Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 45

Chemistry of Environment

CH102 Monday: Wednesday: Friday:

Polymer Chemistry Polymer Chemistry in Everyday Life: Introduction to polymer chemistry. Plastics, reinforced plastics & rubbers: production of household goods, Polymers in medicine and drugs, surgery and cosmetics. Introduction to Chemical Biology Biochemical evolution and cell: Molecular evolution of Life-Biochemical evolution, the first cell, Cell Structure and types, Different organelles and function, cell division, Basic concept of Embryonic stem cell. Methods in Chemical Biology: Chemical Methods to synthesize artificial Proteins and peptides, Chemical Methods to synthesize artificial DNA and RNA. Recombinant DNA Technology: Recombinant DNA technology-concept of Cloning, Concepts of Gene and genome, Gene transfer and Gene therapy, DNA fingerprinting: application in Forensic Science (crime investigation & parental testing). Chemistry of Environment Environment and Ecosystem: Basic idea and definition of environment and ecosystem and important components, Environmental protection and Hazards- importance and identification of sources. Technology for Air and Water Pollution Control: Air Pollutants and their effect on Health, Sources of air pollution- artificial and natural, "Clean Air Act"; Technology for air pollution control: Particulate control, Scrubbers, catalytic converters, VOC abatement, Water pollution categories: point and non point source, Industrial and domestic waste water management. Alternative Energy Sources: Biofuels- alcohol, hydrogen production technology, Biofuels from Jatropa, Green energy: sources, efficiency and sustainability; Energy from Biomass and solid waste, Renewable energy resources: solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, ocean, fuel cells.

Environment and Ecosystem


Basic idea and definition of environment and ecosystem Important components Environmental protection and hazards
Importance and identification of sources

THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES


the environment has not always been topical environmental issues have become a matter of widespread public concern only over the past 20 years or so Nonetheless, basic environmental science has existed as a facet of human scientific endeavour since the earliest days of scientific investigation.

Physical Sciences
geology, geophysics meteorology oceanography hydrology

Biological Sciences
Ecology
(scientific study of organisms in relation with their environment)

Why environmental chemistry has flourished as a discipline only rather recently? Firstly, it was not previously perceived as important.
using an aerosol spray

Secondly, the rate of advance has in many instances been limited by the available technology.
Availability of sensitive reliable instrumentation

Environment (encircle/surround)
Definition:
Physical, chemical and biological world that surrounds us The circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms.

Types:
Physical environment Biological environment

Physical environment
Also known as Abiotic component Composed of non-living substances
Lithosphere
Upper mantle of earths crust

Hydrosphere
Water bodies

Atmosphere
gases

Biological environment
Also known as biotic component Biosphere
Includes all type of living beings

Biosphere is the part of the earth on which organisms can survive and reproduce

Ecology
Closely related with environment
Ecology (from Greek: okios, "house"; -logy, "study of") is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment.

The term "ecology" (German: Oekologie) is of a more recent origin and was first coined by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel

Definition of Ecology
Scientific study of organisms in relation with environment Scientific study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms Biological world is diverse
Systematic approach required (interactions between living organisms and environment) : ECOSYSTEM

Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a living community of plant and animals sharing an environment with nonliving elements such as climate and soil.
Denotes the physical and biological components of an environment in relation to each other as a unit.

The entire assemblage of organism living together in a certain space with their environment functioning as a loose unit.

Ecosystem
It is region with a specific and recognizable landscape form, such as a forest, grassland, desert, wetland or coastal area, etc.

Structural Components of Ecosystem


Two components
Abiotic component
Includes quantity and distribution of non-living materials
various physical and chemical factors

Biotic component
Includes composition of the bio-community including the species, their members, biomass and distribution, etc.

Abiotic Components
Physical factors
sunlight and shade average temperature average precipitation and distribution wind latitude and altitude nature of soil (for terrestrial ecosystems) water current (for aquatic ecosystems) amount of suspended solid material (for aquatic ecosystems)

Chemical factors
level of water and air in soil level of plant nutrients dissolved in soil moisture (for terrestrial) and in the water (for aquatic) level of natural or artificial toxic substances dissolved in soil moisture and in water salinity of water for aquatic ecosystems level of dissolved oxygen in aquatic ecosystems

Biotic component
Classification of organisms that make up the biotic component of an ecosystem based on how they get their food or organic nutrients they need to survive.
Autotrophs Heterotrophs

Autotrophs aka Producers


organisms that can manufacture the organic compounds they need as nutrients from simple inorganic compounds obtained from their environment.
green plants (most terrestrial ecosystems), phytoplankton, consisting of various species of of floating and drifting bacteria (aquatic ecosystems)

Heterotrophs
organisms which cannot synthesize their own food and depend on producers directly or indirectly.
Primary consumers (herbivores) feed directly on plants or other producers. Secondary consumers (carnivores) feed only on primary consumers. Tertiary or higher level consumers feed only on animal-eating animals. Omnivores can eat both plants and animals. Examples are pigs, rats, cockroaches, and humans.

Heterotrophs
Decomposers Specialized organisms that recycle nutrients in ecosystems. Digest or degrade living or dead organisms into simpler inorganic compounds that producers can take up form soil and water to use as nutrients. Detritrivores Insects and other scavengers that feed on the wastes or dead bodies of other organisms.

Scavengers

Decomposers

Longhorned beetle holes

Termite and Bark beetle Carpenter carpenter ant engraving galleries ant work Dry rot fungus Wood reduced to Mushroom powder Powder broken down by decomposers into plant nutrients in soil

Time progression

Oxygen (O2) Producer

Sun

Carbon dioxide (CO2) Secondary consumer Primary (fox) consumer (rabbit) Precipitation Falling leaves and twigs Producers Soil decomposers

Water

Divisions of Environmental Education Program


Environmental science
Scientific study of environment Identify cause of environmental damage

Environmental engineering
Develop technology to minimize environmental damage

Environmental management
Create awareness, identify environmental issues Legislation, statistics, etc.

Reasons for introducing environmental education


Awareness: impact of human activity on environment To motivate youth to participate in environmental projects Understanding the complexities of environment and adapt eco-friendly habits To integrate different approaches to investigate and solve environmental problems

Types of Ecosystem
Natural ecosystem
Without any major interference by man, these ecosystems are capable of operating and maintaining themselves. Based on the habitat, they are further classified as
Terrestrial ecosystem
Forest, grassland, desert, etc

Aquatic ecosystem
Fresh water, marine, etc.

Types of Ecosystem
Artificial ecosystem
These ecosystems are maintained by human beings, where natural balance is disturbed regularly by means of planned manipulations.
Crop plants Artificial lakes and reservoirs Townships and cities

Types of Ecosystem
Incomplete ecosystem
Those ecosystems that dont contain all the four basic components abiotic component, producers, consumers, and decomposers.
Abyssal depth of sea and caves lack producers but contain only consumers and decomposers

Ecosystem
Size:
May vary (as small as surface of a rock or a small garden or as big as a forest or ocean)

Other features:
No ecosystem is well demarcated

bigger ecosystem Several small ecosystems Ecosystems can be linked with one another
Migratory birds, erosion of soil,

Example of Ecosystem
Pond Ecosystem abiotic Components
Sunlight, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts of calcium and nitrogen etc.

Biotic components
Producers:-The producers are of two types -larger rooted and floating vegetations together termed macrophytes and phytoplanktons which are microscopic floating algae

Example of Ecosystem
Pond Ecosystem Biotic Components
Zooplanktons as primary consumers, insects, beetles, fishes : secondary consumers, snakes, big fishes are tertiary consumers decomposers either live in the soil layer beneath water or in the mud

Food chain
Only Green plants trap solar energy and convert into chemical energy Food: Materials containing energy , consumed by living organisms. Energy in the form of energy passes in the order Producer primary secondary tertiary consumers Grass Deer Tiger

Food Web
Many food chains exist in an ecosystem Food chains are not always independent Food chains are interlinked A complex of interrelated or interlinked food chains is called food web

Trophic levels
In ecology, the trophic level is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it.
Trophic levels can be represented by numbers, starting at level 1 with plants. Further trophic levels are numbered subsequently according to how far the organism is along the food chain. Level 1: primary producers [Plants and algae] Level 2: primary consumers eat plants: [Herbivores] Level 3: secondary consumers : [Carnivores] eat herbivores Level 4: tertiary consumers: Carnivores eat other carnivores

Importance of Food Chain


Understand the food relationship between different organism in an ecosystem Understand the flow of energy Understand the movement of toxic substances in ecosystem
Vultures and Diclofenac (2-(2,6-dichloranilino)phenylacetic acid.

Ecological pyramids
Ecological pyramids are graphical representations of the trophic structure of ecosystem. Area proportional to a quantity.

Types of Ecological Pyramids


Pyramid of numbers:
Showing population

Pyramid of biomass
Showing total mass

Pyramid of Energy
Showing energy of productivity

Pyramid of numbers

Inverted Pyramid (of numbers)

Pyramid of biomass

Pyramid of Energy
Graphic representation of the amount of energy trapped per unit time and area in different trophic level of a food chain with producers forming the base and the top carnivores at the tip Pyramid of energy is always upright. Energy loss at succesive energy levels. Only 10% of the energy is available to next trophic level

Pyramid of Energy

Energy flow in Ecosystem


Energy from the sun is captured by the green plants and passed on through the various trophic levels. The flow of energy is unidirectional i.e., noncyclic. On average about 10 percent of net energy production at one trophic level is passed on to the next level respiration, growth and reproduction, defecation, and non-predatory death

Energy flow in Ecosystem

Energy Flow
Other important features:
Progressive decrease in energy level on going from a lower to higher trophic level Shorter food chain, less loss of energy, greater efficiency There cant be too many links in a single food chain
Animals at the end of the chain wont get enough food/energy