x2 z

2.

x4 y 2 rx4 y 2 s
x4 y 2 r+x4 y 2 s

4.

rm+rt3 +s3 m+s3 t3


rmrt3 +s3 ms3 t3

1.4.8
, . . :

. ,
.

. a a
a a.
. a , a , a
a1 , a2 , a3 . 12
M1 , M2 , ...
() () ...
:
.
3 4 = a7 .
50. a1 = 4, a2 = 7, a3 = 11, a4 = 2.
1. a1 + a2 + a3 + a4
2. a1+3 a1+2
3. a21 + a22 + a23 + a24


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1.

4.

31

a1 a2
a3 a44

51.
1. (41 52 ) (31 62 )
3

2. (31 12 ) 31 12
3. (1 + 1 ) (2 2 )
2

4. (x1 x22 x33 ) (x21 x32 x3 )


.
, ( )

.
.
.
= ( = ), >
( < ), > ( < ).
,
(1.23)

<

>

,
= > , <

1.4.9

< > =
. ( ).
< = >
. ( ).
< = >
. ( ).
A B , A B , A < B , A > B
A, B .
9. 3 < 6, 6 > 3, 3 6, 6 3, 3 6, 6 3, 3 = 3, 3 3, 3 3.
> 0 .
0 .

< 0

52. ;
..
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32

1.4.

1.
2.

5
17
3
8
8
12
16

3. 7 12
4. 7 7
2

5. (11) 121
3

6. (2) > 0

1.4.10

, ,
.
: < < <

(1.24)


< <

(1.25)

< <

(1.26)

(1.27)

(1.24) (1.25), (1.26), (1.27)


.

2 < x x < y 2 < y .


a < b, b < c, c < d a < c c < d
a < d.
a < b
b a. b < c c
b. c < d d
c. b
a c b c a.


a < b < c. : a < b b < c.
, , a < c. a < b < c b
a c.
12 :
=
12

(1.28)

=


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1.

33

53. a > b, a < c, d > c. d, b.


54. 2 < x 3 < y x, y ;
55. x 1 < x < 13.
56. , , , , < , < , < ,
> . ;
1. <

2. >

3. >

4.

57.

2 5 9 5 4
, , , ,
3 8 4 2 8
1.4.11


.
.
< + < +

(1.29)

> 0, > 0 > 0

(1.30)

(1.29) :


(1.30)

(1.23),(1.24)

:
+ < + .
+ + () < + + () + 0 < + 0
< . :
(1.31)
+ < + <



> .
+() > +() > 0.
> 0
> .

> > 0
..
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(1.32)



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34

1.4.

(1.30) . :
> 0, > 0.
+ > > 0
+ > 0. :
> 0, > 0 + > 0

(1.33)


.
:
0, > 0 + > 0

(1.34)

0, 0 + 0

(1.35)



.
: > 0 > 0 >
.
< 0
> 0. :
> 0 < 0
(1.36)
(1.29)
.

. .
< > 0. > 0
( (1.30) )
( ) > 0. > 0 > <
.
< > 0 <
(1.37)
< < 0 > 0
< <
> . :
< < 0 >

(1.38)

(1.30) (+) (+) = (+).


.

13 .
13

http://www.archive.org/details/diophantialexan01plangoog



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1.

35

Teubner, 1893.
> 0 < 0 > 0 > 0 (1.30)
() > 0. () = () () > 0 < 0.

> 0 < 0 < 0

(1.39)

(+)() = (). < 0


< 0 = () () > 0 :

< 0 < 0 > 0

(1.40)

() () = (+)
:
.
< < 0 > 0 ( ) < 0
> .
:
< < 0 >

(1.41)

. . 1 = 1.
1 > 0 > 0 1 > 0
. < 0
1 < 0
.
> 0

1
>0

(1.42)

< 0

1
<0

(1.43)


.
,
.
.
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36

1.4.

.
1
1

= ,
. , .

+ .

. :

1 x < 0

x = 0 x = 0

1 x > 0

(1.44)


: 1, +1 +, .

0 : 0.
:
() = () ()

(1.45)

( ) =

()

(1.46)

()

( ) = ()

(1.47)

58. < . :
1. 6 3 < 6 3
2. 5 ( + 1) < 5 ( + 1)
3. 6 ( ) <

59. < < . :


1. 2 + 3 < 2 + 3
2. 2 5 < 2 5
3.

+
2

+4<

+
2

+4

60. < < . + > 0.


61.

<

(1)

(1);


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1.

37

1. 2 < 2

4. 2 + <

2. < 2

5.

3. 2 <

6. < + 2

<

62. < . <

+
2

< .

+
2

<x<
63. > 0, > 0, < 0
1. ( + )
2.

3. ( + 1) ( 1)

1.4.12

4.

5.

+
1

6.

(+1)(+1)

x
.
x. x
x.
O x

x

x

x [x] x.
[2, 3] = 2, [7] = 7, [ 12 ] = 0, [ 22 ] = 2.
:

x = [x] =

x
..
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(1.48)



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38

1.4.

[x] x < [x] + 1

(1.49)


. x ,

, , .
x.

x = x + x

(1.50)

x = x [x]

(1.51)

3, 2 3, 2 3 = 0, 2
4, 78 0, 22.
,
.
10:

...
1
,
104 = 1000
1
3
10 = 1000 ,
1
,
102 = 100
1
1
10 = 10 ,
100 = 1,
101 = 10,
102 = 100
...

(1.52)


(1.52) 10
.
10 .
.
x. x 10
: x x
(1.52) x
10 10
.
2
x = 824
3 . x 10 = 100
103 = 1000. :

102 <

824
< 103
3

102 103
102 100.

100 = 1 100, 2 100, 3 100, 4 100, 5 100, 6 100, 7 100, 8 100, 9 100 = 1000


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1.

39


.
x = 824
3 . x,
102 = 100. x
:
100 < 824
3 3 100 < 824
200 < 824
3 3 200 < 824
300 > 824
3 3 300 > 824 x
2 100 3 100 :

2 100 <

824
< 3 100
3

x: 100,
200 300

x 200 .
200 300
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40

1.4.

100 = 102 .
101 .
2 102 + 1 10,

2 102 + 2 10,

2 102 + 2 10, ...,

2 102 + 10 10

x x
. x

2 102 + 7 10 <

824
< 2 102 + 8 10
3

10
100 = 1

2 1002 + 7 10 + 4 100 <

824
< 2 1002 + 7 10 + 5 100
3


1
101 = 10
. :

2 1002 + 7 10 + 4 100 + 6 101 <

824
< 2 1002 + 7 10 + 4 100 + 7 101
3

: 102 , 103
.

2 102 , 7 101 , 4 100 , 6 101 , 6 102 , 6 103 , 6 104 , .. ()


(;;) (
10 ) x. () (bold)


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1.

41

2 102 7 101 4 10 6 101 6 102 6 103 , 6 104 ...

2
7
4
6
6
6
6
...

2 7 4 6 6 6 6 ...
.

10 .
.
,:

2 7 4 , 6 6 6 6 ...

:

8
-

6
2
2
-

2
2
1
1
11
-

4
2
2
1
-

0
8
2
1

00
8
2

4,

x.
x = 824
3 .
10

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
( 0 )
.
.
..
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42

1.4.

( )

( ).

.
.
.

:


: .


: .

0.
. , ,
.

9. . 0, 999...
1. 0, 9999
a = 0, 9999 10a = 9, 9999... 10a = 9 + a 9a = 9 a = 1.
9 1 0, 9999.

m m1 ...0 , 1 2 2 ...

64.

19
7

. .

65. 3 0, 23
66. a2 a1 a0 b2 b1 b0
a2 + b2 = a1 + b1 = a0 + b0 = 11. a2 a1 a0 + b2 b1 b0 .
67. 0,
3 ( )
68. ( ):

0,

1 0 10 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0. . .
 -




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1.

43

69. x a3 a2 a1 a0 a1 =
3 + a0 , a2 = 3 + a1 , a3 = 3 + a2 . x.
70. a
.
a.
. ;

1.4.13

1.4.1
1
. 2 = 2.
.
2 = 2 2 = 2 2 2 = 0

( ) ( + ) = 0

. + .
= 0 = = 0.

2.
2.
.
2.

2 2.

1.4.1. x . x y

y 2 = x. x x.
10.

4 = 2, 0 = 0, 1 = 1, 94 = 32 .

y =

x :

x ( )
y ( x)
y2 = x

2
.
..
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44

1.5.

.
. ,
2 2 = ( ) ( + ) + > 0 2 2
. ,
. a = , a < a >
.

2

2
1.
12 < 2 1 < 2. 22 >

2 < 2. :

1<

2
2

2<2

2. 1 2
0, 1.

1, 12 = 1, 21 < 2
1, 22 = 1, 44 < 2
1, 32 = 1, 69 < 2
1, 42 = 1, 96 < 2
1, 52 = 2, 25 > 2

1, 4 <

2 < 1, 5

2 .

225
71. 169, 196, 225, 169
,
196
196

72. 3
, , .

1.5

1.5.1 Pons Asinorum


Pons Asinorum
.
. 5
14 15 :
14

:
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Euclid-Elements.pdf
15
.



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1.

45

.
(
)

.

60 .
1. , ,
.16
2.
.17
3. , ,
, .18
4. .
5. AB ,
.
6. .
7. ....
8. .
16

, , . . .
Legendre. 19 .
17
: , 20 .
18
: , 20 .
..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr



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46

1.5.

9.

10. : ...

.

.
.

.
.

: .

384 .. - 322 ..

Augustus De Morgan
1806 - 1871

George Boole
1815 - 1864

; 1,
2, 4, 6, 7, 9. 5 9
. .
. 8
.
. , ,
. .

, , .
19
.
.


.


. ( )
. De Morgan Boole.
(
) .
-

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1.

47


.
1.5.2


.
7.
.


.
11.
1. 3 > 5+ >
.
2. 11
.
3. 3 > 5
4. 33 > 5 .
5. x + 2 = 3
x .
. x 3
3 + 2 = 3 . x
1 1 + 2 = 3.
7 .

. :
.
:

.19 .

.
.
19
( )
. . .
Goldbach:
2 .
428. 1742!

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48

1.5.

1.5.3
x + 2 = 3 (
x) .

0 x = 2, x + 2 = 3
0 x = 0. .

.
-
.

20 .
1.5.4

:
P
Q

P Q
()
().
.

.
. .
.
:
= + = +

. ,
= + = + .
:

= + = +
20


:
.



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1.

49

21
, .
. :

+ = + =
+ =

+ = .
+ = + =

, , ,
, , , . a = 5, = 7,
= 3, = 1 .

:
.
73. ;
1. > 0 + 5 > 5
2. > 0 + > 0
3. = + 1 < + 5
4.

>

>

5. + = 0 a3 + 3 = 0

74. ;
1. 2x = 6 x = 3
2. x2 = 6 x =

2
3. x = 6 x = 6
4. x < 6 x2 = 6
5. x2 = 6 x < 6

75. ;
1. x2 = 1 x2 = 1
2. x2 = 1 x2 = 2
3. x2 = 2 x2 > 1
4. x2 = 1 5 = 3
5. 5 = 3 x = 3
21

.1.5.3

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50

1.5.

1.5.5

( ):

.
AB :

=
=B

=
=
B
.
:

=B
.
P Q

P Q
.
.
76. ;
1. > 5 2 > 10
2. 2 < 0 4 < 0
3. > 0 >
4. > 0 + > 0
5. > 2 > 7

77. ;
1. x 2 x + 2 4
2. x 2 x > 2
3. x y x2 y 2
4. x = y + 1 x y
5. x = 1 x2 1 = 0


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1.

1.5.6

51


1 < 2 < 3 :
1 < 2 2 < 3. 1 < 2 < 3
1 < 2 2 < 3.
1 < 2 2 < 3. .
P , Q

P Q
22 .
78. ;
1. 3 < 8 5 < 3
2. 2 < 3 3 < 5
3. x y x2 y 2
4. 2x = 12 x + 32 x x2 1
5. x > x 1 y > y 1

1.5.7


= 0 = 0 = 0
. P Q

P Q
P Q .
23 P Q.

.
79. ;
1. 3 < 1 5 < 3
2. 2 < 3 3 < 5
3. x y x2 y 2
4. 2x = 12 x + 32 x x2 1
5. x > x 1 y < y 1
22
23

P Q
P Q

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52

1.5.

1.5.8

. = .
P 24
P
P .
80. ;
1. 2 > 3
2. 2 3
3. x < x + 1
4. 2 7
5. (a + ) =

1.5.9
.
.
.

P1
3

P2 ...

P
3

P1 P2 , P2 P3 ,
P1 P .
: P1
P1 P2 P2 (
). P2 P2 P3
P3 .
P .
12. x < y
2y3
2x3
4 < 4 . :

x < y 2x < 2y 2x 3 < 2y 3

2x 3 2y 3
<
4
4

(
) .
24



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1.

53

Q1
3

Q2 ...

Q
4

.
Q Q1 Q Q1
.
:

2x 3 2y 3
2x 3 (2y 3)
2x 3 2y 3
<

<0
<0
4
4
4
4
4
2x 2y
< 0 2x 2y < 0 2 (x y) < 0 x y < 0 x < y
4

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54



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1.5.

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2.1
2.1.1


M

. M .
Georg Cantor 1895
.
. A1
A1 .
A1 . A1
A1 .
A1 .

Georg Cantor
1845 - 1918

2.1.2



. 1, 4, 5, 8 .
{, } :
{1, 4, 5, 8} . . M
M = {1, 4, 5, 8} . 1 M
. 1 M . M
9 9 M . 9 M .
55

56

2.1.

2.1.3 ,

..

M = {1, 4, 5, 8}

1 100

A = {1, 2, ..., 100}



1 100. ... : 3, 4, 5 .
.
, :

{0, 1, 2, 3, ...}
1 N. :

N = {0, 1, 2, 3, ...}

.
.
. 2
Z. :

Z = {... 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...}

Z = {0, 1, 2, 3, ...}
( )
.
:
.
A = {1, 2, ..., 100}

A = {x N 1 x 100}
:

A = { }
1

natura .
Chuquet 1484
2
zahl=



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57

2.

81. B = {3, 2, 1, 0, ..., 19, 20}


82. .

83. 12
84. 6
. 3
Q.
4 R.
2.1.4

. .
A B .
A = B . A = {x R (x 1) (x 2) (x 3) = 0}
B = {1, 2, 3} .
A, B

xAxB
85. x, y A = {1, 4, 2} B = {1, x + 2, y 2 }
;

A B A
B . A B .
N Z, Z Q, Q R. :

NZQR
A B A
B A B . :

A=BAB

(2.1)

A = B A B B A

(2.2)


86. X Y ;
1. X = {1, 1}, Y = {x R x2 1 = 0}
2. X = {x R x > 3}, Y = {x R x > 2}
3. X = {x R x > 10}, Y = {y R y > 2}
4. X = {x R x > 10}, Y = {x R x > 12}
3
4

quotient=
real=

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58

2.1.

2.1.5 . .
.

{x Z 2x + 3 = 0} x 2x + 3 = 0.
. .
87. .

. Cantor 5 .


.
= R,
...
88. ;
1. {x Z 2x + 4 = 0}
2. {x R 2x2 3 = 0}
3. {x R 2x2 + 3 = 0}
4. {x Q 2x2 4 = 0}

2.1.6
A A
A. A
A . A = {1, 2, 3, 4}
A :

{ , {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {1, 4}, {2, 3}, {2, 4}, {3, 4},
{1, 2, 3}, {1, 2, 4}, {1, 3, 4}, {2, 3, 4}, A }
89. {p, q, r}.
90. {a, b, c, d} d.
2.1.7 Euler-Venn
:

.
5

:
( ).
S . S ;


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59

2.

A = {1, 2, 2}
:

Leonhard Euler


Euler-Venn.
Euler-Venn :

1707 - 1783

John Venn
1834 - 1923

91. Euler-Venn A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {2, 3, 4, 7, 8}, = {3, 4, 7, 8}, = {10, 11}.
2.1.8

R

.
, . . 8 .
< .

(, )
(, ) = {x R < x < }
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60

2.1.

, .
.


:



.

:

[, ]
[, ] = {x R x }
, .
.

.

[, )
[, ) = {x R x < }
- , .



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61

2.

(, ]
(, ] = {x R < x }
- , .

(, +)
(, +) = {x R < x}

[, +)
[, +) = {x R x}

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62

2.1.

(, )
(, ) = {x R x < }

(, ]
(, ] = {x R x }

1. :

R = (, +)
2.
, +
.

3. (, ), [, ], (, ] [, )
< .
92. ;
1. 2 (0, 4)
2.
3.

5
8

2 (1, 2)
( 47 , 1)



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63

2.

4. 3 (3, 11]

R = (, +)
93. ;
1. x (1, +) x + 1 (1, +)
2. x (1, +) x 1 (1, +)
3. x (1, +) 2x (1, +)
4. x (1, +)

x
2

(1, +)

94. 20 (0, 1).


95. 20 (0, 2).
96. 20 (1, 0).
97. ;
1. [2, 4] [2, 4]
2. [2, 4] [2, 4)
3. [2, 4] [2, +)
4. [2, 4] (, 5)

98. x (2, 6) = (4 x, 4 + x);


99. x (2, 6) = [4 x, 4 + x];
100. x (2, 4) 2x + 3 (7, 11).
.

101. :
1. x (, ) x (, )
2. x (, ) x (, )

102. x (a, x) (a, ).


+
(a, 2 ) (a, ).

103. 2
(2, 10)
2.1.9


.
.
.

.
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64

2.1.10

2.1.

18 24. 24

A = {1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 6, 6, 9, 9, 18, 18}


B = {1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 6, 6, 8, 8, 12, 12, 24, 24}
18 24
A, B :

{1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 6, 6}
A, B . :

A B
A, B
A B :
A B = {x x A x B}
(2.3)
A B
. A B .

.

104.
;

105. :
1. {1, 2, 4, 7} {1, 2, 4, 7} =
2. [1, 4] [0, 7] =
3. N Q =
4. (2, 4) [0, +) =

) ( 23
106. (2, 19
, 10)
7
11
107. x {1, 3, 5} {x, 11, 12} = {x};


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65

2.

2.1.11



.
.. A ,
B .
.
.
.

A B
A, B
A B :
A B = {x x A x B}

(2.4)

A B .

108. {1, 4, 5} {4, 5, 7}


109. A B = A A B .
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66

2.1.

110. :
1. (2, 4) [3, 5] =
2. (, 0) [0, +) =

2.1.12


A 7.

A = {..., 63, 56, 49, 42, 35, 28, 21, 14, 7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, ...}
B 5. :

B = {..., 50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, ...}
7 5
. A
B . :

{..., 63, 56, 49, 42, 28, 21, 14, 7, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 63, ...}
, , A
B .

A B
A B
A B A B :
A B = {x x A x B}

(2.5)

A B . A B
.

111.
1. {1, 2, 3} {1, 2}
2. {1, 2, 3} {4, 5}
3. [5, 10] (6, 11)


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67

2.

2.1.13

1
(x 1) (x 2) (x 3)
x .
0 x .
x 1, 2 3 x
{1, 2, 3} . x {1, 2, 3}
{1, 2, 3}. :

A
A
A A :
A = {x x A}

(2.6)

A .

112.
;

113. R {7}.
2.1.14

A, B . A B A

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68

2.1.

A (B ).
:

x :
x A (B )
x A x B
x A (x B x )
(x A x B) (x A x )
(x A B) (x A )
x (A B) (A )

.
:
A B = B A
A (B ) = (A B)
A = A
A A = A

AB =B A
A (B ) = (A B)
A=A
AA= A

(2.7)
(2.8)
(2.9)
(2.10)

A(B ) = (A B)(A ) A(B ) = (A B)(A ) (2.11)

A B = A B

(2.12)

114.
.


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69

2.

2.1.15

, :
, , .
1 .
, ,

. .

. : , , , ,
, . .
. Cantor
.

.

1, 2, 3, ...,
.
A
N (A). 0.

N () = 0

.
115. :
1. 1, 2, 3, ..., 2012
2. 11, 12, 13, ..., 2012
3. 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , ..., 2100

116. N (A) :
1. A = {3, 3, 23 , 6}
2. A = [2, 12] Z
3. A = {x Z

x2 < 11}

A, B :
A = B N (A) = N (B)
(2.13)

A B N (A) N (B)
..
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(2.14)



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70

2.2.

.. A = {1, 2, 3, 11} B = {2, 6, 7}.


N (A) = 4 N (B) = 3. {1, 2, 3, 11} {2, 6, 7} = {1, 2, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11}
N (A B) = 7 = N (A) + N (B). :
A B
. :

A B = N (A B) = N (A) + N (B)

(2.15)

A B . A = {1, 2, 6, 7}
B = {2, 6, 7, 8, 9} AB = {1, 2, 6, 7} {2, 6, 7, 8, 9} = {1, 2, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9} .
N (A B) = 7 N (A) = 4 N (B) = 5. N (A B) = 7
N (A) + N (B) = 9.


. 2 A B = {1, 2, 6, 7} {2, 6, 7, 8, 9} = {6, 7}
N (A B) = N (A) + N (B) N (A B) .

N (A B) = N (A) + N (B) N (A B)

(2.16)

N (A B) + N (A B) = N (A) + N (B)

(2.17)

N (A B) = N (A) N (A B)

(2.18)

117. A B N (B) = 11 N (A);


118. A B N (A) = 11 N (B);
119. N (A) = 10, N (B) = 20 N (A B) = 7 N (A B).
120. N (A) = 10, N (B) = 20 N (A B) = 27 N (A B).

2.2

. . .
.


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71

2.

2.2.1


31 , - .

. 31
. :


1
1 31 31
.
.. :


2
31
.
6 :
..
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72

2.2.

6
31
.
A .
A k
k
A A 31
:

N (A)
N ()

. .

. .
.
: .
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6:

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
1.
1, 2 3.
2. 4.
3. , , x
(x 1) (x 2) (x 3) = 0.


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73

2.

:
1, 2 3. A =
{1, 2, 3}.

, ,
. .
.
.
N (A)

A P (A)6 P (A) = N () =
3
1
6 = 2.
121.
B :

2.2.2


, , .
.
1654 Blaise Pascal
6

P probability=

..
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74

Blaise Pascal
1623 - 1662

2.2.

.
Pascal Pierre de Fermat.

Pascal .
.
.
.
.
1. 31



.
2.

.

Pierre de Fermat

1601 - 1665

:
.
(.. )
.

1 , 2 , ..., . 1 , 2 , ...,
. = {1 , 2 , ..., }
A
. A

P (A) =

N (A) A
=
N ()

(2.19)

0 P (A) 1

(2.20)

A .. A = {}
1
1
P () P ({}). P (1 ) = N ()
= 1 ,P (2 ) = N ()
= 1
...
122. 3
A = {1 , 2 , 3 }.
123. 52 (. )
.


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75

2.

:
1. (J).
2. (Q).
3. ()
4. .

2.2.3

.

.
13. : . 1
2;
:

1 1,

1 2 , ..., 1 6, 2 2 ,..., 2 6 ,..., 6 6

6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 21.
1
21
.
. .. 2 6
( 1) 2
( 2) 6 2 2
1 6.
1- 2:

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76

2.2.

36 1 2

2
1
36
= 18
.
124.
7.

125.
8.
;

14. :



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77

2.

-.
;
.
.
1 . 4 3 :

12 . 2 12 .

3 12.

12 4 :

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78

2.2.

412 = 48 =. 1
48
.
T1, T2, T3, T4 , J1, J2, J3, J4 S1,
S2, S3
.

15. 31
71.
2
31

:
.
30
.
;
. . .

32 . 31
. 30
30 . 31 30 = 930 .

A B B A.

1
: 930
2 = 465. 465 .
126. 120
. ;


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79

2.

2.2.4

.

. .

2.2.5

: A B
A, B A B
A B A B .
N (A) N (B) N ()
N (A)

N (B)

N () N () P (A) P (B). :

A B P (A) P (B)

(2.21)

( 71) A
B


.
127.
1. P (A B) P (A) P (A B) P (B)
2. P (A B) P (A) P (A B) P (B)

2.2.6

: A
71 A .
A
A A.

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80

2.2.

N (A )

P (A ) = N () =

N ()N (A)
N ()

N ()
N ()

N (A)
N ()

P (A ) = 1 P (A)

(2.22)

A A .

128. (A ) ;
129. A

2
11

2.2.7 : A B
71 A

B .
A B
A B .

2.2.8 : A B

A B
.



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81

2.

A, B , AB AB
3
4. (2.24) N ()

N (A B) N (A) N (B) N (A B)
=
+

N ()
N () N ()
N ()
:

P (A B) = P (A) + P (B) P (A B)

(2.23)

P (A B) + P (A B) = P (A) + P (B) P (A B)

(2.24)

A, B
P (A B) =
P (A) + P (B)

A B = P (A B) = P (A) + P (B)

(2.25)

130. P (A) = 0, 7, P (B) = 0, 6 P (A B) = 0, 4 P (A B).


131. P (A) = 0, 4, P (B) = 0, 6 P (A B) = 0, 4 P (A B).
132. A, B P (A) + P (B) = 1, 4.
.

2.2.9

: A B
A B A
B N () :

P (A B) = P (A) P (A B)

(2.26)

(A B) (B A) ( ) A B .
AB B A : P ((A B) (B A)) =

P (A B) + P (B A) = P (A) P (A B) + P (B) P (A B) = P (A) +


P (B) 2P (A B).
(A B) (B A) = (A B) (A B).
133. A 14
B 13

1
.
6

1. A.
2. B .
3. A B .
4. A B .
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82

2.2.10

2.2.

16.
0, 8, 0, 6
0, 5. :
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
A
.
P (A) = 0, 8, P () = 0, 6 P (A ) =
0, 5.
1.
A

P (A ) = P (A) + P () P (A ) = 0, 8 + 0, 6 0, 5 = 0, 9
2. A

P (A ) = P (A) P (A ) = 0, 8 0, 5 = 0, 3
3. A

P ( A) = P () P (A ) = 0, 6 0, 5 = 0, 1
4.
(A ) ( A) A , A
:

P ((A ) ( A)) = P (A ) + P ( A) = 0, 3 + 0, 2 = 0, 5
5.
(A )

P ((A ) ) = 1 P (A ) = 1 0, 9 0, 1


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83

2.

Venn .
.
. :
A . 0, 3
0, 1 2 3. . 0, 9 1.

4 0, 4. 1
0, 1 5.


0,5
0,8

0,6


1. :


0,5 0,3

0,1 0,1
00,66 00,4
4

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0,8
0,2
1



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84



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2.2.

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, , ,

3.1

.
(: )
.
.
.

3.1.1

( ) = 2 2 + 2

( + )2 = 2 + 2 + 2

(3.1)

( )2 = 2 2 + 2

(3.2)
2

( ) = ( ) ( )
.
134. (3.1), (3.2)

135. (3.1)
2

( + ) = 2 + 2 + 2

.
1.
(3.2)
2. +

85

86

3.1.

( + + ) = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2

(3.3)

136. ( ) .
137. a +

= 3 a2 +

1
2

138.

2 + 2 + 2 =
139.

1
2
2
2
(( ) + ( ) + ( ) )
2
2

(3.4)

1. ( + ) + ( ) = 2 (2 + 2 ).

2. 2 = 7 2 = 4
2

( + ) + ( )
.

140. :
2

( + ) + ( + ) + ( + ) = 3 (2 + 2 + 2 ) 2 ( + + )
141.

x2 + x + = ((x +

2 2 4
)
)
2
42

(3.5)

142.
2

2t 2
1 t2
)
+
(
) =1
1 + t2
1 + t2

143.
1. 2 + 6 + 9 2
2. 4x2 4xy + y 2

144.

x2 2xa + a2 + y 2 2yb + b2
145. . :

2 + 2 = 2 ((

+ 2
2
) +(
) )
2
2

146. Lagrange.
2

(a2 + b2 ) (x2 + y 2 ) = (ax + by) + (ay bx)




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87

3. , , ,

147. . 13 25

13 = 22 +32 25 = 32 +42 7 11 ( ). -


.
2

148. 2 + 2 = 10 = 2 ( + ) + .
149. S = + P = 2 + 2 S
P S P .
2
2
150. (2 + 3) + (2 3)
1.
, 0.
+ 2 .

151.

2. , , , .

+ 2 = + 2 = =

3. , .

2
( + 2) + ( 2) .

3.1.2

( ) = 3 32 + 3 2 3

Joseph Louis Lagrange


1736 - 1813

( + )3 = 3 + 32 + 3 2 + 3

(3.6)

( )3 = 3 32 + 3 2 3

(3.7)

.
3
( + ) = ( + ) ( + ) ( + )
( )3 = ( ) ( ) ( ).
3
2
3
2
( + ) = ( + ) ( + ) ( ) = ( ) ( ) .
152. (3.6), (3.7).

(3.7) (3.6).
3

153. ( + ) + ( ) = 2 (2 + 3 2 )
3

154. 3 + 3 = ( + ) 3 ( + ).
3 + 3 S = + P = .
155.
3

( + + ) = 3 + 3 + 3 + 32 + 3 2 + 3 2 + 3 2 + 3 2 + 32 + 6
156.
3

( + + ) = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 ( + ) ( + ) ( + )
+ + = 0 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 .
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88

3.1.

157. Euler. :

3 + 3 + 3 3 = ( + + ) (2 + 2 + 2 )

(3.8)

3 + 3 + 3 3 =

1
2
2
2
( + + ) (( ) + ( ) + ( ) )
2

(3.9)

+ + = 0 = = 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 .

3.1.3 2 2 = ( ) ( + ) .

2 2 = ( ) ( + )

(3.10)


..
.
.
: 2 2 .
+ .
, . h
= + h h h = .
:

2 2

=+h

( + h)2 2 = 2 + 2h + h2 2 = 2h + h2 =

= h (2 + h)

h=

( ) (2 + ) = ( ) ( + )



. h
.
.
158.
2

1. ( + ) ( )
2

2. (x + y + z) (x + y z)

159. :
1.

x2 y 2
xy

2.

a4 b4
a2 b2

160.


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a2 b2
a+b

b2 c2
b+c

c2 a2
c+a

=0
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89

3. , , ,

2
3 2

161.

.
.

14
72

1 .
5 2


2 2 = ( ) ( + ) .
.

3 3

=+h

( + h)3 3 = 3 + 3 2 h + 3h2 + h3 3 =

= 3 2 h+3h2 +h3 = h (3 2 + 3h + h2 )

h=

( ) (3 2 + 3 ( ) + ( )2 ) =

= ( ) (3 2 + 3 3 2 + 2 2 + 2 ) = ( ) (2 + + 2 )

3 3 = ( ) (2 + + 2 )

(3.11)


. (3.11)

3 + 3 = ( + ) (2 + 2 )

(3.12)

162. x3 1.
163.

3 3
.
2 2

4 4 .
(3.11) :
= + h
(3.10).
2

4 4 = (2 ) ( 2 ) = (2 2 ) (2 + 2 ) = ( ) ( + ) (2 + 2 )
( ) ( + ) (2 + 2 )
4 4
( ).

( + ) (2 + 2 ) = 3 + +2 + 2 + 3

4 4 = ( ) (3 + 2 + 2 + 3 )

( ) (3 + 2 + 2 + 3 ) =
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90

3.1.

4 +3 +2 2 + 3
3 2 2 3 4
.
,
(
0):

2 2 = ( ) (1 0 + 0 1 )
3 3 = ( ) (2 0 + 1 2 + 0 2 )
4 4 = ( ) (3 0 + 2 1 + 1 2 + 0 3 )
,
0
: .
2,
3, 4 :

= ( ) (1 + 2 + ... + 2 + 1 )

(3.13)

:
164. (3.13).
165. .
(3.13)

+ = ( + ) (1 2 + ... 2 + 1 )
166.
1. x 1 = (x 1) (1 + x + x2 + ... + x1 )
2. x+1 1 = (x 1) (1 + x + x2 + ... + x )

3.1.4
3.1.4.1
.
(
).
6 .. .

.

.


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91

3. , , ,

. :
, 2 , 4
8 ...
.



.
; :

1


2


22


23


+ ... +

263
4

64

. (3.13) = 2, = 1, = 64.

(264 1) = (2 1) (263 + 262 + ... + 23 + 22 + 2 + 1)


:

1 + 2 + 22 + 23 + ... + 263 = 264 1


264 1.
:

264 1 = 18 446 744 073 709 551 615


1 ,
1012 !
(3.13)
1 + x + x2 + ... + x . = x, = 1
+ 1 (
).

(x+1 1) = (x 1) (x + x1 + ... + x3 + x2 + x + 1)
1
: . .
, 1, . 1987

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92

3.1.

x 1

1 + x + x2 + x3 + ... + x1 + x =

x+1 1
, x1
x1

(3.14)

x = 1

1 + 1 + ... + 1 = + 1















+1

.
S .

1 + x + x2 + x3 + ... + x1 + x = S
,
, .
.
x

x (1 + x + x2 + x3 + ... + x1 + x ) = xS
:

x + x2 + x3 + x4 + ... + x + x+1 = xS

S :

x + x2 + x3 + x4 + ... + x + x+1 = xS












































































S1

S 1 + x+1 = xS
x+1 1 = xS S (x 1) S = x+1 1 x 1
x 1 (3.14)
167.
2

1 + (2) + (2) + ... + (2)


3.1.4.2

1 + x + x2 + x3 + ... +
+ x . x = 0
x
x 0 :
1

x0 + x1 + x2 + x3 + ... + x1 + x


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93

3. , , ,

:
x x0 x .
; :

0x + 1x + 2x + 3x + ... + ( 1) x + x
x 0x
x. :

x (1 + 2 + 3 + ... + )

1+ 2+ 3+ ...+ .
= 100
Carl Friedrich Gauss.
Bergamini2 :
10 1 100,
5050
!. ,
. ,
, 100 1, 99 2, 98 3
50 51, 101.
50
101 50, 5050.

.
S

S = 1+
2+
3+
...+ ( 2) + ( 1) +
S = + ( 1) + ( 2) + ...+
3+
2+
1
:

2S = (1 + ) + (2 + 1) + (3 + 2) + ... + ( 2 + 3) + ( 1 + 2) + ( + 1)
1+
(1 + ). 2S = ( + 1) S =

1 + 2 + 3 + ... + =

(+1)
.
2

( + 1)
2

(3.15)

1x + 2x + 3x + ... + ( 1) x + x =

( + 1) x
2

2
David Bergamini, , , 1965

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http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

Carl Friedrich Gauss


1777 1855

94

3.1.

168. :
1. 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 1821
2. 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 2012
3. 1822 + ... + 2012

, , (3.15) :
. 2
. ,
!

1 1 , 2 2 , 3 3 ..
- .
( 14 14).
( ). x
. x
. x + . x + + x .
2
x + + x = 2 . 2x = 2 x = 2 .

2
2
2
x + x + = 2 + = +2
= 2+ =
2
(+1)
.
2

169. 9 .
;



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95

3. , , ,

90!
2

(x + 1) = x2 +
2x + 1. x
. 1, 2, 3, ...,
:

(1 + 1)2
(2 + 1)2
(3 + 1)2
..
( 1 + 1)2
( + 1)2
:

22
32
42
..
2
( + 1)2

=
12 +
2 1+
2
=
2 +
2 2+
2
=
3 +
2 3+
..
..
..
2
= ( 1) + 2 ( 1) +
=
2+
2 +
=
12 +
2 1+
=
22 +
2 2+
=
32 +
2 3+
..
..
..
= ( 1)2 + 2 ( 1) +
=
2+
2 +

1
1
1
..
1
1
1
1
1
..
1
1

22
32
42
..
2
( + 1)2

=
12 +
2 1+
=
22 +
2 2+
2
=
3 +
2 3+
..
..
..

2

= 
(
1) + 2 ( 1) +
=
2+
2 +

1
1
1
..
1
1

:
2

( + 1) = 12 + 2 1 + 2 2 + 2 3 + ... + 2 ( 1) + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + ... + 1 + 1

+
( + 1)2 = 1 + 2
1
+
2
+
3
+
...
+
(

1)
+

( + 1)2 = ( + 1) + 2S
2

2S = ( + 1) ( + 1) 2S = ( + 1) (( + 1) 1)
S =

(+1)
.
2

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96

3.1.

170.
3

(x + 1) = x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1
:
2

12 + 22 + 32 + ... + ( 1) + 2 =

( + 1) (2 + 1)
6

3.1.5
, , ,

, , .
, , , . ,
, .


= ()
= ( ) =




0 :


= =

(3.16)


. (
) :
1. .
2. .
3.
.
4.
.
5.
.
6. .
7. .


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97

3. , , ,

:
+

= +

=
G

=
H

= +

(3.17)

171. (3.17)
= .


. .
(i)



















!
+

= = =

+

(3.18)

(ii)



















!


= = =

(3.19)

172. (i), (ii)



.
(3.18), (3.19):


= = = k . = k

= k = k = k . :

+ k + k k ( + )
=
=
=k
+
+
+
k k k ( )
=
=
=k

+

= =k=
=

+

(3.18), (3.19).
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98

3.1.

173.
=
=

p, q , .
174. 0

p+q
p+q

= 0.

, , , .
, , ,

1.

2
5

(3.20)

3
2 3

7
5 7

2.

3.

+x

=
+y

x
+

4 .
1 , 2 , ...,
1 , 2 , ..., :

1 2
=
= ... =
1 2

.
:

1 2
1 1 + 2 2 + ... +
1 2
=
= ... =

=
= ... =
=
1 2

1 2
1 1 + 2 2 + ... +

(3.21)

175. (3.21)
1
:
= 2 = ... = = k

176. 474 2, 3, 4, 5
177.

x
a

y
b

z
c

x2 + a2 y 2 + b2 z 2 + c2 (x + y + z) + (a + b + c)
+
+
=
x+a
y+b
z+c
x+y+z+a+b+c
178.

x
y

= 34 .



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7x4y
3x+y

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99

3. , , ,

3.1.6


1 , 2 , 3 , ..., , +1 , ...
:

1 2 3
=
=
= ...
=
= ...
2 3 4

+1

:

+1
2 3 4
=
=
= ...
=
...
1 2 3
1

( )

2
1

= ,

3
2

= ,

4
3

= ,

...

+1

2 = 1
3 = 2
4 = 3
...
= 1
+1 =
...

= , ...

(3.22)

1 , 2 , 3 , ..., , +1 , ...
, ,
.

+1 = , = 1, 2, 3, ...
(3.23)
( ) 1 , 2 , 3 , ...
(3.23)
. 1 , 2 , 3 , ...
. (3.23)
+1 . 1

.
:

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1
2
1
1
2

2
1
-2

4
2
-2

8
2
4

16
2
-8

32
2
16

64
2
-32

1
2
12

1
2

-1

1
4
1
2

1
8
14

1
16
1
8

1
32
1
16



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100

3.1.

179. 34
4
. 5 .
3

180. 2

2
. 5 .
2
3.1.7
1 , 2 , 3 , ...

2 3 4

+1
=
=
= ...
=
...
1 2 3
1

, , (
1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 3 , 4 , 5 ...)
:

2 =

(3.24)

, .

. 2, 4, 8
(2, 3, 4) 1, 2, 4, 8, ...
(4, 5, 6) 18 , 14 , 12 , 1, 2, 4, 8, ....
42 = 2 8.

( )
.
(3.24).

181. 2, 2 2, 3 2 2
.

182. xyz 0 x2 y , xyz , yz 2


.

3.1.8 -
+1 =
.
- ...


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101

3. , , ,

. (3.22)
2 , 3 , 4 , ..., . 1 (
2 ):

2 = 1
3 = 2
4 = 3
...
= 1
:

2 3 4 ... = 1 2 3 ...1 ...



1.
:
2 , 3 , 4 , ..., 1 . +1 =
1 ...

= 1 1
183. 1 =

(3.25)
1
16

= 2. 12

184. 1 , 2 , 3 , ...
m = mn
n
3.1.9


( 99) 1 , 2 ..

+1
2 3 4
=
=
= ...
=
...
1 2 3
1

. .
2 , 1 , 3 , 2 ,4 , 3 ,..., , 1 , +1 ,
:

2 1 = 3 2 = 4 3 = ... = 1 = +1 = ...
1 , 2 .. (
)
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102

3.1.

.
.

2 1 = , 3 2 = ,

4 3 = ,

1 = , +1 = , ...

...

2 = 1 +
3 = 2 +
4 = 3 +
...
= 1 +
+1 = +
...

. :

+1 = + , = 1, 2, ...

(3.26)

1
2
1
1
2

2
1
-2

3
3
-1

5
4
-3
2

7
5
-5

9
6
-7

11
7
-9

1
2
12

3
2
3
2

5
2
1
2

3
0

7
2
12

185. 3 2.
5 .
1
3

186.
5 .
3.1.10

1
.
2

1 , 2 .. , ,
=

2 = +

(3.27)


. , .
187.

1 5 13
, ,
2 7 14

188. , +
, + +
2
.


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103

3. , , ,

3.1.11

-
.

2 = 1 +
3 = 2 +
4 = 3 +
...
= 1 +
:

2 + 3 + 4 + ... + = 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 1 + ( 1)

:
= 1 + ( 1)
(3.28)
189. 1 = 3 = 2. 12 .
190. 1 , 2 , 3 , ...
m n = (m n) .
3.1.12

S = 1 + 2 + ... +
.
. (3.25)
:

S = 1 + 1 + ... + 1 1

S = 1 (1 + + ... + 1 )

1 + + ... +
(3.14)
92 ( x 1)

1
, 1
1
= 1
. S
1 + + ... + 1 =

1
S = { 1 1
1

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1
=1

(3.29)



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104

3.1.

. S (3.28) :

S = 1 + (1 + ) + (1 + 2) + ... + (1 + ( 1) )

S = 1 + 1 + ... + 1 +( + 2 + ... + ( 1) ) = 1 +(1 + 2 + ... + ( 1))


1 + 2 + ... + ( 1)
(3.15) 93
1. 1 + 2 + ... + ( 1) =

S = 1 +

(1)(1+1)
2

(1)
2

(21 + ( 1) ) (21 + ( 1) )
( 1)
=
=
2
2
2

S
:

S=

(21 + ( 1) )
2

(3.30)

191. 1 2.
9 .

192. 20
2 4.
193. 2 + 4 + 6 + ... + 80
2

10

194. 3 (2) + 3 (2) + 3 (2) + ... + 3 (2) .


195. S = 1 + 2 + ... +

S=

(1 + )
2

(3.31)

: (3.30) (3.28).
(3.15) 93
k k + +1 = 1 +

196. S = 1 + 2 + ... +

S=

1
1

(3.32)

: (3.29), (3.25)


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105

3. , , ,

3.2

.
(=)
( ).
< :

< + < +

(3.33)



:
> 0 < <

(3.34)


.
3.2.1

< ()

< ()
()

+ < +
() :

+ <+
+ < + + < +
+ < + . :

<
} + < +
<

(3.35)

197. p < q + 1, r < s 1 p + r < q + s.


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106

3.2.

198. x > y x + 7 > y + 3.


199. x > y z 0 x + z 2 > y .
(3.35) :

1 < 1
2 < 2
...
<

1 + 2 + ... + < 1 + 2 + ... +

(3.36)

200. (3.36).

> ( ).
2 0. 0
2 > 0 = 0 .

(#)

(##)
(#) .
+ < + + = + .
:

+ +
(##) :

+ +
+ + + +
+ + . :

}+ +

(3.37)

(i), (ii),

3.37
. (3.36)

1 1
2 2
...

1 + 2 + ... + 1 + 2 + ... +



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(3.38)

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107

3. , , ,


:
.
201. x < 12 , y < 13 , z <

1
6

x + y + z < 1.

202. x, y, z (, )
(, ).

x+y+z
3

203. x (, ) y (, ) 25 x + 35 y (, ).
204.
:
x (, ), y (, ) k (0, 1) kx + (1 k) y (, ).

3.2.2


1 , 2 , ..., 1 0,
2 0, ..., 0

1 + 2 + ... + 0
(3.38) 1 , 2 , ...,
.

: . : m 0 t
t t + m. :
1. 0 1 .
2. 1 2 . 1 1 + 2
3. 1 +2 3 . 1 +2

1 + 2 + 3

4. .
:

0 1 1 + 2 1 + 2 + 3 ... 1 + 2 + 3 + ... +

(3.39)

1 + 2 + ... + 0.
1 ..
2 .
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108

3.2.

(3.39) 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + = 0;
0 1 0. 1 = 0. 2 = 0 ...
. :

1 0, 2 0, ..., 0 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + () 0
(*) 1 = 2 = ..., = = 0

(3.40)

17.

21 + 22 + ... + 2 0
:

.
18. 21 +22 +...+2 = 0
1 , 2 , ..., .
: (3.40.
( )
.
2

205. x, y (x 4) + (2 y) =
0.
206. x, y x2 8x + y 2 4y + 20 = 0.
x + y
207.
2000 , 2 + 2 +
2 + 1 = 0. .
208. 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 + + = 0
= = .
19.
1. 2 + + 2 0
2. 2 + + 2 0
: : 2 +
+ 2 . ( 2
2 )

. :

0.
.


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109

3. , , ,

< 0.

2 + + 2 =
2 + + 2 +

= (2 + 2 + 2 ) + () =

( )2 + ()


.
.
:

2 + + 2 =

1
2
2

(2 + + 2 ) =

1
(22 + 2 + 2 2 ) =
2
1 2
( + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 ) =
2
1
(( + )2 + 2 + 2 )
2
2

( + ) +
2 + 2 12 . . : .
.
209. (19)
3.2.3


. .
,
:
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110

3.2.

.
:

< ()

< ()
, , , .
()

<
() :

<
< <
< . :

0<<
} 0 < <
0<<

(3.41)

210. x, y x <
y < 11
xy < 2.
13

26
11

211. (0, 1) (0, 1).


;

212. , 0 < < 4


< 13.

3 0 < < 4 +

3.

(3.41)
:

0 < 1 < 1
0 < 2 < 2
...
0 < <

0 < 1 2 ... < 1 2 ...

213. x, y, x, , , x <
xyz < 1.

(3.42)

y < , z <

214. 1
1.
1
1.


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111

3. , , ,

1 , 2 , ...,
> 0 1 , 2 , ..., > 0 (3.42) :
0 < < 0 < <

(3.43)

215. (3.43)
;

2011
216. ( 2 + 1)
<

52011
.
22011

217. 0 < p < q 1 + p + p2 + p3 < 1 + q + q 2 + q 3 .


(3.43)
.
. < .
< .
.
:

, .
1. 0 < <
(3.43).
2. = 0 <
.
3. < 0 <
( ) .
4. < = 0

.
5. < < 0
.
1.
< < 0 0 < < .

(3.43) () < () .

: (1) < (1) ( ) < . 1


< .
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112

3.2.


< 0 < <
218. (1

5) , (2

(3.44)

5) .

219. x
3

x3 + x5 + x7 < x + 1 + (x + 1) + (x + 1)



. (3.41)

0<
} 0 <
0<

(3.45)


. (3.42), (3.43), (3.44).
220. x [2, 5] y [3, 4] xy [6, 20].
221. 20m 15m.


5cm. ;

3.2.4
0 < < .
< . ,
- <
, ; < .
.

=
>
<
= = < .
.
> , >
. .


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113

3. , , ,

. (3.43)
, :

< <

(3.46)

222. (3.46) .
.

223. (3.46)
( , ):
:

< <

(3.47)

224. ,

< 1 + + 2 < 1 + + 2
1 + + 2 < 1 + + 2 <
225.
:

= =

(3.48)

226. :
:

= =
3.2.5

(3.49)



.
.
20.

5+

8 6 + 7.


. . 5+ 8 < 6+ 7
.

2
2
5 + 8 < 6 + 7 ( 5 + 8) < ( 6 + 7)

p1

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p2



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114

3.2.

p2 p1 .
p1
. p2
p1 . :

2
2


( 5 + 8) < ( 6 + 7) 13 + 4 5 2 < 13 + 2 6 7




















































































p3
p2

p1 p2 p2 p3 .
13 :





13 + 4 5 2 < 13 + 2 6 7 4 5 2 < 2 6 7

















































p3

p4

2 ( 12





4 5 2<2 6 72 5 2< 6 7












































p4

p5



2
2
2 5 2 < 6 7 (2 5 2) < ( 6 7)






































































p5

p6

2
2
(2 5 2) < ( 6 7) 40 < 42






































































p7
p6

p7


p1 .
5 + 8 < 6 + 7.
21.

2003
.

.
23
3

41
3

23
3

<

41
3

23
3

41
3

) <(

41
3

41 2
3 5

23 82 < 41 52 1472 < 1025.


. 1472 > 1025.
52

<

82

82 <

23
3

23
3

:


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23
3

>

41
3

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115

3. , , ,

22.
2010

x x + x2 + 9 > 0.
.

. x + x2 + 9 > 0 x2 + 9 > x.

: . x
:

x2 + 9 > x 02 + 9 > 0 .

x > 0. x2 + 9 > x
x = 0.

x < 0. x2 + 9 > x

2
2
x2 + 9 > x x2 + 9 > (x) x2 + 9 > x2 9 > 0
.
3.2.6


< 1
> . >
< 1. :

< >

(3.50)

3.50 : 0
:

.
. :
<
1 , 1 ; :

2 < 3.

1
2

>

2 < 3.
3 < 2.

1
3

>

1
3

1
2

< 13 .

1
2


:

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116

3.2.


.

. :

, <

> 1 .

: 1 > 1 1 1 > 0 > 0.


> 0, > 0 .
,

< . > 0
<
1 < 1 1 > 1 .
:
, <

1 1
>

(3.51)

227. (3.51) .
;

228. , <
1
2

> +
> 1 .
229. A = (, 1), B = (1, 0), C =
(0, 1) D = (1, +). x (4 )
A, B, C, D x1 ;
230. p, q, r p <

q
r

< p1 .

1. p < 1.
2. p <

r
q

< 1p .

3.2.7

. .

13

13

16

25

16

16

144

25

169

12

13

17

+
5

+ +
, .

+ = + .

+ = + , :


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117

3. , , ,

231. ,

+ = + =0
=0

232. , = ;
. :

36

16

144

12

12

16

25

100

10

10


=

.
3.2.5:

2
2
( ) = ( )
=

2
2 2
( ) = ( ) ( )
2 2 2
=
=

. ,
:

(3.52)

(3.52)
. ..:

()

(3.52)

(3.52)

16

16

25

4
25

4
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4
9
16
9

2
3
4
3

2
5

2
5

0
2

2
3
4
3



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118

3.2.

(3.52):

2
2

) = ( )

2
2
( )

) = 2

( )

2
2

= 2


, 0
> 0

(3.53)

(3.53)
(3.52):

=
(3.52)



2
. = . .


2
2 .
2 .


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119

3. , , ,

0. < 0
2
( () = 2 ) . :
2
0 =

0
2 = {
< 0

(3.54)

233.
:

22 34 58 = 2 32 54

2.
311 519 114 = 35 59 112 15

3.
35 73 117 = 32 7 113 231
1.

234.
, , . :
1. A =

2 4

2. B =

8 2 4

3. =
2 4 8

4. = 5 7 7

235. , , . :
1. A =
2. B =

4
46

3. =

3 2
8

4. =

236.

6 4

84
44
49 2 6

2 3 = 12 2 3 12 2

237. t1 = +

, t2 =

1. t1 + t2 = 2

3. t21 + t29 = 22 + 2

2. t1 t2 = 2

4. t31 + t32 = 23 + 6

238. :

32

2
2.
(3)
1.

3. 32
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2
(3)

2
(3 3)
5.

2
(1 3)
6.
4.



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120

3.3

3.3.


() . .
.
.
.

(x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 1

x .

x .
x .
2 3

(x + 1)2 = x2 + 3x + 1
x = 0.
0.
1 2

(x + 1)2 = x2 + 2x + 2

x. .
x 3 = 0
x y = 4 . x 3 = 0
x = 3 . x y = 4 : x = 4, y = 0
x = 5, y = 1 ... 4 0
x 4 y 0
. y 4
x 0 0 4 = 4.
.
:
1 , 2 , ..

. , ..
.
x y = 4 (x, y) (x, y), (5, 1), (11, 7) , (11, 15) ...
x 2y + 4z = 7 (x, y, z). (1, 1, 8)
x = 1, y = 1, z = 8 (1, 8, 1)
x = 1, y = 8, z = 1 .


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121

3. , , ,

239. x = 3 3x = 9;
27
= 9; x3 = 27; xx = 27;
x

x
3

= 9;

240. (2, 3, 6) x + y + z = 11.


.

3.3.1

x + = 0
x + = 0 ( ) . .
.
:
23. : 2x + 8 = 0.
8
: 2x + 8 = 0 2x = 8 2x = 8
2 x = 2 x = 4
2
24. : 0x + 8 = 0.

: 0x + 8 = 0 0x = 8.
x 0 = 8.
.
25. : 4 (x + 5) = 2.
: : 4 (x + 5) = 2

4x + 20 = 2 4x = 2 20 4x = 18 x =

18
4

x = 92

26. : 4 (x + 5) = 4x + 20.
: 4 (x + 5) = 4x+20 4x+20 = 4x+20 4x4x = 2020 0x = 0.
0x = 0 ( )
x .
. : .
x + = 0 x =

x = 0.
= 0, 0.
= = 0.
241. ( x):

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122

3.3.

1
x+t

1. 2x + 8 = 0

4.

= 0, ( 0)

2. 3x 8 = 13

5. ( + 1) x = 0, ( 1)

3. x + t = 0, ( 0)

6. x + 4 = 1, ( 0)

242. :
1. 6 (x + 3) 5x = 26

4. 60x + 1 = 3 (3 + 4x)

2. 6 (x + 3) 5x = 26 + x

5. (6 x) (x + 4) = 8 x2

3. 4 (4 + 2x) = 60 3x

6. (x 3) 5 (10 + x) = x2 8

243. :
1. 3x + 100 =
2.

5x11
4

3.

4
x+2

7
x+3

4.

30
x+5

15
3

x
3

x1
10

x
2

11x1
12

27
(x+2)(x+3)

5+4x
x+5

=0

5. 3 (x 1) (x 2) (x 3) (x 4) = (2x + 7) (x + 4)
6. 2x

2x
9

1
9

(16x 32 )

3.3.2 x + = 0
243
x+ = 0
. :
27. :

x x+1
+
=8
3
4
. :

. x3 + x+1
4 = 8

12 ( x3 +

x+1
)
4

= 12 8 4x + 3 (x + 1) = 96 4x + 3x + 3 = 96 x =

93
7

28. :

3
2
=
x+1 4
.

x + 1.

x + 1 0 x 1.
.


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123

3. , , ,

2
x 1. : x+1
= 34
2 4 = 3 (x + 1) 8 = 3x + 3 x = 53
1.

29. :

6+x
5
3
+
=
x + 2 (x + 2) (x + 1) x + 1
. x + 2, x + 1
x 2, 1.

(x + 2) (x + 1). :

6+x
5
3
+
=

x + 2 (x + 2) (x + 1) x + 1
(x + 2) (x + 1) (

6+x
5
3
+
) = (x + 2) (x + 1)

x + 2 (x + 2) (x + 1)
x+1
3 (x + 1) + 6 + x = 5 (x + 2)

3 (x + 1) + 6 + x = 5 (x + 2) ... x = 1

.
.
30. :

(4 3 (x 2)) ( 2x 1) (x 1) = 0
.
:

(4 3 (x 2)) ( 2x 1) (x 1) = 0

4 3 (x 2) = 0

2x 1 = 0

x1 = 0

10
1
x=
x= x=1
3
2



2
x = 10
3 , x = 2 , x = 1.

244. :
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124

3.3.

1. (2x 6) (x + 3) (5x 6) = 0
2. (3 2x) (4x 20) (x + 2) (4 + 2x) = 0

245.
:
1. x2 4 = 0
2. 4x2 9 = 0
3. x2 2x + x 2 = 0

3.3.3
31.
2m
v0 = 3m
sec a = sec2 .
v = 6m
sec ;
1m
5m
a = sec
;

a
=
;
2
sec2
. .
:
2m
a = sec
2 . v = v0 + at
6 = 3 + 2t 2t = 3 t = 32

t = 32 sec

1m
a = sec
2 . 6 = 3 + 1 t t = 3
t = 3 sec
5m
a = sec
2 . 6 = 3 + 5t 5t =
3 t = 35 t = 35 sec


: .
a
. :

6 = 3 + at at = 3 t =

3
a

a.
t = a3 a
.
6 = 3 + at
t a .
. .
.


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125

3. , , ,

32. x 2 x + 2 = + 4x.
. .
:

2 x + 2 = + 4x 2 x 4x = 2 (2 4) x = 2
2 4
. .

2 4 = 0 ( 2) ( + 2) = 0 = 2

= 2

= 2 0x = 0 .
= 2 0x = 4 .
2 4

2 x
x=

2
1
2
x=
x=
2
4
( 2) ( + 2)
+2

246. :

x + 3 = 5 (x + ) 1
247.

( 1) x 2 + 1 = 0
x ;

248. t

t (x + 1) 3t = x t
x = 5;

249.
x, y xy = .
.
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126

3.3.

3.3.4 x2 + x + = 0
x2 + x + = 0.
= 0 x + = 0
;;.
0 x2 + x + = 0
x2 ( 0x2 + x + = 0 ).
.
.
.
.
,

x2 + x 2 = 0


, : ,
. AB (A )
, 2 .


A= 2 . E, Z
B. AE.
.
ZAE
, ZA .

= A
= ZA

= 90 A
BAE
AEB
= BZA
.
AEB, ABZ B

AB BE AE
=
=
BZ AB AZ


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127

3. , , ,

x+

2 = x (x + )

x x2 + x 2 = 0.


19.

x2 + x + = ((x +

2 2 4
)
)
2
42

((x +
(x2 +
(x2 +

2 2 4
)
)=
2
42

x 2
2 4
+ 2
)=
4
42

x 2
2
4
+ 2 2
)=
4
4
42
(x2 +

x
+ )=

x2 + x +
0

x2 +x+ = 0 ((x +

2 2 4
2 2 4
)
)
)
=
0

(x
+
=0
2
42
2
42

2 4 .

(x +

2
2 )

4
4
= 0
2

(x +

) 2 =0
2
4

< 0 4
2 .

(x + 2 )
.
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128

3.3.

. 0 =

2
2

) (
) =0
(x +
2
2

) (x +
+
)=0
(3.55)
(x +
2
2
2
2

=0
+
=0
x+
x+
2 2
2
2

x=
x=
2 2
2 2
= 0

x = 2 . :
x2 + x + = 0 0 = 2 4 :

< 0
> 0
0.


() x1,2 = 2 . = 0

x = 2
250.
1. 4x2 + 92x + 333 = 0

4. 2x2 + 3x + 20 = 0

2. x2 + 23x + 76 = 0

5. 2x2 + 3x + 77 = 0

3. x2 + 23x + 102 = 0

6. 64x2 64x 273 = 0

251. :
1. x2 + x = 0

4. 2x2 + 5x 122 = 0

2. 2x2 + 4x = 0

5. x2 + x + = 0

3. x2 + ( 2) x 2 = 0

6. x2 + x + = 0

252. :

x2 + 2xy y 2 = 0 ()
(()):
1. x ( x).


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129

3. , , ,

2. y .

253. :
1. x2 + 3x + 2 = 0 x = 1
2. 2 x2 3x + = 0 x = 1

3.3.5

x2 + x + = 0

x2 + x + = 0
. :
33. :

1
4
2
+ =
2 x 2 2x x2
. 2 x 2x
x2 = x (2 x) .
x 0 x 2.
:

1
4
2
+ =

2 x 2 2x x2

1
4
2
+ =
2 x 2 x (2 x)
2x (2 x) (

2x(2x)

1
4
2
+ ) = 2x (2 x)

2x 2
x (2 x)
4x + x (2 x) = 8
6x x2 = 8
x2 + 6x 8 = 0
x2 6x + 8 = 0

.
x2 6x + 8 = 0 x = 2
x = 4. x 0 x 2
2 4.
34. :

(2x 1)2 3 (2x 1) + 2 = 0


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130

3.3.

.
.
x 2x 1.
2x 1 = u

u.
x.
2x1 u u2 3u+2 = 0
u1 = 1 u2 = 2.
2x 1 = u 2x 1 = 1 2x 1 = 2
x1 = 1 x2 = 32 .
35. :

x4 5x2 36 = 0
2
. x4 = (x2 )
2

(x2 ) 5x2 36 = 0
2
(x2 ) . x2 = u
u x.

u2 5u 36 = 0
u1 = 4 u2 = 9.
u x2 = u :

x2 = 4

x2 = 9

x1 = 3 x2 = 3.
254.
21
=9
1. 2x + x+4

1
4. x1 + 32 = x+3

23
70
2. x1
+ 3 + x2 4x+3
=0

5.

5
3. x3 + x2
=2

2
32 + 2
6. xx2 +x+1
x+1 = 2 +3 2

(3x)3 +(4+x)3
(3x)2 +(4+x)2

=7

255.



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131

3. , , ,

1. x4 5x2 + 4 = 0

4.

2. (2x + 1) 3 (2x + 1) 1 = 0

5
x2 +5

=2

5. (x2 + x + 1) (x2 + x + 2) 12 = 0

) 3 ( 2x+3
)+2 =0
3. ( 2x+3
x1
x1
3.3.6

4
x2 +4

6. 7 (x + x1 ) 2 (x2 +

1
)
x2

=9

Vieta

x2 + x + = 0 .
.

x1 =

x2 =

+
2 .

+ (
+
=
x1 + x2 =
2
2

) + ( +
2

1540 - 1603

=
2

+ ( ) ( + )

=
x1 x2 =
=
2
2
42
2
2
2
2 ( 4) 4
()2
=
=
=
=
42
42
42
42
3 S P .

S = x1 + x2 =

P = x1 x2 =

Vieta

(3.56)

36. 2x2 4x 1 = 0 .
. ( ;). S = 4
2 = 2
P=
= 12 .
.
1
2

37. x2 +x+ = 0 x1 x2 .
x21 + x22
. x21 + x22 :
x1 x2 x1 x2
. x1 x2
x2 x1 :

x21 + x22

2
x2 + x21
3

summa, productum.

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(Franciscus Vieta)



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132

3.3.

x1 , x2 (
4 ) ,
, S = x1 + x2
P = x1 x2 . :

x21 + x22 = (x1 + x2 )2 2x1 x2 = S 2 2P


, ,
:

2
2
2 2
S 2 2P = ( ) 2 = 2 2 =

x21 + x22 =

2 2
2

Vieta
S P .

= S = P = S = P
x2 Sx + P = 0
(x2 Sx + P ) = 0 x2 Sx + P = 0. :
S P
x2 Sx + P = 0

(3.57)

38. 4 2.
. S = 4
2. x2 4x + 2 = 0 .


. :
x1 = 2 + 2 x2 = 2 2.
256.
.
1. 2x2 58x + 12 = 0

3. 2x2 2x + 6 = 0

2. t2 + 1500t 2 = 0

4. tx2 2tx + t2 = 0

257. x2 + x + = 0 1 , 2 .
, , :
1. 1 (2 + 1) + 2 (1 + 1)

2.

1
1 +1

1
2 +1

258.



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133

3. , , ,

+ 16 13

4.
3 13

1. 1 4
2. 58

3.

1
3

1
6

1
6

1
6

13

259. 1.
.
1. 2x2 + 928x 930 = 0

2. x2 8193x + 8192 = 0

260. S P
. .
1. S = 15, P = 14

3. S = 12, P = 3

2. S = 19, P = 84

4. S = 2, P = 2 2

261.
.

3.4

1. 7x2 + 14x 1 = 0

3. 6x2 14x + 1 = 0

2. 3x2 9x + 2 = 0

4. 3x2 + 5x + 1 = 0


()
. -
(. 3.3.1).
. x 2 > 0
2
[2, +). (x + 1) (y 2 + 1) > 0 x, y
(x, y) x > 1, y R.

3.4.1

x + > 0
2x + 4 > 0 :
2x 4

2x + 4 > 0 2x > 4

2

>

x > 2

x
x > 2 (2, +).
:

:
..
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134

3.4.

2x + 4 > 0 :

4

2x

<

2x + 4 > 0 2x > 4

x<2



2
2
2
.
:


- x + > 0

x + > 0 x >

>0

x < < 0

0 > = 0

x>

> 0 < 0 :

( , +)

(, ). = 0
. x + > 0 0 > .
x + > 0 x 0 >
> 0. > 0 x + > 0
x R.
> 0 0 x + > 0
x .

:


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135

3. , , ,

x + > 0:

(
, +) > 0.
(,
) < 0.
R = 0 > 0.
= 0 0.
4. x + 0, x + < 0, x + 0
x + > 0.
39. 3x + 2 0.
.

3x + 2 0 3x 2

 2

2
3x

x


3
3
3

40. x + 1 x.
. : x + 1 x x x 1 ( 1) x 1.
:

1 > 0 > 1. x x

1
1 .

1 > 0 < 1. x x

1
1 .

1 = 0 = 1. 0 1
x .
262. :
1. 2x > 3

4. 2x < 3

2. 2x > 3

5. 4x + 2 < 1

3. 2x < 3

6. 8 (x + 2) > 4

263. :
..
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136

3.4.

1. x > 4 > 0.

3. (2 1) x < + 1 >

2. ( 2) x + 2 0 > 2

4. (2 + 2 + 1) x < 3 + 2

1
2

264. :
1.

x+1
3

x1
4

>1

2. 2 (x 1) +

2x1
4

<3

265.

3x + 4 < 5
t 2t 1 ;

266. 2x 3y > 1.
1. x.
2. y .

267. m 2x2 3x + m + 1 = 0
x ;
3.4.2 ()
.
.

.
41. 4 3x > 0

5 6x > 0

.
(, 43 ) (, 56 ).
: (, 43 ) (, 56 ) = (, 56 ).

42. 4 < 3x 1 < 5.




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137

3. , , ,

. x
: 4 < 3x 1 3x 1 < 5.
( 53 , +)
(, 2).
: ( 53 , +) (, 2) =

( 53 , 2).

43. m
m 2 5 (6, 6).

. 6 < m 2 5 < 6
.

.

6 < m 2 5, m 2 5 < 6 12 2 <

2. m ( 12 2, 11
2).
2


m .
12 2 = 0, 7 11
2 = 7, 8.
2
m m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
m<

11
2

268.
1. 4x + 3 0 12 2x 0.
2. 4 23 x < 1 31 4x > 0

269. 3 5 6x < 58 .
270. x2 4x + 5 1 = 0
.

3.4.3

x + , 0.
, 0
x x + = 0 ( )
x x + > 0 x + < 0 ( ).
4 x +
4

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138

3.4.

x. 0
:

> 0
x + > 0 x > x >
x + < 0 x < x <
x + = 0 x = x =

x +

+
+

< 0
x + > 0 x > x <
x + < 0 x < x >
x + = 0 x = x =

x
x +

x + , 0 x =
x
.
44. x
3x + 4.
. 3x + 4 x = 43 . x
3 < 0 3x + 4 3 x
x .


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139

3. , , ,

4
3

3x + 4

45. x

( 3 1) x + ( 3 + 1).

3 1 > 0 ( 3 1) x + ( 3 + 1)

( 3+1)( 3+1)

= (
= 4+22 3 = 2 3. x

. =

x = 3+1
31

31)( 3+1)

x
.

( 3 1) x + ( 3 + 1)

3.4.4

+
+

-.

x + , 0
.
46. x
(2x 1) (4 3x).
. .
:

1
2

2x 1

+
+

x
4 3x

4
3


-. (, 12 ) , ( 12 , 43 ) , ( 43 , +).
x
:

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140

3.4.

.
x . :

x (, 12 ) 2x 1 ,
4 3x .
x =

1
2

2x 1
.

x ( 12 , 43 ) 2x 1, 4 3x
.

x =

4
3

4 3x
.

x ( 43 , +) 2x 1 , 4 3x
.

1
2

2x 1

4 3x

(2x 1) (4 3x)

4
3

+
+

47. x

2x1
5x+10 .

.
.


2.
.


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141

3. , , ,

2
2

2x 1

5x + 10

2x1
5x+10

+
+
+

271. 46 x = 2012
.

272. 47

1
2012

273.
(3 x) (5 + 4x) (3x 1).

54

1
3

3 x
0

5 + 4x
3x 1

(3 x) (5 + 4x) (3x 1)

274. x
:
1. (2 4x) (x + 5)
2. (x 12 ) (2x 1)
3. (1 x) (2 x) (3 x)

275. x :

(2x 1) (x + 3)
5x + 7
.
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142

3.4.5

3.4.

x2 + x + > 0, 0
x2 + x + > 0, 0

< >, , . x2 + x +
x + x2 + x +
. x2 + x + = 0
.

3.4.6

x2 + x + > 0, 0
0 :

x2 + x + = ((x +

2 2 4
)
)
2
42

(3.58)

0 (.
128, (3.55) )

) (x +
+
)
x + x + = (x +
2
2
2
2
2

2 2 , 2 + 2

x1 = 2 + 2 x2 = 2 2
x2 + x + = 0 ()
x2 + x + .

x2 + x + 0

x2 + x + = (x x1 ) (x x2 ) x1,2 =

(3.59)

.
px + q ( 278).
= 0
(3.58).

x2 + x + = (x +

2
)
2

(3.55) ): x1 = x2

x2 + x + = (x x1 ) (x x1 ) = a(x x1 )2


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143

3. , , ,

x1 . x1 =
2

x2 +x+ = a(x ( 2 )) = a(x + 2 ) .


2

48. 3x2 +
2x 1.
.
1
2
(x
3 3x + 2x 1 = 3 (x (1))

x1 = 1 x2 =

1
)
3

1
3x2 + 2x 1 = 3 (x + 1) (x )
3
3 (x 13 )
3x2 + 2x 1 = (x + 1) (3x 1).
49. 3x2 +
x + 1.

. x1 = 1+ 6 13 x2 = 1 6 13 .
2

3x + x + 1 = 3 (x

1+

13

) (x

13
)
6

50. 9x2
12x + 4.
. 23

2
2 2
2
9x2 12x + 4 = 9 (x ) (x ) = 9 (x )
3
3
3


9x2 12x + 4 = (3x 2)2 .

2
2
2
2
9 (x 23 ) = 32 (x 23 ) = (3 (x 23 )) = (3x 2) .

51. 22 +
11 + 15 2 .
.
.
, , :

2 2 + 11 + 15 2

4

(11) 4 2 15 2 = 2
52 3 .

11
22

5
5
22 + 11 + 15 2 = 2 ( ( )) ( (3)) = 2 ( + ) ( + 3)
2
2
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144

3.4.

2 + 52

22 + 11 + 15 2 = (2 + 5) ( + 3)
276. :
1. 2x2 5x + 2
2. 4x2 + 4x + 1
3. x2 8x 33
277.
1.

x2 +6x91
x2 +8x105

2.

2a2 +8a90
3a2 36a+105

3.

b2 9bx+14x2
b2 bx2x2

278. x2 + x + x2 + x + = (px + q) (p x + q )
p, q, p , q .
3.4.7

x2 + x + , 0
x2 + x + .
:

x2 + x + = ((x +

) 2)
2
4

x2 + x +

((x +

) 2)
2
4

(x +

) 2
2
4

x ,
.


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145

3. , , ,

< 0 (x +
(x +

2
2 )

4
2 :

2
) 2 = (x +
) +
>0
2
4
2
42





















>0
















































>0

x2 + x +
x.
2

= 0 (x + 2
) 4
2 = (x + 2 ) .

x 2
x = 2 .
x

2 .

> 0 x1 < x2 (x +

42

2
2 )

= (x x1 ) (x x2 ).

x1

x x1

x x2

(x x1 ) (x x2 )

x2
+

x
, x (
)
.
:
x2 + x +
x < 0.
x = 0.
x > 0.

..
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(3.60)



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146

3.4.

52. 2x2 + 4x + 1

. 1 12 6

1 + 12 6. = 2
. x
.

53. ( 7 3) (x 2) (x + 3).
. ( )

x2 7 3
3 2. 3 2
.
279. :
1. 3x2 + 18x 21

4. x2 + x + 1

2. 9x2 + 3x 2

5. 3x 1 4x2

3. 5x2 35x + 40

6. 1 6x + 9x2

280. ,
1. 2 + + 2 0
2. 2 + 2 0


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147

3. , , ,

281. x, y :

x2 2x + 6 + y 2 4y > 0
282. x = 1 x = 2
x = 3. x = 4;
3.4.8

x2 + x + > 0,

x2 + x + > 0
x
.
54. 2x2 2x 24 > 0.
. 2x2 2x 24 = 2 > 0 3 4.
x < 3 4 < x.
(, 3) (4, +).
55. 3x2 2x 1 < 0.
. 3x2 2x 1 = 3 > 0 13 1.
.
x 13 1. x 13 < x < 1.
( 13 , 1).

56. 3x2 11x 4 0.


.
13 4.

. (, 13 ] [4, +).
57. 2x2 x + 1.
. = 2 .
x .
.
58. x2 2x+43 = 0
.
2

. (2) 4 1 (4 3)
42 16 + 12 > 0.
(, 1) (3, +).

,
:
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148

3.4.

12

x
2x2 7x 4

3x2 16x + 5

(2x2 7x 4) (3x2 16x + 5)

1
3

5
+

(2x2 7x 4) (3x2 16x + 5) -

0 12 x 13 4 x 5.
[ 12 , 13 ] [4, 5].
2x3
59. x2
x+2 4x1

. x 2, 14 .

.

. x 2, 14 :

x 2 2x 3

x + 2 4x 1
x 2 2x 3

0
x + 2 4x 1
(x 2) (4x 1) (x + 2) (2x 3)
0
(x + 2) (4x 1)
2x2 10x + 8
0
(x + 2) (4x 1)
(2x2 10x + 8) (x + 2) (4x 1) 0
:



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149

3. , , ,

1
4

2x2 10x + 8

x + 2

4x 1

(2x2 10x + 8) (x + 2) (4x 1)

(, 2) ( 14 , 1]

(4, +)

283. , ,
1. (x + 2) (x 2) < 0

4. (2x + 3) (3x 4) 0

2. (x + 3) (x + 7) 0

5. (x + 5) (2x + 5) > 0

1
) (x 34 )
2

3. (x +

<0

6. (3 2x) (3x + 2) > 0

284. 0 < <


<<
1. (x ) (x ) < 0

4. (x + ) (x + ) 0

2. (x + ) (x + ) > 0

5. (2x ) (x ) < 0

3. (x + ) (x ) 0

6. ( x) (x + ) > 0

285.
1. x2 x 12 > 0

5. 4x2 + x 1 > 0

2. 3x2 + 2x + 1 > 0

6. x2 + 4x + 6 < 0

3. 4x2 4x + 1 > 0

7. 4x2 + 4x 1 0

4. 3x2 4x + 1 < 0

8. 4x2 + 4x + 9 > 0

286.
1. 1 < x2 x < 2
2. 1 <
3.

1
x

<

x
x2 +1

x
x+1

<4

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150

3.4.

287. y

x2 + 4x + 1
=y
x2 + x + 1
x.

288. y x

2x + 1
=y
x2 3x + 2
289. :
1. 3x2 4x + + 1 = 0 .
2. x2 + 4x + 1 > 0 x R
x R

4. 2x2 + x + 1 x R
3.

x
x2 +x+

290.
.
.
1. (x2 3x + 2) (x2 7x + 12) > 0
2.

1
x

3.

x2 +x1
x2 +x2

4.

1
(x1)(x2)

1
x+1

>0

5. x4 5x2 + 4 > 0
6.

x4 2x2 2
x4 x2 6

7. 1 <

0
>

1
x(x+3)



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<

x2 +1
x+1

1
2

<1

8. (x4 3x2 + 1) (2x2 4x + 1) < 0

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

4.1
4.1.1

.

.
( )

.

O B 0 1 12 A

2 .

1 .
x
x.

,
.
1, 2, 3, 1,
2, 3 1, 2, 3.
1, 2, 3
1

151

152

4.1.

1, 2, 3. 1, 2, 3
1, 2, 3.

.

:
.
. :

(4.1)

12

1 3

1 + 3 3 1

1 + x2

1 + x2

x
...
.

2 = 2, 12 = 12 , 1

3 = 1 + 3, 1 + x2 = 1 + x2

x = {

x x 0
x x < 0

(4.2)

x = x ( + , - )

(4.3)

:
2

x x = x2

(4.4)

( (1.44 :

x = ( x) x


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(4.5)
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153

4.

... (...) [...]. (2 3) =


2 + 3 2 3 = 2 + 3.

, .
.
x 0 x x = 0.

(4.6)


( ):
x = x x.

(4.7)

x x.
x = x. x x x
:
x x x x.

(4.8)

291. :
1. 7 =

4. 5 32000 =

2. 13 =

1
5. 4111

3. 32 11 =

6. x2 + 3 =

8111

292. :
35

1. A = 1 2 3

4. = 67

2. B = 13 4 23 12

5. E = 4 8 7 9 11

3. = (5

25
) ( 34
2

1)

6. Z = 1 334 7 334

293. >
:
1. A = + 1
2. B =

3. = 3 3 +
4. =

2 2
+
+

294.

+ + = + +
295. x > 1.
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x3 1
x2 +x+1



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154

4.1.

296. x > 5.

x 2 3 x 5
297. 1 < x < 2.

2x + 1 + 3 (x 5 + x)
298. x > 3. :

(x 1) (x + 1) (x 2) x3 + 2x2 + x = 2
4.1.2

.
.
.

.
60. x
2x 1.
. 2x 1.

1
2

2x 1

+
+

x (, 12 ) 2x1 < 0
2x 1 = 1 2x.
x

1
2

2x 1 = 0 2x 1 = 0.

x ( 12 ), +) 2x1 > 0
2x 1 = 2x 1.
:

x
2x 1
2x 1



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1
2

+
+

1 2x 0 2x 1

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155

4.

1 2x x <

x =
2x 1 = 0

2x 1 x >

1
2
1
2
1
2

.
x = 12
.
. :

2x 1 = {

1 2x x <
2x 1 x

1
2
1
2

x = 12 : 2x 1 x = 12
0 .
61. x
2x 1 + x 1.
. .

.
:

1
2

+
+

2x 1

2x 1

1 2x

1 2x

2x 1

x+1

x + 1

x 1

x+1

x+1

2x 1 + x 1

3x

2x

3x



. :

3x
x < 1

2x 1 + x + 1 = 2 x 1 x <

x 12
3x
..
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2



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156

4.1.

62. x
(2x 1) (x + 1) x.
. (2x 1) (x + 1).

1
2

2x 1

x+1

(2x 1)(x + 1)

(2x 1)(x + 1)

+
+

+
+

(2x 1) (x + 1) (2x 1)(x + 1) (2x 1) (x + 1)

(2x 1)(x + 1) x

2x2 1

2x2 2x + 1

2x2 1

2x2 1

x < 1

(2x 1) (x + 1) x = 2x2 2x + 1 1 x <

2x2 1

x 12

1
2

299. x
2 x + 4 + x.
300. x
(x 2) x + 2 x.
4.1.3
.

.
x = .
x
.
0
.
x =
< 0.
0 = 0.
> 0.



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(4.9)

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157

4.

63. x 2 = 1.
. x 2 = 1 x = 2 1. x = 3 x = 1.
x2 x 2 = 0
.
64. x2 x 2 = 0.
. x
.

.

. :
1. x 0. x 0 x = x
x2 x 2 = 0. x = 1 x = 2.
x = 2.
x = 1
.
2. x < 0. x = x
x2 + x 2 = 0. x = 2
x = 1.
x = 2 .
x1 = 2 x2 = 2.
2
: x = x2
2
x x 2 = 0. x
x. x = u u2 u 2 = 0
u. u = 1
u = 2 . x = 2
x = 2.
65. x2 x 2 = 0.
. x 2
x
x 2
x 2 x < 2.
1. x 2. x 2 0 x2
(x 2) = 0.
x 2.
2. x < 2. x 2 < 0 x2
( (x 2)) = 0 x = 2 x = 1.
2 .
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158

4.1.

x1 = 2 x2 = 1.
66. x2 x 2 = 0.
. x 2
x
x 2
x 2 x < 2.
1. x 2. x 2 0 x2
(x 2) = 0.
x 2.
2. x < 2. x 2 < 0 x2
( (x 2)) = 0 x = 2 x = 1.
2 .
x1 = 2 x2 = 1.
67. x2 x 2 = 0.
. x2 x. 0 2.
.
.

.

x2 x

x2 x

x2 x

x2 + x

x2 x

x2 x 2 = 0

x2 + x 2 = 0

x2 x 2 = 0

x = 1 x = 2

x = 1 x = 2

x = 1

x=2

301.



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159

4.

1. x = 3

5. 3 x 7 x + 2 = 0

2. 3x 1 = 8, x = 3, x = 73
3. 5 x 2 = 9
4. 7 x + 2 3 = 11

6. 2 x 3 x 1 = 0
7. x2 3 x + 1 = 0

302. 2x2 2x 4 = 0.
303. 2 x 1 + x + 1 = 2.
304. :
1. 2x 1 + 3 x = 7
2. 2 + 4x = 2x 1
3. x 3 x2 1 = x
4. x +

4.1.4

1
x

=8

5. (x x) (x 1) (1 2x 1) = 0
6. x2 3x + 3 = 1
7.

1
x1

x
=1
x2


x = . = <, , >, . x < .
= 0 < 0.
> 0
. = 2 x < 2
0
2.

x 0
2 2 < x < 2
(2, 2).
> 0 x <
x < x < . :
4.1.1. > 0 x < < x < .
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160

4.1.

. :

x < x 0

x <

x
<

x<0

x < x 0

<
x

x<0

< x <

(4.4)

x < x2 < 2 x2 < 2 x2 2 < 0


( x x2 2 ) < x <

:
x <
0.
(, ) > 0.

(4.10)

68. x 3 < 2.
. (4.10): x 3 < 2 2 < x 3 < 2 1 <

x < 5.

69. x2 x < 2.
. x2 x < 2 2 < x2 x < 2

2 < x2 x

x<2

x2 x + 2 > 0

x
2<0

xR

1
<
x<2

1 < x < 2

x < , > 0
( > 0) :

x . x
x < x x = .
x < x < x x = . x
x .
[, ].
x > .
. x
x [, ].

x x < x > .
(, ) (, +).


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161

4.

x .
x < x =
. x x .
(, ] [, +).
:

70. 5 4x 3.
. :

5 4x 3

5 4x 3

5 4x 3

x2

x 2

4x 8

4x 2

x (, ] [2, +)

305. :
1. x 3 < 2 ... < x < ...

3. x 8 4 ... x ...

2. x + 3 < 2 ... < x < ...

4. x + 7 > 2 x < .. ... < x

306. :
1. x < 7 ... < x < ...

4. x 3 x ... x ...

2. x 12 ... x ...

5. 12 < x <

3. x > 11 x < ... x > ...

6. x < 8 x > 8 ... > ...

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1
2

x < ...



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162

4.1.

307. :
1. x + 3 < 11

3. 5x 1 < 1

2. 5x 1 > 4

4. x + 2 < x + 3

308. :
1x
2x13

1. 2x 1 + x 2 > 7

4.

>1

2. x 1 + x 2 + x 3 > 3

5. x2 3x + 2 > x x

3. 1 x > x

6. x x1 < x + x 2

4.1.5 .

. x y x y
, , + , , , .

xy

x y

x y

xy = x y.
.
4.1.2. ,

(4.11)

. :
:
.
.


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163

4.

<0

<0

<0

<0

>0

=
: (4.4):

=
()2 = ( )2
2 = 2 2
()2 = 2 2
2 2 = 2 2 ()

:
4.1.3. , 0

(4.12)

. :
:

>0

<0

<0

>0

<0

<0

<0

>0

:
= .
: (4.4):

..
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164

4.1.

( ) = ( )

2 2
= 2

2 2
( ) = 2

2 2
=
()
2 2
:
. 4.1.2. :

= = = =

71. = 3, = 5

= = 3 5 = 15
3

=
=

5
4.1.2 :
4.1.4. 3

1 2 ... 1 = 1 2 ... 1

(4.13)

1 2 ... 1 = 1 (2 ... 1 ) =
1 2 ... 1 = 1 2 (... 1 ) =
= 1 2 ... 1 = ...
( ) =
1 2 ... 1


4.1.5.

=


http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

(4.14)

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165

4.

= ... = ... =


, , :
72.

xy
xy x y
= 3 =
3
z
z
z3

309. , , = 2, = 4, = 12 .
:
1.

4. 2

2.

5.
+

3. 2

6. 3 + 3 2

310.

x
x

(x 0) 1.

311.
:
x
1
1+x
2 2 , x R.

.
:

x+y

x + y

x + y

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166

4.1.

x + y
x + y.
x, y
.
x + y x + y.
4.1.6. ,

+ +

(4.15)

. : (4.8)

( + ) + +
A = + X = + . A 0.

A X A
A > 0 X A.
A = 0 X = 0 X A.

X A
X , A X , A :

+ +
:

+ +
( + )2 ( + )2
+ 2 2 + 2 + 2
( + )2 2 + 2 + 2
2 + 2 + 2 2 + 2 + 2
2 2
(4.8)



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167

4.

: + +
;
0.
=

+ = + =

= 0. :

+ = + 0

(4.16)

= a + () a + = +
:

(4.17)

73. x 1 y 9

x + y 10
. x + y x + y 1 + 9 = 10.
74.

+ +
. = ( ) + () + = + + + .
75. x = y = 2

2x 3y 10
. 2x 3y 2x + 3y = 2 x + 3 y = 2 2 + 3 2 = 10.
312. ;
313. x, y x < 2, y < 3.
:
1. x + y < 5
2. x + 2y < 8
3. x2 + 2y + 1 < 11
4. x3 2y + 4 < 18

314. a < 1.

x 2 (x + 3) =
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168

4.1.

x <

7
2

315. A, B A 3 < 4 B 4 < 3.


A + B 7 < 7.
316. x < 3, y > 2 2x+1
< 75 .
y 2 +1
317. x < 4, y < 5. 69 < x3 + y < 69.
318.

1. x x + 2 = 4;

2. x x + = 2 ;
3. x + = 2 x ( + 1)

319. m 1 + m = 1 + m;
320.
1. ( ) + +
2. ( ) + +
3. ( )
:

(4.18)

321. (4.18) 320


.

322. 4.1.4
3

1 + 2 + ... + 1 + 1 + 2 + ... + 1 +

(4.19)

4.1.6 .

2
2

2 = {

0
< 0

2 =

(4.20)

323. :

2
2 2
1.
x2 + (x + 1)
3.
(x2 3x + 2) + x4

2
2
2.
x + (x 1)
4.
x2 x8



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169

4.

324. :

x = x2

:
1. =
2.
=

4.1.7


0.
d
, .

< (. )
0 < < , < 0 < , < < 0:

d =
( > d = .
.
,
.
d = = 0 = 0 .
, .

< =
.
..
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170

4.1.

= , ,
d = .
, d (, ).
:
d (, ) , d (, ) =

(4.21)

325. :

d (, )

0, 4

0, 7

326. d (, ) = d (, ).
327. 1,5.
328.
1, 5 2.
329. < .
, , .
4.1.8


.

O . 2
. . M
M
x y . x M y
. M (x, y)
( ).
2
,
0 1 0 1 .
.
(
) x x
y y )



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171

4.

(x, y)

x y . :
A(x1 , y1 ) B(x2 , y2 )
x1 = x2 , y1 = y2

(4.22)

x 0.
0 x.
y 0
0 y .

.
4 .

4 .
1
..
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172

4.1.

3 1
2 4 2 .
M (x, y) ,

M , , .

x x

M1 (x, y)

y y

M2 (x, y)

M3 (x, y)

M4 (y, x)

M5 (y, x)

M (x, y)

330.
1. A (1, 4)

3. (1, 4)

2. B (4, 1)

4. (4, 1)

331.
A(x1 , y1 ) B(x2 , y2 ) .
332. A(2, 4):
1. .
2. .
3. .


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173

4.

4.1.9



. A(x1 , y1 ),
B(x2 , y2 ).

AB
AB AB x1 x2 ,
y1 y2 .

AB

(AB)2 = x1 x2 2 + y1 y2 2
:

(AB) =

x1 x2 2 + y1 y2 2

AB x x (AB)
x1 x2 y1 = y2 .
Y
2
2
(AB) = Z
Z
\x1 x2 + y1 y2

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174

4.1.

AB y y (AB)
y1 y2 x1 = x2 .
Y
2
2
(AB) = Z
Z
\x1 x2 + y1 y2

( A, B )
:
A(x1 , y1 ), B(x2 , y2 )

(AB) = x1 x2 2 + y1 y2 2

(4.23)

76. :

. A (1, 5), B (4, 1), (2, 1). :

AB = (1 (4))2 + (5 (1))2 = 61

B = (4 2)2 + (1 1)2 = 2 10

A = (2 1)2 + (1 5)2 = 17



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4.

175

333. x A (1, 2) , B (1, x)


4.
334. B A (1, 2) ,
B (x, y), (4, 1), .
4.1.10


, , .
77. x x M (x, y)
. M (x, 0) x .
x x y = 0.
78. y y M (x, y)
. M (0, y) y
. y y
x = 0.
79. x x M (x, y) y 0.

80. M (x, y)
(x + 2) (x 3) < 0 :
..
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176

4.1.

81. , ,
M (x, y) x4 + 2y 3 xy 2 3y = 1

. 3 17
Rene Descartes
Renatus Cartesius Pierre de
Fermat.
Rene Descartes
1596 - 1650

4.1.11

K
K .
K(2, 3) 2.
M (x, y) K(2, 3) 2.
(4.21)

(x 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 2

Pierre de Fermat
1601 - 1665

, ,



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177

4.

(x 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 4
( )
:

x2 + y 2 4x 6y + 9 = 0
M (x, y)
K(2, 3) .
(x, y)
. K(2, 3)
2.
K (a, )
M (x, y)

(x )2 + (y )2 =

:
K(a, ), :

(x )2 + (y )2 = 2

(4.24)

335. K (2, 1)
3.
336. :

4.1.12

.
. K (1, 2)
(5, 4).
..
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178

4.1.

M (x, y) K , .
KK , , M M .
KK , , M M :

K
K
=

KM
KM

K
K
=

K M
KM

K
K
=
K M K M

1 5 2 4
=
1 x 2 y

2
4
=
1 x 2 y

1x
=2
2y

x1
=2
y2

x1
y2 x
1 y 2.

M K
K x > 1, y > 2 x1
y2 > 0


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179

4.

M K K
x < 1, y < 4 x1
y2 > 0
x1
x1
x1
y2 > 0 y2 = 2 y2 = 2

x 2y + 3 = 0
K , x 2y + 3 = 0.
K , .
K ,

K : 1 2 2 + 3 = 0, .
: 5 2 4 + 3 = 0,
x 2y + 3 = 0.
:
x 2y + 3 = 0 K; M (x, y).
1 x = 1
x 2y + 3 = 0 y = 2 M A
. y = 2. M
x1
y2 = 2 x 1, y 2 .

M . M M
K N . T M x x.

K
K
x1
y2 = 2 K M = K M .

K
K K
K
=
=
=
K M K M KN
K T
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180

4.1.

K M =
K T M , T . M x 2y + 3 = 0
.
(
340) :

K(x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ) :

(4.25)

(x2 x1 ) (y y1 ) = (y2 y1 ) (x x1 )

(4.25) x x
y1 = y2 x1
x2 (4.25) y = y1
y y x1 = x2
y1 y2 (4.25) x = x1 .
337.
A (2, 4), B (1, 3).
338. :

339. 2x 3y = 1,
x + y = 2.
340. (*) K(x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 )
(x2 x1 ) (y y1 ) = (y2 y1 ) (x x1 ).



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181

4.

4.2
4.2.1

( ). (x2 + y 2 ) = 64x2 y 2 .


.
4, 2
0.
( ) .
x2 y + y 2x = 0 .
..
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182

4.2.



.
x x y y .

4 .
.
A ( )
B ( )
A
B .
82. :
A

+ 1

2 + 1

[1, 1]

2
n+1
n+2

X P (X)

(0, +)

M K .

function Leibniz
functio.
, .



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183

4.

f, g, h, , ..
f
A B f A B ( f
A B ). f x A y B
f x y y = f (x). x A
y = f (x)
f x.
x y
.
x y x
y .
x1 = x2 f (x1 ) = f (x2 )

(4.26)

f (2) = f ( 4) f (x2 + 2x + 1) = f ((x + 1)2 ) 2 = 4 x2 + 2x + 1 =

(x + 1)2 . f (x1 ) = f (x2 )


x1 = x2 .
f (x) = x2 f (2) = f (2) 2 = 2!
A B -

. .
x f (x)
().
83. A = R, B = R f A B
f (x) = (x + 1) (x + 2) + 1.

f (1) = (1 + 1) (1 + 2) + 1 = 7
f (3) = (3 + 1) (3 + 2) + 1 = 3

f ( 2) = ( 2 + 1) ( 2 + 2) + 1 = 3 2 + 5
84. A = [0, +), B = R q A B

g (x) = x + x2 .

g (0) = 0 + 02 = 0

g (4) = 4 + 42 = 18

85. A = N A = {1, 2, 3, 4, ...} B = R


A R () = 2 + 3 .

(1) = 2 + 3 1 = 5
(2) = 2 + 3 2 = 8
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184

4.2.

(3) = 2 + 3 3 = 11

5

(1) , (2) , (3) , (4) , ...


. ().
:

1 = 5 2 = 8 3 = 11
86. h R R :

h (x) = {

x2
x < 1
2x 1 x 1

h (2) = 2 2 1 = 3
h (3) = (3)2 = 9
341. f R R f (x) = x2 + 3x + 1. :
1. f (2)
2. f (1)

3. f ( 12 )

4. f ( 2)

5. f (x + 2)
6. f (x 2)

342. f R {1} R f (x) =

x+1
x1

. :

1. f (2)

3. f (x + 4)

5. f (3x)

2. f (5)

4. f (4 x)

6. f ( x3 )

343. g R R g (x) = x2 + x (x ).
g (5) = 5.
344. g R R g (x) = x3 + x.
: g ( + 1) = 3 + 42 + 4 + 1.
4.2.2
Venn.

:
5

{1, 2, 3, 4, ..., }



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185

4.

.
.



.
: :

.
87. f R R, g R R f (x) =
x2 , g (x) = 2x 1
:

88. :
..
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186

4.2.

x g 2x 1
f . f . 2x 1
(2x 1)2 .
.

( x) ( y ).
.
f (x) = x3 .

-3

-2

-1

f (x)

-27

-8

-1

27

64

125

. . f A R A
( ) R f
x A y = f (x) M (x, f (x)).

x M (x, f (x))
. A

.
:


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187

4.


M (x, f (x)) :
P (, ) f
f

(4.27)

f () =

. :

y x.

x y .
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188

4.2.

f .

y f .


1. x f (x) > 0:
x x.
2. x f (x) < 0:
x x.
3. x f (x) = 0 f :
x x.
x x.


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189

4.

4. y y .
f (0).

345. Geogebra :
1. f (x) = 3x

4. f (x) = x3

2. f (x) = x3

5. f (x) = 3x + 4

3. f (x) = x2

6. f (x) = 3 (x + 4)

346. Geogebra
:
1. f (x) =

x+2
x3

2. f (x) = x2 + 3x + 3

3. f (x) = x3 2x
4. f (x) =

x
1
1+ x

347. f (, 1) (1, +) R f (x) =

x
.
x1

1. f 2.
2. f 1.
3. f 3.
4. f 1.

348. f R R f (x) =

x
.
x2 +1

1. P (2, ) f .
2. T (, 12 ) f .
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190

4.2.

349. f R R f (x) = x (x 1).


1. x x x.
2. .

4.2.3

.
:

.

. (
) :

A A 0.

A
B

B 0.

89. f (x) = x2 + 1
.
x R.
x
90. g (x) = x1

.
. x 1 0 x 1.
:

g
1.
g R {1}.
g (, 1) (1, +).
91. h (x) =

2x 4.

. 2x 4 0

2x 4 x 2. [2, +).

92. (x) =

5 x.

x 1+

.
x 1 0, 5 x 0.
1 x 5 [1, 5].
350.


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191

4.

4.2.4

1. f (x) =

x1
x+1

4. f (x) =

2. f (x) =

x1
x2 +3x+2

5. f (x) =

3. f (x) =

x1
x2 +3x+3

6. f (x) =

x1
x2 +3x+3

x1
x+2

x1+

5x

x

Geogebra
f (x) = x = 1, 2, 3, .... f (x) = x
. :

f
x x O x 0
x = 0.
f x x x.
x
.
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192

4.2.


1.
x.
:

(0, 1) x
x2
x3 ...
y = 1.
x (0, 1) 0,
1, 2, 3, ...
:

x (0, 1) ,

< x > x . : x > x 1 > xx 1 > x 1 >


x>0



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193

4.

x 1 > x . :
0 < x < 1
, < x > x

(4.28)

x 1 :
:
x > 1
, < x < x

(4.29)

: x < x 1 < xx 1 < x

x>0

1 < x 1 > x ()

351.
<, > :

1. 23 ...24
5

2. ( 23 ) ... ( 23 )

4. ( 2+1 ) ... ( 2+1 )

33

3. ( 2 1)

44
... ( 2 1)

3+1

3+1

2012

5. (1 + x)
6. 1 + ( 23 )

11

2000

... (1 + x)

...1 + ( 23 )

x 0

15

352. 0 < x < 1.


1. 0 < x < 1 x.
;
2. (4.28)

4.2.5

- .
x
g(x) = x2 . 0 y y
x 0 g(x) = .
: y y
,
, x x:
x g(x) = x2 = . x

.
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194

4.2.

h(x) = x3 .
0 x 0 h(x) = x3 = .
x

3 .
x (=
) .



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195

4.

3
x= x0

x =

93.

(4.30)

3
3
0 = 0, 3 1 = 1, 3 8 = 3, 3 27
8 = 2.

94.

7 + 5 2 = 1 + 2.

.
x = 1 + 2
= 7 + 5 2 x

(1 + 2) = 7 + 5 2.
. :

(1 +

2) = 13 + 3 12

2+31

2 3
2 + 2 =

2 3

=1+3 2+6+ 2 2 =1+3 2+6+ 2 2 =

=1+3 2+6+2 2 =7+5 2


0


, , ... . , , ..


4
, 5 , 6

0


, , ... .
, , .. ...


4
, 5 , 6 .

2 .
> 1
..
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196

4.2.

< 1 :

. . :

x= x0

x =

(4.31)

(4.32)

1
= ,
1 = 1,
0=0

(4.33)



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197

4.

, ,

95. ) 81 = 3 34 = 81. ) 625

4
625. (
4
) 625 = 5.

96. m. m3 = m
m3
m.

3
3
m6 = m2 m6 = (m2 ) .

5
5
m15 = m3 (m3 ) = m15 .

353. :

4
1.
1296 =

5
2.
a10 = a > 0

3. 4 16
=
81

r
4.
art = , a > 0

3 3
5.
a36 = , a > 0

4
6.
83 8=
354.

4
= 3 4 = 5 + .

355. :
1. (1 +

2
3
3
2) = 3 + 3 3 2 + 3 3 2

3
2
2
3
3 3 2) = 1 3 3 3 3 2 + 3 3 3 3 2

3
1
3.
3 3 2=

3 2
3
3
3 2
2. (

3 +

2+

356. :

2
2
3
1. ( 3 x + 3 y) = x + 3 3 x 3 y + 3 3 x 3 y + y

2. ( 3 x + y) = x2 + 2x y + y
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198

4.2.

3. ( 3 x +

6
6

y) ( 3 x y) = 4x y

357. :

2
2
3
1. ( 3 x + 3 y) = x + 3 3 x 3 y + 3 3 x 3 y + y

2. ( 3 x + y) = x2 + 2x y + y

6
6

3. ( 3 x + y) ( 3 x y) = 4x y

3
358. :
5+63 2+33 2 =1+ 3 4

3
359. 3 = x 3 = y . (x + y)
3xy (x + y) = +

360. ( 3 x +

3
1

)
3
x

=x+33 x+

3
x

+ x1 .

4.2.6 - .
(3.52), (3.53)
. , :

(4.34)

(4.35)

= ( ) = ( ) = =

(
)
=
) =(
=
=

=
= .
(4.34) .
1 , 2 , ..., :

... = ...
1 2

1
2

(4.36)

1 , 2 , ...,
:

=
(4.37)

= =
(4.32) 0 :

= =



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

(4.38)
..
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199

4.

4.38 -
:

- .
(
).

.
. (

a). x 0

x
(



a). y 0
x. :

y
y x x

. (y ) = y = .

y . y =

y = . y =
a. :

a =

(4.39)

(4.39) :

a = ( a) = ( )

a ) = ( a) = a =

- :
=
( ) .

( ) =

. :

..
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(4.40)


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200

4.2.

  =

97. 4 = 3, 4 = 6, 4 = 11 4
(4.36)

4
4 4 = 3 6 11 = 198

98.

3
765. 765 32 5 17

3
3
3
3
3
765 = 32 5 17 = 32 5 17
(4.37)

2
3
32 = 3 3 :

2
3
3
3
765 = 3 5 17

3 = 1, 4,
3
765 = 1, 42 1, 7 2, 6 = 8, 7.

5 = 1, 7,

3
17 = 2, 6

99.

2
.

2 2
=

= 8 .

222

100.

.
.

5 6
=

4 4 2
=

4 4

2
=

4 4 2

2
4
4
4
4
4
4
=
= 4
4 4

15
101.
x18 + 20 y 16 x, y
.
(4.40):

35
5
x18 + 20 y 16 =
x36 + 45 y 44 = x6 + 5 y 4

15



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201

4.

102.
.
.
.. 3 x8 y 4 5 x12 y 12 (x, y 0)
:

35
3
5
5 53
8
4
12
12
8
4
x y x y =
(x y )
(x12 y 12 )3 =

15
x40 y 20 15 x36 y 36 = 15 (x40 y 20 ) (x36 y 36 ) = 15 x76 y 56

361. :

3
3
1. A = 24 + 54

4
4
4
2. B = 2 + 32 + 128

5
5
5
3. = 64 + 128 + 256
362. :

5
3
2
4
4
6
24
4
2
2) = 2 2 2 + 2

363. , , . :

3
3
18 9 12

4. = 3 7 27 18

3
6 12 33

2. B = 5 20 15 25

1. A =

3. =

364. ( ):
1.
2.

4
16p4 d8

3.

3
x9 y 21

365.

4.

2.

4
2

= t t ( 4 ) .

366.
1.

5
= 12 5 = 33 :

3.

4.

5
2 5 2

5
t

5
t

367. :

3
, 4 , 6
368.

..
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5
3
2
4
4
6
24
4
2
2) = 2 2 2 + 2



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202

4.2.7

4.2.

- .
x
x 0. y
< .

< .

. < .

=
> . =

= = ( < ).


> >
> .
- .

. ,

<

<

(4.41)

.

.
(
x).


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203

4.

. > 1 < > .




: >
> ( ) >


( ) > > 1 > 1. :
> 1, < _

>

(4.42)

: . :

< 1, < _

<

(4.43)

369.
1.
2.
3.

3
6,

6
,
11

3,

13

3
11

5
15
8,
8

4
14
5.
2 1,
21

5 11
4 13
6.
7,
7
4.

7
13

370. (4.43)
4.2.8

x = .
x2 = 4 x = 2 x = 2.
x2 = 3 x,

:
x = 3 x = 3.

x4 = 16.

4
2 16.
4
x4 = 17 x = 17
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204

4.2.

4
4
4 17. x = 17 x = 17.
x3 = 17
x
3
3
3
x x . x = 17.
x3 = 17 x x
3
.

x3 = 17 (x) = 17

3
3
x = 17 x = 17.
4
x = 17
.
.
x = .
= 0 .
0.

x = < 0

> 0 x =

x =
x x

. > 0 x =
< 0 :

x = x = (x) = x =
x = 0 :

x=

x=

x =

371. :

1. x3 = 8

3. x3 = 1

2. x3 = 8

8
4. x3 = 27

372. :
1. x12 = 212
2. x13 = 213

4.2.9

. . ,
,
:


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205

4.

1 =
1 = 1
0 = 0
() =

( ) =

( ) =

= +
= +

1
=

1=1

0=0

=;

=;

.
!
.
= +
.

.

. = .
> 0 . ;
.

=


( )
= ( )



( )
= ( )




( ) ( ) =( )


( ) ( ) =( )
=
+ =
(+) =

( + ) = = + .
(.. = 3, = 3 = 12
7 ).

..
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206

4.2.

= .
:

(+) =

( )(+) =

+ =


.
:
> 0 t, s

t
(4.44)
t
s
s
t

s =

7 3 = 75 = 16 807 25, 6 3 3 = 35 = 243 = 6, 2.

6
5
4
3
: 5 x = x 4
x4 = x 3 .
:
1

s =

(4.45)

1
= 2 ,

1
3
= 3 ,

1
4
= 4,

1
4
= 4 ,

...

> 0 t, s
st

s =
t

1
=
s
t

t
s

(4.46)


. (4.44)


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207

4.

(4.46) 0 = 1.
5

x 3 = x 3 =

1 1
5 3 5
x
x3

5
5
1
x 4 = x 4 = 15 =
4 5 .

x4



p = q =

p q = p+q

(4.47)

p
= pq
q

(4.48)

(p )q = pq

(4.49)

()p = p p

(4.50)

p p
( ) = p

(4.51)

.
(4.47)

p q = = = =
=
+ =
+

+
p+q
= =

( ) :

> 1 :
p < q p < q
p = q p = q
0 < < 1 :
p < q p > q
p = q p = q

(4.52)

. =

= +

= + !

t
t
s = as .
373. :
1

1. 16 2

4. 64 2
1

5. 22 16 2

2. 8 3

3. 16 4

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6. (3 3 )

3
2



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208

4.2.

374. :
1

1. 2 3
1

13

8
5. ( 125
6)

3
2

6. (2 2

2. 3 3
2

3.

x3

1
x 3

2 4

4. ( )

x 3

4
4
x3 )

1
1 2
375. (2 2 + 2 ) = 4 + + 4
376. ((2

1
mn

m2 n2
m

m
m+n

377. (4.52)
4.2.10

f (x) = x + .

(). () R.
.

x x y y
: x y ( ).
.
(. (4.25)
K (x1 , y1 ), (x2 , y2 ) :

(x2 x1 ) (y y1 ) = (y2 y1 ) (x x1 )
x x .
y . :

(x2 x1 ) y (x2 x1 ) y1 = (y2 y1 ) x (y2 y1 ) x1




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209

4.

(x2 x1 ) y = (y2 y1 ) x (y2 y1 ) x1 + (x2 x1 ) y1


(x2 x1 ) y = (y2 y1 ) x + y1 x2 y2 x1
x2 x1 .
x x x1
x2 . x2 x1 .

y=

y=

(y2 y1 ) x + y1 x2 y2 x1
x2 x1
y2 y1
y 1 x2 y 2 x1
x+
x2 x1
x2 x1

y = x + ,

y2 y1
,
x2 x1

y 1 x2 y 2 x1
x2 x1

f (x) = x+ , .
103.
. .

A(2, 6) B(7, 4).


,
x1 = 2, x2 = 7, y1 = 6, y2 = 4
:

2
y2 y1 4 6
=
=
x2 x1 7 2
5

y1 x2 y2 x1 6 7 4 2 34
=
=
x2 x1
72
5

y = x +
A, B . 6 = 2 +
4 = 7 + . :
= 25 , = 34
5 .

y = 25 x + 34
5 .
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210

4.2.

104. f (x) = x + f (1) = 3


f (3) = 7. f (11).
, . f (1) = + f (3) = 3 + .
+ = 3 3 + = 7.
= 2 = 1. f (x) = 2x + 1.
f (11) = 2 11 + 1 = 23.
378. A (2, + 1) y =
4x 1;
379. y = 3x+2 .
380. y = x +
A (1, 2), B (4, 5)
381. f (x) = x+ . f (p) = q f (p + 1) = q+2
f (q) = 3q 2p.
4.2.11

, .



K(x1 , y1 ), (x2 , y2 ).

y y

x1 < x2 , y1 < y2 . = x2 x1 .
2
1
T1
. : = .
T2 .
x x. x x
x x

.


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211

4.

=
< 0.
x x
y1 = y2 .
x x = 0 = 0.

y y
x x. = x2 x1 ,
2
1
x x
.
y = x + =
x x

(4.53)

..
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212

4.2.

:
x x = x0 1
x0 + 1. f (x) = x +
:

f (x0 ) = x0 +
f (x0 + 1) = (x0 + 1) + = x0 + + = f (x0 ) + f (x0 + 1) =
f (x0 ) + . x 1 f (x)
( > 0, < 0
= 0)
y = x + x x
y x 0.
= 0. 0
x x x x.
x y .

.
y = x + :
y y (0, )
x x 0 ( , 0)

(4.54)

105. y = x + 3 = 1. 1 45 x x 45 .
106. y = x 2 = 1. 1 = 135
x x 135 .
107. y = 2x + 1. = 2 = 1.
= 12 . x x y y

( 12 , 0) (0, 3) .

382. y = x +
A (1, 2) x x. 60
383. y = 3x+2 .
384. P (1, 2)
. ;

4.2.12

y = 1 x + 1 , y = 2 x + 2 .

y = 1 x + 1
y = 2 x + 2 .
.
. m

(m, 1 m + 1 ) ()


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213

4.

.
. ()

1 m + 1 = 2 m + 2

(1 2 ) m + (1 2 ) = 0 ()
() m

Am + B = 0 ( )
A = 1 2 B = 1 2 .



. m R m
( ). ( )
A = B = 0 1 2 = 0 1 2 = 0.

y = 1 x + 1 y = 2 x + 2
1 = 2 1 = 2

(4.55)

.
()
. m R ( )
. A = 0 B 0 1 2 = 0
1 2 0. :
y = 1 x + 1 y = 2 x + 2
1 = 2 1 2

(4.56)


() .
( ) A 0. :
y = 1 x + 1 y = 2 x + 2
1 2

(4.57)

: y = 1 x + 1 .
y = 2 x + 2
x x:
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214

4.2.

x x
1 = 1 .
1 = 1 .
.

y y
1 = 2 . 1 2 :

.
y = 1 x + 1 , y = 2 x + 2
. . y =
1 x+, y = 2 x+
.


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215

4.

y = 1 x, y = 2 x 1
A1 (1, 1 ), A2 (1, 2 ) y = 1 x, y = 2 x.
A1 A2 O A1 A2
:

2
2
2
(1 0)2 + (1 0)2 + (1 0)2 + (2 0)2 = (1 1)2 + (1 2 )2
(1 0)2 + (1 0)2 + (1 0)2 + (2 0)2 = (1 1)2 + (1 2 )2
1 + 21 + 1 + 22 = (1 2 )2
1 + 21 + 1 + 22 = 21 21 2 + 22
2 = 21 2
1 2 = 1
1 2 = 1 (
389) .

y = 1 x + 1 y = 2 x + 2
1 2 = 1

(4.58)

108. y = 2x + 3

y = (2 2) x + ( + 2) .

2 2 = 2 + 2 3. = 2
2 + 2 3.
109. y = (1

( 2 1) x + 1 .
..
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2) x + 1 y =



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216

4.2.

1. (1

2) ( 2 1) = ( 2 + 1) ( 2 1) = ( 2 1) = 1.

385. t y = (4 2t) x + 1
y = 3x 2.
386. t y = (2t + 4) x + 4, y = 3t 1
.

387. y = x + :

P (1 3),
y = 3x + 4
388. y = x + :

P (2, 4),
y = 8x + 3
389. y = 1 x+1 y = 2 x+2 1 2 < 0.
.

4.2.13

x + = 0 x + > 0

f (x) = x+
x + = 0
x + > 0 .
2x 1 = 0. x
f (x) = 2x 1

x x. 2x 1 > 0
x f (x) = 2x 1 x x.



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217

4.

2x 1 = 0 12
2x 1 = 0 > 0 (0, +).
x + = 0
x + > 0.
= 0.

= 0 f (x) = x +
x x.

x x
= = 0
x x > 0 = .

0 f (x) = x + .
.
:

f
.
f x
f (x). x1
x2 f (x1 ) < f (x2 ).
f x f (x) . x1 < x2 f (x1 ) > f (x2 ).
f (x) = x + > 0
:

x1 < x2 x1 < x2 x1 + < x2 + f (x1 ) < f (x2 )


>0

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218

4.2.

f (x) = x + < 0 :

x1 < x2 x1 > x2 x1 + > x2 + f (x1 ) > f (x2 )


<0

-
.

x = x >
f (x) > 0 x < f (x) < 0. :

x >  f (x) > f () f (x) > 0


x <  f (x) < f () f (x) < 0
:
f () = 0

x >  f (x) < f () f (x) < 0


x <  f (x) > f () f (x) > 0
110.
f (x) = x + .
2. x > 2 f (x) > 0 x < 2 f (x) < 0.

111.
f (x) = x+ .
f (x) < 0 f (x) > 1.


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219

4.

. f ( 52 ) = 0 f (3) = 1.
f (x) < 0 x > 52 f (x) > 1 x < 3.
390.
f (x) = x + .


1. f (x) = 3
2. f (x) = 3
3. f (x) > 1
4. 5 < f (x) < 3

4.2.14

f (x) = x

f (x) = x x
:

f (x) = {

x , x < 0
x , x0


y = x y = x.
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220

4.2.

0 . Geogebra
: f(x)=abs(x).

f (x) =

x = ()

x < ()
x > ()
< 0 x x = () .

x x < ()
.
. ()
.

= 0 () , ()
( ) x 0


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4.

221

> 0 () x =
(), () (, ), (, +)(, +).

112.
2 < x < 3
. y y 2 3
x x .
2 3 3
2 2 3.
(3, 2) (2, 3).

391. Geogebra
g (x) = x 1 x 1 < 3.
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222

4.2.15

4.2.

f (x) = x2 + x + .

f (x) = x2 + x + = 0 f (x) = x +
f .
0. .
. .
Geogebra
, , :

> 0 :

< 0 :



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223

4.

113. , ,
f (x) = x2 + x + A (0, 1), B (1, 0),
(1, 2).
. :

f (0) = 1,

f (1) = 0,

f (1) = 2

= 1
+ =0
+ + =2
= 1 :

= 1,

+ =3

, .
. :

2 = 4,
= 2,

= 1,

2 = 2

= 1 :
f (x) = 2x2 + x 1

392. Geogebra a = 1, b = 1, c = 1
a x 2 + b x + c. (1, 2), (1, 0), (1, 2).
a, b, c a, b, c f
. .

4.2.16

f (x) = x2 + x + > 0.

> 0
( )
.

..
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224

4.2.

- : . (x0 , f (x0 ))
: f (x0 ) <
f (x). x0 .
f (x0 ) f (x) x. <
x x0 .
(19) 141 :

f (x) = ((x +

2 2 4
)
)
2
42

f (x0 ) f (x)
((x0 +

2 2 4
2 2 4
)
)
)

((x
+
)
2
42
2
42

(x0 +

2 2 4
2 2 4
)
)

(x
+

2
42
2
42
(x0 +

2
2
) (x +
) ()
2
2

0 (x0 +

2
2
) (x +
) ()
2
2

x x .
x 2 ()

0 (x0 +

2
2

) (
+
)
2
2 2

0 (x0 +

2
) 0
2
2

(x0 + 2 ) = 0 x0 + 2 = 0 x0 =

. x0 = 2 () 0
2

(x0 +

2
2 )

f (x0 ) f (x).

x = x0 = 2 f (x) f (x0 ) = f ( 2 ) =
2

+ 2
)
(( 2

2 4
)
42

4
= ( 4
) =
2



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4
4


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225

4.

f . :
f (x) = x2 + x + , > 0 x

f (x) f ( 2
) =

4
4

(4.59)

f A f
x0 A f (x0 ) f (x) f (x0 ) x A. m f
f (x) m x.
f m = f (x0 ) x0 .
114. f (x) = 2x2 + x + 2.
= 2, = 1, = 2.
.
2

4a
. 4a
= 1 422
= 15
42
8 .

1
) = 15
x = 2
. f ( 22
8 .
115. f (x) = x2 + x + ,
> 0 .

y

x2 + x + = y
y
x x2 + x + = y
x2 + x + = y

x2 + x + ( y) = 0 ()
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226

4.2.

.
. ()

2 4 + 4y 0

x 4y ( 2 4)

2 4
()
4

y 4
. x

x2 + x + =

2 4
4

( 395) x = 2 .
y
() .

() x = 2 .
393. x2 + x + 1.
394. m 2m 3 4x2 8x + 5 x;
4.2.17

f (x) = x2 + x + > 0 ;

: f
A f x0 A f (x0 )
f (x) f (x0 ) x A.
: .
f (x) = x2 + x + . f
x0 f (x) f (x0 ) x.

(x0 +

2
2
) (x +
)
2
2

x. (x0 + 2 ) (x + 2 ) 0

(x0 +

2
2 )

(x + 2
) x R

x0 +

x +

2
2

x0 +


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x+
x0 +

2
2
2
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227

4.

x x0 +
2
2
2
2






































x0 +

x x ()
( 396).
f .

395. f (x) = x2 + x +
x2 + x + = y ( 115).
396.
x x
;

397. 2x2 + 3x 1 <


x .
398. g (x) = x +

1
x

2 x.

(0, +). -

115
.

4.2.18

f (x) = x2 + x + > 0.
A f (x) =
2

,
x + x + A ( 2

2 4

).

A x x , f x x f (x) = 0
.

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228

4.2.

2 4
4
2

2 4
4 .

> 0 (
> 0) 4 < 0.
.
A x x

2 4
4

= 0 2 4 = 0

A x x f (x) .

2 4
4

< 0 2 4 > 0.

399. x2 + x + 1 = 0 .
x2 + x + 1 + 2012 = 0 .
400. > 0, >) x2 + x + = 0
x2 + x + + = 0 .


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229

4.

4.2.19

f (x) = x2 + x + .

f (x) = x2 + x +
(: x x) .
. f
x = s.

A f B x = s f . A B
x1 , x2 s.

s x1 = x2 s (#)

f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) (##)


s=

x1 + x2
2

(##) :

x21 + x1 + = x22 + x2 +
x21 x22 + x1 x2 = 0
(x21 x22 ) + (x1 x2 ) = 0
(x1 x2 ) (x1 + x2 ) + (x1 x2 ) = 0
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230

4.2.

(x1 x2 ) ( (x1 + x2 ) + ) = 0

(x1 x2 )

(x1 + x2 ) + = 0
(x1 + x2 ) =
x1 + x2 =

x1 + x2
=
(###)
2
2
(#) (###) :

s=

:
f (x) = x2 + x +
2
x1 x2 f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) x1 +x
=
2
2

x = 2
f

(4.60)

401. x2 + x + = 0
2
1 < 2 x = 1 +

2
2
f (x) = x + x + .

402. f (x) = x2 + x + f ( 2
+ h) =

h) h.
f ( 2

4.2.20

f (x) = x2 + x + > 0.

f (x) = x2 + x +
x1 < x2 f (x1 ) < f (x2 ), f (x1 ) > f (x2 )
f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). x1 < x2
2 x1 , x2

(, 2
] f (x1 ) > f (x2 ). f

(, 2 ].


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231

4.

f (x1 ) > f (x2 ) ()


x21 + x1 + > x22 + x2 +
..
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232

4.2.

x21 + x1 x22 x2 > 0


x21 x22 + x1 x2 > 0
(x1 x2 ) ((x1 + x2 ) + (x1 x2 ) > 0
(x1 x2 ) ( (x1 + x2 ) + ) > 0

x1 x2 <0

(x1 + x2 ) + < 0 ( )

() x1 < x2 2 x1 < 2 x2 2 .

x1 + x2 < 2 2
(x1 + x2 ) < ( ) .

x1 < x2 [ 2 , +)
f (x1 ) < f (x2 ).

f (x) = x2 + x + > 0

]
(, 2

(4.61)

[ 2
, +)


d e.
f (x) = x2 + x + 1 < 2
:

x
f (x) = x2 + x +

1
e

2
d

(, 2
]
. 1

. :

x < 1 f (x) > f (1 ) f (x) > 0 1 < x 2


f (1 ) >

f (x) 0 > f (x)

[ 2 , +)
. 2

. : 2 x < 2 f (x) <


f (2 ) f (x) < 0 2 < x f (2 ) < f (x) 0 < f (x)
f :


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233

4.

f (x) = x2 + x +

e+ 0 e 0 d 0 d+

:
x2 + x + > 0
.

.
403. f (x) = 3x2 4x + 1
.

4.2.21

f (x) = x2 + x + < 0

f (x) f ( 2 ) x f

x = 2
f

f (, 2 ]

[ 2 , +).
404. f (x) = 3x2 + 12x + 11.
. f (x) < 25 x.
405. :
1. f (x) = x2 3x + 2
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234

4.2.

2. f (x) = x2 + 2x + 1
3. f (x) = (x 1) (x + 3)
2

4. f (x) = (x + 2) 5

Geogebra .
( ).
.
Geogebra.

406. :

2 4
< 0 f (x) = x2 + x + f ( 2 ) = 4 .
407.

1. x (3 x).

2. x, y 3.
.

408. x, y c
xy x = y = 2c .
409.
.

410. AB 3.

x .

EZHB


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235

4.

4.2.22

f (x) = x2 + x + . .
>0

<0

f ( 2 ) = 4

<0

(, 2 ],

[ 2 , +)

f ( 2 ) = 4

(, 2 ],

[ 2 , +)

= 2

+ x = 2

f ( 2 ) = 4

>0

[ 2 , +)

f ( 2 ) = 4

=0

(, 2 ],

f ( 2 ) = 4

(, 2 ],

[ 2 , +)

= 2

x = 2

f ( 2 ) = 4

 (, 2 ],
[ 2 , +)


+
1 =
<
= 2
2
2


(, 2 ], [ 2 , +)

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1 =

+
2

<

= 2



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236



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4.2.

..
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5.1

1
1.1
411. , , a
a.
1. ((12) 1)
2. x (x) = 19

412. ;
1. 4 3

4. 0 0

2. 44 33

5. 0 1

3. 333 444

6. 33 33

413. ;
1. 33 11

4. 0 33

2. 44 12

5. 84 12

3. 12 13

6. (232 233) 233

414. 4 . .

237

238

5.1. 1

415.
12 ( ).
416. .
. 3443 2345 .
. .
. .
. ..
971 . :

971 + 179 = 1150


1150 + 0511 = 1661
.
196
700.000.000 .
234490.
Leonardo Pisano Bigollo
1170 - 1250

417. Fibonacci. (Liber Abaci) 1202 Leonardo Pisano Bigollo


Fibonacci :
,
()

.

: (
) 1 .
30

...

. :


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239

5.

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

418. . ! ( -.

! = 1 2 ...

(5.1)

0! = 1

(5.2)


: 0! = 1, 1! = 1,2! = 2, 3! = 6, 4! = 24.
1. 5! 6!.
2. 9! = 362.880. 10! 11!.

419.

( + 1)! = ! ( + 1)

(5.3)

420. .


0.

1.
2
...
3211000 3 2 ,
1 , 1 , 0 , 0 , 0 .
1.
10 .
..
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240

5.1. 1

2.
.
3.
10.
4. .
5. .

1.2
421. :
1. 5 + 7

6. 17 + 0

11. 9 (15)

2. (8) + (6)

7. 0 + 15

12. 20 18

3. 6 + (4)

8. 13 + (14)

13. 5 (5)

4. 9 + 5

9. 5 8

14. 30 (30)

5. 15 + (15)

10. 7 10

15. (11) + (11)

422. :
1. 5 7

3. (9) 8

5. 0 123

2. (8) (9)

4. 10 (4)

6. 5 (2)

423. 100.
424. , 2 + 2 +
+ .
425. , .
+ + ; ;
426. p . p + 1
;

427. ;
;

428. Goldbach. 7 1742 Christian Goldbach Leonhard Euler


2
Euler :
. ( )
.
Goldbach 100.


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241

5.

429. .
. 6
1, 2, 3.

. 47 , .
2431112608 (2431112609 1) 25.956.377 .
28 496 .

430. Collatz. .
2. 3 1.
. , , 1.
3 4 2 1

18 9

26 13

28 14 7

22 11

40 20 10 5

34 17

52

16 8 4 2 1

.
Collatz .
. Erdos :
.
Collatz 19 29.

431. . (
)
.

1.3
432. :
1.

3
8

2.

1
10

3.

2
3

4.

11
12

7
12

4
15

3
7

3
4

5.

2
5

3
7

6.

4
6

3
5

7.

4
9

15
8

)
11. ( 14 ) ( 18
5

8.

5
7

3
8

12. ( 34 ) ( 29 )

9. 4

3
24

5
)
10. 5 ( 2

433. :
1.

1
2

1
3

2.

1
2

( 13 14 )

1
4

3.

4.

1
x+1

1
y2

434.
:

..
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Lothar Collatz
1910-1990

242

5.1. 1

1.

6
9

3.

2.

3
15

4.

11
10

435. A =

xy+1
.
x+y

1
4

=
=

121

2. x = 14 , y = 8

1. x = 1, y = 2

436.

a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, d = 4,

e = 5,

f =0

:
1. 9a + 2b + 3c 2f

8.

12a
bc

6b
cd

2. 4c 2a 3b + 5c

9.

cde
ab

5bcd
ae

3. 7ae + 3bc + 9d af

10. 7e + bcd

4. 8abc bcd + 9cde def

11.

2a+5b
c

5. abcd + abce + abde + acde + bcde

12.

b+c+3e
e+cd

13.

a+c
ca

14.

a+b+c+d+e
ed+cb+a

6.

4a
b

7.

4ac
b

9b
c

8bc
d

8c
d

5d
e

5bd
e

20c
de

6ade
bc

3bde
2ac

3b+2c
d

b+d
db

a+b+c+d
2e

c+e
ec

437. :
1.

2
3
5
7

2.

x
y

3.
4.

x
y

438. , = 20. 3()();


439. , + = 20. 3(() +
());
440. . :
( )
.
1 2 :

44
=1
44
4 4
+ =2
4 4
1 100.


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243

5.

441. 1952, .

A=
x =

1
6

1
2

(x + y)

1
1
2
1 1
+ 2)+
2 ( + )
2
x
y
x y
(x + y)

y = 12 .

442. ,

1
1 1
1 + (1)
:

1
(1)

443. . .
1
12 + 13 + 16

12 , 13 , 13 .
.
2
5

2
7

444.
1. 30%
2. 30% ;

445. :

1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
(1 ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ( )
2
2 3
3 4
4 5
5 6
446. ,

= 34 .

1. , .
2.

a+
2+3

7
18

447. x . x 5 4 1/3 x.
.
.

1.4
448.
1. ( + 7) ( + 5)

3. (k + 4) (k 7)

2. (m 9) (m + 12)

4. (3x 4y) (2a + 3b)

449. :

(p + q) (x + y) = px + py + qx + qy
:
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244

5.1. 1

1. px + py = 5 qx + qy = 13 (p + q) (x + y).
2. p + q = 4 x + y = 3 px + py + qx + qy 5.

450. :
2

1. (3) (2) + (0, 2) (3)


2 3

2. ((3) ) ((5) (5) ) + (1)


5

3. (( 35 )

3
( 5
)

( 53 ) ) ( 35 )

1 1
1 1

4. ((((2)

) ) )

451. :
4

42

x2 = (x2

22

452. :
n

n1

a2 = (a2
453. r2 + 4r =

13
.
9

nm

) = (a2

2m

(r 3) (r + 7).

454. xa + yb = 11 ya + xb = 12. (a + b) (x + y).


455. :
1. (x2 3x + 2) (2x 1)
2. (4a2 a 2) (2a + 3)
3. (a3 + b3 a2 b2 ) (a2 b2 a3 + b3 )
4. (5m2 + 3 4m) (5 4m + 3m2 )

456. :
1. (6c3 ) (7c4 )

3. (ab) (ab2 )

2. (9y 2 ) (5y 5 )

4. (7xy 2 ) (2yz 2) (xz 3 )

457.
1. (2x3 ) (x2 )

3. (12b2 c5 ) (6b2 c4 )

2. (6a5 ) (3a)

4. (x3 y 4 z 5 ) (x3 yz 2 )

458.
:

2x2 + x
= x +
x

459. :


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245

5.

1.

2522 9521
2510

2.

5(3715 19714 )
716 +3715

460. :
1. m (n p) (2m 2p + 3n) (n m + 2p)
2. + ( + ) ( + + ) ( + )
3. 3x y (x (2y z) (2x (y z)))
4. 3a2 (6a2 (8b2 (9c2 2a2 )))

461. y = 2x

x2 + 3xy + 5y 2
4x2 3xy + 6y 2
462. :

6 x y 3 x.
463. :

3 7
, , .
464. ,
. ;
465. x + y + z = 12 x y + z = 17 y .
466. :
1.

2.

3.

1
1+x
1
1x

x
1x
x
1+x

xy
ya
xy1
xy

ya
xy
ya1
ya

467. A + B + A = 13 m 14 n, B = 23 m + 34 n
= 2m n
468. :
1. (a2 + 2a2 7) (5 + a2 2a2 )
2. (3xa y a xa y a ) (xa y xa y 1 )

469. :
1.

1
1
1
+
+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

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246

5.1. 1

2.

+
+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

3.

+
+
+
+
+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

4.

+
+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

470. 2 = 3 2 = 8
1. 2 + 2
2. ()

3. (
)

471. a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, d = 5 e = 8

2b + 4c
1.

2.
(e b) (2e 5b)

3.
(e d) (b + c) (d c) (c + a) + a + e
472. + = 2
1. ( + ) ( + ) ( + )
2

2. ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + )

473. ( )
:

1,

4,

3
,
2

1
,
6

20,

7,

2,

474. STEP, 2008.


A B p
q :

A pq p q .
B p + q p q
C
:

C p q p + q .
475. Rocket City Math League, 2010.

2
144 + 3 + 2 (5 + 3) + 53 +
256
476. Canadian Open Mathematics Challenge, 2009.

1 + 2 3 + 4 5 + 6 7 + 8 9 + 10 11 + 12 13 + 14 15 + 16 17 + 18

1.5
477. ;


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247

5.

1. 2 = 1 a4 = 1
3

3. > 1 a + 1 > 1

2. = 1 a = 1

4. < 2 a + 2 < 4

478. ;
1. x + y = 3 2x + 2y = 6
2

3. x + y = 3

2. x + y = 3 x + y = 9

x
3

y
3

=1

4. x + y = 3 3 + y = x

479. ;
1. x = 4 x > 0

3. x > 2 2x > 4

2. x > 0 x = 4

4. x + y < 3 x y < 3

480. :

0 = 0 0 1 = 0 2 0 1 = 0 2 1 = 2
481. . ;
1. x3 + y 3 = z 3 x + y = z
2. x + y = 0 x2 + y 2 = 0
3. ( + ) ( ) = 0 =
4. = ( + ) ( ) = 0

482. ;
1

1. ( + ) (1 + 1 )
2.

2
+

3.

4.

+
2

=
=
=

483. ;
1. xy = 0 x = 0

2. xy 0 x 0

3. xy 0 x 0

4. xy = 1 x = 1

y=0
y0
y0
y=1

484. ( ) .
;

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248

5.2. 2

485. Sam Loyd.


. .
:
1. .
2.
() ()
.

Sam Loyd
1841 - 1911

5.2

2
2.1
486. 2, 3, 5 {0, 4, 5, 6, 1};
487. k 2k + 3
{0, 4, 5, 6, 1};
488. ;
1. {, , , } {, , } = {, }
2. {, , , , } {, , , } = {, , , }
3. {, , , , } {, , , } = {}
4. ({, , , } {, , }) {} = {}

489. :



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249

5.

1. {a, b, c} {b, c} =

5. ({a, b, c} {d, e}) {a, e} =

2. {a, b, c} {b, c} =

6. ({a, b, c} {d, e}) {a, b} =

3. {a, b, c} {b, c} =

7. {a, b, d} ({e, b, c} {d, e}) =

4. {b, c} {a, b, c} =

8. ({, , } {, }) {, } =

490. Venn A
B.

2.

1.

3.

491. Venn A, B
.

1.

3.

5.

2.

4.

6.

7.

492. [, ] , (, ) , (, ], [, ) .
.

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250

5.2. 2

1. [, ] (, ) =

6. (, ) [, ] =

2. [, ] {, } =

7. (, ) {, } =

3. [, ] (, ] =

8. {, } (, ) =

4. [, ] [, ) =

9. {, } [, ] =

5. (, ) [, ] =

10. (, ] [, ) =

493. < . :
1. [, +] (, ) =

3. [, ] (, +) =

2. (, ) (, +) =

4. (, +) [, ) =

494. :

1
1
1
(0, ) (0, ) (0, ) (0, 1)
4
3
2
:

1
1
1
(0, ) = (0, ) = (0, ) = (0, 1)
4
3
2
495. {a, b, c, d, e, f } .

496. .
.
A :

A . .. :

1.
A .
2.
- .

A 5 4 ;


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251

5.

3. .
.
M .
! ( 418.

M = !

(5.4)

497. = {1, 2, 3, ..., 100}.


1. A .
N (A).
2. B 3.
N (B).
3. 6.
N ().
4.
3.
5.
(2.24).

498. .
1. 21 .


. 7
.

21
7 .
.
21 .
, .
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252

5.2. 2

2. .
.
. :

= ( 1) ... ( ( 1))

(5.5)

499. .
1. 12 .

4 .
.
2. . .
().

( 1) ... ( ( 1))
( )= =
M
!

(5.6)

500. . :

0
1
2

(10)
(11)

(20)
(21)
(22)

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)

(40)
(41)
(42)
(43)
(44)

(50)
(51)
(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)

(60)
(61)
(62)
(63)
(64)
(65)
(66)

(70)
(71)
(72)
(73)
(74)
(75)
(76)
(77)

=
=

3
4
5
6
7



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

=
=
=

=
=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

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253

5.

501.

!
( )=
! ( )!

(5.7)

502. .
1. 17 .


. 3
.

.
2. . :

1 , 2 , ....,
..
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254

5.2. 2

. .
.
:

(5.8)

503. ... .
...;
, ,

504. . A = {1 , 2 , ..., }
. A
A.
. A
. A:

1
2
...
...

...
...

...
...

, A
. A 2 .
2
Helmut Hasse
1898 - 1979

(5.9)

505. Hasse.
<
.

:

.
, 16 ,
{, , , }.

.

.


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255

5.

1. {}.
2. {, }.
3. {, }.

2.2
506. . :
11 4;
507. .
; (
).

508. .

509.
.

. .
.
;

510.
5 45
1 20 ( ).
(
)
5+1 .

.
511. A, B P (A B) =
P (A B) = 14 .

..
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3
,
4

P (A ) =

2
3



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256

5.3. 3

1. P (A)

2. P (B)

3. P (A B )

512. 12 16 .
. .
.

513. . ;

514. -
2012 5 -.

5
;

515.
(
) 3 10 (
).

10 .
3 ;

516. 510. :
1.
9 6;
2.
10 6;

517.
: 100
.
A B .
. .

.
;

5.3

3
3.1
518. :


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257

5.

1. 43 22 2 + 62 3
2. x ( ) + y ( ) ( )
3. 3 (x y) 2 (x y) (x y)
4. 7 (x + 2) (y 3) y + 3

519. :
1. +

4. x2 + x2 + +

2. t + u + t + u

5. x3 x2 + x

3. + + 2 +

6. xy + xz + x + y + z +

520. :
1 3
x
3

53 x2 2x2 + 103

1. x2 + xy 3 y 2 x y 5

4.

2. 2x5 + 8x2 y 2 + 3yx3 + 12y 3

5. x5 x2 2x3 + 2

3. 12xy 8y 2 x + 15yx3 10x3 y 2

6. 2x2 y + 3x2 + 2xy + 3x + 2y + 3

521. :
1. + + +
2. x3 xy + x2 y 2 y 3
3. x5 + x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1
4. 5a3 b + 10ab3 + 5a2 b2 2a2 4b2 2ab

522. :
1.

+
2 2

4.

(+)2 (3 3 )
(2 2 )2

2.

2 2
2

5.

6 6
(+)2 (3 3 )

3.

3 + 3
()2 +

6.

95 16
62 2 8 2

523. :
1. = (

+ 2
)
2

)
(
2

2. ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + ) 2 2 2 = ( + + )

524. :
2

1. ( + + ) + ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + ) = 4 (2 + 2 + 2 )
2

2. ( + + ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) = (2) (2 + 2 2 )
3

3. ( ) + ( ) + ( ) = 3 ( ) ( ) ( )
4. ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2
5. ( + + ) ( + + ) = ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) +
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258

5.3. 3

6. ( + + ) = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 ( + + )

525.
4

(p2 q 2 ) + (2pq + q 2 ) + (2pq + p2 ) = 2 (q 2 + pq + p2 )

526. k = 1, 2, 3
4

(p2 q 2 ) + (2pq + q 2 ) + (2pq + p2 ) = 2 (q 2 + pq + p2 )

k = 4;

527. k = 1, 2, 3
4

(p2 q 2 ) + (2pq + q 2 ) + (2pq + p2 ) = 2 (q 2 + pq + p2 )

k = 4;
Augustin Louis Cauchy
1789-1857

528.

X = q 3 + 3pq 2 p3 Y = 3pq (p + q) Z = p2 + pq + q 2

X 2 + XY + Y 2 = Z 3

529. Cauchy. :
3

1. ( + ) 3 3 = 3 ( + )
5

2. ( + ) 5 5 = 5 ( + ) (2 + + 2 )
Abraham de Moivre
1667 - 1754

3. ( + ) 7 7 = 7 ( + ) (2 + + 2 )

530. De Moivre.

4 + 4 + 4 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = ( + + ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + )
531. Ramanujan.
3

(3a2 + 5ab 5b2 ) + (4a2 4ab + 6b2 ) + (5a2 5ab 3b2 ) = (6a2 4ab + 4b2 )

532. -.
.
2

Srinivasa Ramanujan
1887-1920

(1 + 2 + 2 ... + 1 + )

(1 + 2 + 2 ... + 1 + ) (1 + 2 + 2 ... + 1 + )

:


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259

5.

, ,
:


(1 + 2 + 3 ... + 1 + )2 = 21 + 22 + 23 ... + 21 + 2 +

+2 (1 2 + 1 3 + ... + 1 1 + 1 + 2 3 .... + 2 1 + 2 1 + ... + 1 )


(5.10)

533. Lagrange. 146


Lagrange :
2

(a2 + b2 ) (x2 + y 2 ) = (ax + by) +

a
x

a
x

b
= ay bx
y

(3.20).
2

(a2 + b2 + c2 ) (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = (ax + by + cz) +


..
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a b
a
+
x y
x

c
b
+
z
y



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260

5.3. 3

:
2
(21 + 22 + 23 + ... + 21 + 2 ) (12 + 22 + 32 + ... + 1
+ 2 ) =

(1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 + ... + 1 1 + )2 +
2

1
1

+ 1
2
1

2
2

+ ... + 2
3
2

+ ... + 1
3
1

+ 2
1
2

+ 1
1
1
2

+ ... + 1

(5.11)

534. .

. (pattern) .
535. Pascal.
534 :

534 .
:


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261

5.

:

500 (),
0 7 ( 0). .

. ;

1. .
8

2. ().
:

(70) + (71) = (81), (71) + (72) = (82), (72) + (73) = (83), (73) + (74) = (84), (74) + (75) =
(85), (75) + (76) = (86), (76) + (77) = (87)

!
( )=
! ( )!

(5.12)

(5.7).
536. :

(+1
)

(+1
) + (+2
)

)
(+3

(+3
) + (+4
)

)
2(+2

(+2
) + (+3
)

537. :



( )( ) = ( )(
)


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262

5.3. 3

538. :



( )(
) = ( )(
)

539.


( )
(
)=
+1
+1

Sir Isaac Newton

(5.13)

540. .

4

( + ) = ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + )

1643-1727



.
. (
):
= 4 1

= = = = 3 4
= = = = = = 2 2 6
= = = = 3 4
= 4 1

4

( + ) = 1 4 + 4 3 + 6 2 2 + 4 3 + 1 4
:

( + ) = ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) ... ( + ) ( + )


.
. .
:



. :

( + ) = ( ) + (
)1 + (
)2 2 + ... + ( )2 2 + ( ) 1 + ( )

1
2
2
1
0

( + ) = ( ) + ( )1 + ( )2 2 + ... + (
)2 2 + (
) 1 + ( )
0
1
2
2
1



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(5.14)

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263

5.

541. 8 2
10
( + )
542.

( ) + ( ) + ( ) + ... + (
) + ( ) = 2
0
1
2
1

543.

x=

,
+

y=

,
+

z=

(1 + x) (1 + y) (1 + z) = (1 x) (1 y) (1 z)
544. (5.13)

( + ) :

1
m- m + 2 m 1.
545. .
1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , .
S1
S2
S3
...
...
S

= 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 1 +
= 1 2 + 1 3 + ... + 1 1 + 1 + 2 3 + ... + 2 1 + 2 + ... + 1
= 1 2 3 + ... + 1 1 + ... + 2 1

(5.15)

= 1 2 3 ... 1

1 1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , . S1
1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , , S2
, , S3 ... S
. S1
S .
1. S1 , S2 , S3 , ..., S
2. :

21 + 22 + 23 + ...21 + 2 = S12 2S2


: 1
1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , 2
1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , 1 ...
. , ,
1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 ,
4 S1 , S2 , S3 , ..., S
S1 , S2 , S3 , ..., S 4 .
1

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264

5.3. 3

3. :

1
1
1
1
1
S1
+
+
+ ... +
+
=
1 2 3
1
S
546. S1 , S2 , ... 545
:

(x + 1 ) (x + 2 ) ... (x + 1 ) (x + ) = x + S1 x1 + S2 x2 + ... + S1 x + S

(5.16)


(x 1 ) (x 2 ) ... (x ) = x S1 x1 + S2 x2 ... + (1)1 S1 x + (1) S

(5.17)

(5.14)
p3 2q 3 3
2p3 q 3 3
547. p3 = (p p3 +q 3 ) + (q p3 +q 3 ) + q 3

548.

x y z

+ + = 1
+ + =0

x y z

x2 y 2 z 2
+
+
=1
2 2 2
549. + + = 0.
2

(2 + 2 + 2 ) = 2 (4 + 4 + 4 ) = 4 (2 2 + 2 2 + 2 )
550.
2

m (m + 1) (m + 2) (m + 3) + 1 = (m2 + 3m + 1)
551. + + + = 0

3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 ( + + + )
552. + + = 0
3

1. (2 ) + (2 ) + (2 ) = 3 (2 ) (2 ) (2 )
3

2. ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + ) = 3 ( + ) ( + ) ( + )
3

3. (p + q) + (p + q) + (p + q) = 3 (p + q) (p + q) (p + q)

553. xyz = x + y + z = xy + yz + zx = 2

x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x2 = 22
554. x, y, z

2 3y =

(z x)
,
y

2 3z =

(x y)
z


1. x + y + z =
2. 2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 2
3. 2 3x =

(yz)2
x

555.


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= 23 . :
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265

5.

1. = 32

3.

+ 2 32
2 2

122
3+2

4.

pq
p+q

2.

556.

( p, q ).

= . :

1.

2 + 2
2 2

2 + 2
2 2

3.

2 +2+3 2
2 +2+3 2

2.

2 + 2
2 + 2

(+)3
(+)3

4.

(+)(+)
+++

=
=

(3)
(3)

557. , , , :

( + + + ) ( + ) = ( + ) ( + )

558.

2 + x + x2 2 + y + y 2
=
2 x + x2 2 y + y 2

x
y

= xy .

559.

y
z
x
=
=
+ + +

( ) x + ( ) y + ( ) z = 0
560.

=
=

+=

561. :

49

19

1
3

13
3

25
145
..
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2
5

20

21

7


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266

5.3. 3

562. :

563.

11

2
3

1
2

448

2
27

1
3

1. 7
....

1 1 2
, , ,
2 3 9

2. 6 2,
3. 8 34 ,

5
,
2
3
,
2

25
.
8
3, ....

4. 10 2, 4, 8, ....
1. 17
49, 44, 39, ....

564.

2. 19 34 ,

2
,
3

7
,
12

3. 20 2,

13 9
, , ...
4 2

....
.

4. 16 3, 75, 3, 5, 3, 25, ....

565. 1 , 2 , ...

+ +1 + ... +
, , , .
566. 1 , 2 , ... = 3 + 8
.
1. 1 , 2 , 3 , 23 .
2. .
;
3. 100 .
4. 23 + ... + 123 .
5. 6044.

567. : 1
2 ... ;



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267

5.

568. 12 30 30
23. .
1. 3.

569.
;

18, 21, 24, ... , 999

2. 3 ( 33, 1001)
3. . ;

23, 22, 21, ... 23


4. (17, 100)

570. a1 = 8 = 12 .
1. a5 .
2. a .
3. .
4.

571. 1 , 2 , 3 , ... ( ).
S , S2 , S3 , 2 , 3 .
1.

S3 = 3 (S2 S )
2.
2

S (S3 S2 ) = (S2 S )

572. 1 , a2 , ...

= 1
573. 1 , a2 , ...

( ) + ( ) + ( ) = 0
574. , ,
:
1. 2 ,

2 , 2

2. 2 + + 2 ,
3.

1
,
+

4. 2 ,

2 + + 2 ,

1 ,
+

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1

+

2 + + 2
(, , )

2 4 2


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268

5.3. 3

575. , ,
:
1. 2 ,
2.

1
,

3.

1 ,

4.
5.

2,
1
,

2
1

1 ,

2
,

+ 1 ,

(, , )

+ 1 ,

576. S
. Sp = q Sq = p Sp+q .
577.

2 2 1, , 2 + 1, , 2 + 2 1
.

578. :

1 2
1 2
1 2
) + (2 2 ) + ... + ( )

579. 1 , 2 , ...
:

1
1
1
=

+
+ ... +

1 + 2
2 + 3
1 +

1
1 +

580. 1 , 2 , ... :

21 22 + 23 24 + ... + 22k2 22k =

k
(2 22k )
2k 1 1

3.2
581. 0 < < 0 < < .

1
1
<

582. , , :

< + ,

< + ,

<+

583. , , (
)



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269

5.

1. 2 + 2 2

5.
2

2. 2 (2 + 2 ) ( + )
3.

+
2

6.

2 + 2
2

7.

4. + 2

+
2

8. +

2
+

2
2

+ 2
(4)

+

2
(7)

2
+

(2)

x2 0
(1)
2 + 2 2
(5)
2
2 (2 + 2 ) ( + )
(8)

+
2

584.

2
x +2
x2 +1

(3)

+
2
(6)

+ 1 2

2 + 2
2

2.

585. , ,
:
1. ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + ) 6
2. ( + ) ( + ) ( + ) 8
Hermann Amandus Schwarz
1843-1921

586.

2 + 2 + 2 0
4

587. ( + ) 8 (4 + 4 ).
588. Cauchy-Schwartz-Bunyakovsky.
(5.11) Lagrange :
2
(21 + 22 + 23 + ... + 21 + 2 ) (12 + 22 + 32 + ... + 1
+ 2 )
2
(1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 + ... + 1 1 + )

(5.18)

589. 2004. > 0, > 2 2 = 21


< 0.
590. , , x, y, z
:

(x + y + z) ( x +
( + + ) ( 1 +
..
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+ z ) ( + + )

+ 1 ) 9


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Viktor Yakovlevich
Bunyakovsky
1804-1889

270

5.3. 3

591. , 1990. x > 0 :

x2 + 3x + 3 1
+ >4
x+1
x
592. :

(21 + 22 + 23 + ... + 21 + 2 ) (

Jacob (Jacques) Bernoulli


1654-1705

1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... + 2 + 2 ) 2
21 22 23
1

593. Bernoulli.

> 1 > 1

1. (1 + ) 1 = ((1 + )

+ ... + (1 + ) + 1)

2. Bernoulli:

(1 + ) > 1 +

(5.19)

3. = 1 = 1;

594. Bernoulli.
> 1 x > 0 :

x > 1 + (x 1)

(5.20)

595. (5.19), (5.20) > 1 :

1. (1 + 1 ) > 2,
2. 2 > 1 + ,
3. (1

1
)
2

>1

4. (1 ) <

1
,
1+

(0, 1)

596. , 0 < < .

x1 , x2 , x3 , ...
.
y1 , y2 , y3 , ...
.
> 2 y > x .

597. 1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , .

A =

1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 1 +

(5.21)

1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , .
: .
1. 1, 2, 3, ..., 1, .


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271

5.

2. 1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 ,
[m, M ] [m, M ].

598. 1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , .
( 597) :

A1 =

1
1

A2 =

1 +2
2

A3 =

1 +2 +3
3

....
A1 =
A =

1 +2 +3 +...+1
1

1 +2 +3 +...+1 +

= 2, 3, ..., :
1. A (k 1) A1 =
2.

A1
1

A 1 2 3 ... 1

(5.22)

3.3
599. 2 (x + 3) + = 0.
3;
600. 4 +

2x5
3

x+11
.
9

601. 3 2 2

(1 x) 2 = x + 1. ;
602.

1. :

2 ( ) + 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
2. :

2x
2x
2 x
+
+
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
603. :

2 (3x 2) 14
=
3 (2x 3)
9

604. :
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272

5.3. 3

1.
=

0
tt0

2. x = 0 t + 12 t2 t
3. =

F12 + F22 + 2F1 F2 g F2

Mm
4. B = G (R+h)
2 h

5. T = 2
6.

r3
GM

= P2 V2 T1 .

P1 T2 V1
T1

7. ( x1dd ) =

q2
q1

8. V = kQ ( r1
1

9.
Girolamo Cardano
1501 - 1576

1
R

1
R1

1
R2

x1 .
1
)
r2

1
R3

r2 .
R3 .

605. Ars Magna Girolamo Cardano. 48 .

.
4 .
.

606. Cambridge, 1821 . :

12 + 2x 4x 3 4x 1
+

=0
x+3
2x + 1 x 1
607. Harvard, 1878. :

x + 13a + 3b a 2b

=1
5a 3b x x + 2b
608. MIT, 1878. :

5
12
4
+

=0
x+1 x+2 x+3
609. , , :

3x
x x x
+
+
=
+ + + + +

610. Harvard-MIT,1999.
da a2 6ad + 8d2 = 0, a 0.
611. m :

m2 x + 1 = x + m


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273

5.

612. :

x +

9x
= 4x + 2
3

613. , :

x + = x +
614. :
1. x2 + 5x = 0
2. 55x2 + 75x = 0
3. 2x2 18 = 0
4. x2 2x 80 = 0
5. x2 9x + 14 = 0
6. x2 + 25x + 156 = 0
7. 5x2 7x + 1 = 0
8. 2x2 + 2x + 5 = 0
9. 9x2 6x + 4 = 0

3x 1 = 0

11. (1 2) x2 2 (1 + 2) x + 3 2 + 1 = 0
10. 5x2 +

12. (x + 1) (x 1) (x + 2) = 2x (x 3)
13. (x + 2) (x 12 ) (3x 1) (x + 23 ) = 1 2x
14.

3x+1
3x

15.

25
12

2x+1
x3

x3
2x+1

16.

1
x8

1
x6

1
x+6

3x
x+1

5
3

=0

1
x+8

=0

615.

1 + t2 3
1 1
+ = 4( 2 )
2
t
t
t
2t
616.
1. x2 4a2 + 4a 1 = 0
2

2. (ax + b) + (a bx) = 2 (a2 + b2 )

3.

bx+a
b

4.

a+b 2
x
ab

ab
b2 x

(a2 b2 )

617.
:

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274

5.3. 3

1. x2 11x + 28 = 0

3. x2 16x + 64 = 0,

5. 3x2 + 7x + 5 = 0

2. x2 24x + 143 = 0

4. x2 17x + 11 = 0

6. 8x2 4x + 5 = 0

618. m mx2 + mx 3 = 0 ;
619. m (m + 1) x2 + 4x 1 = 0 ;
620. . !
1 1
x+ =
x x
1
1
x+
=2+
x2
x2
Nicholas Saunderson
1682 - 1739

621. Nicholas Saunderson


17 .
. Cambridge ,
. :

. .
:

615x 7x3 = 48x.


. .

622. :
2

) 7 ( x
) + 12 = 0
1. ( x
x+
x+
2.

+x
x

x
+ 10 +x
=7

623. x2 3x 10 = 0 5,
.
624. :


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275

5.

3, 2 + 3

5. 1, 2 + 3

1. 2, 3

4. 2

2. 6, 9
3. 1,

1
3

6. , 2

625. x2 + 8x + 12 = 0
. .
626. :
1. 10 9
2. 10 10
3. 10 16
4. 10 26

627. a 9x2 2x + a = 6 ax, ;


628. x2 + tx + 12 = 0
1. t.
629. a x2 + ax + a + 2 = 0
2;
630. x2 + x + = 0 1 , 2 .
, , :
2

2. 31 + 32

1. (1 2 )

631. :

(x2 + x + 1) + (x2 + 2x + 3) + (x2 + 3x + 5) + ... + (x2 + 20x + 39) = 4500


632. . 6
( ):


,
( ),
.

x.
..
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276

5.3. 3

1.

x
.
x

2. x2 + x 2 = 0.
3. x2 + x 2 = 0.
4.

3 5
.
2

5.

51

2

5+1
=

2

(
5+1
2
).
6.
.

;
;

:

:


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..
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277

5.

5+1
= 1, 618
2
.
( ). :

5+1
=
2

(5.23)

633. Fibonacci.
417
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,... .
.

1 , 2 , 3 , ..., , ...

1 = 1, 2 = 1, +2 = +1 +

= 1, 2, ...

(5.24)

1. 40
Fibonacci.
2. Fibonacci

1 = 1, 2 = 2, +2 = +1 +

= 1, 2, ...

10 .
3.

1 = 1, 2 = 2, +2 = +1

= 1, 2, ...

10 .
4. x2 = x + 1. 1 < 2 .
() 21 = 1 + 1, 22 = 2 + 1 22 = 2 + 1, 32 = 22 + 1
() u =

2
1
5

i. u1 = 1, u2 = 1
ii. u3 , u4 , u5
iii. 5 u 5
Fibonacci.
u = ;
iv. u+2 = u+1 + u .
v. u = ;

634. m x2 x + m = 0 ;
..
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278

5.3. 3

635. k (k 12) x2 + 2 (k 12) x + 2 0


x.
636. Matriculation, , 1894.
:

1 + y (1 + x) (1 + xy)
637. x2 + px + q = 0
p, q .
638. STEP, 2010. t2 pt +
q = 0 .

3 + 3 = p3 3qp
.

(2 ) ( 2 )

p q .

3.4
639.
.
3x
3

>2

2. x2 < 3x

3+2x
4

1.

3.

2x+1
5

1
2

(3x 1) +

x
5

< 7x + 10

4. 4 + 32 x > 13
+
8

1
6

(4x 3)

640. :
1. a (x + 2) > x 1
2. 42 x 4 2 x > 4 4

641. ,
.
1. 6x +

5
7

> 4x + 7

2. 8x 5 >

15x8
2

8x+3
2

< 2x + 25

2 (2x 3) > 5x

3
4

642. :

x2 5x > 0 2x2 11x < 0


643.

x2 Sx + P = 0
1. S . P ;


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279

5.

2. P . S ;
:

.
;

.
;

644. x2 + x + + + = 0.
.
645. a

(a + 4) x2 2ax + 2a 6 < 0
R;

646. . , , 2009. :
1. x (x 1) = 30
2. 3x2 5x + 1 = 0
3. 15x 4 < 9x2

647. , 2010.
-

x2 5x = 14,

5.4

x2 5x 14

x 1 x2 1 x (x 1)
+
<
2
4
4

4
4.1
648. 5 3;
649. + 1 3 1
8;
650. x, y , z 0.
;

y
z
x
+
+
x y z

x1 , x2 , ..
;

x2
x
x1
+
+ ... +
x1 x2
x

651. x x + 1 = x + 1;
652. + 1 = + 1 + 2 = + 2
+ + 3 = + + 3.
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280

5.4. 4

653.

13 x + 12x2
13 + 12 x
654. A = t 1 t 2
1 < t < 2.
655. A = t 3 t 5
t2 8t + 15 < 0.

7
656. 35 89 + 35 10

657. , < . x , ,
:
1. x = x
2. x + x =
3. x = 2 x
4. x = x +

658. x, y y =

x
.
1+x

1. :

x = 0 y = 0,

x > 0 y > 0,

x<0y<0

2. y < 1.
3. x =

659.

1
.
1y

1.

1 < x < 1 x < ;


2. :

(1, 1) (1, 1)

(1, 1)

3. :

(1, 1) (1, 1)

(1, 1)
1 +

660. :
1. 2 + 2 = 0 + = 0
2. 2 + 2 > 0 + > 0

661. y 0 x 1.



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1
1

y y y
..
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281

5.

662. m m <

29.

663. m

m 100 < 1000.


664. :

x2 + xy + x y + y y = (x + y) (x + y)
665. x2 + x + = 0
1 , 2 . , , 1 , 2 . (
630

666. STEP, 2004. < 2 2


x
x2 x + 2 < 0

()

() = 3.

667. < < <

A = x + x + x + x
x A
.
668. 1948, , .
2 (1 + ) = 1 + + 2 1 < 1 (1 2 1) = 2 1.
669. 1 , 2 , ..., .
1 + 2 + ... + = 1 + 2 + ... + 1 , 2 , ...,

(5.25)

670. 1952, .
, , + , + , +
x, y, z R

2 (x y) (x z) + 2 (y z) (y x) + 2 (z x) (z y) 0
t :

1 1 1 t = 2
4.2
671. (x) =

(x + 1)(2 x).

.
m 2m 1.
x (x) =
..
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2.


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282

5.4. 4

672. g A = [1, 5] g (x) =


3 x.
1. g .
2

2. (g (x) + 1)

1
2

= 0.

673. f (x) = (x 1)

2012

(x + 1)2013 .

1. f (1), f (1)
2. .
3. f
x x.

674. 2001. f g
1
R g (x) = f (x)
x2 x. g(x) = 1
x f (x).
675. f (x) = 2x 3.
1. + = 4 f ( + ).
2. + = 4 f ( + ).
3. x1 + x2 + ... + x300 = 100 f (x1 + x2 + ... + x300 ) f (x1 ) +

f (x2 ) + ... + f (x300 )

676. M x = 3t 1
y = 5 2t t R. x y
M
.
677. f (x) =

x1
.
x2 +1

1. :

1
2

f (x)

35

2. f (x) f .
y f y x
f f (x) = y .

678. f R

f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y)
x, y . :
1. f (5) = f (2) + f (3)


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283

5.

2. f (10) + f (11) = f (3) + f (5) + f (6) + f (7)


3. f (0) = 0
4. f (x) = f (x)

679. y = x + P (p, q).


1. M (x, x + )
P

d(x) =

(1 + 2 ) x2 + 2 ( p q) x + q 2 + p2 2q + 2

2.

(1 + 2 ) x2 + 2 ( p q) x + q 2 + p2 2q + 2

(p q + )
1 + 2

3. P

pq+

.
2 +1

680. 2001. g (x), f (x)


x :
2

g (x) (3 (f (x)) + 2f (x) + ) = x2 4x +


2 < 3 . g(x) > 0 x.

681. 2005.
(0, 1).

x2007
2007

1
2008

682. 2009.
f () > 1 f () > 1.

f () 1 f () 1
+
=0
x1
x2
(1, 2).
. ;

683. 2008. g (x) = x5 +x3 +x+1.


g () g ().
684. :
1

5. 16 4

2. 27 3

6. 16 4

7. 1000 3

1. 49 2

3. 16 4

4. 16 4
..
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9. 125 3
1

10. 5 3 5 3

11. 8 3

8. (5 3 )

8
)
12. ( 27

13



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284

5.4. 4

685. , , . :

3
6 12

5. 3 8 54
51 3

646

2. 4 16 8
12
1.

3.

4.

81
625 8

6.

27
9

686. , , . :
1.
2.
3.

4
9 11

31

4.

101 33 62

5.

5
6 7 8

5
60 70 81

5
7 9 13

5
2 4 3

6. (

24

3
4 )

687. > 0, < 0 > 0. :

4
4 8

2. 4 4 8

4
8 4

4.
16 4 8
3.

1.

688.


3
9 3 + 11 2 = 3 + 2
689.

1.
= ( ) 1
+

3 = ( )

4
= ( )

2
2
+ 3 3 + 3

= ( )

2 3
3 2
+ 4 4 + 4 4 + 4

2.

3.

4.

1
2
2 1
+
+...+
+

690. 1 , 2 , ... 1 = > 0 > 0.


, 1 2 3 ...
.

691.
x+2
;
2x2 +3x+6

692. , 2006
f (2x + 1) = (x 12)(x + 13) f (31);
7

693. Flanders, 1989-1990 7(7



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285

5.

1.

() 77
()

7(7

1)

()

7(6

7(7

()

7
( 7)

()

694.
1. A, B x
1 2 :

A
B
1
=
+
(x 1) (x 2) x 1 x 2
x, A, B
.
2. f (x) = x2 + x + = 2 4 > 0 1 , 2 . A1 ,
A2 , x 1 , 2 :

A
1
B
=
+
f (x) x 1 x 2
3. A, B

A
B
1
= +
( + 1) + 1
:

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
12 23 34
( + 1)
695. Cauchy (1821). 597
1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 , .
1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 1 ,

G =

1 2 3 ...1

(5.26)

- .

G1 = 1 1 = 1

G2 = 2 1 2 = 1 2

G3 = 3 1 2 3
...

G1 = 1 1 2 3 ...1

G = 1 2 3 ...1
696.

1.

1 + 2
1 2
2
2.

1 + 2 + 3
3 1 2 3
3
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286

5.4. 4

3. (5.22)

:

1 + 2 + ... +
1 2 ...

(5.27)

697. 1
.
698.

x1 + 1 x + 1
x1 + 1 x2 + 1
+
+ ... +
+

x2 + 1 x3 + 1
x + 1
x1 + 1
699. x, y x5 + y 5 =
x6 + y 6 = 1.
700.

f (x) = x2 (2p q) x + (p2 pq + q 2 ) ,

q0

x x.

701. < 0 < 4 < 2


f (x) = x2 + x + Ox .
702.

f (x) = (x ) (x ) + (x ) (x ) + (x ) (x )
, , .
x x .
2

703. f (x) = x2 +x+ > 0. M ( 2


, 4
)
4
f (x). M
g (x) = x2 + .
2

704. 2006. g (x) = 2 + (x 2)


[2, +). g () g ().

705. 1954, .
f (x) = x2 + x +
f (0) , f (1) . f (x) .
706. , 2006
f (2x + 1) = (x 12)(x + 13) f (31);


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287

5.

707.

f1 (x) = 1 x2 + 1 x + 1 f2 (x) = 2 x2 + 2 x + 2
.

R (f1 , f2 ) =

1
2

1
1
2
2

f1 , f2 .

1
1
2
2

708. 1977, - .

P (x) = x3 + x2 + x +
> 0 2 4 0. , 0

P () P ()
4 2

709. 1996, . f
[, ]
f (x) + f ( + x) = c
x [, ] c . :

( ) f (


+
)=
(f () + f ())
2
2

710. , 2001
f (x).

g (x) 1 =

..
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1
2


http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

288

5.4. 4

711. 2012. .
2
1
10
10
. .
712. a1 , 2 , ..., .
2
2
2
f (x) = (x a1 ) + (x a2 ) + ... + (x a ) x
a1 , 2 , ..., x = a1 +2 +...+ .



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1 2012, 20112012, a + 1
2 0, 5, 8, 9
3

. a.

a 5 a + 5 a 5 5 a a

= 2

) 13
: . 13 = 2 ( 13
.
2
2

1) = 2

= 2 = 2 =

2 + 1 = 2 + 2 = 2
+ 1
+

= 2 =




2) =
2

1.
2.
3.
4.

+ 1 (

). .

.
( + 1).
. :

289

290

1 . + 1
. ( + 1) + 1
.
2 . + 1
. ( + 1) + 1
.
( + 1) .
:
+ 1.
( + 1) .

10 (3 + 1) + (3 + 2) = 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 ( + + 1) = 3
11 (4 + 2) (4 + 3) = 16 + 12 + 8 + 6 = 4 (4 + 3 + 2 + 1) + 2 = 4 + 2
12 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12
13

61 7 71
, 8 , 81
28

14

= .

15

. .

16

. x 3 = 0 x = 3.

17

11 94 28 33.

11 94 = 1034 28 33 = 924.
. 11
> 33
28
94

18

.
11
17
= 11
11
50
. (11) 83 = 913 (50) 17 = 850
17
17
83
11
50
913850 17 < 83 .

19

1. A = 103
40
2. B = 73
40
3. = 1
6
4. = 4
5

22

: 1 + 671 + 999 = (1 + 999) + 671 = 1000 + 671 = 1671

23

12
19

+3+

7
19

= ( 12
+
19

7
)+3
19

19
19

+3=4

24 3A + 3B = 3 (A + B) = 3 7 = 21
25

1. 6 (x + 2)
2. (3 + 1)

26


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291

6.

1. xy + xz xt

3. xy + xz xt

2. xy + xz xt + y + z t

4. + + + +

27

1. 13
12

3.

5
2. 12

yx3

4. (x+1)(y2)

28

1. 1

29

1. 14
15

31

1. ( 5) ( 3)

4
2. 31
y

2. x

3.

y
x

4. xy

4. (a + 5) (b + 6)

2. (c + d) (p + q)

5. (a 5) (b 6)

3. (b + e) (a d)

6. (2a + 3) (b 5)

32

1.
2.

+
+

x+3
4. 2x3
+

++

5.
y

3. ab
a+b

6. y+

33

(y 1) (y 2) (y 3) = 0 y 1, y 2, y 3 y
1, 2, 3. (y + 1) (y + 2) (y + 3) 24

(1 + 1) (1 + 2) (1 + 3) = 24
(2 + 1) (2 + 2) (2 + 3) = 60
(3 + 1) (3 + 2) (3 + 3) = 120

35

+ ( ) = ( + ) ( + ). , , .

a = 1, = 0, = 2 1 = 3.

36

37 12 2 3 4 = (12 2) 3 4 = 24 3 4 = (24 3) 4 = 8 4 = 32
38

46
3

39 303
16
40

1. 16
2. 16

5. 1
8

3. 32

6. 9

41 + = = 5 12 = 60, =
42

4. 25

5
12

+1
+1
q
q
= (+1) = 1 = . = p . = p .

43
..
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http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

292

1. 16
81

8
3. 27

2. 216
125

9
4. 25

44

1. 8

4. 45

2. 2

5. 1

3. 6

6. 84

45

1. 44
9

3. 0

2. 1

4. 0

46

= ... ... = ... = +


                       

48

1. ( + x) (x )

4. a13 b11 (1 ab)

2. (x ) ( + x)

5. (x2 + a4 ) (y 4 + b3 )

3. x4 y 2 (x + y)

6. (4 2 ) (42 )
yz 2

2
1. a+b
a2 +b

49

3. y+2z
3
4. m+t
mt3

2. rs
r+s

50

1. 20
2. 22
3. 190
4. 28
5

51

11
1. 7
1 2
8
2. 12
1 1

3. 1 2 1 2 + 1 2 1 2
10 8
4. x6
1 x2 x3

52

, , , , ,

53

b < d.

54

. x = 10 y = 5 x > y . x = 5 y = 10

x < y .

56

(), (), ().

57

4
8

61

(), ( )

<

5
8

<

2
3

<

9
4

<

5
2



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6.

293

63 +, , , , ,
64

19
7

65

3, 23

= 2, 7142857 ( )

66 1221
67 3
68

. -

m
. m .
m m
. m
().

69 9630
70 9630
71 13, 14, 15,

13 15
,
14 14

72

73

1,3,5

74

1,3,5

75

2.

76

1.

77

1,2,3

78

2,3,4

79

2,4,5

80

1,4,5

3 = 1, 73

81 B = {Z 3 x 20}
82

A A = { Z = 2, Z}.

= { Z = 2 + 1, Z}

83 {1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 3, 4, 4, 6, 6, 12, 12}


..
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http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

294

84 {6, 6, 12, 12, 18, 18, 24, 24, 30, 30, ...}
85

x = 4 y = 3.

86

88

89 {, {p}, {q}, {r}, {p, q}, {p, r}, {q, r}, {p, q, r}}
90 , {a}, {b}, {c}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, {a, b, c}

91
92

93

97

2.

98

x = 2

99

103 2 2, 3 2, 4 2, 5 2, 6 2, 7 2
104

105

1. {1, 4}

2. [0, 4]
3. N
4. [0, 4)

106 ( 23
, 19 )
11 7
107

x = 1 x = 3 x = 5.

108 {1, 4, 5, 7}


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..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

295

6.

110

1. (2, 5]

2. R
713.

111

A B = B A B .

1. {3}

2. {1, 2, 3}
3. [5, 6]

112

113 (, 7) (7, +)
115

1. 2012

2. 2000
3. 101

116

1. 4

2. 11
3. 7

117 0, 1, 2, , ..., 11
118 11, 12, 13, ...
119 23
120 3
121

1 1
,
2 3

122 P (A) =

N(A)
N()

123

1
, 1 , 1, 1
13 13 4 52

124

6
36

125

5
,
36

126

1
7140

128

A.

129

9
11

3
3

1
6

130 0, 9
..
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296

131 0, 3
132
133

1 1 1 7
, , ,
12 6 4 12

136 2 + 2 + 2 2 + 2 2
137 7
139 22
143

1. 2 + 6 + 9 2
2

2. (2x y)

144 (x a)2 + (y b)2


147

Lagrange.

148 ( + )2 = 14, 14.


149 2 + 2 = S 2 2P
150 14
154 3 + 3 = S 3 3SP
158

1. 4

2. 4z (x + y)

159

1. x + y

2. a2 + b2

161

2(3+ 2)
7

14(

7+2)
3


5+ 2
3

162 (x 1) (x2 + x + 1)
163

2 ++ 2
+

167 1 + (2) + (2)2 + ... + (2)9 =


168

(2)10 1
21

= 341

1. 1658931

2. 2025078
3. 366147

169

9(9+1)
2

= 45,

90(90+1)
2

= 4095



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www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

297

6.

174 1 29
176

474 711 948 1185


, 7 , 7 , 7
7

178

5
13

179 1 =

3
,
4

2 = 1, 3 =

4
,
3

180 1 = 2, 2 = 1, 3 =
183 12 = 1 11 =

1
16

4 =

2
,
2

4 =

1
24

211 =

16
,
9

5 =
1
,
2

64
.
27

5 =

1
4

2.

211 = 27 = 128

185 1 = 3, 2 = 1, 3 = 1, 4 = 3, 5 = 5
186 1 =

1
,
3

2 =

5
,
6

3 =

4
,
3

4 =

11
,
6

5 =

7
3

189 12 = 19
191 511
192 800
193

40

2, 2. 1640.

194

. 3 (2), 2

10. 2046.

205 x = 4, y = 2
206 x = y = 6
207 = 1, = 0
214

. 2
7
15
: 30
.
7

215

. .
2 < 3. 20 < 30 1. 21 < 31

21 = 1
31 = 1

2
3
1
1
: 2 > 3 .

218

(1

221

298, 25m2 301, 75m2 .

229

B, A, D, C

232

, 0 = .

5) < (2

5)

234 A = 2 , B = 4 2 , = , = 2 3 3
235 A =

,
2 3

B=


,
4

3
,

22 3
7

238
..
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298

1. 3

4. 3

2. 3

5. 3

3. 3

6.

239

31

, , , , .

241

1. x = 4

2. x = 7

242

1. x = 8

2. .

243

1. x = 48

2. x = 11

244

t
3. x =

5. x = +1

4. x = t

3
6. x =

3. x = 4

5. x = 8

4. x = 1
6

6. x = 3

1
3. x = 11

5. x = 2

4. x = 0

6. .

1. x = 3, x = 3, x = 6
5

2. x = 3
, x = 5, x = 2
2

245

1. x = 2

2. x = 3
2
3. x = 1, x = 2

246

5 x = 54
. = 5 .
5

247

= 1.

248 t =

5
4

249 x =

,
1+

250

1. x = 37
, x = 9
2
2

y =x =

1+

1+

4. x = 52 , x = 4

2. x = 19, x = 4

5. x = 11
,x=7
2

3. x = 17, x = 6

6. x = 13
, x = 21
8
8

251

1. x =

2. x = 1
2

2 +4
2

4. x = 4, x = 3

42 + 2

3. x = 2, x =

252

1. x = (

2. y = (

253

5. x =

2 4
2

6. x =

2 4
2

2 1) y , x = (1 2) y

2 + 1) x, y = (1

() = 1 () = 1
12
2

2) x

13

254


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299

6.

1. x = 5
, x=3
2

4. x = 2, x = 1

2. x = 2, x = 5
3

5. x = 4, x = 3

3. x = 3

255

1. x = 1, x = 2, x = 2, x = 1

2. x = 1
4
4

4. x = 0

13

5. x = 2, x = 1
6. x = 2, x = 1
2

3. x = 4

256

1. S = 29, P = 6

3. S = , P = 3

2. S = 1500, P = 2

4. S = 2, P = t

257

1.

258

1. x2 + 5x + 4 = 0

2. +
3. 3x2 x 1 = 0

2. 24x2 + 7x 5 = 0

4. 12x2 16x

259

1. 465

2. 8192

260

1. 14 1

3. 6 +

2. 7 12,

261

33 6

5. 1
<x
4

3. 3
<x
2

6. 3
<x
2

4
1.
<x

+1
3. x < 21

2
2. x 2

266

33

4. 3
<x
2

2. 3
<x
2

4. x < 23+2
+ 2 +1
2. x < 21
10

1. 5 < x

265 t <

4.

1. 3
<x
2

264

3 + 12 = 0

3.

2. ,

263

4. + ,

1. ,

262

6. x = , x = +

2
3

:
1+3y

1. x: ( 2 , +)

)
2. y : (, 2x1
3

267

= (3) 4 2 (m + 1) = 1 8m

. m 1
.
8

268

1. 6 x

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300

2. 9
< x < 31
2
4

269

35
48

270

1
5

271

272

+.

4
3

<x

<<1

273
x

274

45

3 x

5 + 4x

3x 1

(3 x) (5 + 4x) (3x 1)

1
3

+
+

) +, ( 12 , +)
1. (, 5) , (5, 1
2

) +, ( 12 , +) +
2. (, 1
2
3. (, 1) +, (1, 2) , (2, 3) +, (3, +)

275 (, 3) , (3, 75 ) +, ( 75 , 12 ) , ( 12 , +) +
276

1. (2x 1) (x 2)
2

2. (2x + 1)

3. (x + 3) (x 11)

277

1. x+13
x+15
2(a+9)

2. 3(a7)
3. b7x
x+b

278

279



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

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301

6.

1. 7, 1, , .

4. x.

2. 2
, 1 , .
3 3

5. x.

3. 8,1 , .

280

. x
6. 1
3
1
.
3

282 +
283

4. 3
x 43
2

1. 2 < x < 2

2. x 7 3 x

5. x < 5 5
<x
2

3. 1
< x < 34
2

6. 2
< x < 32
3

284

1. < x <

4. x x

2. x < x >

5.
<x<
2

3. x

6. < x <

285

5. x < 18 17 1+8 17 < x

1. x < 3 4 < x

2. 1
<x<1
3

6.

3. x < 1
1
< x x 12
2
2

7. x = 1
2

4. x < 1 1
<x
3

8. x R

1. 1 < x < 1
12 5 12 + 12 5 < x < 2
2

286

2. x .
3. x < 4
1
12
3
2

5<x<0

1
2

1
2

5<x

287 2 y 2

288 y 8 2 15 8 + 2 15 y

289

1. < 3 8 57 3+ 8 57 <

2. 0 < 1
4
3. 1
<
4

4. 2

290

2<<2 2

1. x < 1 2 < x < 3 4 < x

2. x < 1 0 < x
3. 2 < x 1
12
2

5 12 + 12 5 x < 1

4. 3 < x < 0 1
<x<12<x
3
5. x < 2 1 < x < 1 2 < x

..
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6.
3<x<

2 1 < x < 1

2<x<

7. 0 < x < 1

8. 1
12 5 < x < 12 12 5 1 12 2 < x <
2

1
2 + 12 5 12 + 12 5 < x < 1 + 12 2


http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

302

291

4. 32000 5

1. 7

2. 1
3

1
1
5. 4111
8111

3. 2

6. x2 + 3

292
2.

1. 0

4. 2

7
2

5. 5

3. 15
8

293

6. 6
1. + 1

3. 4 ( )

2. 2 + + 2

4.

295 x 1
296 2x + 13
297 2x + 16
299

2x 2

6
2 x + 4 + x =

2x + 2

300

301

x2 + x + 4

(x 2) x + 2 x = x2 + x 4

x2 x 4

1. x = 3, x = 3

x < 4
4 x < 2
x2

x < 2
2 x < 0
x2

, x = 13 , x = 2, x = 2
5. x = 1
3

2. x = 3, x = 7
3

6. x = 3
+ 14 17, x = 34 14 17
4

3. x = 11
, x = 11
5
5

7. x = 3
12 5, x = 32 + 12 5, = 32 12 5,
2

x = 32 +

4.

1
2

302 x1 = 2 , x2 = 1
303 x = 1
304

1. x = 11
, x = 1
3

2. x = 1
2
3. x = 1

51

4. x = 4 15, x = 4 + 15, x = 4 17

305

5, x =

1. 1 < x < 5

2. 5 < x < 1

5. x = 1 x 0
6. x = 1, x = 2,
7. x = 4
3
3. 4 x 12
4. x < 9 5 < x

306


http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

..
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303

6.

1. 7 < x < 7

4. x 3 x 3

2. 12 x 12

5. x < 1
2

3. x < 11 x > 11

6. x > 8

307

1. 14 < x < 8

2. 1 < x x < 3
5

308

1. x < 4
10
<x
3
3

3. 0 < x < 2
5
4. 5
<x
2
4. 5
<x<2
3

2. x < 1 3 < x

5. x

3. x < 1
2

6. 1

309

1. 8

21<x

4. 8

2. 16

5. 5

3. 8

6. 287
4

312

. > .

314

() x =
3
2

318

() x = 2 x = 6 () x = 2

319

323

2<x<1

1. x + x + 1

2. x + x 1
3. x2 3x + 2 + x2
4. x x2

325 6, 0, 3, 1, 1, 2
327 x = 2
328 x = 3 x = 11
329

[, ].

330
331 x1 x2 y1 y2
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http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

304

332

1. x x: A1 (2, 4), y y : A2 (2, 4).

2. A3 (2, 4)
3. 1 : A4 (4, 2), 1 : A5 (4, 2).

333 x = 2 + 2 3, x = 2 2 3

334 B ( 52 12 3, 32 + 32 3) B ( 52 12 3, 32 32 3)
335 (x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 9
336 (x + 4)2 + (y + 2)2 = 34
337 x + 3y 10 = 0
338 x y 2 = 0
339 M ( 75 , 35 )
341

1. 11

2. 1

342

3. 11
4

5. x2 + 7x + 11

4. 3 + 3
1. 3

2. 2
3

6. x2 x 1

3. x+5
x+3

5. 3x+1
3x1

4. x5
x3

6. x+3
x3

343 = 9
345

1. f(x)=3x

3. f(x)=xx

5. f(x)=3x+4

2. f(x)=3x

4. f(x)=x 3

6.

346

1. f(x)=(x+2)/(x+3)

3. f(x)=x 3-2x

2. f(x)=xx+3x+3

4. f(x)=x/(1+1/x)

347

f(x)=-3(x+4)

1. A (2, 2)

2.

, 3)
3. f B ( 3
2
4.

348

1. = 2
5

2. = 1

349

1. x < 0 1 < x

2. x x A (0, 0) B (1, 0). A


y y .

350


http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

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www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

305

6.

1. R {1}

4. [1, +)

2. R {1, 2}

5. x < 2 1 x

3. R

6. 1 x 5

351

3+1

) > ( 23 )
2. ( 2
3
3. (

3+1

2012

5. (1 + x)

33
44
2 1) > ( 2 1)

352

4. ( 2+1 ) > ( 2+1 )

1. 23 < 24

)
6. 1 + ( 2
3

11

> (1 + x)2000

> 1 + ( 23 )

15

1. 0 < x2 < x

2. 0 < x2 < x x 0 < x3 < x2 ,


x 0 < x4 < x3 ... :

0 < x < .... < x < ... < x2 < x < 1

353

1.

1296 = 6

a10 = a2

3. 4 16
= 23
81
2.

art = at

3
3
5.
a36 = a4

4
6.
83 8=2
4.

354

4
= 3 = 34 = 81. 4 = 5 = 54 = 625. + = 81 +

625 = 706

361 A = 2 3 3 + 3 3 2, B = 3 4 2 + 2 4 2 , = 2 5 2 + 2 5 2 + 2 5 2
363 A = 2 4 11 , B = 4 3 5 , = 2 3 2 , =
364
365

1. 2pd2

367

1. 396

8
x

4.

2
3
12

12

4
4. 11

4 ,
1.

3.

3.

3. 945

4
11

369
2.

96

t3

366
2.

2. x3 y 7

6
11

13

12

3
>

12

3,

6<

11

7
13

3>1

4.
5.
6.

5
8 > 15 8

21<

5 11

7<

14

4 13

21

371
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306

1. x = 2

3. x =

2. x = 2

4. x =

372

1. 2

2. -2

373

1. 4

4. 18

2. 4

1
5. 16

3. 32

6. 9
5

374

21

23

4. 3 6

1. 6

2. 1

5. 52 2

3. x

6. 256

376 2
377
378 = 6
379

x x A ( 2
, 0) y y B (0, 2).
3

380 y = 73 x + 13
3

382 y = 3x + 2 3
383

x x A ( 2
, 0) y y B (0, 2).
3

384 y = x + 1 y = x 3
385 t =

1
2

386 t = 13
6
387 y = 3x
388 y = 18 x + 21
4
390

1. x = 3

2. x = 0
3. 1 < x
4. 1 < x < 3

391

(2, 4).



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

307

6.

392 f (x) = x2 + x + 2
393

3
4

394

2m 3 4x2 8x + 5 1. m 2.

397 34 14 17 + 8 2 < x < 34 + 14 17 + 8 2


398 2 x = 1.
403

] [ 23 , +)
(, 2
3

404 23 x = 2.
407

1. 9
4

2. 9
4

410

411

x=

3
2

1. 14

2. 17

412

4 3 = 1, 44 33 = 11, 0 0 = 0, 33 33 = 0.

413

33 11 = 3, 0 33 = 0, 84 12 = 7, (232 233) 233 = 232.

414 15 21
415 7
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http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

308

416

234490 + 094432 = 328 922


328922 + 229823 = 558745
558745 + 547855 = 1106600
1106600 + 0066011 = 1172611
1172611 + 1162711 = 2335322
2335322 + 2235332 = 4570654
4570654 + 4560754 = 9131408
9131408 + 8041319 = 17172727
17172727 + 72727171 = 89899898

417 233
418

1. 120 720.

2. 3.628.800 39.916.800.

420

1210, 2020, 21200, 3211000, 42101000, 521001000,

6210001000.

421

1. 12

6. 17

11. 24

2. 14

7. 15

12. 38

3. 2

8. 1

13. 0

4. 4

9. 3

14. 60

5. 0

422

10. 17
1. 35

2. 72

15. 22

3. 72

5. 0

4. 40

6. 10

423 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100


425

426

427

429 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14, 496 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 31 + 62 + 124 + 248


432

1. 23
24

4. 1
6

7. 5
6

2. 11
30

5. 29
35

8. 15
56

5
3. 21

1
6. 15

9. 1
2



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

309

6.

10. 25
2

9
11. 10

433

1. 13
12

12. 27
8
3.

5
2. 12

yx3

4. (x+1)(y2)

434

1. = 3

3. = 28

2. =

4. = 110

435

1. 1

4
2. 31

436

1. 22

8. 6

2. 19

9. 34

3. 89

10. 39

4. 564

11. 6

5. 274

12. 5

6. 10

13. 9

7. 10

14. 5

437

1. 14
15

2. x

3.

y
x

4. xy

438 60
439 60
440 7
441 126
443

2
5

444

30%.

445

5
6

1
3

1
2
15
7

1
4

1
28

446 <
447
448

x5
4

x
,
3

1
12
x

1. 2 + 12 + 35

2. m2 + 3m 108

449

5
4

3. k 2 + 3k 28
4. 6xa + 9xb 8ya 12yb

1. 14
3

2. 17
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http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

310

450

1. 9009
= 72, 072
125

2. 703
3. 1
4. 2

453 176
9
454 23
455

1. 2x3 7x2 + 7x 2

2. 8a3 + 10a2 7a 6
3. 2a5 b2 a6 + b6 a4 b4
4. 15m4 32m3 + 50m2 32m + 15

456

1. 42c7

2. 45y 7

457

1. 2x
4

2. 2a

3. a2 b3
4. 14x2 y 3 z 5
3. 2c
4. y 3 z 3

458 2x + 1
459

1. 5

2. 1
7

460

1. 5n + p

2. 4

461

3. 4x
4. a2 + 8b2 9c2

27
22

462 6xy + 3x2


463 3 (2 + 2 ) 7
464 +
465 y = 52 .
466

1. 1

2
2.

3. x a

467 3m 12 n


http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

311

6.

468

24
4
1. 2a2 + a4 35 + a
2 a4

2. 3x2a y a+1 3y a1 y a+1 + x2a y a1

469

1. 0

2. 0
3. 0
4. 1

470

1. 11

2. 576
27
3. 512

471

1. 4

2. 6
3. 4

472

1. 8

2. 12

473
7,

474

2 + ( 2) = 0

3
,
2

2,

1,

1
,
6

3,

4,

20

475 92
476 9
477

478

479

480

0.

481

482

483

484

486

5.

487 8, 2, 1, 4
488

. ({, , , } {, , }) {} = {, }

489
..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

312

1. {b, a, c}

5. {a, e}

2. {b, c}

6. {c, d, e}

3. {a}

7. {a}

4.

8. {, , }

490
491

1. A B

2. B A

1.

(A B) =
(A ) B

2. (B A) =

(B ) A

3. ( A) B =

492

1. {, }

3. A B

4. (A B)
5. (A ) B

7. (, )

3. {}

8. {, }

4. {}

9.

5.

10. {}
1. {} [, +)

3. [, ]

2. (, )

4. (, ) [, +)

495

496

7. A B

6. (, )

2. (, )

493

6. (B ) A

( B) A

{a, b, c}, {a, b, d}, {a, b, e}, {a, b, f },


{a, c, d}, {a, c, e}, {a, c, f },
{a, d, e}, {a, d, f },
{a, e, f },
{b, c, d}, {b, c, e}, {b, c, f },
{b, d, e}, {b, d, f },
{b, e, f },
{c, d, e}, {c, d, f },
{c, e, f },
{d, e, f }
1. 24. a, b, c, d.
:

[a, b, c, d], [a, b, d, c], [a, c, b, d], [a, c, d, b], [a, d, b, c], [a, d, c, b],
[b, a, c, d], [b, a, d, c], [b, c, a, d], [b, c, d, a], [b, d, a, c], [b, d, c, a],
[c, a, b, d], [c, a, d, b], [c, b, a, d], [c, b, d, a], [c, d, a, b], [c, d, b, a],
[d, a, b, c], [d, a, c, b], [d, b, a, c], [d, b, c, a], [d, c, a, b], [d, c, b, a]

2. 120

497

1. 50

2. 33
3. 16
4. 3
= A B , = A B N () = N (A B) = N (A) + N (B) N (A B) =

50 + 33 16 = 67

498

586.051.200 .



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

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www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

313

6.

499 495

10

15

21

10

20

35

15

35

21

500

3
4
5
6
7

502

1. 173 = 4913

503 257 = 6.103.515.625


504
505

1. {, }, {, }, {, }, {, , }, {, , }, {, , }, {, , , }.

2. {, , }, {, , }, {, , , }.
3. {}, {}, {, }, {, }, {, }, {, }, {, }, {, , }, {, , }.

506

2
1
3
1
36
= 18
36
= 12
.

4.

507

12
365

508

1 - 2 :

( )
. 3
.
4

509

1
90

510

1
24.435.180

511

= 1, 1%

1. 1
3

512

5
7

513

5
18

..
www.nsmavrogiannis.gr

2. 2
3

1
3. 12



http://lyk-evsch-n-smyrn.att.sch.gr

314

514

1

32

515

10
1000

516

3%.

1
100

1. 9 6

2. .

517
518

15.876
46.189

= 0, 34

1. 22 (3 2 + 2)

2. ( ) (x + y )

519

1. ( + )

3. (3 2 1) (x y)
4. (y 3) (7x + 13)
4. (x2 + 1) ( + )

2. ( + ) (t + u)

5. (x2 + ) (x )

3. ( + ) ( + )

6. (y + z + ) (x + )

520

1. (x + y 3 ) (x y 2 )

4. 1
(6 + x) (52 + x2 )
3

2. (3y + 2x2 ) (x3 + 4y 2 )

5. (x 1) (x2 + x + 1) (x2 2)

3. (3y + 2x2 ) (x3 + 4y 2 )

6. (x2 + x + 1) (2y + 3)

521

1. ( + ) ( + )

2. (x2 y) (y 2 + x)

522
2.

1
1.
+

3. +

3. (x3 + 1) (x2 + x + 1)
4. (5ab 2) (2b2 + ab + a2 )
4.

2 ++ 2

5.

2 + 2
+

6.

(32 +4)
2 2

526

527

528

532

(1)
2 2
2

534
L:



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315

6.

x + y = z

) = (10
)=
541 (10
8
2

10(101)
2

= 45

542

(1 + 1) . (5.9)

545

: ( 1) = , ( 2) =

555

(1)
,
2

... , ( ) = 1
3. 3
5

1. 5

2p3q

2. 3
2

4. 2p+3q

559
561 =

5
,
2

= 11, = 177, 1 = 5.

562 = 1024, =
563

1.

1 = 14, 1 = 14.

2059
1458

2. 1281
512

564

1. 153

565

( + )(+1)
2

566

1
,
192

2. 0

3. 765
4
3.

4. 682

555
2

4. 30

1. 11, 14, 17, 77

2. +1 = 3 =
3. 15 950
4. 23 + ... + 123 = 22 927
5. 2012 .

567 156
568 1 =
569

104
,
3

7
= 18

1. 328

2. 332
3. 47
4. 26

570

1. 5 = 1
2

)
2. = 8 ( 1
2

3. , , 1 , 3 , 5 , ....
: 2 , 4 , 6 , ....

4. ( 2010 ) + ( 1000 ) = 3584


2014
1003

576 Sp+q = (p + q)
578

4+2 (2+1)2+2 +(2+1)2 1


2 (2 1)

583

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316

1. x
2. ,

5. 4

6. , , 1

3.

1 1
7. ,
,

4. 2

8. 4

593

3) .

597

1) 1, 2, 3, ..., 1,

598

599 x = 3 2

1+2+3+...+(1)+

(+1)
2

+1
2

3 = 12.

600 x = 2
601
602

. , x + = 0 =

2 + 1 0.

1. 2 ( ) + 2 ( ) + 2 ( ) = ( ) ( ) ( )

2. x =

603 x = 3
604

1. t =

t
0 +0

02 + 2x)

1
2. t = 2
(20 2

3. F2 = F1

(F12 ()2 F12 + 2 )

BGM m
4. h = BR B
1
5. r = 2

3
3
2 T 2 GM
V

6. T1 = P1 T2 P 1V
2 2
7. x1 = d qd
1

q1 q2

1
8. r2 = kQ kQV
r1

RR R

1 2
9. R3 = R R RR
1 2
2 RR1

605 6 4
606 x = 0 x = 37
607

0, 1
b, 2b x = 3b + 12 a x = b 5a.
5

608 x = 53

x = 3.



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317

6.

609 x = + +
610
611

1
m 1 x = m+1
. m = 1 m = 1
.

612

+6
1 x = 3(1)
. = 1 .

613

x = 1. = R.

614

1. x = 0, x = 5

2. x = 0,x = 15
11
3. x = 3, x = 3
4. x = 8, x = 10
5. x = 2, x = 7
6. x = 13, x = 12

7. x = 71029
8.
9.

23
10. x = 3
10

11. x = 1, x = 3 2+1
21

12. x = 1, x =

3 2+1
21

13. x = 0, x = 5

14. x = 1, x = 3
2
15.
16. x = 3, x = 13
11
17. x = 15
, x = 13
2
5

615 t =
616

3
,
4

t=1

1. x = 2a + 1, x = 2a 1

2. a, b x = 1.
.
3
3. x = 0, x = b ba

4. a b. a b x = (a b). a b
.

617
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318

1. 2

3. 1

5. 0

2. 2

4. 2

6. 0

618 m = 0 m = 12
619 m = 1, m = 5
620

622

1. = 0 . 0 x = 2 x = 5
.
3

2. = 0 . 0 x = 1
x = 23 .
3

623

3 5 2.

624

1. x2 5x + 6 = 0

4. x2 4x + 1 = 0

3) x + 2 + 3 = 0

2. x2 3x 54 = 0

5. x2 (3 +

3. x2 4
x + 13 = 0
3

6. x2 ( + 2 ) x + 3 = 0

625

8. 3 4 = 8

2 6.

626

1. 1 9

2. 5 +

15 5 15

3. 2 8
4. .

627 a = 20 6 5
628 t = 7
629 6, 32
630

1.

631 x = 41
2

2 4
2

2.

(3 2 )
3

x = 10

632
633
634

1
4

<m

635 12 < k < 14


636 1 + y (1 + x)2 (1 + xy) = (xy + y + 1) (x2 y + xy + 1)


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6.

319

637 p = 0, q = 0 p = 1, q = 2 p = 12 , q = 12 .
638 p3 3qp q 2 q = 0

639

1. 42
<x
11

2. 1
<x
4

3. x < 35
29

4. 147
<x
20

640

).
1. a = 1 R. a > 1 (, 2a+1
1a

, +).
a < 1 ( 2a+1
1a

2 + 2
2 < 2
2. 2 = 2 . 2 > 2 x >
4
2
2
+
x <
.
4

641

1. 22
< x x < 47
22
< x < 47
7
4
7
4

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320

2. 2 < x x < 21
,
4

642 5 < x <


643

11
2
2

1. P S4

2. P

S . P
S < 2 P 2 P < S .
: .

.

644

< 0.

645 a < 6
646

1. x = 5, x = 6

2. x = 5 6 13
3. x < 1
4
<x
3
3

647 x = 2
648

2 8

649 = 5, = 3
650 3, 1, 1, 3 ( 2) , 0


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.
2

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321

6.

651

x 0.

653

13x+12x2
13+12x

= x

654 A = (x 1) (2 x) = 2x 3
655 A = t 3 t 5 = (t 3) (5 t) = 2t 8

656
657

3
5

89 + 53

1. x =

10

17
90

+
2

2. x
3. x = 2 , x =

+2
3

4. x

659

1.

662 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
663 6300
665

2 4

666

= 3 1 < x < 2 2 < x < 1.

667

A=

4x + ( + + + )
2x + ( + + + )
+ +
2x + ( + )
4x + ( )

x<
x<
x<
x<
x

669 t = 5
671

1. [1, 2]

2. 0 m 3
2
3. x = 0 x = 1

672

1.

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322

2. x = 4 1
2
2

673

1. f (1) = f (1) = 0

2. x x A(1, 0), B(1, 0). y y (0, 1).


3. (1, 1) (1, +).

674 f (x) =
675

1
1+x2

1. f ( + ) = f (4) = 5

2. f () + f () = 2 ( + ) 6 = 2
3. f (x1 + x2 + ... + x300 ) = f (100) = 197,

f (x1 ) + f (x2 ) + ... + f (x ) = (2x1 3) + (2x2 3) + ... + (2x 3) = 2 (x1 + x2 + ... + x300 )
300 3 = 2 100 300 3 = 700

676

t t = 1
+ 13 x t = 12 y + 52 .
3
1
+ 13 x = 12 y + 52 . x, y y = 23 x + 13

3
3

M .

677

1. 12 2 y 12 2

x
f (x)

1
1

1
2
25

2
35

1
3

2.

681

x2007
2007

1
x2007 = 2007
2008
2008
2007 2007

(0,
1)
.
2008

x=

2007

2007
2007

2008
2008

(0, 1)

2f ()3+f ()

682

x = f ()2+f () (1, 2).



.

684

1. 7

2. 3
3. 2
4. 1
2
5. 2
6. 1
2
7. 100
8. 25
9. 1
5
10. 5
11. 4
12. 3
2

685


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323

6.

1. 42

4. 2 4

2. 2 2

5. 2 18

3
3. 3
5 2

6.

686

1. 2 2

4
3

31
2. 3 2
8 2

5
3. 2 3

687

1. 2

2. 2

317
3

4. 12 14 16

5. 2
6. 4 2
3. 2
4. 8 2 4

690 (1)
691

1
3

692 84
693

(76 )

4) 7

694

1. A = 1, B = 1

2. A = ( 1 ) , B = ( 1 ) (x 1)(x ) =
1
2
2
1
1
2

1
(1 2 )
(x1 )

1
(2 1 )
(x2 )

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3. (+1)
= 1 +1
12
+ 23
+ 34
+ ... + (+1)
= ( 11 
2 ) + (2 3) + ... + ( +1 ) =

1
+1

+1

699 x0 y = 1, y0 x = 1
706 84
710 8
711 10 30

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