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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Colouration in nature is generally realized in two ways, through pigmentation or by means of controlling the flow of photons in thin optical films or/and 3D structures. Iridescence (originated from the Greek word irides rainbows) is an optical phenomenon caused by multiple reflections from multiple layers of optical films in which phase shift and interference of the reflections modulates the incident light by amplifying or attenuating certain wavelength more than others. This process is also utilized as selective wavelength attenuation in Fabry-Prot interferometers. Recent developments in micro- and nano-fabrication and photonics allow one to fabricate structures that can mimic iridescence in nature by manipulating light in a controlled manner in MEMS architectures, thus opening up a window for a variety of novel devices and applications.

The Qualcomm IMOD reflective display is a high speed, electrostatically actuated, bistable MEMS device built on a transparent (e.g. glass) substrate. An IMOD element consists of a suspended conductive membrane serving as a mirror, over a partially reflective optical stack. There is a few hundred nanometers wide gap between the two that is filled with air. Interference between light reflected from the mirror and from the partially reflective optical stack generates vibrant color. Black is perceived when the IMOD element is in a collapsed state.

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2. DETAILED EXPLANATION
2.1 OVERVIEW OF PORTABLE DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES Ink and paper are arguably the de facto standard for information display. Developed over 5,000 years ago, todays inks and dyes provide lifelike color imagery. Display technologies, on the other hand, are relatively new. The CRT was developed less than 100 years ago and the increasingly popular flat-panel display less than 40 years ago. For roughly a decade now, engineers have been working to create a display technology capable of providing a paper-like reading experience, not only with regards to superior viewability, but also with respect to cost, power and ease of manufacture. Display technologies such as backlit LCDs, reflective LCDs, electroluminescent (EL) displays, organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) and electrophoretic displays (EPD) were all steps in this direction. Mirasol displays, based on industry-proven MEMS technology, promise to take the quest for paper-like displays to a new level.

A wide variety of display technologies are aiming to capture the key characteristics of ink and paper. In this section we will compare them, with particular emphasis on energy consumption and readability.

2.1.1. Emissive / Transmissive Displays

Displays are classified as one of three types: emissive/transmissive, reflective or transflective. A transmissive LCD consists of two transmissive substrates between which the liquid-crystal material resides. By placing a backlight underneath one of the substrates and by applying a voltage to the liquidcrystal material the light reaching the observer can be modulated so as to make the display pixel appear bright or dark. A display can also directly emit light, as in the case of an OLED display, whose active display material emits light.

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Fig1: Structure of LCD display

In the case of an LCD, a constant source of power is required to both modulate the liquid-crystal material and to power the backlight. An LCD requires constant refreshing--at least sixty times per second--in order to prevent the liquidcrystal material from transitioning to a different modulation state, resulting in image degradation or flicker. Such is also the case with OLED and EPD constant power must be provided to the light-emitting materials in order to prevent screen flicker.

2.1.2. Reflective Displays (Continuous refresh type)

In a reflective display, one of the substrates found in a transmissive display is replaced with a reflective substrate. Reflective displays usually employ liquid-crystal material on top of the reflective substrate so as to modulate the ambient light reflecting off the reflective substrate. Since there is no backlight in reflective displays, they consume substantially less power than emissive displays.

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However, since the material providing modulation is liquid-crystal, the majority of these types of displays must constantly be refreshed or the displayed image will be lost. So far, most portable devices employing reflective displays are the continuous refresh type.

2.1.3. Reflective Displays (Bistable type)

A bistable display is capable of maintaining one of two states (on or off) without any external influence such as an electric field. A bistable reflective display employing liquid-crystal material for light modulation is in many ways identical to the continuous-refresh reflective display. The key difference is the type of liquid-crystal material that is used. Through proper choice of chemistry, manufacturing and drive schemes, the liquid-crystal material can be locked into one of two states. Once the material has been locked into a certain configuration, it is not necessary for the display to be refreshed. In fact, power can be completely removed from the system and the display will maintain the last image shown.

Electrophoretic displays (EPD) and IMOD displays are also bistable. EPDs typically consist of charged microcapsules containing dye suspended between two substrates. The microcapsule, generally a sphere, is black on one half and white on the other. Depending on the electric field applied between the two substrates, the microcapsule will flip orientation to position either the black or the white half

toward the observer. Depending on the capsule orientation, the ambient light will either be reflected toward the observer or be absorbed.

In an IMOD display, a flexible thin-film mirror is fabricated on a transparent substrate, leaving an air gap of a few hundred nanometers between the thin film and the substrate such that when ambient light enters this cavity and reflects off the thin-film mirror, it interferes with itself, producing a resonant color

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determined by the height of the cavity. An IMOD display produces iridescent color, similar to what you would observe in a butterflys wings. Depending on the

electric field applied between the substrate and the thin film, the film can be positioned in one of two states. Because IMOD displays are bistable, they dont require a refresh until the image is changed. As a result, they consume very little power, providing extended battery life for the user.

Fig2: Working principle of EPD display

2.1.4. Transflective Displays

Transflective displays are a hybrid of emissive and reflective display technologies. Transflective displays were engineered to overcome the shortcomings of emissive displays, namely the backlights high power

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consumption, and the shortcomings of reflective displays, such as poor image quality at low ambient light levels.

Fig 3: Reflective mode & Transmissive mode working of Transflective Display

Transflective displays employ a partially transmissive mirror as the secondary substrate, as well as a traditional backlight. In low light situations, the device operates as a transmissive display, employing the backlight. In high ambient light conditions, the backlight turns off and the display functions as a reflective display. A transflective display is a compromise and its image quality is generally subpar. In sunlight they are not as bright as purely reflective displays, while indoors they are not as bright as emissive displays. Regardless, they offer a compromise for applications where a wide variety of lighting conditions are seen and transflective displays are widely used in the portable device market.

2.2 OVERVIEW OF IMOD TECHNOLOGY

MEMS-based display technologies have been under development for over a decade, but have only recently started to gain traction. Display systems based on

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arrays of movable mirrors are now widely available in the consumer marketplace. Deformable mirrors and mechanical shutters are also making use of MEMS-based displays. Their digital nature and fast response make them ideal for display applications. However, their role has been limited to applications with fixed-angle light sources rather than portable direct-view displays, as they are not effective when removed from a fixed-angle light source.

Developed to address these shortcomings, IMOD displays are based on the principle of interference, which is used to determine the color of the reflected light. IMOD pixels are capable of switching speeds on the order of 10 microseconds. Additionally, IMOD displays fabricated to use IMOD technology have shown reflectivities of greater than 60 percent, contrast ratios greater than 15:1 and drive voltages of as low as 5 volts. Though simple in structure, IMOD elements provide the functions of modulation, color selection and memory while eliminating active matrices, color filters and polarizers. The result is a highperformance display capable of active-matrix type functionality at passive-matrix cost. IMOD displays are a strong contender in the display industry, with the potential to offer many of the benefits of ink and paper.

Most portable devices work with transmissive LCDs, which use polarizers and filters to block light and remove the wavelengths of a bright white light source to create various colors. The liquid crystals modulate the lights intensity. A backlight makes the overall display brighter or darker as needed, depending on the ambient light. Because the filters and liquid crystals block so much of its output, the backlight must be powerfuland use considerable energyto provide the required brightness. Thus, LCDs consume considerable power and are a major drain on mobile devices batteries. IMOD uses optical interference to display images. Pixels in an IMOD display consist of a flexible thin-film mirror located a few hundred nanometers from a transparent glass substrate. When ambient light enters this cavity and reflects off the thin-film mirror, it interferes with itself, producing a resonant colour determined by the height of the cavity, the system produces different colour

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by varying the distance between the mirror and the substrate. Applying an electrical field to the cavity provides additional reflective and absorptive properties. In dim or dark conditions, an integrated front light illuminates the screen. Because the front light is reflected through the system by the mirror and because it is not filtered or otherwise blocked, it can be less powerful and consume less power than LCD backlights. The first prototype IMOD screens will show images only in black and gold, which will be sufficient for text-based and several other types of applications.

2.3 iMoD TECHNOLOGY: THE INSPIRATION

Fig4: Shimmering wings of butterflies

A butterflys shimmering wings, a peacocks iridescent plumage. These are some of Mother Natures most beautiful color displays. This vibrancy in

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colour is due to the interference of light with itself. By mimicking this simple design of nature, the researchers developed the iMoD technology.

Butterfly wings

IMOD element

Fig5: Cavity in imod element similar to Cuticle in butterfly wing

The inspiration is the Blue Morph Butterfly. By studying its wing structure the researchers found tiny structures called cuticles on its scales. These structures cause the light to interfere with itself, causing iridescence. With the advancements in the MEMS technology, these tiny structures were easily replicated. The IMOD elements dont require any colour filters or power for displaying colours as it uses the ambient sunlight present around it. By applying one of natures most remarkable innovations the butterfly wings, the IMOD technology was inspired.

2.4 IMOD TECHNOLOGY: THE PRINCIPLE


The physical property of light which is made use of is the Interference of Light. Interference is the addition (superposition) of two or more waves that result in a new wave pattern. Interference usually refers to the interaction of waves that are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they come from the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same frequency.

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Two non-monochromatic waves are only fully coherent with each other if they both have exactly the same range of wavelengths and the same phase differences at each of the constituent wavelengths. The total phase difference is derived from the sum of both the path difference and the initial phase difference (if the waves are generated from two or more different sources). It can then be concluded whether the waves reaching a point are in phase (constructive interference) or out of phase (destructive interference).

combined waveform

wave 1

wave 2

Two waves in phase

Two waves 180 out of phase

Fig6: Constructive and Destructive interference of wave1& wave2.

Consider two waves that are in phase, with amplitudes A1 and A2. Their troughs and peaks line up and the resultant wave will have amplitude A = A1 + A2. This is known as constructive interference.

If the two waves are radians, or 180, out of phase, then one wave's crests will coincide with another wave's troughs and so will tend to cancel out. The resultant amplitude is A = |A1 A2|. If A1 = A2, the resultant amplitude will be zero. This is known as destructive interference. When two sinusoidal waves superimpose, the resulting waveform depends on the frequency (or wavelength) amplitude and relative phase of the two waves. If the two waves have the same amplitude A and wavelength the resultant waveform will have amplitude between 0 and 2A depending on whether the two waves are in phase or out of phase.

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Fig7: Interference of reflected rays from the upper and lower surfaces

2.5 IMOD ELEMENTS Pixel elements are composed of simple, tiny (10-100 microns) micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) comprised of two conductive plates: a thin film stack on a glass substrate and a reflective membrane suspended below. When a bias voltage holds the reflective membrane in the open state, the subpixel reflects a particular color. When the applied voltage pulls the reflective membrane into a collapsed state, all visible light is absorbed, making the element black.

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Fig8: An imod element

At the most basic level, an IMOD display is an optically resonant cavity similar to a Fabre-Perot etalon. The device consists of a self-supporting deformable reflective membrane and a thin-film stack (each of which acts as one mirror of an optically resonant cavity), both residing on a transparent substrate. To create a flat-panel display, many elements are grouped together as pixels or sub pixels. Varying voltage across the displays elements creates rich, detailed imagery.

These highly developed structures reflect light so that specific wavelengths interfere with each other to create natures purest, most vivid colours. By using this brilliant, time-tested biological development as the launching point for the new IMOD technology, QUALCOMM brings nature to light effectively and efficiently in a cutting-edge display that will reshape the industry. An IMOD elements electro-mechanical memory, called hysteresis, allows it to maintain its state (open or collapsed). Once moved into the open/collapsed state, it stays there with very low quiescent current. This means the element acts as a highly power-efficient memory element, providing notable power savings over active matrix devices that constantly refresh.

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2.6 HOW IT WORKS: COLOUR GENERATION

When ambient light hits the structure, it is reflected both off the top of the thin-film stack and off the reflective membrane. Depending on the height of the optical cavity, light of certain wavelengths reflecting off the membrane will be slightly out of phase with the light reflecting off the thin-film structure. Based on the phase difference, some wavelengths will constructively interfere, while others will destructively interfere as shown in Figure 9. As illustrated, the red wavelengths have a phase difference which leads to constructive interference, while the green and blue wavelengths have a phase difference which leads to destructive interference. As a result, the human eye will perceive a red color, as certain wavelengths will be amplified with respect to others. Color generation via interference is much more efficient in its use of light compared to traditional color filters and polarizers, which work on the principle of absorption and waste much of the light entering the display.

The image on an IMOD display can switch between color and black by changing the membrane state. This is accomplished by applying a voltage to the thin-film stack, which is electrically conducting and is protected by an insulating layer. When a voltage is applied, electrostatic forces cause the membrane to collapse. The change in the optical cavity now results in constructive interference at ultraviolet wavelengths, which are not visible to the human eye. Hence, the image on the screen appears black. A full-color display is assembled by spatially ordering IMOD elements reflecting in the red, green and blue wavelengths as shown in Figure 9.

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Fig9: IMOD Structure Showing Light Reflecting off the Thin-film Stack And Mirror Interfering to Produce Color

An IMOD element is a simple, tiny (10-100 microns) micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) composed of two conductive plates: a thin film stack on a glass substrate, and a reflective membrane suspended below. When a bias voltage holds the reflective membrane in the open state, the IMOD sub pixel reflects a particular colour. When the applied voltage pulls the reflective membrane into a collapsed state, all visible light is absorbed, making the element black. To create a flat-panel display, many IMOD elements are grouped together as pixels or sub pixels. Varying voltage across the displays elements creates rich, detailed imagery.

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2.7 GRAYSCALE GENERATION At the most basic level, the IMOD element is a 1 bit device, that is, it can be driven to either a dark (black) or bright (color) state. In order to be able to show grayscale images, spatial or temporal dithering can be used. Spatial dithering divides a given sub pixel into many smaller addressable elements, and drives the individual elements separately in order to obtain the gray levels. Such a scheme requires an additional row driver per element. In Figure 10 a binary weighted spatial dithering scheme is shown which produces 8 gray shades per color, for a total of 512 colors.

Fig10: Grayscale Generation in a Pixel

Alternatively, temporal dithering can be used to obtain additional gray shades. Temporal dithering works by splitting each field of data into, for example, two fields, where one subfield lasts 8 times longer than the other. As shown in Figure 11, the sub pixel elements are area weighted in ratios of 1:2:4. In order to achieve 64 gray levels per color for a total of 256K colors, this area ratio is combined with the subfield timing (area of sub pixel elements x temporal subfield) to give a ratio of 1:2:4:8:16:32. Cycling the frames at >50Hz allows the eye to time integrate the subfields and perceive the large number of gray shades.

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Fig11: Grayscale Generation via Temporal Dithering

Both spatial and temporal dithering have their pros and cons. Spatial dithering offers lower power consumption as the display does not need to be refreshed as often as when temporal dithering is used. Since power consumption is proportional to the display refresh frequency, temporal dithering is best used in cases where power is of less concern. Temporal dithering, however, offers a lower cost display since fewer IMOD elements are addressed and provides a higher fill factor. Finally, a combination of both temporal and spatial dithering can also be used to increase the number of gray levels; such a scheme could balance the optical efficiency/power tradeoff. 2.8 BISTABILITY: THE EFFICIENCY FACTOR One of the key advantages of the IMOD displays design is its bi stable nature, which allows for near-zero power usage in situations where the display image is unchanged. This means that IMOD displays benefit from considerable power savings, especially compared to displays that continually refresh, such as LCDs. The bi stability of IMOD displays comes from the inherent hysteresis derived from the technologys electro-mechanical properties. More specifically, it derives from an inherent imbalance between the linear restorative forces of the

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mechanical membrane and the non-linear forces of the applied electric field. As shown in Figure 12, the resulting electro-opt-mechanical behavior is hysteretic in nature and provides a built-in memory effect similar to the thin-film transistor (TFT) element in an active-matrix display. An IMOD displays electro-mechanical memory, called hysteresis, allows it to maintain its state (open or collapsed). Once moved into the open/collapsed state, it stays there with very low quiescent current. This means the display acts as a highly power-efficient memory element, providing notable power savings over active matrix devices that constantly refresh.

Fig12: Hysteresis Effect in an IMOD Pixel

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The membrane is held in the open state by applying a voltage V bias. By applying a short write voltage pulse, the membrane will collapse and stay in that state as the voltage returns to V bias levels. In order to return to the open state, a short negative un write pulse (V un write) is applied, causing the membrane to snap back into the open state. 2.9 ADDITIONAL KEY ATTRIBUTES 2.9.1. Speed

Since visible light wavelengths operate on the nanometer scale (i.e., 380nm to 780nm), the deformable IMOD membrane only has to move a short distancea few hundred nanometersin order to switch between two colors. This switching happens extremely fast, on the order of tens of microseconds. This switching speed directly translates to a video rate-capable display with no motionblur effects. Traditional STN- or cholesterol-based passive matrix displays have switching speeds as slow as tens or hundreds of milliseconds. An IMOD elements switching time is 1000 times faster than traditional displays. In addition, switching speed of IMOD displays is maintained across a wide temperature range, unlike organic liquid-crystal-based displays, whose switching speeds decrease as temperatures go into low environmental ranges.

2.9.2. Readability Humans view the world by sensing the light reflecting from various surfaces. As a result, a reflected image from a newspaper is more appealing and easier to view for the human eye, compared to a backlit image. Based on human perception, there are two critical factors which determine readability: luminance and contrast. Luminance is the amount of light that reaches the human eye. In the case of a reflective display, it is the amount of ambient light that is reflected from the display, rather than absorbed. The key metric is the reflectivity of the displays white state, which is measured by comparing it to the reflectivity of a standard

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white source. A white sheet of paper measures between70 and 90 percent reflectivity, and a newspaper measures on the order of 60 percent reflectivity. Contrast is the ratio of the displays white state reflectivity to its dark state. This metric dictates whether or not the human eye will be able to perceive transitions between the dark and light areas on the display, which translates to spatial detail. If the contrast is too low, the display will appear washed out and the user will have difficulty perceiving image details. A high contrast ratio makes the image look sharper and improves readability. For reference, a newspaper has a contrast ratio of approximately 4:1.

Comparing the readability of reflective displays to that of emissive displays, it is clear that emissive displays work well at low ambient light levels. The problem with these displays, however, is when ambient light levels increase from room lighting to levels found outdoors on a sunny day, making it difficult for the user to discern spatial detail as shown in Figure 13. This is illustrated by the fact that a user must typically shield their portable-device screen when they are outdoors in bright sunlight. Two factors account for this: first, the increase in light that is reflected from the device pixel in the black state and second, the ambient light exceeding the light levels being emitted from the display. Both of these factors reduce the displays contrast. An IMOD displays bi stable nature requires very little power, making it much more efficient than LCD technology. An IMOD displays bright reflectivity means it uses ambient light sources. Only in dark environments does it need supplemental lightingunlike LCD technologies, in which supplemental lighting is the largest consumer of power. With their unique reflective light interference quality, IMOD displays achieve a new level of usability that matches that of an age-old display: the printed page. As clear as an image on paper, IMOD displays can be viewed in any lighting condition including direct sunlight. Two to three times as bright as competitive state-of-the-art technologies, IMOD displays minimize eye strain, and their wide viewing cones are free of the inversion effects that plague polarization-based displays.

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Fig13: Brightness/Contrast versus Ambient Light Levels

In the case of reflective displays, the black state suffers from the same problem as emissive displaysthe black-level luminance increases as ambient light levels increase. However, the displays white state offers superior view ability. As ambient light levels increase, so does the IMOD displays whitestate reflectivity. As a result, an IMOD display offers a superior contrast ratio in brightly lit environments. In darker environments, supplemental illumination is provided by a low-power front light.

An additional benefit of IMOD displays is their wide viewing angle. Unlike an LCD display, which exhibits grayscale inversion when viewed at angles varying in elevation from normal (looking directly at the display, headon), the IMOD display shows a non-grayscale-inverted image. Images shown on IMOD displays are also impervious to rotations around the normal, once

again unlike LCD-based displays. In this sense, the iMoD element provides the benefit of an emissivea wide symmetrical viewing angle.

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Qualcomms IMOD displays offer reflectivity on the order of 50 percent and contrast ratios greater than 8:1. By comparison, the Wall Street Journal newspaper offers a reflectivity of 60 percent and a contrast ratio of around 4:1. An IMOD displays brightness and contrast result in a superior viewing experience for the user. QUALCOMM displays enable saturated colours and highresolution imagery. Plus, their fast response makes them ideal for artefact-free video and gaming applications. 2.9.3. Ease of Manufacture The MEMS elements that constitute an IMOD display have been designed for ease of manufacture. Qualcomms IMOD displays are produced using a process known as surface micro- machining, which is derived from the wafer scale roots of MEMS fabrication. The name refers to the idea of building all of the structure and components of the MEMS device on the surface of the underlying substrate. In the case of IMOD displays, these comprise an array of deposited metal and metal-oxide films which are lithographically patterned to produce a microscopic planar structure. The result is a monolithic electro-optic display which requires fewer process steps to build than the TFT array in a LCD.

The overarching manufacturing benefit of IMOD display production is that the process was engineered to utilize infrastructure already in place in FPD fabrication. All of the materials used for IMOD display fabrication currently exist within the FPD palette and, in most cases, substitute materials may be utilized. The end result is a flexible and robust process that enables conversion, with minimal modification, of many FPD fabrication into IMOD display foundries, minimizing the time needed to bring IMOD technology to market.

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2.9.4. Robustness

The biggest problem with LCD lifetime is the use of organic materials. Both the liquid-crystal material and the alignment material are organic and, as a result, break down over time when exposed to high temperature and light (both artificial and sunlight.) By relying on inorganic materials, IMOD displays are capable of performing over an extended temperature range and at the same time are impervious to high-intensity visible and UV radiation. Additionally, even when exposed to extreme temperatures, an IMOD displays response times are unaffected, and the impact on drive voltages and image content is minimal. Mechanically, the IMOD element is extremely robust. IMOD displays have demonstrated reliability over 12 billion cycles.Mechanical structures made from inorganic materials, IMOD displays are more resistant to environmental factors including UV rays and temperature extremes that diminish the performance of LCDs and other liquid-based displays. 2.9.5. Industry compatibility Qualcomms IMOD displays are designed to conform to industry standards, enabling mirasol modules to be plug-and-play compatible with standard mobile systems. The mirasol module offers standard industry interfaces, and standard power supplies. This use of industry standards ensures that there is minimal risk to adopting this powerful new technology ensures that there is minimal risk to adopting this powerful new technology will allow for vastly improved performance and highly differentiated products to end users. IMOD technology is a fundamentally new approach to displays, but its manufacture is based on that of LCDs. From tools, processes, materials and components to integration into finished modules, IMOD display production is compatible with the current LCD infrastructure. By using existing plants and equipment, QUALCOMM minimizes the time needed to bring IMOD technology to the mass market.

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QUALCOMM display products are designed to conform to industry standards, ensuring IMOD modules will need no special technological requirements to easily integrate into standard mobile systems. An IMOD Displays Electrical Interface Features: Standard Industry Module Interface Serial (SPI, I2C) Parallel (8080 type) Standard power supplies supported

Adopting this revolutionary new technology entails minimal risk and effort making it easy and safe from a business perspective to offer customers a superior viewing experience.

Fig14: Acoustic research ARWH1 stereo Bluetooth headset

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2.10 THE APPLICATIONS

The IMOD was invented by Mark W. Miles, a MEMS researcher and founder of Etalon, Inc., and (co-founder) of Iridgim Display Corporation Qualcomm took over the development of this technology after its acquisition of

Iridigm in 2004, and subsequently formed Qualcomm MEMS Technologies (QMT).Qualcomm has allowed commercialization of the technology under the trademarked name "mirasol", and this energy-efficient, bioimetic technology sees application and use in mobile phones, etc.

IMOD displays are now available in the commercial marketplace. QMT's displays, using IMOD technology, are found in the Acoustic Research ARWH1 Stereo Bluetooth headset device, the Showcare Monitoring system (Korea), the Hisense C108,and mp3 applications from Freestyle Audio and Skullcandy. In the mobile phone marketplace, Taiwanese manufacturers Inventec and Cal-Comp have announced phones with mirasol displays, and LG claims to be developing 'one or more' handsets using mirasol technology. These products all have only 2color (black plus one other) "bi-chromic" displays. None are full color. The Hisense C108 mobile phone is a lightweight low power, candy-bar style handset that weighs less than a pound (80 grams). The C108,based on Qualcomms QSC6010 chipset, uses the 1.2inch mirasol display that features a resolution of 130ppi(128x96pixels).The mirasol display functions as the main display of the phone, showing such things as text messaging, phone book entries, time, date and other important information. The phone also supports multiple la nguages and has 32 Mb ROM and 8Mb RAM. KTFs SHOW care monitoring System uses 3G WCDMA to transmit live video from a SHOW camera device to a designated mobile phone and is ideal for

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commercial asset monitoring or any number of uses in the consumer or enterprise markets. Video streams directly to the handset with a push of a button, enabling SHOW owners to view live video coming from the locations of their choice. The SHOW monitoring device also is equipped with motion sensors that send SMS alerts to the handset when there is physical activity near the base. The Acoustic Research ARWH1 is one of the industry's first Bluetooth headsets capable of delivering visual information - such as caller ID, battery level and status alerts - as icons and text on the main screen.

Qualcomm is aggressively moving forward with the development and commercialization of IMOD technologyincluding opening a state-of-the-art MEMS Research and Innovation Center in San Jose, California. Currently in development for applications such as wireless phones, GPS units and industrial devices, Qualcomms IMOD technology opens up a new world of display innovations and opportunities for exploration.

Potential Applications: Gaming devices MP3 players Laptop and desktop monitors Digital TV and DVD player screens Medical imaging Outdoor TVs Outdoor signage Digital camera and camcorder screens

Application of IMOD technology is possible in every display devices especially in portable devices. Since it uses the sunlight to display, the energy for displaying is nil. Power is required only for the driver elements. Present portable devices use a huge chunk of power from battery for meeting the power requirements of the display.

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IMOD display can be used in portable mp3 players. It does ensure long battery life and thus frequent charging can be reduced. Use in laptop screens is another application area. Since their screen size is large, it consumes more battery power. Display solution such as the IMOD is the best one. Now the batteries of laptop would last long.

Fig15: e-book reader with 5.7 inch display

In medical field, it can be used in medical kits. It also finds application in medical imaging equipments. In digital camera and camcorder screens, the IMOD display would be of great advantage. In signage, present neon bulbs can be replaced by this display. Thus increases the efficiency. Another interesting area is in the gps units. It does prove to be an efficient power source. Other use includes those in digital TV and DVD screens, outdoor TVs, gaming devices etc.

Future Capabilities: Enhanced image quality Increased resolution Flexible substrates Complete system component integration Custom shapes

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3. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES

Speed: Switching of deformable IMOD elements are extremely fast in order of tens of microseconds. An IMOD elements switching time is 1000 times faster than traditional displays.

Ease of Manufacture: The manufacturing process utilizes infrastructure already in place in FPD fabrication. Robustness: IMOD elements have demonstrated reliability over 12 billion cycles. Industry Compatibility: The technology offers standard industry interfaces, and standard power supplies. Readability: An IMOD display offers a superior contrast ratio in brightly lit environments. Less power consumption: Since it uses ambient lighting conditions, power consumption is less. Disadvantages

No backlight: Display works only if ambient light is present. Hence not readable in dark rooms. Only for portable displays: It is targeted at portable displays. Cant be used for televisions.

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INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATOR DISPLAY

5. CONCLUSION
The Interferometric Modulator (IMOD) is a technology used in electronic displays that can create various colors through the interference of reflected light. The color is selected with an electrically switched light modulator comprising a microscopic cavity that is switched on and off using driver integrated circuits similar to those used to address LCD displays. An IMOD based reflective flat panel display can include hundreds of thousands of individually addressable IMOD elements. IMOD displays represent one of the foremost examples of a micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) based device.

In one state an IMOD sub pixel reflects light at a specific wavelength and gives a pure, bright color at oneintensity, while in a second state it absorbs incident light and appears black to the viewer. The wings of butterflies employ the same phenomena when not being addressed; an IMOD display consumes very little power.

This innovative, highly reflective design enables an Always-On experience with: Ultra-low power consumption extended battery life Superior view ability in all lighting conditions, even bright sunlight Enhanced readability reduced eye fatigue, like reading printed paper Robust functionality virtually unaffected by environment and extreme temperatures Mechanical durability long operational life Technical compatibility easy integration and adoption Technical flexibility wide design and implementation options

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REFERENCES
Base paper: Linda Dailey Paulson, New Mobile Device Screen Saves Energy-a MEMS device, IEEE Industrial Electronics Journal pp: 19-21, October 2006 2. 3. 4. 5. www.qualcomm.com www.mirasoldisplay.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferometric_modulator_display M.W. Miles, Toward an IMOD ecosystem, Hilton Head 2006 A solid-state sensors, actuators and Microsystems workshop, June 2006 6. Interferometric Modulator Displays (IMOD): MEMS-Based

1. . .

Technology Inspired by Nature-Evgeni Gusev 7. Causes of Color: Especially Interference Color- J. B. Sampsell, Proceedings of the Fourteenth IST Color Imaging Conference, 2006

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