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Concepte - Curs 1. History of Linguistics. Structuralism. Generative Grammar. UG. I-Lg. E-Lg. LT. L Level.

Concepte - Curs 1
Linguistics is the science of language whose working tool is grammar. Linguistics includes several levels: Syntax phrase structure (word combination) Lexicology lexicon Morphology word structure Phonetics articulation of sounds Phonology has to do with phonemes / sound structure Semantics meaning in context Pragmatics utterances and the speakers intention

Incursiune LEC
Morphology deals with word structure, the study of free and bound morphemes. (Free morphemes = actual words, they can exist by themselves, ex: boy, car, walk, nice, etc. Bound morphemes need something to attach to, ex : affixes -ation, -er, un- , non-, - s, etc. ) Bound morphemes can be inflectional or derivational. Derivational morphemes pertain to the lexicon and they derive words , creating new categories/ changing the category of the derived word. (ex : - ish, - less, ation, re - , pro - , etc.) Inflectional morphemes do NOT change the category of the word. Inflectional morphemes attach to stems and they close words (they provide closure).
Atentie! stem = radical. Ex : 1. faithfulness cuvant de baza in derivare = faith. Pentru sufixul - ful, faith e stem. Pentru sufixul - ness, faithful e stem. 2. organization cuvant de baza in derivare = organ. Pentru sufixul - ize, organ e stem. Pentru sufixul - ation, organiz(e) e stem. Closure = dupa ce am atasat un inflectional morpheme, nu mai pot deriva. (s-a closed derivarea) *boy-s-ish. Ordinea morfemelor : word< derivational morphemes < inflectional morpheme

Concepte - Curs 1. History of Linguistics. Structuralism. Generative Grammar. UG. I-Lg. E-Lg. LT. L Level. Syntax deals with phrase structure. The domain of study of syntax is the sentence ( type of utterance. Utterance = enun). A sentence is an utterance which expresses a complete thought. (traditional definition). Bloomfields view: sentence = maximal domain of linguistic study within which one can observe distributional regularities. propoziie Sentence fraz maximal domain of linguistic study root sentence = main sentence clause = sentence in relation to other sentences main clauses subordinate clauses
Exemplu : Eu ma duc la munte = root sentence. Imi place sa ma duc la munte : Imi place = main clause (propoziie principal), sa ma duc la munte = subordinate clause (subordonat)

Simple Sentence Complex Assertion Communicative perspective Question Polarity perspective

affirmative negative - Eu (nu) ma duc la mare. (Nu) Ma duc la mare?

Imperative Du-te/ Nu te duce la mare! Verbal PV O suna pe Miruna. Types of predication Nominal PN (copula + predicative) El e dragut. Categories can be defined outside the concept of a sentence. Functions need a context.
Partile de vorbire nu depind de context. concept ramane substantiv, indiferent de propozitia in care se afla. Insa, nu ii putem sti functia sintactica daca nu stim propozitia.

In 1989 Milner states the three facts of language. 1. There is language. factum loquendi - Exista limbaj/comunicare. 2. There are languages. factum lingue & factum linguarium - Exista limbi. 3. There are grammars. factum gramaticae. Grammars are sets of rules expressing the regularities in languages; they produce all and only the correct sentences of the language. Grammar is an old concern of communities, dating from Ancient Greece, although methods of studying language emerged only in the 19th century, linguistics being a fairly recent science. Linguistics, in the 20th century, is marked by Structuralism. 2

Concepte - Curs 1. History of Linguistics. Structuralism. Generative Grammar. UG. I-Lg. E-Lg. LT. L Level.

(optional reading : Cornis book page 15 -> page 18) (compulsory reading : Cornis book - page 29 -> page 39)

Structuralism is the first trend to introduce formal methods. According to Structuralists, Grammar includes a lexicon and Grammar is a device which mediates between sound and meaning (device that enables association.) Aristotle. Ferdinand de Saussure: acoustic image and a concept. The difference between Structuralism and Traditional Grammar has to do with the definition they propose. TGs propose instrumental (transcendental) definitions of language (ex: language is a means of communication = instrument that serves a purpose.) Structuralism proposes an immanent definition of language (an independent object of study; Saussure language is a system of signs.) TG Structuralism <=> Notional definitions Formal definitions
good. Formal definition : 1. The noun is an item which appears in the slot The is/are 2. English verbs appear in the following syntagm : method distributional

- association of an

The continuity between GG and Structuralism can be explained through the following similarities: they both have formal approach to language, they use formal methods and they share the same definition of language. Chapter 1
page 29 1st paragraph of part 6. GG.

GG = revolution in linguistics, because it introduces: Linguistic creativity ability of a speaker to produce and understand an
infinite number of sentences => speakers posses an internalized grammar, being able to make semantic and phonetic interpretations. Language acquisition (1st language) => grammars are learnable, therefore finite => Grammar = finite set of rules which produces and interprets all and only the grammatical sentences of a language. Universal Grammar = UG = system of properties shared by all languages. UG helps the learner analyze the input. UG has principles common to all languages; parameters are dimensions along which languages differ; parameters follow from the principles. UG is also part of the genetic endowment, we are born with it (which is why language acquisition is possible.) Internalized Language = IL= tacit knowledge of language = competence (what is in our mind) Externalized Language = EL = external to peoples conscience; language as part of the environment; real object of study of linguistics; performance (the

Concepte - Curs 1. History of Linguistics. Structuralism. Generative Grammar. UG. I-Lg. E-Lg. LT. L Level.
actual act of speaking/writing). Externalized Language triggers off the development of Internalized Language.

Linguistic theory (LT) is an abstract theory which presents the basic principles and concepts of grammar, by means of which particular grammars can be written and evaluated (LT=UG). Criteria for evaluating grammars: - external adequacy descriptive adequacy faithfulness to the data (the grammar should produce all and only correct sentences) - internal adequacy explanatory adequacy - the grammar should conform to LT LT requirements: a. Discovery procedure LT should determine the grammar G of language L b. Evaluation procedure LT should help the linguist choose the better grammar out of G1 and G2 c. Decision procedure LT should help the linguist choose the best grammar Women students are tempting new subjects. N N V Ving A N
Aceasta propozitie are doua interpretari: ele incearca subiecte noi sau ele sunt subiecte noi si tentante. Ambele interpretari propun aceleasi variante de parti de propozitie, diferenta consta in functia sintactica : are tempting new subjects este fie PV + DO, fie PN. LT ne ajuta sa alegem variantele.

Lingustic theory helps us determine the levels of language. A linguistic level L is a system in which we construct an unidimensional representation of an utterance. A level comprises: 1. Primitives elementary objects for the level 2. Operations procedures for constructing complex objects out of primitives 3. Rules complexes of operations 4. Level marker includes all the information about the utterance on that level map of the level 5. Mapping rules relates the L-marker to other level markers. - end of course 1 Theoretical questions to be asked in the seminar. 1. What is UG? 2. Define the concept of grammar. 3. What is the difference between Structuralism and TG? 4. Show that GG is an outgrowth of Structuralism. 5. What doe GG introduce? 6. What is EL? IL? 7. Discuss the relation between LT and grammar. 8. What is a level? Characterize the structure of a linguistic level.

Concepte - Curs 1. History of Linguistics. Structuralism. Generative Grammar. UG. I-Lg. E-Lg. LT. L Level. LEC related 1. What does syntax study? 2. What kind of morphemes are there? 3. Whats the difference between the two types of morphemes? 4. What is a sentence? 5. Whats the communicative perspective on sentences? What about in terms of Polarity? 6. What kinds of predication are there? 7. What is the difference between a root sentence and a main clause?