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SEMINAR REPORT ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY in RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS (SCHOOL OF RENEWABLE ENERGY & EFFICIENCY) NIT KURUKSHETRA

SUBMITTED TO: PROF. A. SWARUP

SUBMITTED BY:
UMAR FAROOQ ROLL NO 3127005 M.TECH (RES)

DEPARTMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF KURUKSHETRA

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 2. HISTORY OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 3. HOW GEOTHERMAL ENERGY WORKS 4. GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT 5. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY BENEFITS 6. ADVANTAGES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 7. DISADVANTAGES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 8. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 9. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY COST 10.CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 11.GEOTHERMAL ENERGY SCENARIO: INDIA AND THE WORLD 12.MANIKARAN GEOTHERMAL FIELD, PRBATI VALLEY, KULU DISTRICT, HIMACHAL PRADESH A CASE STUDY 13.CONCLUSION 14.REFRENCES

INTRODUCTION
Geothermal energy is the energy that lies within the earth. It is one of the most renewable sources of energy which is never going to extinct and can be found almost anywhere - as far away as remote deep wells or may be closer to your home. Energy inside the earth is never going to deplete and will remain as a source of heat, for millions and millions of years and we can harness that energy that is going to be cheaper and can help us to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and global warming and public health issues that result from their use. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The Geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. At the core of the Earth, thermal energy is created by radioactive decay and temperatures may reach over 5000 degrees Celsius (9,000 degrees Fahrenheit). Heat conducts from the core to surrounding cooler rock. The high temperature and pressure cause some rock to melt, creating magma convection upward since it is lighter than the solid rock. The magma heats rock and water in the crust, sometimes up to 370 degrees Celsius (700 degrees Fahrenheit). Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries. An additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread

exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels. Geothermal energy works by drilling holes in the Underground river and extraction of groundwater to the surface. Once at the surface this hot water is circulated through pipes over an additional pipe containing a fluid that has a lower boiling point. This low boiling point means that the steam will be capable of powering turbines to produce electricity. After the couple used to drive turbines, condensed and recycled back into the system. Recirculation of liquid water means that geothermal energy is a renewable energy source and produce low emissions. Geothermal energy produce few emissions harmful gases as the water contains small quantities of nitric acid, sulphur and other contaminants that causes low pollution. However, the amount released is less than 1% of carbon emitted or other conventional energy sources. There are many advantages of geothermal energy. It is pure: geothermal energy plants do not have to burn fuel to produce steam turbines, which will help conserve and reduce consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels, which in turn reduces emissions of greenhouse gases. Moreover, geothermal plants use less land per megawatt than almost any other kind of energy that does not damage the environment through dams and mining.

History of Geothermal Energy


History says that the first use of geothermal energy occurred more than 10,000 years ago in North America by American Paleo-Indians. People used water from hot springs for cooking, bathing and cleaning.

The first industrial use of geothermal energy began near Pisa, Italy in late 18th century. In 1904, Italian scientist Piero-Ginori Conti invented the first geothermal electric power plant in which steam was used to generate the power. With the above experiment, the first geothermal plant in USA started in 1922 with a capacity of 250 kilowatts. It produced little output and due to technical glitch had to be shut down. However, in 1946 first ground-source geothermal heat pump installed at Commonwealth Building in Portland, Oregon. Today there are more than 60 geothermal power plants operating in USA at 18 sites across the country.

In 1973, when oil crisis began many countries began looking for renewable energy sources and by 1980'sgeothermal heat pumps (GHP) started gaining popularity in order to reduce heating and cooling costs. As effect of climate change started showing results, governments of various countries joined hands to fight against it, for which Kyoto Protocol was signed in Japan in 1997, laid out emission targets for rich countries and required that they transfer funds and technology to developing countries, 184 countries have ratified it. Geothermal power today supplies less than 1% of the world's energy, needs but it is expected to supply 10-20% of world's energy requirement by 2050. Geothermal power plants today are operating in about 20 countries which are actively visited by earthquakes and volcanoes. The International Geothermal Association (IGA) has reported that 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power in 24 countries is online, which is expected to generate 67,246 GWh of electricity at present. This represents a 20% increase in online capacity since 2005. IGA projects growth to 18,500 MW by 2015. In 2010, the United States led the world in geothermal electricity production with 3,086 MW of installed capacity from 77 power plants. The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers, a geothermal field in California.The Philippines is the second highest producer, with 1,904 MW of capacity online. Geothermal power makes up approximately 18% of Philippine electricity generation.

How Geothermal Energy Works?


Our planet, Earth, is covered with the thick outer shell called crust, which is made up of many different rock layers and plates whose components keeps on shifting and changing. Under Earth's crust, there is a layer of hot and molten rock called magma. Heat is continually produced there, mostly from the decay of naturally radioactive materials such as uranium and potassium. The amount within the earth's surface contains 50,000 times more energy than all the oil and natural gas resources in the world. So, due to extreme heat inside the earth these rocks start developing cracks and release energy in the form of water or heat on to the earth's surface. To get that heat, water is pumped down an "injection well". Then it filters through the cracks in the rocks where they are at a high temperature. The water then returns via the "recovery well" under pressure in the form of steam. That steam is captured and is used to drive electric generators. How much geothermal energy can be useful depends on several factors for e.g.: location, how hot the water gets, the rocks inside the earth and amount of water pumped into the area. If the rocks are not hot enough or cool down naturally this presents a problem for geothermal power stations. The areas with the highest underground temperatures are in regions with active or geologically young volcanoes and these hot spots occur

where the crust is thin and can let the heat through. The Pacific Rim, often called the Ring of Fire for its many volcanoes, has many hot spots, including some in Alaska, California, and Oregon. Nevada has hundreds of hot spots, covering much of the northern part of the state. For this reason geothermal power stations can be found in Italy, New Zealand, Iceland, Japan, the Philippines and the United States. These are all areas that contain volcanic rock.

Geothermal power plant

Geothermal Power Plant


The earth's crust is a rich source of energy and fossil fuels are only part of the story. Thermal energy or heat is stored deep inside the earth. To put it in perspective, the heat in the upper ten kilometres of the Earth's crust is 50000 times the energy of all oil and gas reserves in the world! The word "geothermal" literally means "Earth" plus "heat. Geothermal Resources is the largest source of energy worldwide and used by people for centuries. This is a renewable resource and can be produced over and over again for years to come since earth has abundant amount of heat energy stored inside it, therefore it will not disrupt the ecological balance of our planet. Geothermal operating around the world is proof that the heat inside the earth is easily converted to electricity in geologically active areas.

Deep underground there are rivers just like on the surface. They are really hot, as the magma is close to the river or around them, warming the surface of the rock. Geothermal plants are reliable and can be used 24 hours a day, every day of the year. Because geothermal power plant sits on top of the fuel source, they are less prone to the interventions in the production of electricity due to weather, natural disasters or issues of transport; therefore it is ideal for developing countries.

There four three types of geothermal steam plants depending on the way the energy is generated:

1. Dry Steam Power Plant: The first is the dry steam power plant which is used to generate power directly from the steam generated inside the earth. In this case, we do not need additional heating boilers and boiler fuel, as steam or water vapour fill the wells through rock catcher and directly rotates the turbine, which activates a generator to produce electricity. This type of power plant is not common since natural hydrothermal reservoirs dry steams are very rare.

Dry Steam Power Plant

2. Flash Steam Power Plant: The most common type of geothermal power plant, flash steam plants use waters at temperatures greater than 360F.

As this hot water flows up through wells in the ground, it is collected in a flash tank where drop in pressure causes the liquid to boil into steam. The steam is separated from the liquid which is then used to run turbines which in turn generate power. The condensed steam is returned to the reservoir.

3. Binary Steam Power Plant : This type of plant uses high temperature geothermal water to heat another fluid which has a lower boiling point than water. This fluid vaporizes to steam, drives the turbines, then condenses to liquid to begin the cycle again. The water, which never comes into direct contact with the working fluid, is then injected back into the ground to be reheated. Since the most resources are with lower temperature the binary steam power plants are more common.

Binary Steam Power Plant

4. Hybrid power: Some geothermal fields produce boiling water as Well as steam, which are also used in power generation. In this system of power generation, the flashed and binary systems are combined to make use of both steam and hot water. Efficiency of hybrid power plants is however less than that of the dry steam plan

Geothermal Energy benefits


Geothermal energy is renewable energy source and will continue to produce energy for over several years since it's available in abundant at few selected areas where volcanic activity takes place.

Below are few facts that many of you don't know. So, just have a look at them and see how wind energy can become as the major source of power generation if it is harnessed up to its potential.

1. Geothermal energy is the renewable source of energy because energy is produced continuously inside the earth. 2. Geothermal energy is clean and safe and today supplies less than 10% of world energy. 3. Geothermal energy has been in existence of over 100 years (since ancient times) when people used to harness it for taking bath, heating homes, cooking food etc. 4. The positioning of geothermal power stations is greatly affected by geological activity. Areas with active volcanoes and earthquakes are most suitable to extract geothermal energy. 5. Geothermal energy can be found in the form of volcanoes, hot springs and geysers. 6. Basically three types of geothermal plants to extract energy from beneath the earth: Dry steam, Flash steam, and Binary power plant. 7. Geothermal energy is used for heating homes and offices, generate power, grow plants in greenhouses, under roads and sidewalks to prevent ice formation. 8. Geothermal energy is one of the greatest sources of energy available on the planet but due the geological reasons, we are not able to harness the energy everywhere. 9. Geothermal energy has very low emissions of greenhouse gases and the other gases that are produced during the process of extraction are not harmful to the environment.

Advantages of Geothermal Energy


As our reliance on fossil fuels have started to increase, geothermal energy is seen as the new source of power generation by digging out the heat stored inside the earth. Though not used fully due to factors such as location and high costs but in the years to come when fossil fuels would start to diminish, it will turn out to be the cheapest source of power generation. Geothermal energy suffers from its own advantages and disadvantages as described below.

Advantages of Geothermal Energy:


1. Significant Cost Saving : Geothermal energy generally involves low running costs since it saves 80% costs over fossil fuels and no fuel is used to generate the power. Since, no fuel is require so costs for purchasing, transporting and cleaning up plants is quite low. 2. Reduce Reliance on Fossil Fuels : Dependence on fossil fuels decreases with the increase in the use of geothermal energy. With the skyrocketing prices of oil, many countries are pushing companies to adopt

these clean sources of energy. Burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases which are responsible for global warming.

3. No Pollution : This is one of the main advantage of using geothermal energy since it does not create any pollution and help in creating clean environment. Being the renewable source of energy, geothermal energy has helped in reducing global warming and pollution. Moreover, Geothermal systems does not create any pollution as it releases some gases from deep within the earth which are not very harmful to the environment. 4. Direct Use : Since ancient times, people having been using this source of energy for taking bath, heating homes, preparing food and today this is also used for direct heating of homes and offices. This makes geothermal energy cheaper and affordable. Although the initial investment is quite steep but in the long run with huge cost saving it proves quite useful.

Disadvantages Of Geothermal Energy


Energy created from geothermal power is safe, clean, simple, and reliable and environment friendly as it is extracted from deep within the earths surface. But despite these advantages, geothermal energy is not being used widely. Geothermal energy suffers from its disadvantages as described below.

1. Not Widespread Source of Energy: Since this type of energy is not widely used therefore the unavailability of equipment, staff, infrastructure, and training pose hindrance to the installation of geothermal plants across the globe. Not enough skilled manpower and availability of suitable build location pose serious problem in adopting geothermal energy globally. 2. High Installation Costs: To get geothermal energy, requires installation of power plants, to get steam from deep within the earth and this require huge one time investment and require to hire a certified installer and skilled staff needs to be recruited and relocated to plant location. Moreover, electricity towers, stations need to set up to move the power from geothermal plant to consumer. 3. Can Run Out Of Steam : Geothermal sites can run out of steam over a period of time due to drop in temperature or if too much water is injected to cool the rocks and this may result huge loss for the companies which have invested heavily in these plants. Due to this factor, companies have to do extensive initial research before setting up the plant.

4. Suited To Particular Region: It is only suitable for regions which have hot rocks below the earth and can produce steam over a long period of time. For this great research is required which is done by the companies before setting up the plant and this initial cost runs up the bill in setting up the geothermal power plant. Some of these regions are near hilly areas or high up in mountains. 5. May Release Harmful Gases: Geothermal sites may contain some poisonous gases and they can escape deep within the earth, through the holes drilled by the constructors. The geothermal plant must therefore be capable enough to contain these harmful and toxic gases. 6. Transportation: Geothermal Energy cannot be easily transported. Once the tapped energy is extracted, it can be only used in the surrounding areas. Other sources of energy like wood, coal or oil can be transported to residential areas but this is not a case with geothermal energy. Also, there is a fear of toxic substances getting released into the atmosphere.

Environmental effects
Fluids drawn from the deep earth carry a mixture of gases, notably carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), methane (CH4) and ammonia(NH3). These pollutants contribute to global warming, acid rain, and noxious smells if released. Existing geothermal electric plants emit an average of 122 kilograms (270 lb) of CO2 per megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity, a small fraction of the emission intensity of conventional fossil fuel plants.[43] Plants that experience high levels of acids and volatile chemicals are usually equipped with emission-control systems to reduce the exhaust. In addition to dissolved gases, hot water from geothermal sources may hold in solution trace amounts of toxic elements such as mercury,arsenic, boron, and antimony.[44] These chemicals precipitate as the water cools, and can cause environmental damage if released. The modern practice of injecting cooled geothermal fluids back into the Earth to stimulate production has the side benefit of reducing this environmental risk. Geothermal has minimal land and freshwater requirements. Geothermal plants use 3.5 square kilometres (1.4 sq mi) per gigawatt of electrical production (not capacity) versus 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi) and 12 square kilometres (4.6 sq mi) for coal facilities and wind farms respectively. They use 20 litres (5.3 US gal) of freshwater per MWh versus over 1,000 litres (260 US gal) per MWh for nuclear, coal, or oil.

Geothermal Energy Cost


Geothermal energy is the clean energy and has enormous potential in fulfilling the energy needs for some of the countries. Geothermal energy does not produce waste or generate greenhouse gases and is actually free which means it costs nothing. Since it is the heat contained inside the earth and that heat will be produced for long period of time even when nonrenewable resources would start to diminish.

However, to harness that energy comes with the price tag, since you need some method to extract that energy from inside the earth. The most common method to extract that energy is through the use of geothermal power plant. The other method which is mostly used by residential households is by the use of underground pipes. The investment costs, mainly in drilling and equipment of the pipes accompanied by the cost of the pump.

The main factors which can influence the decision for the use of geothermal energy are geographical exploration to identify a suitable site, development of the site, construction of the power plant, hire skilled professionals who can operate the plant and transfer skilled manpower to those locations. Other factors which also come into the picture are cost to the environment, operation and maintenance. If you are a residential consumer, the main costs associated with it are labour, fitting of long pipes under the ground. However that cost can soon be recovered within few years with the advantages that it offers in the long term. Homes can have residential solar powered systems that supply both heat and energy, along with a geothermal heating system. If compared this cost to the installation of heating system that uses fuel or and any other energy source, that cost of installing and maintaining a geothermal heating system may cost more by a significant amount. But, once the system is installed the costs associated with the geothermal heating systems are much less than other heating systems. Governments of various countries offer incentives and rebates to residential as well as industries to make use of geothermal energy where it is possible to harness that energy. Everyone pays huge bills to heat or cool their homes that have long winters or hot an humid summers. Then cost of geothermal energy can easily recovered in the long term advantages that will accrue to the customer. Geothermal energy offers a great solution to high energy bills. With this, your dependence on the fossil fuels will be decreased and you will help in making this world pollution free.

Characteristics and Applications of Geothermal Energy


Geothermal energy is an enormous, underused heat and power resource that is clean (emits little or no greenhouse gases), reliable (average system availability of 95%), and home grown (making us less dependent on foreign oil). Geothermal resources range from shallow ground to hot water and rock several miles below the Earth's surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications.

The general characteristics of geothermal energy that make it of significant importance for both electricity production and direct use include:

Extensive global distribution; it is accessible to both developed and developing countries.

Environmentally friendly nature; it has low emission of sulphur, CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

Indigenous nature; it is independent of external supply and demand effects and fluctuations in exchange rates.

Independence of weather and season. Contribution to the development of diversified power sources.

Geothermal energy can be used very effectively in both on- and off-grid developments, and is especially useful in rural electrification schemes.

Geothermal Energy Scenario: India and the world

Geothermal power plants operated in at least 24 countries, and geothermal energy was used directly for heat in at least 78 countries. These countries currently have geothermal power plants with a total capacity of 10.7 GW, but 88% of it is generated in just seven countries: the United States, the Philippines, Indonesia, Mexico, Italy, New Zealand, and Iceland. The most significant capacity increases since 2004 were seen in Iceland and Turkey. Both countries doubled their capacity. Iceland has the largest share of geothermal power contributing to electricity supply (25%), followed by the Philippines (18%). The number of countries utilizing geothermal energy to generate electricity has more than doubled since 1975, increasing from 10 in 1975 to 24 in 2004. In 2003, total geothermal energy supply was 20 MToE (metric Tonne Oil Equivalent), accounting for 0.4% of total primary energy supply in IEA member countries. The share of geothermal in total renewable energy supply was 7.1%. Over the last 20 years, capital costs for geothermal power systems decreased by a significant 50%. Such large cost reductions are often the result of solving the easier problems associated with science and technology improvement in the early years of development. Although geothermal power development slowed in 2010, with global capacity reaching just over 11 GW, a significant acceleration in the rate of deployment is expected as advanced technologies allow for

development in new countries. Heat output from geothermal sources increased by an average rate of almost 9% annually over the past decade, due mainly to rapid growth in the use of ground-source heat pumps. Use of geothermal energy for combined heat and power is also on the rise. India has reasonably good potential for geothermal; the potential geothermal provinces can produce 10,600 MW of power (but experts are confident only to the extent of 100 MW). But yet geothermal power projects has not been exploited at all, owing to a variety of reasons, the chief being the availability of plentiful coal at cheap costs. However, with increasing environmental problems with coal based projects, India will need to start depending on clean and eco-friendly energy sources in future; one of which could be geothermal.

Potential

It has been estimated from geological, geochemical, shallow geophysical and shallow drilling data it is estimated that India has about 10,000 MWe of geothermal power potential that can be harnessed for various purposes. Rocks covered on the surface of India ranging in age from more than 4500 million years to the present day and distributed in different geographical units. The

rocks comprise of Archean, Proterozoic, the marine and continental Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Teritary, Quaternary etc., More than 300 hot spring locations have been identified by Geological survey of India (Thussu, 2000). The surface temperature of the hot springs ranges from 35 C to as much as 98 C. These hot springs have been grouped together and termed as different geothermal provinces based on their occurrence in specific geotectonic regions, geological and strutural regions such as occurrence in orogenic belt regions, structural grabens, deep fault zones, active volcanic regions etc., Different orogenic regions are Himalayan geothermal province, Naga-Lushai geothermal province, Andaman-Nicobar Islands geothermal province and nonorogenic regions are Cambay graben, Son-Narmada-Tapi graben, west coast, Damodar valley, Mahanadi valley, Godavari valley etc. Puga Valley (J&K) Tatapani (Chhattisgarh) Godavari Basin Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh) Bakreshwar (West Bengal) Tuwa (Gujarat) Unai (Maharashtra) Jalgaon (Maharashtra)

Historical Capacity & Consumption Data


There is no installed geothermal generating capacity as of now and only direct uses (eg.Drying) have been detailed.

Current Projects There are no operational geothermal plants in India. Estimated (min.) reservoir Temp Geothermal Field (Approx) Status From geochemical and deep geophysical studies o Puga geothermal field 240 C at 2000m (MT) o o 120 C - 150 C at 500 meter and 200 Magneto telluric survey Tatapani Sarguja (Chhattisgarh) Cat 2000 m done by NGRI Magneto telluric survey o Tapoban Chamoli (Uttarakhand) 100 C at 430 meter done by NGRI 160oC at 1900 Steam discharge was meter (From Oil estimated 3000 cu meter/ exploration day with high temperature Cambay Garben (Gujarat) borehole) gradient. Magneto-telluric study was done by NGRI Deep drilling required to o Badrinath Chamoli (Uttarakhand) 150 C estimated ascertain geothermal field Reservoir Temp Geothermal Field (Approx) Status Magneto-telluric study was done by NGRI. o Surajkund Hazaribagh (Jharkhand) 110 C Heat rate 128.6 mW/m2 Magneto-telluric study was Manikaran done by NGRI o Kullu (H P) 100 C Heat flow rate 130 mW/m2 Kasol Magneto-telluric study was o Kullu (H P) 110 C done by NGRI

Manikaran Geothermal field, Prbati Valley, Kulu district, Himachal Pradesh a case study
Prbati river, a tributary to Beas has confluence at Bhuntar in Kulu district H.P. Geothermal field in Prbati valley is about 40 km from Kulu town, and spread over a 45 km stretch from west to east with thermal springs at Jan (32C), Kasol (76C), Manikaran (96C), Khirganga (49C) and Pulga (44C). The hot springs in the valley ranges in temperature between 32C to 96C. The hottest one is at Manikaran at 96 which is boiling temperature at that altitude (3000m). The discharge of hot water from Manikaran springs varies from a few litres to as much as 600 litres/minute and total discharge having been estimated about 1800 litre/minute. Systematic explorations were initiated at Kasol and Manikaran. Drilling at four major sectors viz Kasol, Manikaran, Jan and Khirganga were carried out. The main objectives has been to assess the existing geothermal resource and prepare a project report for geothermal power generation and for other utilizations.

GEOLOGY
The exposed rocks in the area belong to Kulu and Rampur Groups separated by a Thrust called Kulu Thrust. Kulu Group of rocks are exposed near Beas and Prbati confluence in the eastern part of the area occupied by garnitiferous biotite schist, quartzite, augen gneiss/gneiss, phyllites with bands of carbonaceous phyllites and limestone. Rampart Group of rocks constitutes mainly quartzite with phyllites and basic flows. Thermal manifestations are mainly associated with uartzite of Rampur Group but springs are also reported in
Kulu Group of rocks.

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY
Resistivity and refraction seismic methods were employed at Manikaran and Kasol besides The geophysical surveys in Manikaran suggest that, there are narrow conductive zones, which possibly correspond to the channels through which the geothermal fluids are being fed to the reservoir. Geophysical survey has concluded that highly jointed, sheared and fractured Quartzite, lying underneath the Prbati Valley, forms the main shallow geothermal reservoir for thermal fluids, both in the Kasol and Manikaran sectors.

GEOCHEMISTRY
Thermal Spring and drill hole discharge were collected and analyzed for HCO3, CO3, Cl, SO4, F, Ca, Mg, K besides pH, B, SiO2 and specific conductance and total dissolved solids. The chemical analysis from thermal springs and drill holes water of the area shown, that there is hardly any chemical difference between the two waters. Cl content varies from 50 to150 mg/l at Manikaran where as at Kasol it goes up to 60mg/l. HCO3 varies from 40mg/l to400 mg/l at Manikaran and at Kasol it goes up to 300 mg/l. SiO2 do not exceed more than 110 mg/l in spring or drill hole discharges in the entire valley. The calculated sub surface or reservoir temperature comes around 100+10C.

DRILLING
A total 21 drill holes were drilled in the area, 10 at Manikaran, 8 at Kasol , 2 at Jan and one at Balargah in a stretch of 40km. The depth of drill holes ranges from 57.40m to 707m. 9 holes at Manikaran and 3 at Kasol developed artesian condition at various depths with maximum discharge temperature at the surface has been noticed around 93C. Down hole temperate measurement was carried out and the maximum recorded temperature is 101C in one of the hole at Manikaran at depth between 20-40m. The thermal logging in drill hole has been carried out on different occasions and the maximum recorded temperature in the Manikaran is around 109C, against the calculated base temperature by geo-thermometer 10010C.

UTILISATION
A test run on 4kW electrical power generation by binary cycle was success fully carried out. The binary plant was based on Freon gas and the geothermal fluid was used from drill hole at Manikaran. At Kasol, space heating in a Forest Rest House was also conducted using thermal water.

CONCLUSION
Geothermal power can become a valuable source of energy if properly harnessed. Continued energy shortages have created added interest in geothermal energy for both power generation and direct applications. The technology is expensive and it is necessary that for real breakthrough the cost be reduced substantially. It is concluded by the Geologist that there are more than one type of geothermal energy. The most common type is the hydrothermal energy. Different methods must be used to determine the existence of geothermal reservoirs and its type. The detection process may be expensive as it requires drilling up of wells and testing temperatures deep underground but once the plant is set up it can serve as an outstanding source of renewable energy. So it is very important for all countries to look for availability of geothermal resources in their territory. As proper utilization of geothermal energy can greatly enhance a nations net production of electrical energy or in other words can significantly reduce the consumption of fossil fuels used up by conventional methods of producing electrical energy. Development of geothermal energy has some implications on the environment. Environmental problems associated geothermal developments are physical disturbance of site, noise, disposal, groundwater contamination, by fluids and air pollution especially by hydrogen sulphide. Additional and often less manageable problems relate to serious social, economic and institutional impacts that generally accompany large scale geothermal development. Which follows as a result of low cost geothermal power development plans should include careful ground work to mitigate impact on areas with geothermal resources.

REFRENCES
[1] Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century by Harsh K. Gupta, Sukanta Roy. [2] Geothermal Power Plants, Second Edition: Principles, Applications, Case Studies and Environmental Impact by Ronald DiPippo. [3] Geothermal Energy: Utilization and Technology by Mary H. Dickson [4] Renewable Energy: Technology, Economics and Environment by Martin Kaltschmitt. [5]Geological survey of India

WEBSITES
http://www.eere.energy.gov http://www.nrel.gov/clean_energy.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki http://www.renewableoil.com/pages/applications.html www.google.com