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# 5.

1
E=

T2

[r (t ) r(t )]

T1

K 1

dt = r (t ) xl l (t ) dt
l =0

T1
T2

2
K 1

E = 2 r (t ) xl l (t ) k (t )dt
x k
l =0

T1

T2

K 1

T2

T1

l =0

T1

= 2 r (t ) k (t )dt + 2 xl l (t ) k (t )dt
l k
T2

= 2 r (t ) k (t )dt + 2 x k
T1

E = 0 x k = r (t ) k (t )dt
x k
T1

5.2

E=

T2

[r (t ) r(t )]

T1

K 1

dt = r (t ) xl l (t ) dt
l =0

T1
T2

## The optimum xk satisfy

2
K 1

0=
E = 2 r (t ) xl l (t ) k (t )dt
x k
l =0

T1

e (t )

T2

## 0 = 2 e(t ) k (t )dt k (t ) is orthogonal to e(t )

T1

5.3
The set is orthogonal (but not orthonormal) means
l=k
lk

E
(t ) (t )dt = 0

T2

T1

## The optimum coefficients are derived as follows:

E=

T2

[r (t ) r(t )]

T1

K 1

dt = r (t ) xl l (t ) dt
l =0

T1
T2

2
K 1

(
)
E = 2 r t xl l (t ) k (t )dt
x k
l =0

T1

T2

K 1

T2

T1

l =0

T1

= 2 r (t ) k (t )dt + 2 xl l (t ) k (t )dt
Ek when l = k
T2

= 2 r (t ) k (t )dt + 2 x k E k
T1

T2

1
E = 0 xk =
x k
Ek

T2

r (t ) (t )dt =
k

T1

r (t ) (t )dt
k

T1

T2

(t )dt
2
k

T1

## 5.4 The set is neither orthogonal nor normalized.

E=

T2

[r (t ) r(t )]

T1

K 1

dt = r (t ) xl l (t ) dt
l =0

T1
T2

2
K 1

E = 2 r (t ) xl l (t ) k (t )dt
x k
l =0

T1

T2

K 1

T2

T1

l =0

T1

= 2 r (t ) k (t )dt + 2 xl l (t ) k (t )dt
2
K 1

E = 0 r (t ) k (t )dt = xl l (t ) k (t )dt
x k
l =0
T1
T1

T2

k = 0,1, , K 1

This defines a set of K equations in the K unknowns xk (for k = 0,1, , K 1 ). To see this, Let
T2

T2

T1

T1

## Pk = r (t ) k (t )dt and Rk ,l = l (t ) k (t )dt for k = 0,1, , K 1 .

With these definitions, the system of equations is
K 1

E = 0 Pk = x k Rl ,k for k = 0,1, , K 1 .
x k
l =0

As is customary with systems of equations, this system of equations may also be expressed in
matrix form as follows:
P0 R0,0
P R
1 = 1,0

PK 1 RK 1, 0
P

R0, K 1 x0
R1, K 1 x1

RK 1, K 1 x K 1

R0,1
R1,1
RK 1,1
R

## The matrix equation is P = Rx. The solution for the optimum xs is

x = R 1 P .

Note that if the set of basis functions is orthogonal, then R is the diagonal matrix

E0

R=

E1

E K 1

1
E
0

1
E1

1
E K 1

T2

## where E k = k2 (t )dt for k = 0,1, , K 1 . The solution for xk is

T1

1
Pk
Ek
which is the solution to Exercise 5.3. Furthermore, when the set of basis functions is
orthonormal, Ek = 1 for k = 0,1, , K 1 . As a consequence, R = I, so that R 1 = I . The solution
for xk is
xk =

x k = Pk
which is the solution to Exercise 5.1.

T2

T1

E
(t ) (t )dt = 0

T2

T1

l=k
.
lk

## Now the energy in s (t ) is

K 1
K 1

E s = s (t )dt = a k k (t ) a l l (t ) dt
l =0

T1
T1 k = 0
T2

T2

K 1 K 1

T2

k =0 l =0

T1

= a k al k (t )l (t )dt
K 1

= a k2 E k
k =0

The interpretation is that Es is a scaled squared Euclidean distance from the origin of the signal
space. Alternatively, the expression can be interpreted as the squared Euclidean distance in a
Cartesian coordinate system whose axes do not have the same length.

5.6

+A

1
t

+A

5.7
+A

1
t

(0,+ A)

A
+A
1

(+ A,0)

5.8
+2A

+2A

1
t

2A

2A

( A,+ A)

( A, A)
+2A

2A

(+ A,+ A)

(+ A, A)
+2A

t
1

t
2A

5.9
+A

1
t

(0,+ A)
+A

1
t
-A

( A,0)

(+ A,0)

(0, A)

+A
t
A

5.10

3 1
A
2

3 +1
A
2

1
t

3 +1
A
2

3 1
A
2

A 3 A

,+

2
2

A 3 A
+
,+

2
2

(0,0)
+2A

(0, A)

t
2A

1
+A

t
A

4A

2A
4A

4A

2A

2A

2A
4A

( A,+ A)

( 3 A,+ A)

( A,+ A)

( 3 A,+ A)

+4A
+2A

(+ A,+ A) (+ 3 A,+ A)

(+ A,+ A) (+ 3 A,+ A)

+4A
+2A

+2A

+2A
t

+4A

+4A

5.11

5.12
1

x 0 = r (t ) 0 (t )dt =
0

1
2

x1 = r (t )1 (t )dt = 0
0

1
r(t ) = x 0 0 (t ) + x11 (t ) = 0 (t )
2

r (t )

r(t )

+1
+

5.13
1

x 0 = r (t ) 0 (t )dt =
0

1
2

x1 = r (t )1 (t )dt = 0
0

1
r(t ) = x 0 0 (t ) + x11 (t ) = 0 (t )
2
r (t )

+1

r(t )

+
t

5.14
1

x 0 = r (t ) 0 (t )dt =0
0

x1 = r (t )1 (t )dt =
0

1
2

1
r(t ) = x 0 0 (t ) + x11 (t ) = 1 (t )
2
r (t )
+1
+

r(t )

t
1

5.15
1

x 0 = r (t ) 0 (t )dt =0
0

x1 = r (t )1 (t )dt =
0

1
2

1
r(t ) = x0 0 (t ) + x11 (t ) = 1 (t )
2
r (t )

+1
+

r(t )

5.16
(a)

30 (t ) + 1 (t )

+4
+2
t

(b)
1

x 0 = r (t ) 0 (t )dt =3
0

x1 = r (t )1 (t )dt =1
0

r(t ) = x 0 0 (t ) + x11 (t ) = 3 0 (t ) + 1 (t )
r(t )
r (t )

+4
+2

## (c) The best approximation for r (t ) in Span{ 0 (t ), 1 (t )} is 3 0 (t ) + 1 (t ) .

5.17

+A 2

1
t

A 2

+A

5.18
+A 2

(0,+ A)
+A 2

(+ A,0)

5.19
+A 2
A 2

+A 2

( A,+ A)

( A, A)

1
A 2

(+ A,+ A)

(+ A, A)
+A 2

A 2

5.20
+A 2
t

A 2

(0,+ A)
+A 2

A 2

+A 2

( A,0)

(+ A,0)

(0, A)
+A 2

1
t

A 2

A 2

5.21
3
A
2
1
+
A
2
+

1
A
2

3
A
2

A 3 A
+
,+

2
2

A 3 A

,+

2
2

(0,0)
+2A
t
2A

(0, A)

A 2

A3 2

A 2

A3 2

A 2

A 2

A 2

A 2

A 2

( A,+ A)

( 3 A,+ A)

( A,+ A)

( 3 A,+ A)

A 2

A 2

(+ A,+ A) (+ 3 A,+ A)

(+ A,+ A) (+ 3 A,+ A)

A 2

A3 2

A 2

A 2

A3 2

A 2

A3 2

5.22

5.23
(a)

0(t)

-1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1(t)

-1

dimension K = 2
(b)
2
1.5

s1

0.5
0

s2

s0

-0.5
-1
s3
-1.5
-2
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

5.24
(a)

0(t)

-1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1(t)

-1

dimension: K =2
(b)
2
1.5

s2

0.5
0

s1

s3

-0.5
-1
s0
-1.5
-2
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

The basis functions here are the same as those for Exercise 5.23, but the constellation is a reordered version of the constellation in Exercise 5.23.

5.25
(a)
1.5
1

0(t)

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

dimension: K = 1
(b)
8
6
4
2
0

s3

s2

s1

s0

-2
-4
-6
-8
-8

-6

-4

-2

5.26
(a)

0(t)

-1
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1(t)

-1

dimension: K = 2
(b)
s2

2
1.5

s3

0.5
s0

s1

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

5.27
(a)

0(t)

1
0
-1
0

0.5

1.5
t

2.5

0.5

1.5
t

2.5

0.5

1.5
t

2.5

1(t)

1
0
-1

2(t)

1
0
-1

dimension K = 3
(b)

s3

s2
0

s0

s1

-5
5
5
0

0
-5

-5

5.28
(a)

0(t)

-1
0

0.5

1.5
t

2.5

0.5

1.5
t

2.5

1(t)

-1

dimension: K = 2
(b)
2.5
2
1.5

s1

s2

0.5
s0

0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5

-2

-1

5.29
The average energy may be expressed as

E avg =

M
1
2

A
M

(2m + 1)

m=

M
2

2A
M

M
1
2 2

(2m + 1)

m =0

n

i = n
i =0
n

i =
i =0

i =0

n(n + 1)
2

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6

## Using these identities, we have

M
1
2

(2m + 1)

m =0

M
1
2

M
1
2

M
1
2

m =0

m =0

m =0

= 4 m2 + 4 m +

M
M
M
M
1 (M 2 + 1)
1
2
2
2
2
= 4
+4
6
2
3
M M 1
=
2
3
Putting this all together we have
E avg =

2 A2 M M 3 1 M 3 1 2
A
=
M 2
3
3

+M
2

5.30
(a) A = 0.05.

LUT
0
1

bits

-0.05
+0.05

p(nT)

(b)
-3

x 10

1.5
1

s(t)

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

4
t/Ts

(c)
x(t)
r(t)

DAC
N samples/bit

x(kT)

p(nT)

decision
n = kN

(d)
k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) +0.00
-0.01
+0.33
+0.07
----------------------------------a(k) +0.05
-0.05
+0.05
+0.05
----------------------------------bits
1
0
1
1

s(t)

5.31
(a) A = 0.03.

LUT
00
01
10
11

bits

-0.09
-0.03
+0.09
+0.03

p(nT)

(b)
-3

2.5

x 10

1.5

s(t)

0.5

-0.5

-1

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

(c)

r(t)

DAC
N samples/symbol

p(nT)

decision
n = kN

(d)
k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) +0.07
+0.06
-0.03
-0.10
----------------------------------a(k) +0.09
+0.03
-0.03
-0.09
----------------------------------bits
10
11
01
00

s(t)

5.32
(a) A = 0.125

000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

bits

LUT

-0.875
-0.625
-0.125
-0.375
+0.875
+0.625
+0.125
+0.375

p(nT)

(b)
0.02
0.018
0.016
0.014

s(t)

0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002

0.5

1.5
t/Ts

2.5

(c)

r(t)

DAC
N samples/symbol

p(nT)

decision
n = kN

(d)
k
0
1
2
3
--------------------------------------x(k) +0.601
-0.101
+0.355
-0.777
--------------------------------------a(k) +0.625
-0.125
+0.375
-0.875
--------------------------------------bits
101
010
111
000

s(t)

5.33

2
1
0
-1
-2
-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0
t/Ts

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0
t/Ts

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0
t/Ts

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

2
1
0
-1
-2
-0.5

2
1
0
-1
-2
-0.5

(d) All eye diagrams exhibit no ISI at the optimum sampling instant. The peak overshoot
increases as the excess bandwidth decreases. The width of the eye opening (and hence, the
immunity to timing offset) decreases as the excess bandwidth decreases.

5.34

4
2
0
-2
-4
-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0
t/Ts

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0
t/Ts

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0
t/Ts

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-5
-0.5

-5
-0.5

(d) All eye diagrams exhibit no ISI at the optimum sampling instant. The peak overshoot
increases as the excess bandwidth decreases. The width of the eye opening (and hence, the
immunity to timing offset) decreases as the excess bandwidth decreases.

5.35

magnitude (dB)

part (a)
0

signal
filter

-20
-40
-5

0
frequency (cycles/symbol)

-2
-1

-0.5

0
t/Ts

0.5

magnitude (dB)

part (b)
0

signal
filter

-20
-40
-5

0
frequency (cycles/symbol)

-2
-1

-0.5

0
t/Ts

0.5

magnitude (dB)

part (c)
0

signal
filter

-20
-40
-5

0
frequency (cycles/symbol)

-2
-1

-0.5

0
t/Ts

0.5

(d) As the bandwidth of the channel decreases, signal distortion increases. The signal distortion
manifests itself in the eye diagram as a narrowing of the eye opening and closure of the eye due
to ISI.

5.36
magnitude (dB)

part (a)
0

signal
filter

-20
-40
-5

0
frequency (cycles/symbol)

-1
-1

-0.5

0
t/Ts

0.5

magnitude (dB)

part (b)
0

signal
filter

-20
-40
-5

0
frequency (cycles/symbol)

-2
-1

-0.5

0
t/Ts

0.5

magnitude (dB)

part (c)
0

signal
filter

-20
-40
-5

0
frequency (cycles/symbol)

-2
-1

-0.5

0
t/Ts

0.5

(d) As the order of the filter increases, an increasing amount of energy is removed from the
signal. This increases distortion seen as eye narrowing and eye closure due to ISI.

5.37
(a) 0 =
(b)

2 0

## , then the output of the phase shifter is

20
cos( x (t )) = cos( x t x ) = cos( x t )

= x =

Now, 1 =

= 1
0
2 0
2

180

180

180

which implies

1
1
1 1 +
2 90
2 90

Case 1: =

1 +
2
0

1
1
1 + 0 0
1 1 +
0 2 90
2 90 2
90
90

Case 2: =

1
2
0

1
1
1 + 0 0
1 1
0 2 90
2 90 2
90
90

5.38
(a)

0 =

2 0

## The output of the phase shifter is sin 0 t = cos( 0 t )

2

(b)
The system outputs are

cos(0t )
sin (0t )
but cos( 0 t ) = cos( 0 t + ) and sin ( 0 t ) = sin ( 0 t + ) . So the system output may be
expressed as
cos(0t + )
sin (0t + )
with = . This system does indeed have the desired relationship.

5.39
(a) =

3
2

(b) 0 =

3
2

3
2 0

(c)
The delay is 3 times the delay from Exercise 5.37. Furthermore, the tunable range over
which the phase error does not exceed 1 is less than that for Exercise 5.37.

5.40
(a) A = 2

ILUT
00
01
10
11

I(t)

-1
-1
+1
+1

p(nT)

2 cos( 0 n )

bits

s(t)

2 sin ( 0 n )

QLUT
00
01
10
11

-1
+1
-1
+1

p(nT)
Q(t)

(b)

I(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

Q(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

s(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

(c)
x(t)

x(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

2 cos( 0 n )
r(t)

decision

DAC
N samples/symbol

2 sin ( 0 n )

y(t)

y(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

(d)
1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) -1.01
+1.02
+1.11
-0.03
y(k) +1.07
-0.99
+1.00
+0.07
----------------------------------a0(k) -1.00
+1.00
+1.00
-1.00
a1(k) +1.00
-1.00
+1.00
+1.00
----------------------------------bits
01
10
11
01

5.41
(a) A = 0.05 = 0.2236
LUT
00
01
10
11

bits

-0.6708
-0.2236
+0.2708
+0.2236

p(nT)

s(t)

2 cos( 0 n )

(b)

0.02

I(t)

0.01
0
-0.01
-0.02
0

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.04

s(t)

0.02
0
-0.02
-0.04

(c)

x(t)
r(t)

DAC
N samples/symbol 2 cos( n )
0

x(kT)

p(nT)

decision
n = kN

(d)
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
-3

-2

-1

k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) -0.03
+0.55
+1.53
-2.10
----------------------------------a(k) -0.22
+0.67
+0.67
-0.67
----------------------------------bits
01
10
10
00

5.42
(a) A = 2
ILUT
00
01
10
11

I(t)

0
-3
+3
0

p(nT)

2 cos( 0 n )

bits

s(t)

2 sin ( 0 n )

QLUT
00
01
10
11

0
+1
+1
2

p(nT)
Q(t)

(b)

I(t)

0.05

-0.05

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

Q(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

s(t)

0.1
0
-0.1

(c)
x(t)

x(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

2 cos( 0 n )
r(t)

decision

DAC
N samples/symbol

2 sin ( 0 n )

y(t)

y(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

(d)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5

-2

-1

k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) -0.03
-0.01
+0.01
+0.03
y(k) +1.97
+1.97
+1.97
+1.97
----------------------------------a0(k) -1.73
+0.00
+0.00
+1.73
a1(k) +1.00
+0.00
+0.00
+1.00
----------------------------------bits
01
00
00
10

5.43
(a) A = 2
ILUT
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

+2
+1
1
0
+1
0
-2
1

I(t)
N

p(nT)

2 cos( 0 n )

bits

s(t)

QLUT
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

2 sin ( 0 n )

0
+1
+1
+2
1
-2
0
1

p(nT)
Q(t)

(b)

I(t)

0.05

-0.05

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

Q(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

s(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

(c)
x(t)

x(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

2 cos( 0 n )
r(t)

decision

DAC
N samples/symbol

2 sin ( 0 n )

y(t)

y(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

(d)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2

-1

k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) -1.30
+1.51
-0.09
+0.65
y(k) +1.64
-1.49
-0.91
+0.07
----------------------------------a0(k) -1.00
+1.00
+0.00
+1.41
a1(k) +1.00
-1.00
-1.41
+0.00
----------------------------------bits
010
100
101
000

5.44
(a) A = 2
ILUT
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

+22
0
+2
+22
2
-22
0
-22

I(t)
N

p(nT)

2 cos( 0 n )

bits

s(t)

QLUT
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

2 sin ( 0 n )

+22
+2
0
22
0
+22
2
22

p(nT)
Q(t)

(b)

I(t)

0.1
0
-0.1

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

Q(t)

0.1
0
-0.1

s(t)

0.2
0
-0.2

(c)
x(t)

x(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

2 cos( 0 n )
r(t)

decision

DAC
N samples/symbol

2 sin ( 0 n )

y(t)

y(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

(d)
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8

-5

k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) -2.00
+1.00
+7.20
-1.64
y(k) -2.01
+1.64
+0.00
+1.25
----------------------------------a0(k) -2.83
+0.00
+2.00
-2.00
a1(k) -2.83
+2.00
+0.00
+0.00
----------------------------------bits
111
001
010
100

5.45
(a) A = 2
ILUT
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

+2
-1
+1
+2
-1
-2
+1
2

I(t)
N

p(nT)

2 cos( 0 n )

bits

s(t)

QLUT
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

2 sin ( 0 n )

+2
+1
+1
-2
1
+2
-1
2

p(nT)
Q(t)

(b)

I(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

Q(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

s(t)

0.1
0
-0.1

(c)
x(t)

x(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

2 cos( 0 n )
r(t)

decision

DAC

2 sin ( 0 n )

N samples/symbol

y(t)

y(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

(d)
3

-1

-2

-3
-3

-2

-1

k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) -1.32
+1.51
+0.71
-0.05
y(k) -1.32
-1.51
+1.32
+0.05
----------------------------------a0(k) -1.00
+2.00
+1.00
-1.00
a1(k) -1.00
-2.00
+1.00
+1.00
----------------------------------bits
100
011
010
001

5.46
(a) A = 0.3
ILUT
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

-0.9
-0.9
-0.9
-0.9
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
0.3
+0.9
+0.9
+0.9
+0.9
+0.3
+0.3
+0.3
+0.3

I(t)
N

p(nT)
2 cos( 0 n )

bits

QLUT
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

+0.9
+0.3
-0.9
-0.3
+0.9
+0.3
-0.9
0.3
+0.9
+0.3
-0.9
-0.3
+0.9
+0.3
-0.9
-0.3

2 sin ( 0 n )

p(nT)
Q(t)

s(t)

(b)

I(t)

0.02
0
-0.02
0

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

Q(t)

0.02
0
-0.02

s(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

(c)
x(t)

x(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

2 cos( 0 n )
r(t)

decision

DAC
N samples/symbol

2 sin ( 0 n )

y(t)

y(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

(d)
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
-1

-0.5

0.5

k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) -0.03
+0.51
-0.09
+0.65
y(k) +0.64
-0.49
-0.91
+0.07
----------------------------------a0(k) -0.30
+0.30
-0.30
+0.90
a1(k) +0.90
-0.30
-0.90
+0.30
----------------------------------bits
0100
1111
0110
1001

5.47
(a) A = 0.3
ILUT
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

0
-0.9
0
+0.9
-0.3
+0.3
-1.5
-0.9
+0.9
+1.5
-0.3
+0.3
0
-0.9
+0.9
0

I(t)
N

p(nT)

2 cos( 0 n )

bits

QLUT
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

+1.5
+0.9
+0.9
+0.9
+0.3
+0.3
0
0
0
0
-0.3
-0.3
-0.9
-0.9
-0.9
-1.5

2 sin ( 0 n )
N

p(nT)
Q(t)

s(t)

(b)

I(t)

0.05
0
-0.05
0

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

0.5

1.5

2
t/Ts

2.5

3.5

Q(t)

0.05
0
-0.05

s(t)

0.1
0
-0.1

(c)
x(t)

x(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

2 cos( 0 n )
r(t)

decision

DAC
N samples/symbol

2 sin ( 0 n )

y(t)

y(kT)

p(nT)
n = kN

(d)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2

-1

k
0
1
2
3
----------------------------------x(k) +0.90
-1.95
+1.90
+0.05
y(k) +0.54
+0.01
-1.91
-0.94
----------------------------------a0(k) +0.90
-1.50
+0.90
+0.00
a1(k) +0.90
+0.00
-0.90
-0.90
----------------------------------bits
0011
0110
1110
1100

5.48

5.49

5.50

5.51

5.52

5.53
E avg
E avg

## 4r12 + 12r22 r12 + 3r22

=
=
16
4
2
2
2
4r + 12r2 + 16r3
r 2 + 3r22 + 4r32
= 1
= 1
32
8

5.54
r2
= 2.7236
r1
= 0
maximum d min = 0.1462

-1

-2

-3
-3

-2

-1

5.55
r2
= 2.8242
r1
r3
= 4.2143
r1
1 = 0
2 = 0
maximum d min = 0.073658

5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-5

5.56
E avg
E avg

) (

) (

) (

) (

4 2 A 2 + 4 9 A 2 + 4 25 A 2 + 4 18 A 2
27 2
=
=
A
16
2
4 2 A2 + 4 9 A2
11
=
= A2
8
2

5.57
r1 = 2 A

1 =

2 = 0

r3 = 3 2 A 3 =

r2 = 3 A

r1 = 5 A

2 = 0

r1 = 2 A 1 =
r2 = 3 A

2 = 0

5.58

5.59

5.60

5.61
(a)
1.5
(1,1)
1
(1,1)
0.5

-0.5

-1
(-1,-1)
-1.5
-1.5

-1

(1,-1)

-0.5

0.5

1.5

(b)
k
0
1
2
3
-------------------------------------------x(kTs)
+1.0
-1.0
+1.0
+1.0
y((k+0.5)Ts) -1.0
-1.0
+1.0
+1.0
-------------------------------------------a0(k)
+1.0
-1.0
+1.0
+1.0
a1(k)
-1.0
-1.0
+1.0
+1.0
-------------------------------------------bits
10
00
11
11

5.62
For each case, the bit rate is Rb =

1
N M k where k is the number of data bits per subcarrier.
TM

(a) QPSK (k = 2)
Rb = 100000

symbols
subcarriers
bits
64
2
= 12.8 Mbits/s
sec
symbol
subcarrier

(b) 16-QAM (k = 4)
Rb = 100000

symbols
subcarriers
bits
64
4
= 25.6 Mbits/s
sec
symbol
subcarrier

## (c) 64-QAM with rate-2/3 code: k = 6

Rb = 100000

2
=4
3

symbols
subcarriers
bits
64
4
= 25.6 Mbits/s
sec
symbol
subcarrier

5.63

Rb =

NM

1
NM k
TM

Rb
20 10 6
=
=
= 25
1
200000 4
k
TM

5.64
Assign a point from a constellation with a small number of points (e.g., BPSK, QPSK) to those
subcarriers that are attenuated a lot by the channel. Assign a point from a constellation with a
large number of points (e.g., 16-QAM, 64-QAM) to those subcarriers that are not attenuated a lot
by the channel. The selection criterion would be the maximum allowed bit error rate.