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The Human Digestive System

INTRODUCTION TO THE AIMS TEACHING MODULE (ATM)


Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Organization and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

SE C T I O N 1

INTRODUCING THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


Themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

SECTION 2

PREPARATION FOR VIEWING


Introduction to the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discussion Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jump Right In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 .13 .13 .13 .14

SE C T I O N 3

AFTER VIEWING THE PROGRAM


Suggested Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 The Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Checking Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Word Scramble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Types of Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Brain Twisters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Vocabulary Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

SECTION 4

ADDITIONAL AIMS MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMS . . . . . . . . . .28 ANSWER KEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted without written permission of AIMS Multimedia with these exceptions: Persons or schools purchasing this AIMS Teaching Module may reproduce consumable ATM pages, identified in Section 4, for student or classroom use.

AIMS Multimedia is a leading producer and distributor of educational programs serving schools and libraries for nearly 40 years. AIMS draws upon the most up-to-date knowledge, existing and emerging technologies, and all of the instructional and pedagogical resources available to develop and distribute educational programs in film, videocassette, laserdisc, CD-ROM and CD-i formats.

Persons or schools interested in obtaining additional copies of this AIMS Teaching Module, please contact:

AIMS Multimedia

1-800-FOR-AIMS 1-800-367-2467

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Congratulations!
You have chosen a learning program that will actively motivate your students AND provide you with easily accessible and easily manageable instructional guidelines designed to make your teaching role efficient and rewarding. The AIMS Teaching Module provides you with a video program keyed to your classroom curriculum, instructions and guidelines for use, plus a comprehensive teaching program containing a wide range of activities and ideas for interaction between all content areas. Our authors, educators, and consultants have written and reviewed the AIMS Teaching Modules to align with the Educate America Act: Goals 2000. This ATM, with its clear definition of manageability, both in the classroom and beyond, allows you to tailor specific activities to meet all of your classroom needs.

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RATIONALE
In todays classrooms, educational pedagogy is often founded on Benjamin S. Blooms Six Levels of Cognitive Complexity. The practical application of Blooms Taxonomy is to evaluate students thinking skills on these levels, from the simple to the complex: Knowledge (rote memory skills), Comprehension (the ability to relate or retell), Application (the ability to apply knowledge outside its origin), Analysis (relating and differentiating parts of a whole), Synthesis (relating parts to a whole), and Evaluation (making a judgment or formulating an opinion). The AIMS Teaching Module is designed to facilitate these intellectual capabilities, AND to integrate classroom experiences and assimilation of learning with the students life experiences, realities, and expectations. AIMS learner verification studies prove that our AIMS Teaching Modules help students to absorb, retain, and to demonstrate ability to use new knowledge in their world. Our educational materials are written and designed for todays classroom, which incorporates a wide range of intellectual, cultural, physical, and emotional diversities.

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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT


To facilitate ease in classroom manageability, the AIMS Teaching Module is organized in four sections. You are reading Section 1, Introduction to the Aims Teaching Module (ATM).

SECTION 2, INTRODUCING THIS ATM will give you the specific information you need to integrate the program into your classroom curriculum. SECTION 3,
PREPARATION FOR VIEWING provides suggestions and strategies for motivation, language pre p a re d n e s s , readiness, and focus prior to viewing the program with your students.

SECTION 4,
AFTER VIEWING THE PROGRAM provides suggestions for additional activities plus an assortment of consumable assessment and extended activities, designed to broaden comprehension of the topic and to make connections to other curriculum content areas.

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FEATURES
INTRODUCING EACH ATM

SECTION 2
Your AIMS Teaching Module is designed to accompany a video program written and produced by some of the worlds most credible and creative writers and producers of educational programming. To facilitate diversity and flexibility in your classroom, your AIMS Teaching Module features these components: Themes The Major Theme tells how this AIMS Teaching Module is keyed into the curriculum. Related Themes offer suggestions for interaction with other curriculum content areas, enabling teachers to use the teaching module to incorporate the topic into a variety of learning areas. Overview The Overview provides a synopsis of content covered in the video program. Its purpose is to give you a summary of the subject matter and to enhance your introductory preparation. Objectives The ATM learning objectives provide guidelines for teachers to assess what learners can be expected to gain from each program. After completion of the AIMS Teaching Module, your students will be able to demonstrate dynamic and applied comprehension of the topic.

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PREPARATION FOR VIEWING

Discussion Ideas Discussion Ideas are designed to help you assess students prior knowledge about the topic and to give students a preview of what they will learn. Active discussion stimulates interest in a subject and can motivate even the most reluctant learner. Listening, as well as speaking, is active participation. Encourage your students to participate at the rate they feel comfortable. Model sharing personal experiences when applicable, and model listening to students ideas and opinions. Focus Help learners set a purpose for watching the program with Focus, designed to give students a focal point for comprehension continuity. Jump Right In Jump Right In provides abbreviated instructions for quick management of the program.

AFTER VIEWING THE PROGRAM

SECTION 3
In preparation for viewing the video program, the AIMS Teaching Module offers activity and/or discussion ideas that you may use in any order or combination. Introduction To The Program Introduction to the Program is designed to enable students to recall or relate prior knowledge about the topic and to prepare them for what they are about to learn. Introduction To Vocabulary Introduction to Vocabulary is a review of language used in the program: w o rds, phrases, usage. This vocabulary introduction is designed to ensure that all learners, including limited English proficiency learners, will have full understanding of the language usage in the content of the program.

SECTION 4
After your students have viewed the program, you may introduce any or all of these activities to interact with other curriculum content areas, provide reinforcement, assess comprehension skills, or provide hands-on and in-depth extended study of the topic.

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SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES
The Suggested Activities offer ideas for activities you can direct in the classroom or have your students complete independently, in pairs, or in small work groups after they have viewed the program. To accommodate your range of classroom needs, the activities are organized into skills categories. Their labels will tell you how to identify each activity and help you correlate it into your classroom curriculum. To help you schedule your classroom lesson time, the AIMS hourglass gives you an estimate of the time each activity should re q u i re . Some of the activities fall into these categories: Meeting Individual Needs These activities are designed to aid in classroom continuity. Reluctant learners and learners acquiring English will benefit from these activities geared to enhance comprehension of language in order to fully grasp content meaning. Curriculum Connections Many of the suggested activities are intended to integrate the content of the ATM program into other content areas of the classroom curriculum. These cross-connections turn the classroom teaching experience into a whole learning experience.

Critical Thinking Critical Thinking activities are designed to stimulate learners own opinions and ideas. These activities require students to use the thinking process to discern fact from opinion, consider their own problems and formulate possible solutions, draw conclusions, discuss cause and effect, or combine what they already know with what they have learned to make inferences. Cultural Diversity Each AIMS Teaching Module has an activity called Cultural Awareness, Cultural Diversity, or Cultural Exchange that encourages students to share their backgrounds, cultures, heritage, or knowledge of other countries, customs, and language. Hands On These are experimental or tactile activities that relate directly to the material taught in the program.Your students will have opportunities to make discoveries and formulate ideas on their own, based on what they learn in this unit. Writing Every AIMS Teaching Module will contain an activity designed for students to use the writing process to express their ideas about what they have learned. The writing activity may also help them to make the connection between what they are learning in this unit and how it applies to other content areas.

In The Newsroom Each AIMS Teaching Module contains a newsroom activity designed to help students make the relationship between what they learn in the classroom and how it applies in their world. The purpose of In The Newsroom is to actively involve each class member in a whole learning experience. Each student will have an opportunity to perform all of the tasks involved in production: writing, researching, producing, directing, and interviewing as they create their own classroom news program. Extended Activities These activities provide opportunities for students to work separately or together to conduct further research, explore answers to their own questions, or apply what they have learned to other media or content areas. Link to the World These activities offer ideas for connecting learners classroom activities to their community and the rest of the world. Culminating Activity To wrap up the unit, AIMS Teaching Modules offer suggestions for ways to reinforce what students have learned and how they can use their new knowledge to enhance their world view.

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VOCABULARY
Every ATM contains an activity that reinforces the meaning and usage of the vocabulary words introduced in the program content. Students will either read or find the definition of each vocabulary word, then use the word in a written sentence.

CONSUMABLE ACTIVITIES
The AIMS Teaching Module provides a selection of consumable activities, designed to specifically reinforce the content of this learning unit. Whenever applicable, they are arranged in order from low to high difficulty level, to allow a seamless facilitation of the learning process. You may choose to have students take these activities home or to work on them in the classroom independently, in pairs or in small groups.

TEST
The AIMS Teaching Module Test permits you to assess students understanding of what they have learned. The test is formatted in one of several standard test formats to give your students a range of experiences in test-taking techniques. Be sure to read, or remind students to read, the directions carefully and to read each answer choice before making a selection. Use the Answer Key to check their answers.

CHECKING COMPREHENSION
Checking Comprehension is designed to help you evaluate how well your students understand, retain, and recall the information presented in the AIMS Teaching Module. Depending on your students needs, you may direct this activity to the whole group yourself, or you may want to have students work on the activity page independently, in pairs, or in small groups. Students can verify their written answers through discussion or by viewing the video a second time. If you choose, you can reproduce the answers from your Answer Key or write the answer choices in a Word Bank for students to use. Students can use this completed activity as a study guide to prepare for the test.

CHECKING VOCABULARY
The Checking Vocabulary activity provides the opportunity for students to assess their knowledge of new vocabulary with this word game or puzzle. The format of this vocabular y activity allows students to use the related words and phrases in a different context.

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ADDITIONAL AIMS MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMS


After you have completed this AIMS Teaching Module you may be interested in more of the programs that AIMS offers. This list includes several related AIMS programs.

ADDITIONAL READING SUGGESTIONS


AIMS offers a carefully researched list of other resources that you and your students may find rewarding.

ANSWER KEY
Reproduces tests and work pages with answers marked.

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The Human Digestive System


THEMES
The digestive system is a highly productive factory that makes energy out of everything from orange juice to asparagus. This breakdown and conversion of food is the main theme of The Human Digestive System. Other themes include the role of enzymes and the passage of nutrients to each cell of the human body.

OVERVIEW
Most young people are naturally curious about what happens to food after they eat it. In The Human Digestive System, students will gain a deeper understanding of how their daily diet is converted into the fuel that keeps them alive. Students will learn to identify each organ involved in the digestion process, along with the organs various functions. The effects of a modern diet and digestionrelated health concerns will also be discussed.

OBJECTIVES
To illustrate the digestive process. To identify the organs of the digestive system and investigate their functions. To demonstrate how enzymes work to break down food inside the body. To explore the different ways in which the digestive system digests proteins, fats and carbohydrates. To explain how nutrients are transferred from the digestive organs to the cells of the body.

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Use this page for your individual notes about planning and/or effective ways to manage this AIMS Teaching Module in your classroom.

Our AIMS Multimedia Educational Department welcomes your observations and comments. Please feel free to address your correspondence to: AIMS Multimedia Editorial Department 9710 DeSoto Avenue Chatsworth, California 91311-4409

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INTRODUCTION TO THE PROGRAM


Ask the class to name as many digestive organs as they can. List the responses on the board and tell students to write a sentence or two about the function of each organ. Tell them to keep their list until the end of the unit to see what they have learned. Of the organs listed, which one is the first to begin breaking down food? Which organ absorbs the most nutrients? (Keep in mind that the small intestine is 16 to 20 feet long, while the large intestine is only about 5 feet long.)

INTRODUCTION TO VOCABULARY
The word digestion means to divide. Discuss with students how this phrase applies to the digestion of food. Encourage the class to look up the word digest in the dictionary to find its secondary meanings. How are these meanings related to the biological definition of digest? Ask students if they are herbivores, carnivores or omnivores. Discuss the meaning of each word and explain the growing trend of vegetarianism. How could a diet of no animal products be beneficial? Aside from health issues, what other reasons might prompt someone to become a vegetarian? How could a diet with no meat or dairy products be harmful?

DISCUSSION IDEAS
Ask students to think about the expression you are what you eat. Ask if they eat junk food or fast food and if so, why? Why is a diet of high-fat, processed foods unhealthy for humans? Remember to consider the typical diets of our ancestors. What do you think a person from the 1800s would think if they ate a hamburger and French fries? How could students change their diets in a positive way? Discuss how important it is to form good eating habits early in life. What kind of problems could occur if a bad diet continued for many years?

FOCUS
Discuss with students the link between diet and state of mind. From past experience, what kind of meals make them feel sleepy? Which foods make them feel more alert? Do any foods or drinks make them nervous or jumpy? What are other ways that food might affect our moods?

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JUMP RIGHT IN

Preparation Read The Human Digestive System Themes, Overview, and Objectives to become familiar with program content and expectations. Use Preparation for Viewing suggestions to introduce the topic to students.

Viewing THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE

After Viewing THE HUMAN

SYSTEM
Set up viewing monitor so that all students have a clear view. Depending on your classroom size and learning range, you may choose to have students view The Human Digestive System together or in small groups. Some students may benefit from viewing the video more than one time.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Select Suggested Activities that integrate into your classroom curriculum. If applicable, gather materials or resources. Choose the best way for students to work on each activity. Some activities work best for the whole group. Other activities are designed for students to work independently, in pairs, or in small groups. Whenever possible, encourage students to share their work with the rest of the group. Duplicate the appropriate number of Vocabulary, Checking Comprehension, and consumable activity pages for your students. You may choose to have students take consumable activities home, or complete them in the classroom, independently, or in groups. Administer the Test to assess students comprehension of what they have learned, and to provide them with practice in test-taking procedures. Use the Culminating Activity as a forum for students to display, summarize, extend, or share what they have learned with each other, the rest of the school, or a local community organization.

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SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES
Connection to History Many events throughout history were shaped by food or drink. Some examples include the Boston Tea Party, the Great Potato Famine of Ireland, Thanksgiving, and Marie Antoinettes famous statement, Let them eat cake. Ask students to research a food-related historical event, and have them present their findings to the class.

60 Minutes

Critical Thinking Ask students if food moves down the esophagus because of gravity or by another mechanism. (by peristalsis) Remind them that food can be swallowed, even when a person stands on his or her head. Does this change the students answer? Explain the mechanism of peristalsis by comparing it to toothpaste being squeezed out of a tube. Where else in the body might peristalsis be found?

15 Minutes

Cultural Diversity People from different regions of the world have unique customs and preferences concerning food. In some areas, people will not eat pork because they consider pigs to be dirty animals. In other places, people refuse to eat cheese because it has an unpleasant smell. Encourage students to learn more about the dietary habits of a specific culture different from their own. Perhaps they will choose to study an ethnic group of their heritage, or they may want to learn more about the cuisine of a foreign country they plan to visit in the future.

20 Minutes

Connection to Art Taking an honest look at how we perceive our bodies can help us take the right steps to improving our appearance and overall health.

45 Minutes
Tell students to draw two pictures of themselves. The first drawing should illustrate how they see their bodies, including negative and positive aspects. The second drawing should illustrate how they would like to appear. What steps could the students take to make their bodies look more like the second drawing? How could changes in diet and exercise help? What aspects of the first drawing are unchangeable? How do students feel about the parts of themselves that cannot be changed?

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Writing Tell students to imagine they are a chicken sandwich being eaten for lunch. Ask them to use their creative writing skills to describe their journey through the body. Remind them to include paragraphs for each part of the sandwich, including the chicken (protein), bread (carbohydrate) and mayonnaise (fat). What do they see along the way? How do they feel? Where is each part of the chicken sandwich digested?

45 Minutes

Connection to Health and Nutrition Ask students to explain the meaning of the expression butterflies in your stomach. What are some other ways that stress can affect the digestive system?

20 Minutes
Stress can play a large role in disease. Learning to relax can increase health and improve the quality of life. Guide the class through the following simple relaxation techniques: Close your eyes and think of something you enjoy doing. Take slow, deep breaths. Start by expanding your stomach as you inhale, then move the breath into your chest. Shrug your shoulders up and down several times. Roll your head in a circle to loosen your neck muscles, and shake your arms and hands vigorously. Tell students to try these techniques whenever they feel stressed during the next week. What happens when they consistently remember to relax?

In the Newsroom Magazines and newspapers are filled with stories about miracle diets, lifesaving vitamin supplements and dangerous foods that may lead to health problems. So much has been written about eating healthy that some of the information is contradictory. Instruct students to gather articles and books with information on healthy eating. Encourage them to compare their findings to uncover any misleading or controversial advice. If audio or video equipment is available, have the class create a news show focusing on the information that their investigative reporting has uncovered.

60 Minutes

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Hands On Distribute a small piece of bread to each student. Ask them to place the bread in their mouths without swallowing. After a minute or so, what do they notice about the flavor of the bread? Why does it taste sweet? Explain that the digestive enzyme salivary amylase has converted the complex starch molecules in the bread into the simple sugars maltose and glucose. How else did saliva change the bread to make it easier to digest?

15 Minutes

Link to the World Famine is a major problem in Africa, Asia and South America. Although enough food is produced to feed everyone in the world, millions of people eat less than 20% of what they need to be healthy. How do students feel about living in a nation where many people eat twice as much food as they need? If extra food is present, why cant it reach people who are starving? How can people of other countries help those who are less fortunate?

20 Minutes

Culminating Activity Serve as the host of a Digestive Talk Show. Assign a part of the digestive system to each student and ask them to study up on their part before the show. Include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, villi, liver, gallbladder, and others. Interview each guest by asking them questions that will reinforce what the class has learned about the digestive system.

60 Minutes

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Name

VOCABULARY

The following vocabulary words are from The Human Digestive System. Fill in the number of each word next to its closest definition. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. amino acids bile carbohydrates duodenum gallbladder hydrochloric acid 7. 8. 9. lipids liver pancreas

10. proteins 11. starches 12. villi

_____ organic compounds such as fat and cholesterol _____ gland which secretes enzymes for all types of digestion _____ foods that include bread, pasta and potatoes _____ organ that stores bile _____ largest gland in the body and producer of bile _____ group of compounds that includes starches and sugars _____ aids protein digestion in the stomach _____ building blocks of protein _____ fluid which breaks down fats in the small intestine _____ main building material of all cells _____ fingerlike projections that increase surface area of the small intestine _____ first portion of the small intestine

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Name

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

1.

Label the diagram above using the following terms: liver, rectum, pancreas, stomach, gallbladder, esophagus, duodenum, small intestine. Where does bile go after it leaves the gallbladder? ______________________________________________________________________________

2.

3.

Which organ is primarily responsible for protein digestion? ______________________________________________________________________________

4.

Where does fat digestion begin? ______________________________________________________________________________

5.

Where does starch digestion begin? ______________________________________________________________________________ 19


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Name

CHECKING COMPREHENSION

Read the following sentences and circle the letters of the words that best fill each blank.
The human digestive system is a group of organs that break down food into _____1_____ to be used as fuel by the body. Digestive juices, which are mostly _____2_____ , speed up this breakdown. Carbohydrates are changed into _____3_____ , fats are digested into _____4_____ , and proteins are broken down into _____5_____ and amino acids. Digestion begins in the mouth, where food is ground into smaller particles, and an enzyme breaks down some of the _____6_____. In the stomach, _____7_____ such as hydrochloric acid begin the breakdown of protein. Fats and starches move on to the _____8_____, where most of the digestive process takes place. Fluid secreted by the _____9_____ and _____10____ , which is made in the liver, help digest fat. Enzymes secreted by glands in the walls of the small intestine continue to break down _____11____. Capillaries and lymph vessels in the _____12____ absorb the digested food and carry it to the body.

1.

A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

cells atoms enzymes molecules acids enzymes bile lymph fluids

2.

3.

A. amino acids B. starches C. simple sugars D. fatty acids A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. starches and glycerol starches and simple sugars fatty acids and glycerol peptides and fatty acids peptides starches gastric juice glycerol (Continued on next page) 20
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4.

5.

Name

CHECKING COMPREHENSION (Continued)

6.

A. B. C. D.

sugars starches proteins carbohydrates

7.

A. fatty acids B. gastric juices C. pancreatic juices D. liver secretions A. lymph vessels B. blood vessels C. small intestine D. liver A. stomach B. large intestine C. gallbladder D. pancreas A. bile B. mucus C. gastric juice D. hydrochloric acid A. fats and vitamins B. starches and proteins C. starches and vitamins D. proteins and bile A. B. C. D. liver pancreas villi gallbladder

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

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Name

WORD SCRAMBLE

Unscramble the words on the left, then match them to the definitions below. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ lslam sitntenie ____________________ yocregll ____________________ dippetes ____________________ carbaeit ____________________ iialcpslaer ____________________ mertcu ____________________ dteharbsracoy ____________________ valsia ____________________ lrhrihcdyooc ____________________ suumc ____________________ naivmtis ____________________ dlaaeglbdrl ____________________

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

protects the walls of the large intestine where most digestion takes place another name for starches and sugars absorbed by the large intestine acid found in the stomach break down roughage in the large intestine 22

7. 8. 9.

stores bile before its needed found in the villi final segment of the alimentary canal

10. what proteins become 11. begins the breakdown of starch 12. what fats are digested into

Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

Name

TYPES OF FOOD

1.

Each of the following foods is primarily a carbohydrate, fat, or protein. Use the blanks below to describe which group each food belongs to. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ toast steak soda milkshake spaghetti _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ tuna cereal flakes baked potato ice cream ham

2.

How would the milkshake be digested? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

3.

What would the steak be broken down into? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

4.

Where would digestion of the cereal begin? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

5.

Vegetables such as lettuce and carrots contain vitamins, minerals and some protein, but they are mostly roughage. How is roughage digested? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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BRAIN TWISTERS

Do some research to find answers to the following questions. 1. Why are there more overweight people than overweight animals? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. If potatoes only grow in warm weather, why can we buy them in the winter? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why does your stomach growl when youre hungry? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Acid in the stomach can dissolve razor blades. Why doesnt this acid eat through the lining of the stomach? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why dont we get as hungry when were hot? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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VOCABULARY SEARCH

The following words can be found in the maze below. The letters may be arranged horizontally, vertically, diagonally or backwards.
WORD BANK

bile carbohydrates esophagus gallbladder

lipids liver pancreas peptides

proteins starches stomach villi

A D G H J C U L A R W T R D U

C X G R I P E H C A M O T S E

D S A S P K R S E E Q O A S M

T S L S E L A O S N I Z O E L

E R L I P I D S T M A P B T O

E E B A E A W I T E H M C A I

L I L E P O L T E A I N E R R

I L A T T L O O G N L N S D X

B E D U I B S U G D U A S Y C

B R D V D E S L A T X E L H A

I A E O E S E H C R A T S O N

L L R V S N K I L R M C W B O

W H R V I M N L I A E P I R L

N N E L E L S S A E R C N A P

O P D I S B A E S S T Y L C E

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TEST

Check the correct answer to each question. 1. How does saliva digest food?

q q q q
2.

by breaking down starches by using bile to break down sugars by breaking down proteins by using peptides to break down fat

The first segment of the small intestine is called the:

q q q q
3.

villus illeum colon duodenum

The volume of the human stomach is approximately:

q q q q
4.

one liter two liters one-half of a liter four liters

What are the walls of the stomach lined with?

q q q q
5.

blood vessels and bile ducts villi and mucus membranes blood vessels and intestinal glands lymph vessels and villi

Enzymes in the gastric juices break proteins down into:

q q q q

lipids amino acids amylase simple sugars

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TEST (CONTINUED)

6.

What type of food begins the digestion process in the small intestine?

q q q q
7.

starches proteins sugars fats

What happens in the duodenum?

q q q q
8.

food is mixed with pancreatic juice and bile vitamins and minerals are absorbed food is crushed by strong muscles and mixed with digestive juices a large amount of water is absorbed from the food

What are the functions of the intestinal juices?

q q q q
9.

to continue breaking down starches and proteins to begin breaking down fats to begin breaking down starches and proteins to break down vitamins and minerals

Where do amino acids and glucose go after being absorbed by the villi?

q q q q
10.

to the gallbladder to the large intestine to the liver to the lymph vessels

Blood vessels in the large intestine absorb:

q q q q

protein minerals and water bile starches

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

ADDITIONAL AIMS MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMS

You and your students might also enjoy these other AIMS Multimedia programs: How the Body Works: Skin, Bones and Muscles Circulation of the Blood Kidney Functions Brain and Spinal Cord Human Blood Circulation Investigating the Nervous System Lungs (Revised) Mammalian Heart Human Brain

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

Name VOCABULARY

The following vocabulary words are from The Human Digestive System. Fill in the number of each word next to its closest definition. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 9 11 5 8 3 6 1 2 10 12 4 amino acids bile carbohydrates duodenum gallbladder hydrochloric acid 7. 8. 9. lipids liver pancreas

10. proteins 11. starches 12. villi

organic compounds such as fat and cholesterol gland which secretes enzymes for all types of digestion foods that include bread, pasta and potatoes organ that stores bile largest gland in the body and producer of bile group of compounds that includes starches and sugars aids protein digestion in the stomach building blocks of protein fluid which breaks down fats in the small intestine main building material of all cells fingerlike projections that increase surface area of the small intestine first portion of the small intestine

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

ANSWER KEY for page 19

Name THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

1.

Label the diagram above using the following terms: liver, rectum, pancreas, stomach, gallbladder, esophagus, duodenum, small intestine. Where does bile go after it leaves the gallbladder? (the duodenum)

2.

3.

Which organ is primarily responsible for protein digestion? (the stomach)

4.

Where does fat digestion begin? (in the small intestine)

5.

Where does starch digestion begin? (in the mouth)

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

Name

CHECKING COMPREHENSION

Read the following sentences and circle the letters of the words that best fill each blank.
The human digestive system is a group of organs that break down food into _____1_____ to be used as fuel by the body. Digestive juices, which are mostly _____2_____ , speed up this breakdown. Carbohydrates are changed into _____ 3_____ , fats are digested into _____4_____ , and proteins ar e broken down into _____ 5_____ and amino acids. Digestion begins in the mouth, where food is ground into smaller particles, and an enzyme breaks down some of the _____ 6_____ .In the stomach, _____7_____ such as hydrochloric acid begin the breakdown of protein. Fats and starches move on to the _____8_____, where most of the digestive process takes place. Fluid secreted by the _____9_____ and _____10____ , which is made in the liver, help digest fat. Enzymes secreted by glands in the walls of the small intestine continue to break down _____11____. Capillaries and lymph vessels in the _____12____ absorb the digested food and carry it to the body.

1.

A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

cells atoms enzymes molecules acids enzymes bile lymph fluids amino acids starches simple sugars fatty acids starches and glycerol starches and simple sugars fatty acids and glycerol peptides and fatty acids peptides starches gastric juice glycerol

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

ANSWER KEY for page 21

Name

CHECKING COMPREHENSION (Continued )

6.

A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

sugars starches proteins carbohydrates fatty acids gastric juices pancreatic juices liver secretions lymph vessels blood vessels small intestine liver stomach large intestine gallbladder pancreas bile mucus gastric juice hydrochloric acid fats and vitamins starches and proteins starches and vitamins proteins and bile liver pancreas villi gallbladder

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

Name

WORD SCRAMBLE

Unscramble the words on the left, then match them to the definitions below. 2 12 10 6 8 9 3 11 5 1 4 7 lslam sitntenie small intestine yocregll glycerol dippetes peptides carbaeit bacteria iialcpslaer capillaries mertcu rectum dteharbsracoy carbohydrates valsia saliva lrhrihcdyooc hydrochloric suumc mucus naivmtis vitamins dlaaeglbdrl gallbladder

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

protects the walls of the large intestine where most digestion takes place another name for starches and sugars absorbed by the large intestine acid found in the stomach break down roughage in the large intestine

7. 8. 9.

stores bile before its needed found in the villi final segment of the alimentary canal

10. what proteins become 11. begins the breakdown of starch 12. what fats are digested into

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

ANSWER KEY for page 23

Name

TYPES OF FOOD

1.

Each of the following foods is primarily a carbohydrate, fat, or protein. Use the blanks below to describe which group each food belongs to. carbohydrate protein carbohydrate fat carbohydrate toast steak soda milkshake spaghetti protein carbohydrate carbohydrate fat protein tuna cereal flakes baked potato ice cream ham

2.

How would the milkshake be digested? (in the small intestine, by pancreatic juice and bile)

3.

What would the steak be broken down into? (amino acids and peptides)

4.

Where would digestion of the cereal begin? (in the mouth)

5.

Vegetables such as lettuce and carrots contain vitamins, minerals and some protein, but they are mostly roughage. How is roughage digested? (by bacteria in the large intestine)

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

Name

BRAIN TWISTERS

Do some research to find answers to the following questions.

Answers will var y.


1. Why are there more overweight people than overweight animals? (Most animals eat because they are hungry. People often eat because it is something they enjoy.)

2.

If potatoes only grow in warm weather, why can we buy them in the winter? (New technologies involving greenhouses make many fruits and vegetables available yearround. Better transportation methods also make it easier to import warm-weather crops.)

3.

Why does your stomach growl when youre hungry? (Gases in the stomach, and in the small intestine, make a gurgling sound when the stomach is almost empty.)

4.

Acid in the stomach can dissolve razor blades. Why doesnt this acid eat through the lining of the stomach? (Mucus protects the lining of the stomach from acids in the gastric juices.)

5.

Why dont we get as hungry when were hot? (When were hot, we need less fuel to keep our body going, so our brain sends out signals that discourage us from getting hungry.)

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

ANSWER KEY for page 25

Name

VOCABULARY SEARCH

The following words can be found in the maze below. The letters may be arranged horizontally, vertically, diagonally or backwards.
WORD BANK

bile carbohydrates esophagus gallbladder

lipids liver pancreas peptides

proteins starches stomach villi

A D G H J C U L A R W T R D U

C X G R I P E H C A M O T S E

D S A S P K R S E E Q O A S M

T S L S E L A O S N I Z O E L

E R L I P I D S T M A P B T O

E E B A E A W I T E H M C A I

L I L E P O L T E A I N E R R

I L A T T L O O G N L N S D X

B E D U I B S U G D U A S Y C

B R D V D E S L A T X E L H A

I A E O E S E H C R A T S O N

L L R V S N K I L R M C W B O

W H R V I M N L I A E P I R L

N N E L E L S S A E R C N A P

O P D I S B A E S S T Y L C E

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

Name TEST

Check the correct answer to each question. 1. How does saliva digest food?

q q q q
2.

by by by by

breaking down starches using bile to break down sugars breaking down proteins using peptides to break down fat

The first segment of the small intestine is called the:

q q q
3.

q q q

villus illeum colon duodenum

The volume of the human stomach is approximately:

q
4.

one liter two liters one-half of a liter four liters

What are the walls of the stomach lined with?

q q q
5.

blood vessels and bile ducts villi and mucus membranes blood vessels and intestinal glands lymph vessels and villi

Enzymes in the gastric juices break proteins down into:

q q q q

lipids amino acids amylase simple sugars

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System

ANSWER KEY for page 27

Name TEST (CONTINUED)

6.

What type of food begins the digestion process in the small intestine? q q starches proteins sugars fats

q
7. q q q q 8. q q q q 9. q

What happens in the duodenum? food is mixed with pancreatic juice and bile vitamins and minerals are absorbed food is crushed by strong muscles and mixed with digestive juices a large amount of water is absorbed from the food

What are the functions of the intestinal juices? to continue breaking down starches and proteins to begin breaking down fats to begin breaking down starches and proteins to break down vitamins and minerals

Where do amino acids and glucose go after being absorbed by the villi?

q
q 10. q q

to the gallbladder to the large intestine to the liver to the lymph vessels

Blood vessels in the large intestine absorb: q q protein minerals and water bile starches

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Copyright 1997 AIMS Multimedia The Human Digestive System