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1) Define the salient considerations taken during survey of a ship under i) Bare boat charter ii) Voyage charter

& iii) Time charter. As a Chief Engineer on board, explain with reasons which of the three surveys is most demanding and exhaustive and why? A charter is a contract between the ship owner and the charterer, for the use of a ship or her services for a voyage or for a specified period of time. The Contracts for hire of vessels include: i) Bare Boat Charter: It is a contract of hire, of a vessel for an agreed period, during which the charterers acquire most of the rights of the owners. In essence, the vessel's owners put their vessel at the complete disposal of the charterer, paying only the capital costs, but no other costs. The charterers have commercial and technical responsibility for the vessel and pay all costs (except capital costs). The 'BARECON A' form, under which the owners bear responsibility for insurance premiums, was designed by BIMCO, for short period chartering. The "BARECON B' form was designed as a long period financial type of contract, mainly for new buildings, although it can be modified for second-hand tonnage. The charterers are responsible for insurance premiums. BARECON 89 is an amalgamation of the BARECON 'A' and 'B' forms, designed to reflect the growing use of bareboat charter registration. These will usually be an agreement, that there will be an on-hire survey. In the case of new buildings, the survey procedures can

be done in the yard itself, according to the Agreement. In other cases, there is a thorough examination, considering the following points. 1) Bunkers on board 2) Stores and spares on board 3) General condition of the vessel 3) Certificates validity 4) Tanks condition and 5) Sea-worthiness. As a Chief Engineer, you are responsible for maintaining all equipment in good condition. Bunkers taken on board are to be properly calculated and records kept ready for the surveyors to verify. Proper planned maintenance, 'PMS' is to be in use, to maintain Sea-worthiness. It is a more stringent survey, since the charterers take the responsibility of the vessel in full respects, except for capital costs. All crew members to be aware of the Safety procedures and the company's Quality Management System (QMS). Proper training and briefing to be given with respect to all requirements, before the Survey. Ii) Voyage Charter: A 'Voyage charter' is a contract for the carriage, by a named vessel of specified quantity of cargo, between named ports or imp owner places. The ship owner basically agrees, that he will present the manned vessel for loading, at the agreed place, within an agreed period of time and, following the loading, will carry the cargo to the agreed place/port where he will deliver the cargo. In effect, the charterers have the cargo capacity of the vessel but not the responsibility for the entire vessel. The survey under 'voyage charter, is thus not very stringent, as compared to the other charter party cases. The characters are mainly interested in sea-worthiness and the condition of the cargo spaces. The surveyor checks whether the vessel can carry the cargo, of the particular quantity and to be able to discharge the same within an agreed period of time. As a Chief Engineer, one should take care of cargo loading handling equipment. (E.g. cranes/derricks) and

tank condition. If any repairs are necessary, to keep the same in good condition, they should be carried out, as it is a requirement to prove that the ship is able to carry the cargo safety and the vessel should be able to reach in the agreed time. iii) Time Charter: It is a contract for the hire of a named vessel, for a specified period of time. The ship owner is responsible for the vessel's running expenses. The ship owner operates the vessel technically, but not commercially. The owners beers no cargo handling expenses and do not normally appoint the stevedores. The charterers are responsible for the commercial employment of the vessel for the purchase of bunkers (fuel) and for Insurance, port and canal dues (including pilotage, towage, linesman, etc.) and all loading / stowing / trimming / discharging arrangements and costs. a 'directions and logs' clause requires the charterers to provide the Master with all instructions and sailing directions and the Master and Chief Engineer are to keep the logs available to the charterers or their Agents, so that they can monitor the vessels efficiency. Stevedoring damage notifications forms and log extracts (or abstracts) will usually be required to be sending to the charterers. On Hire survey and Delivery Certificate: There will usually be an Agreement, that there will be an 'On-Hire' Survey or 'Delivery' Survey to establish 1) Quantity of Bunkers remaining on board 2) The general condition of the vessel 3) Tanks or holds are fit for carriage of the contemplated cargo. Holds of a dry cargo vessel must be dry and swept clean and tanks for oil / chemicals must pass the survey, to be certified 'fit'. The survey will note any existing damage in holds / tanks. The 'On-Hire' survey is usually carried out by jointly approved surveyors, paid for (50/50) by the owners and the charterers. Time spent on the survey is normally at the owner's risk, if the vessels is not 'on hire' until the 'passing' of the survey.

A 'Delivery certificate' should be issued by the surveyor, to confirm the date and time of handover. Bankers Q.O.B and the condition of holds or tanks. The certificate should be attached to the survey report and it is a vital document for the assessment of hire-payment due and the commencement of various charterers liabilities. The 'On Hire survey' should not be confused with the 'condition survey', that may be required by a prospective charterer, particularly by an oil major or in the case of older tonnage. As a Chief Engineer, one should calculate the bunkers on board correctly and keep all machinery in good running condition. It is his responsibility to prove that the ship is able to satisfy all 'charter party' requirements regarding fuel consumption and speed. Any maintenance required for cargo hold or tank should be carried out, prior to the survey, so as to maintain them in good condition. 'Off Hire' Survey and RI-delivery' Certificate: The charterers must normally re-delivery the vessel, in the 'same good order', as when ship was delivered to the charterers, although a 'fair' amount of wear and tear is acceptable. The 'off hire' survey will normally be carried out by an independent surveyor to ascertain the extend of any damage done during the charter, quantity of the bunkers R.O.B etc. the 'Redelivery clause' may provide for repairs, necessary to make the vessel sea-worthy and that must be done immediately on re-delivery and any other repairs at a more convenient time. Example at the next Dry Dock. The 'Off Hire Survey' is similar in scope to the 'On Hire Survey' R.O.B of bunkers are measured, so that the vessel is handed over to the owners, with the same quantity, as previously recorded. Restoring the condition of the vessel and its cargo spaces is the charterers operation. A Re-delivery certificate can now be issued to the Maser. As a Chief Engineer, one should check bunker R.O.B and the condition of the cargo gear. If any repairs are required to

be done, the surveyor must be notified.

2) Descries a Chief Engineer describe the procedure you would employ for bunkering at a port for ascertaining / receiving correct grade/quantity of oil from the shore supply authorities. In case of a dispute over lube oil/fuel oil received on board, be the action you will take under such circumstances. What are the applicable provisions under MARPOL 73/78, Annex VI Regulations? When accepting bunkers from a barge or a terminal, the Chief Engineer should always check the local supplier's documents to make certain that the bunker supple conforms, in terms of quantity, as well as fuel specifications, to what has actually been ordered. The flash point, viscosity and other characteristics of fuel supplied should be checked to ensure that fuel is suitable for the vessel. The Chief Engineer or his representative should always check that the bunks to be received do not contain unacceptable percentage of water contamination. The maximum allowed water content is 0.05% for Gas oil, 0.25% for lube oil and 1% for HFO. The Chief Engineer and Barge Master should check the security of the nose couplings on the bunker barge and receiver vessel and should agree upon the pumping rate. - Barge's Master has to show valid 'Hose Pressure Testing Certificate' to the Chief Engineer. - New Bunkers should be segregated from old bunkers on board as far as possible. If bunkers have to be mixed a sample of old and new fuel must be tested for compatibility. - Duty Engineer must ensure that the sampling flange is correctly fitted in place; the sample must be representative of the total delivery and ideally taken by 'drip feed' at the discharge side of

the manifold, during the course of pumping. Samples should not be from just one tank of the barge. All Tanks. - Sample bottles should be sealed, dated and signed by both parties. Three identical samples should be taken. One sample should be retained by ships staff for about 3 months or at least until the bunkers taken have been consumed without a problem. One sample should be sent to shore for laboratory analysis. One sample should be marked MARPOL sample and retained on board and one sample for barge/Terminal. Ensuring correct Quantity / Delivery: - It is the ship's staff responsibility to ensure, that the actual received quantity is exactly what has been ordered. The Chief Engineer or his representative must always check the supplier's barge/terminal tank surroundings before and after pumping. Barge surroundings should be checked by using sounding tape, which is to be used with tank calibration tables to verify the actual quantity before and after pumping, to ensure that the correct quantity is received. Due care must be taken to correct for temperature variations. Flow meters should be checked, both before and after bunker delivery. Flow meter only records volume either in US barrels or liters - both of which can be converted into metric tons, by using the products specific gravity and adjustment for temperature differences. At the same time, all records of volume, temperature, time, list and the number of tanks on ship which are full/empty should be recorded and the total quantity on ship should be noted before bunkers. The same parameters must be recorded at the bunkering supply end. 1% discrepancy in the level of received figures is normally tolerated. If the difference exceeds, a 'letter of protest must be written by the Master and an independent surveyor called to investigate the findings. If bunker figures

received are satisfactory, the 'bunker delivery receipt' should be checked to ensure the information is included as per Annex VI of MARPOL. Bunker Quantity Disputes - The disputes can arise due to 1) Measured volume of barge is different to that recorded on bunker delivery receipt, 2) Measured volume of barge is different to ship's received volume, 3) Weight on bunkers delivery receipt are calculated with incorrect density and 4) High water content 5) Air in HFO. Bunker Quality Disputes - In recent years there has been a generic deterioration in the quality of fuel provided for bunkers. The chief engineer should take care to ensure the bunker supplied matches the specifications required by the vessel are as per ISO 8217. Bunker delivery receipt should be maintained for 3 years. If poor quality fuel has been supplied, the Chief Engineer should record all relevant information that can lead to machinery damage with particular attention being given to the retention and preservation of oil samples. Oil samples should be sent for shore analysis. The matter should be promptly reported to owners. If there is any dispute with regard to 'quality & quantity', the following should be done:1) Records of initial oil tank soundings must be kept, oil transfer details to tanks must be correctly listed & final soundings noted. 2) Location of tanks where suspected bunker have been used.

3) Details of usages noted & copies of bunker receipts for new bunkers must be preserved for 3 years. 4) All 'Notes of Protest', Engine & deck logs must be preserved. 5) The sealed samples taken during bunkering operation must be retained; samples of previous bunkers also to be kept safe on board. 6) A record must be kept of following:i) C/E & other crew members involved in bunkering operations, ii) Persons present when bunker samples were taken iii) Crew members involved in correcting any problems associated with sub-standard bunkers. iv) Owners must be notified promptly. MARPOL 73/78, annex VI, Reg 18 gives provisions for the fuel oil quality. In addition to requirements limiting the sulphur content of fuel oil, the fuel should be free from potentially harmful substances. It should be free from inorganic acids or chemical wastes. Fuel oil quality requirements in Reg 18 are more or less identical to the general requirements of ISO 8217. Guidelines for sampling are also given. Any fuel delivery should be recorded in form of Bunker Delivery Note, which is required to contain the following information - Name & IMO number of receiving ship, product Name, - Bunkering port, date of commencement of bunkering - Name, address & telephone of supplier content (% mm) A declaration be signed & certified by the suppliers representative that the fuel is in conformation with Reg 14 & 18.

The Seal number of the MARPOL Annex VI sample should be included in the BDN for cross reference purposes. BON to be retained for 3 years after delivery of fuel.

3) Explain 'port state control' (PSC) inspection. Underline its authority for exercising and the basis of such inspections. Enumerate the relevant regulations, articles and annexes of SOLAS 74, LOAD LINED 66, MARPOL 73/78, STCW & TONNAGE 69, which form the provisions for PSC. Port state control is an inspection programmed under which all countries work together, to ensure that all vessels entering their waters are in compliance with strict International safety and antipollution standards. All countries involved in inspecting ships will share their findings with each other. Ship that are found to be in violation of laid-down standards, are detained in port, until their deficiencies have been rectified. The objective of PSC is to detect and deter owners from operating sub-standard ships that endanger not only the ships crew and the port, but also the Environment. The key elements of PSC are: - Ensuring compliance with International rules regarding Safety. Marine pollution and a threat to the working environment. - Detaining sub-standard vessels, when their condition so warrants, until all deficiencies are rectified. - Implementing a mutually agreed upon figure, of annually inspecting the minimum number (normally 25%) of all visiting vessels. - Applying a targeting system, when determining the selection of vessels for checking, so that well-non vessels are not

necessarily harassed, while the black-listed, vessels will not be allowed to operate. - Harmonizing and strengthening to the greatest extent, Port state controls authority to carry out better surveillances. - Providing technical assistance and training where the need is identified. Authorities of the port state control are clearly defined under the following instruments of IMO: 1) SOLAS 1974 3) STCW 78/95 5) COLREG 72 7) ILO Convention 1947 Rights of the Port State: In theory, all vessels must be governed by the Flag states that are allowing them to sail under their flag. In practice, all ships do not regularly call at their own (flag states) ports. This can restrict the ability of the Flag State to effectively check / enforce the conventions standards on its vessels. This loop hole has been exploited by some unscrupulous owners; do improve their own profit margins, by cheaply running their ships in a substandard condition, endangering not only other ships and the environment, but also the lives of the very seafarers who are running them. This is where PSC plays its policemans Role. Port State can be applied not only those countries, who are party to the convention but also to ships that fly the flag of a state, that has not ratified a convention. Thus no ship is exempt from inspection, because the principle of no more favorable treatment applies. 2) MARPOL 73/78 4) LOAD LINE 66 6) TONNAGE 69

Any state may also enact its own domestic laws and impose additional National rules and Regulations on foreign ships entering its waters. USA, for example, has enacted the Oil Pollution Act, 1990 (OPA90), which makes it mandatory for tankers to have a double hull or equivalent protection against oil spillage, for entry into any US Port. The relevant regulations, Articles and Annexes which forms the provision for PSC are as follows: SOLAS74: Reg 1/19 - General Provision / control Reg 1x/6 - Management of safe operation of ship / verification Reg X1/4 - Special measures to enhance Maritime safety / PSC on operational requirements. Chapter XI-2-9- special measures to hence Maritime security (ISPS Code) MARPOL 73/78: Article 5 - Certificate and special rules on inspection of ships Article 6 - Detection of violations and enforcement of the Conventions Reg8A, of Annex I - PSC on operational requirements Reg15 of Annex II - PSC on operational requirements Reg8, of Annex III - PSC on operational requirements Reg 8, of Annex IV - PSC on operational requirements LOADLINES: Article 21 - Limitation of draught, to which a ship on its

international voyage is to be loaded. Ensure adequate stability (1930) Provision to determine freeboard of tanker (1966)

STEW78: Article X - Control regulation (Rights of the PSCO to ensure all seafarers have appropriate certificate) Reg - Control procedures TONNAGE 69:Article 12 Verification of Tonnage certificate. Although the Tonnage Convention is not a safety convention, the revision A 787 (19) has laid down the guidelines for PSC. However, the control provision of Article 12 of tonnage 69 does not include the provision for detention of ships. ILO Convention:No 147 gives the provision for Port state Control.

4) What are the UNCLOS provisions concerning ships flag and nationality? In observing the provisions of UNCLOS, what are the Duties of the Flag state and Low are they enforced? UNCLOS stands for United Nations Convention on Laws of the Sea. This is an evolution of the Law of Sea convention i.e. the means for ensuring freedom of navigation at sea. This lead to the need for establishing an International Law to determine the status of sea areas and the governance or the interrelationship of countries using the worlds oceans. UNCLOS

- This was basically an attempt to codify the International law of the sea. - It is a treaty document of 446 articles, grouped under 17 heads and annexes. - It was an outcome of the 1982 UNCLOS and came into force internationally on 16th November 1994. - Sets the width of a territorial sea as 12 nautical miles, with the contiguous zone as 24 nautical miles from the base line. - Also defines innocent passage through territorial seas and transit passage through international seas. Defines archipelagic states and allows for passage through archipelagic waters. - Establishes EEZ as extending to 200 nautical miles from the base line. - Defines the legal states of being on the High seas and establishes regulations for the control of marine pollution. Provisions concerning ships flag state and Nationality: This is the section which deals with the nationality of a ship, the flag it flies the duties of the flag states and the enforcement of flag state control (PSC as we know it). 1) Article-90:- Every state, whether coastal or land locked, has the Right to have its ship flying its flag on the High seas. 2) Article-91:- Every state must fix condition on ships for the grant of Nationality, for the Registration and for the Right to fly its flag. 3) Ships have the Nationality are of the State where flag they are entitled to flag. 4) State must issue to ships flying its flag, documents to that

effect (Article 91) 5) There must be a genuine link between the State & the ship (Article 91) 6) Ships must sail under the flag of only one state and are subject to the jurisdiction of the flag state on the High seas (Article 92) 7) The permission for change of flag is given only is the case of transfer of ownership or change of Registry (Article 92) 8) It also deems that a ship, which used two or more flags, according to convenience, will be berated as a ship with No Nationality (Article 92) Article 93:- gives provision for ships to fly the Flag of the United Nations (UN) or its agencies and the IAEA (International Atomic Emergency Agency) Duties of glug State:Article 94 makes clear that the right of owning of ship (flying the flag of a country) makes the ship a part of the states national property. It also entails Duties and Responsibilities. This article also gives the grounds for inter action between the PSC and the Flag state and their cooperation. The salient points are reproduced as follow:1) Every state shall effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in Administrative, Technical and Social matters over all ships flying its flag. 2) Every state shall a) Maintain a Register of ships fling its flag with details b) Assume jurisdiction in administrative, technical and social matters.

3) Every state shall take measures to ensure safety at sea with regards to construction, equipment and sea word lines of the ships, manning, labor conditions and training of the crews, use of signals, maintenance of communication and prevention of collision. 4) Ensure that each ship is surveyed properly, personal on board ships are duty qualified and screw are fully conversant with international conventions. 5) Conform to International regulations 6) In case of clear grounds to believe that proper jurisdiction and control of a ship is not exercised, the same is to be reported to Flag state which in turn should take appropriate action. 7) Enquiring by qualified persons in every case of marine casually/incident of navigational error on the High seas, involving a ship flying its flag. Enforcement by Flag State:Article 217 makes the following provisions:1) Every state must ensure that vessels flying their flag must comply with the international laws and must adopt regulations to ensure their compliance. 2) State must take appropriate measures to ensure that all vessels flying their flag are prohibited from sailing, unless they are complying with international rules and standards. 3) State must ensure all vessels flying their flag are carrying on board all certificates as per International requirements and must ensure periodical inspection of ships to ensure conformity of these certificates with actual conditions on board.

4) If a vessel commits a violation for international rules and standards, the flag state must provide for immediate investigation 5) Flag states, conducting an investigation of violation, may request assistance of any other state. 6) State must, at written request of any state, investigate May violation committed by the vessel flying its flag. 7) States must be prompt in responding to any request for information by any other flag state. 8) Flag state must fix adequate penalty for any vessel which violates the law. The penalty must be adequate in severity, to discourage future violation. 5) A) What is P&I clubs? Describe how p&I clubs collect fund from ship owners? B) What are the risks that are covered under the term protection and indemnity? A) P&I clubs are insurance mutual or clubs which provide collective self -insurance to its members. P&I stand for Protection and Indemnity. P&I are insurance in respect of third party liabilities and expenses arising from owning ships or operating ships as principals. The P&I club membership is comprised of a common interest and group who wish to pool their risks together in order to obtain at cost insurance cover. The P&I clubs are not for profit clubs and are owned by its insured. As it has no shares to issue, it does not need to make a profit or pay dividends. A group of ship owners will form a club of which day to day management is done by professional managers who consist of lawyers, underwriters etc., Each ship owner members contribution is decided on the

basis of (a) tonnage, (b) types of ships, (c) expense of claims with the particular ship owner etc., 80% of required money is collected and remaining 20% may be collected, to a lesser or greater amount, depending upon likely expenses towards claims by ship owners. Each ship owner who decides to become a member of a certain P&I club shall apply for entry furnishing all details regarding its fleet, total tonnage, types of ships to be insured and any insurance, claims in past. The P&I Clubs operate on a non-profit making mutual basis, that is to say the Members pool their resources together in order to meet losses suffered by each individual member. The basic principle is that the contributions paid by the membership in relation to any one year should be sufficient to meet all the claims, reinsurance and administrative expenses of the club for that year. If there is a shortfall because claims are high, the Members may pay additional money and if there is surplus, a return may be made to the Membership, or the surplus transferred to reserve to meet losses on other years. (b) P&I Clubs provide third-party-liability or protection and indemnity insurance to ship owners. Protection generally means cover for people and ships whereas Indemnity means cover for cargo. The risks covered under P&I insurance are indicated in Rule 198 of the P&I rule book. They are: 1) Liabilities in Respect of Seamen. 2) Liabilities in Respect of Supernumeraries. 3) Liabilities in Respect of Passengers 4) Liabilities in Respect of Third Parties

5) Stowaways 6) Diversions expenses. 7) Life Salvage 8) Persons in distress 9) Quarantine 10)Liabilities arising from collisions 11)Non-contract damage to ships 12)Damage to property 13)Pollution 14)Wreck removal. 15)Towage 16)Contracts, Indemnities and Guarantees. 17)Liabilities in Respect of Cargo. 18)General Average 19)Fines 20)Risks incidental to ship owning 21)Special-cover 22)Special cover for containers 23)Special cover for salvers 24)Special provisions for charterers Entry.

6) Give a brief history and the necessity towards formation of UNCLOS. What are its important

highlights? Under the context, explain (i) territorial sea, (ii) Contiguous Zone, (iii) Exclusive Economic Zone, (iv) High seas. Oceans always have been a prime source of nourishment of life. Climate and weather changes depend on the interplay between oceans and the atmosphere. They also saw as a convenient medium for traders, commerce, exploration, adventure & discovery. As the mysteries of the oceans gave way to their mastery, a lot of customs, traditions and laws arose, defining the Rights of the ships and the mariners who plied the waters of the oceans. Attempts were Made to regulate the use of oceans, by conventions acceptable to all nations. The UN has made considerable progress in developing and codifying the laws of the sea. Three UNCLOS conventions have been convened. UNCLOS I was at Geneva in 1958 UNCLOS II was also at Geneva in 1960 International conferences approved conventions which covered the continental shelf, fishing, High seas, Territorial waters and contiguous zones. During the 1970s, it came to be accepted that the bed is a common heritage of mankind and should be administered by an International authority. UNCLOS III was at Geneva in1974, which discussed issues on navigation, pollution and the breadth of territorial waters. It entered into force on 16th Nov 1994. UNCLOS provides a universal framework for the management of marine resource and their conservation, governs all aspects of the ocean, such as environmental control, marine scientific research, economical and commercial

activities, transfer of technology and settlement of disputes, dating to ocean matters. UNCLOS is a treaty of 446 articles grouped under 171 part headings and 9 annexes. i) Territorial Sea: - Extends to 12 nautical miles from the baseline. Foreign flag vessels have a Right of Innocent passage through it. The passage is considered innocent as long as it is not prejudicial to peace, good order or security of the coastal state. Right of Innocent passage can be suspended, if it is essential for the protection of the coastal state, its security or for weapons exercises.

In Internal waters, the coastal states can exercise jurisdiction over all vessels. In the Territorial seas, it should not exercise criminal jurisdiction except:a) If the consequence of crime extend to the coastal state. b) If crime disturbs the peace of the country or good order of sea. c) If master of a vessel or an agent of the flag state requests the coastal state to exercise jurisdiction. d) Of jurisdiction is necessary to suppress illicit traffic of narcotic dings. ii) Contiguous Zone: - Extends 12 nautical miles beyond the territorial sea limit.

- Coastal state must exercise controls necessary to prevents infringement of its customers, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territories. - Vessels carrying noxious or dangerous substances or waste may be turned away on public health or environmental

grounds. iii) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ):-

- Extends to a maximum of 200 nautical miles from the baseline, covering and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living of the waters adjacent and of the sea bed and its subsoil. - State has jurisdictions, with regard to installations marine scientific research and protection and preservation of the marine environment. - All other states enjoy the freedom of navigation, lying of submarine cables and pipelines. iv) Continental shelf: - The outer limit of the continental shelf shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the base line or shall not exceed 100 nautical miles. Coastal state has exclusive rights for exploring and exploring its natural resources. The state also has the exclusive rights to authorize and regulate drilling on the shelf for all purposes. High seas: - Part of the sea that is not included in the Exclusive Economic Zone, in the Territorial sea or in the Internal waters of a state or in the Archipelagic waters of an Archipelagic state. High seas are open to all states for freedom of navigation, freedom of over-flight, freedom to lay submarine cable and pipelines, freedom to conduct artificial islands and installations, freedom of fishing, freedom of scientific research. High seas shall be reserved for peaceful purposes. Other High seas precautions are prevention of slave trade, piracy, seizure of ships, illicit narcotics trafficking and unauthorized broad casting. For enforcement purposes, these are


provisions for relevant rights of visit, seizure, arrest and hot pursuit.

7) Illustrate the salient factors for on board training and standards of competence as laid down in STCW95 chapter III. Underline specific roles a Chief Engineer needs to perform towards necessary satisfactory training of Engine room personnel under these parameters. What will be the criteria for evaluating competence for Onboard training by a Chief Engineer? Chapter III of STCW95 deals with standards required of Engine room personnel under different capacities. Chapter III/1 deals with standards required for a watch keeping Engineer officer; III/2 & III/3 deal with the standards required for Chief Engineer and Second Engineer officer for Main propulsive powers of more than 300KW and between 750 KW to 3000KW respectively. Chapter III/4 deals with standards required for serving as Engine Room rating. On Board Training: - Every candidate shall follow an approved on board training which 1) Ensures that during the required period of seagoing service, the candidate receives systematic practical training and experience in the tasks , duties and responsibilities of an Officer in charge of an Engine Room watch-keeping, taking into account the guidance given in section B-III/1, of the code. 2) Is closely supervised and monitored, by a qualified and certificated Engineer Officer on board the ships, in which the approval sea going service is performed. 3) Is adequately documented, in a Training Record Book.

Standards of Competence: - STCW95 has very clearly specified the standards required under various capacities. Chapter III has divided the competency standard to four functions. Chapter III/1:- Every Candidate required demonstrating the ability to undertake at operational level the tasks, duties and responsibilities in the following field. - Marine Engineering - Electrical, Electronic and Control Engineering - Maintenance and Repair - Controlling the operation of ship and care for persons on board Chapter III/2 & Chapter III/3 These give the standard requirements of Chief Engineer and Second Engineer officer under different range of propulsive power. It basically gives the standard to be followed at Management level with more importance given to planning of job, making sure all Safety procedures are followed, trouble shooting, developing emergency and damage-control plans, organizing, managing crew. Chapter III/4:- This gives the basic standards of competency expected of Engine room rating, their strength to understand orders, basic knowledge of common terms used in Engine room, Engine rook alarm systems specially fire alarm, knowledge of emergency duties, emergency routes etc., Role of Chief Engineer towards satisfactory training of Engine Room Personnel: - Chief Engineer must establish a training program on board ship. He should - Break-down various jobs into duties, tasks, sub-tasks - Establish priorities of task

- Define performance standard for each task - Identify preferred mode of learning - Collect data on profile of trained personnel - Give trainee, independence of doing job and at the same time supervise his work constantly. - Identify constraints like language, lack of training etc. If a trainee is found to be lacking in knowledge in some areas, then the chief Engineer must discuss his weakness with him and must try to give him a chance to improve upon. If the trainee, needs formal training in certain fields then Chief Engineer must request for shore based training of the person concerned. Evaluating Competence for On Board training:-The criteria for evaluating competence for onboard training of Engine Room personnel is given in column A, of Tables A-III/1,III/3 and III/4. Some of the criteria are:- Identification of important parameters and selection of material is appropriate - Use of equipment and machine tool is appropriate and safe. - Selection of tools and spares is appropriate. - Dismantling, inspecting. Repairing and re-assembling is in accordance with manuals and good working practices. - The conduct, handover and relieving of watch conforms to the accepted principles and procedures. - A proper record is maintained of the movement and activities relating to the ships engineering systems. - Communications are clearly and well understood in

accordance with established rules and procedures to ensure safety of operations and to avoid environment pollution. - The causes of machinery malfunctions are properly identified and actions are designed to ensure overall safety of the ship and plant. - Procedures for monitoring ship board operations and ensuring compliance with MARPOL requirements are fully observed. - The type and scale of emergency is properly identified and emergency procedures are followed as per plan. - Actions is responding to abandon ship and survival situations are appropriate. - Legislative requirements, relating to safety of life at sea and protection of environment are correctly identified. On the basis of these guidelines and evaluation criteria, the competency of On board training can be evaluated. 8) A successful voyage, as a Chief Engineer, is a combination of a trouble free run of machine, optimum use of fuel, minimum Inter-personal conflicts & minimum intervention of shore authorities. Do you believe this to be true? Considering the ship as an organization, explain how you, as the Manager, can achieve this? Success is the achievement of ones goals. All the above listed items are important for the safe running and profitability of a ships operations. Safety on a ship is critically dependent on not just the safe running of various machinery, but also on the existence of the values and relationships, which the officers and crew have with

each other. It is not always the Technical approach that makes the difference in safety, but the relationships that people build, that play a great role. Failure of any machinery item may not necessary lead to an accident. As a matter of fact, in the majority of accidents reported, human error has often being cited as the single largest cause. When a person knows what is to be done and how, why does he/she make the mistake? This is difficult to pin-point. One of the likely cases is in the wrong attitude of people, the so-called lack of motivation. People may be de-motivated for a variety of reasons personal (family problems), social (conflicts due to differences in class/caste/economic level) or attitude with fellow sea-farers or management (lack of morale due to bad reputation). Conflicts and work stress on board may also reduce ones willingness to cooperate in team works and hence safety may be compromised. A Chief Engineer has a very important role as a Manager basically conflicts among his staff to a minimum, so it doesnt affect the working atmosphere in the Engine room. Interpersonal conflicts can occur due to the following reasons:1) Personality clashes 2) Human expectations 3) Poor organization 4) Lack of communication skill 5) Wrong style of functioning 6) Limited resources 7) Damage or Alcohol abuse Such matters which may lead to conflict should be taken up by

the Chief Engineer and resolved at the earliest by holding a joint meeting between the concerned parties. He should make them understand the importance of team in running the vessel and how their conflicts may lead to compromise in safety. Both parties must be lead to a win/win situation. A close interpersonal relationship is maintained by building trust, acceptance and support. A part from the above the Chief Engineer must:- Ensure healthy environment on board the ship - Have good managerial skills to get the best out of limited man power - Have good technical skills to train and advice his staff in proper running & maintenance of machinery - Ensure good planning for particular jobs - Conduct training sessions & ensure competency of his staff - Management of spares & stores efficiently & economically - Manage F.O & L.O consumption, record regularly & investigate any deviation from normal - Communicate effectively from time to time with the office to avoid unnecessary reminders and interventions. - Ensure proper house-keeping 8) Briefly discuss the reasons for Bulk Carrier losses in the last decade and explain how provisions detailed in Chapter XII of SOLAS 74 as amended will contribute towards the safety of bulk carriers? Studies show that majority of the bulk carrier losses in the past decade were due to plate failure and water entering the hull. Most of the bulk carrier losses were due to severe structural

damage. IACS found out that if a ship was flooded in the forward hold, the bulkhead between the two foremost hold may not be able to withstand the water pressure. The various reasons for the Bulk Carrier losses may be the following:1) Age of the ship 2) Corrosion and Fatigue Both increase with ships age, due to stress to which the ships hull is subjected to due to routine operations, cargo handling, waves & effect of sea, water on steel. 3) Operational factors Bending of the ships structure due to the action of the sea. Corrosion leads to weakening of the hull. Loading pattern can make the effect worse. Denser cargoes such as iron ore are often carried in alternate holds, in order to raise the C>G of the ship and moderate its roll motion. Due to partially filled holds the cargo may shift to one side leading to ships sink age. It also leads to increased stresses on inner hull components. Large hatch openings to facilitate cargo loading/ unloading serve as weakness in the hull structure by reducing the torsional resistance of the hull. [Heavy cargos density > 1780Kg/cubic meter iron ore, pig iron, steel, bauxite & cement. Lighter cargos + density > 1000Kg/cubic meter grains such as wheat, rice & timber] Following a spate of losses of bulk carriers in the early 1990s IMO in November 1997 adopted new regulation in SOLAS containing specific safety requirements for bulk carriers, Chapter XII Additional Safety Measures for Bulk Carriers. This entered into force on 1st July 1999. The regulations state that

- All new bulk carriers (built after July 1999)150 m or more in length carrying cargoes with a density of 1000 Kg/cubic meter and above should have sufficient strength to withstand flooding of any one cargo hold, taking into account dynamic effects resulting from presence of water in the hold. - All existing bulk carriers carrying cargoes with density 1780Kg/cubic meter and above The transverse watertight bulkhead between the two foremost cargo holds & the double bottom of the foremost cargo hold should have sufficient strength to withstand flooding & related of dynamic effects in the foremost cargo hold. As per IACS guidelines, during special surveys, the bulkhead between No.1 & 2 holds at the forward end of the vessel and the double bottom at this location must be thoroughly checked for strength & thickness and reinforcements to be carried out, where felt necessary. Surveyors can also consider restrictions on the cargo carried & the bulk carrier should be permanently marked with a solid triangle on its side shell if the cargo carriage restrictions are imposed. December 2002 Amendment to chapter XII require fitting of high level alarms and level monitoring systems on all Bulk Carriers, in order to detect water ingress. A new regulation XII/13 on Availability of pumping systems would require means for dining and pumping dry space bilges and ballast tanks any part of which is located forward of, collision bulkhead to be capable of being brought into operation from a readily accessible enclosed area. Regulation II 1/3-6 in SOLAS chapter II-1 Part B requires the provision of suitable means of access for inspection purposes. In December 2004, the MSC adopted a new tent for SOLAS chapter XII, incorporating revisions to some regulations and new requirements relating to double-side skin bulk carriers.

New Reg 14 deals with restrictions from & sailing with any hold empty & requirements for double-side skin construction (for new bulk carriers of 150 m in length & over, carrying solid bulk cargoes with density of 1000 Kg/cubic meter & above) Mandatory standards & criteria for side structures of bulk carriers of single-side skin construction & standards for owners inspection & maintenance of bulk carrier hatch covers. Free-fall life boats are now mandatory on all bulk carriers as per MSC amendment to Reg 31, SOLAS chapter III.

9) As per the Marine Insurance Act, write short notes on the following: a) Deviation b) Warranties c) War Risk Clause d) Charterers Contribution Clause. a) Deviation:- There is a deviation from the voyage as per the marine policy when The course of the voyage is specified by the policy and is departed from or The course of the voyage is not specified by the policy but the usual and customary course is departed from

When a ship without lawful excuse deviates from the voyage as per the policy, the insurer is discharged from his liability from the time of deviation, regardless of the intention to deviate and whether or not the ship returns to its course to its course of voyage before the loss occurs. Any loss arising during or after the deviation will be borne by the ship owner. Deviations allowed where authorized by an special terms in the policies i.e. circumstances beyond the control of the Master, for saving human life, aiding a ship in distress where

human life is in danger, for safety of ship, for the purpose of obtaining medical or surgical aid for any person on board. (b) Warranties: - Warranty means a promissory by which the insured undertakes as part of the contract that a specified state of affairs will continue to exist throughout the duration of the policy. Any breach of warranty makes the policy null and void from the time of breach. There are two types of warranties: 1) Express warranties & 2) Implied Warranties. Express Warranties must be written into the policy whereas implied warranties are not written into the policy. There are two types of implied warranties covering sea-worthiness and Legality. In voyage policy there is implied warranty that at the starts of the voyage ship will be seaworthy for the insured voyage. In time policy there is no implied warranty that the ship will be sea worth at any stage of the voyage. But the insurance cover will be lost if the ship is sent to any unseaworthy condition with the knowledge of owners senior management. b) War Risk Clause: - War risk cover is a supplementary insurance against the operations of war risk zone which are generally excluded from H & M policies containing standard clauses. Standard policies generally exclude damage due to war or hostile act, capture, seizure, strike, etc. Some underwriters give war risk cover for an additional premium. P&I club also offer war risk cover under their own terms. Covers against war risk clause are only for sea passage, i.e. the movement of goods loaded on an overseas vessel & terminates on discharge of the goods. It excludes loss or damage due to Atomic or Nuclear weapons. (D) Charterers contribution clause: - It is usual in the modern shipping industry that charterers enter into a

charter party according to which charterers could be held liable for the loss or damage to the vessel. - Charterers liability for damage to Hull (CLH) - It is not a standard P&I cover but can be obtained by the charterers from their P&I club or from fixed premium under writers. This type of cover includes damages to hull, machinery or ship structure. - Charterers liability towards cargo claims As per NYPE agreement 1993 cargo claims are to be settled between owners and charterers in accordance with the Inter-Club agreement. Depending upon what has caused the claim to arise, claims may be allocated by 100% to either owners or charterers or a 50/50% allocation. Claims can arise due to UN seaworthiness and or error in navigation or management of vessel. 11) Write short notes on the following: a) Lloyds Open Form (LOF) b) General Average & Particular Average c) Bill of Lading d) Treaty, Convention & protocol A) Lloyds Open form: - Lloyds open form is a standard legal document for a proposed salvage operation, a four page lone contract published Lloyds of London. It is called open ; because it is literally open, with no amount of money being stipulated for the salvage job. The sum to be paid is determined later in London by a professional arbitrator. It is basically a Salvage Agreement base on No cure-no pay. This means that reward depends upon success and the recovery of property. In the past, if there was no recovery, there was no payment, whatever the expose of the operation. This has changed in recent years, so that whenever there is a threat of damage to the environment the salvo can expect a fair return for his efforts, even in high risk and / or low property value situations. B) General Average and Particular Average: - Average means marine loss, i.e., loss or damage suffered in a maritime adventure. Average is of two types: General Average and

Particular Average. Both are types of partial losses in content to Maritime Insurance. A marine loss that occurs through the voluntary sacrifice of a part of the vessel or cargo, or expenditure to safeguard the vessel and its remaining cargo from a common peril. If the sacrifice is successful, all interests at risk contribute to the loss borne by the owner of the sacrificed property based on

C) Bill of Lading:- A bill of lading is a document issued by a carrier, e.g. a ships master or by a companys shipping department, acknowledging that specified goods have been received on board as cargo for conveyance to a named place for delivery to the consignee who is usually identified. The term derives from the noun bill, a schedule of costs for services supplied or to be supplied, and from the verb to lade which means to load to cargo into a ship or other form of transport. A typical Bill of lading may contain the following 1) Reference Number, 2) Name and address of shipper & consignee, 3) Ports of loading & discharging, 4) Name of carrying vessel, 5) No. & kind of packages, 6) Gross Weight, 7) Description of goods, 8) Place where freight is payable, 9)

Numbers of original bills of lading, 10) Place & date of issue, 11) Signature of carrier/master, 12) Carriers standard terms & conditions. There are mainly 3 types of bills of lading: 1) Straight bill of lading 2) Order bill of lading 3) Bearer bill of lading D) Treaty, Convention and Protocol: - A treaty is a written international agreement between two states (a bilateral treaty) or between a number of states (a multilateral treaty), which is binding in international laws. In a treaty, the willing parties assume obligations among themselves, and a party which fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law for that breach. A treaty normally enters into force in accordance with criteria incorporated in the treaty itself, e.g. 1 year after a stipulated number of states have acceded to it, by signature of a government representative. A convention is meeting of various states for formal multilateral treaty with a broad number of parties. Convention generally means coming together for a common objective. Conventions are normally open for participation by the international community as a whole or by a large number of states. Usually the instruments negotiated under the auspices of an International organization or any of their organs, a known as conventions. A protocol is an international agreement that supplement a previous treaty or international agreement. A protocol can amend the previous treaty, or add additional provisions. All parties to the earlier agreements are sometimes not liable to adopt the protocol.

12) What provisions are made under Port State Control (PSC) towards? i) Certificates issued by non-party states to their ships ii) Inspection of ships below convention size No. more favorable treatment

The duty & responsibility to enforce conventions lies with the Flag States. They should regularly carry out surveys & issue certificates, to ensure that their ships meet & maintain convention standards either by their own or by their authorized Recognized Organization. In practice, ships do not regularly visit their flag state port. This restricts the ability to control them and allows substandard ships to sail. Port & coastal states have certain rights to exercise authority over ships in their water. In addition, port state has the authority to check that foreign ships visiting their ports meet all the appropriate convention standards. A state may also have its own standard national law. A port state should only apply those conventions which have entered into force, and which it has implemented for its own ships. A problem could arise with a foreign ship entering a port state, where the concerned flag state has not ratified a convention but this has entered into force. Also, when a ship is below convention size. i) Certificates issued by bob-party states to their ships:-

If a flag state has not ratified a convention but however issued a certificate it does not give freedom to the state to violate the standards of the convention. Port state control will still exercise

its authority to enforce the required standards of the convention. This is called no more favorable treatment. ii) Inspection of ships below convention size: - Most maritime conventions have progressive limits of application for each category of sixe of ships. There may be related to tonnage, length or other ship parameter, and also, in certain conventions, to the age of the vessel and the trading area. Such limits of application involve not only certificates, but also the ships and their equipment, in other words, in some cases no certificate is required while in other cases a ship is exempted from design or equipment requirements.

It is usual for ships to comply with the requirements of the flag state, which may not be known to the PSCO who must therefore use his discretion in judging those ships; possibly assisted in this by some form of certification issued by the flag state or on its behalf. In case of deficiencies considered hazardous to safety, health or the environment, PSCO can take appropriate action. iii) No more favorable treatment:-

In applying a relevant instrument (convention) for the purposes of port state control, the principle of no more favorable treatment is applied to ships which fly the flag of a state which is not a party to that convention. In such a case ships shall be subject to a detailed inspection and the PSCO will follow the same guidelines as those provided for ships to which the relevant instruments are applicable.

13) With reference to port state control enumerate the following: i) Regional Corporation / agreement

ii) Future of port state control III) In port state control an effective tool for ship safety? 1) Regional Corporation / agreement:While national port state control alone will already enhance then safety of ships and the protection of the marine environment, only a regional approach will ensure that substandard ships and operators have been fewer places left to hide. Unless a regional approach is adopted, operation will just divert their ships to ports in the region where no or less stringent PSC inspections are conducted. This may seriously hamper the economic situation of the ports of those countries that do conduct proper inspections. To remedy this and to generally improve the effectiveness of inspections, many regions of the world have already are beginning to enter into regional agreements on PSC. - Such an agreement covers the exchange of information about ships, their records and the results of inspections carried out. This enables subsequent ports of call to target only ships that have not been recently inspected. - It also ensures that identified sub-standard ships are effectively monitored. This applies especially to those ships that have been allowed to sail with certain minor deficiencies on the condition that these are rectified in the rent port of call. - It also ensures that PSC inspections carried out in a uniform manner in all countries & those similar standards are applied with regards to the detention of ships & the training standards of PSCO. 2) Future of port state control:The prospect of global port state control, with exchange of

information and harmonization of procedures and training, has even more exciting implications. As more & more statistic date are gathered & exchanged by various PSC secretariats, this will result in a huge increase of knowledge about sub-standard shipping. This will also provide means for better analysis of the cause of the incidents and casualties and help in preventing their reoccurrence. The development of PSC gives us a change to challenge the culture in shipping and replace secrecy with transparency and openers. 3) Is port state control an effective tool for ship safety? Normally the flag states have been given the primary responsibilities for ensuring that a ship is equipped, operated, maintained and manned in accordance with the Maritime. International Conventions however some flag states have being unwilling or unable to carry out their international responsibilities. A PSC inspection is thus, the second line of defense to prevent sub-standard ships from operating and avoiding ships. Also the PSC has a wide spread network in all counties, so that any ship/operator cannot find any place to hide. All the above factors imply that port state control is an effective tool for ship safety.

14) Differentiate between third party liability and contractual liability when may the ship owner seek to limit his liability? An insurance policy is a contract. The insured is referred to as the first party to the insurance contract. The insurance company that issued the policy is the second party. A stranger to the contract that makes a claim against an insured is referred to as a third party.

Third party liability is the obligation to compensate another person harmed or injured by a negligent or wrongful act or omission. When an insured (the first party) causes a loss, the insurer (the second party) ensures the insureds liability up to the policy limit. Examples of third party liability are collision liability, third party injury or death claim, oil pollution liability, cargo claims, crew claims, special compensation & miscellaneous claims like fire for innocent breaches of regulations, unrecoverable general average contribution etc., Contractual liability is a liability because of a contract. In this the involved party agrees, usually in writing, to take on the liability of someone else-liability they would not otherwise have. This form of agreement, where one party takes on or assures the liability of another by contract, is commonly called a hold harmless or indemnity agreement. In this, one party promises to reimburse, and in some cases defend, the other party against claims or suits brought against the second party by a third party. A ship owner may have contractual liability towards the employees, flag state, local agent, or agencies, salvers, cargo owners, stevedores, shore persons working on the ship, charterers etc., Ship owners might seek to limit their liability in case of third party liabilities. The convention on limitation of liability for maritime claims includes the following claims which can be subject to limitation. 1) Claim is respect to loss of life, personal injury, loss or damage to property, etc., 2) Claim in respect to loss resulting from delay in cargo carriage 3) Claims in respect to raising, removal or destruction of a ship which has sunk.

4) Claims with respect to removal or destruction of cargo 5) Claims with respect to loss resulting from infringement of right in connection with operation of ship or salvage.

15) Explain the following: 1) Charter Party, 2) Lay time, 3) Bills of lading, 4) off hire clause, 5) contract of affreightment 1) CHARTER PARTY: - A charter party is an agreement for hiring either the vessel or her services. Except in cases where the charterer is also the shipper of good, charter party clues not constitute a contract for the carriage of goods; it remains a contract for the services of the ship. Charter parties are often drawn up by brokers acting for the charterers & more often than not, based on one of the standardized printed forms evolved for long usage. Terms which are not agreed are deleted & additional terms are typed in. The types terms are referred to as Rider clauses. Main types of charter parties are 1) Bareboat charter or Demise charter 2) Special purpose charter 3) Time charter 4) Voyage charter 2) LAY TIME: - It is the time agreed between parties during which the owners will make and keep the vessel available for loading and discharging without any additional payment. Lay time may be separate for loading & discharging ports. There are three types of Lay time.

1) Definite lay time 2) Calculate lay time 3) Indefinite lay time Lay time is determined in the charter party. If this time is exceeded by the charterer, he has to pay the owner compensation, called the demurrage. On the other hand, if the ship has been loaded or discharged quicker than foreseen, then the owner will have to pay to the charterer compensation, called dispatch. 4) OFF-HIRE CLAUSE:- Off-line indicates that hire is temporarily suspended when vessel is not available for service, when there is no fault of the charterer (e.g. accidents, breakdown of equipment etc.,) an off-hire clause is included in the charter party which contains the conditions in which the ship goes off-hire and comes back on hire after the condition expires. 5) CONTRACT OF AFFREIGHTMENT:- Contract of Affreightment is a contract between a ship owner and some other person called the freighter, by which the ship owner agrees to carry goods to the freighter in his ship, or to give to the freighter the use of the whole or part of the cargo-carrying space of the ship for the carriage of his goods on a specified voyage or voyages or for a specified time; the freighter on his part agreeing to pay a specific price, called freight, for the carriage of the goods or the use of the ship. Contract of Affreightment is employed on large ore carriers or cape size bulk carriers.

16) Detail the inspection that you are the new Chief Engineer of a passenger ship, would make on joining the ship with regard to i) Stability ii) Damage Control iii)

Fine fighting iv) Critical Machinery (i) STABILITY: - With regard to stability the most important document provided on board the ship is the stability booklet which gives accurate guidelines regarding the stability of the ship under various conditions of service. Chief Engineer must have knowledge of details given in the stability booklet. If any alteration is made to the ship, then the C/E should ensure that the amended stability booklet is available. He should ascertain validity of passenger ship safety and load line certificate. Watertight integrity of peak and machine space bulkheads, drainage and scupper arrangements must be checked. Watertight doors, portable deck and lifts must be checked. Look for cracks, deformation or repairs carried out, if any. Ensure that the pipes passing through the collision bulkhead are fitted with values operable from above the freeboard deck. Ensure that there are no openings for man hole, ventilation, pipe cables cut in the collision bulkhead. Check the effectiveness of stem tube sealing arrangement. Stability aspect of passenger ship is dealt with in detail in SOLAS Chapter II-1 Part B Subdivision & Stability and also in the Load line regulations. Thorough checks must be carried out based on above regulation requirements. (ii) DAMAGE CONTROL: - This is dealt with in detail in SOLAS Chapter II-1B, subdivision and damage stability in Passenger ships. Damage control plan shall be permanently exhibited for the guidance of officer in charge of the passenger ship showing clearly for each deck and hold. The boundaries of water tight compartment, the arrangement for correction of list due to flooding must be checked. In addition to the damage control plan booklets containing the same information must be available by the owners for the use of the officers of the ship. iv) FIRE FIGHTING:- Prior to being assigned ship board duties

of passenger ships (as per Reg II-1), seafarers must hire completed the full training.- Training in crowd management - Training in passenger safety & hull integrity - Training in crisis management & human behavior - Modular courses as per STCW The Chief Engineer should try out all FFEs along with the outgoing C/E. The following safety items should be ready for any emergency use:1) Sprinkler system 2) CO2 (Carbon-di-oxide) flooding system 3) Portable & fixed extinguishers 4) Location of fire hoses & hydrants 5) SCBA, firemens outfits & location 6) Familiarization of all areas of E/RM, Accommodation, cargo spaces. 7) Fire pumps & emergency, Fire pumps, Fire main system 8) Location of fire dampers 9) Location of I/C values & remote stop from fire control station 10)Location of water tight doors, their local & remote operation 11)Location of fire control plan with international shore coupling connection 12)Fire and/or smoke detection system 13)Closing arrangements for ventilations, funnel flaps, etc.


CRITICL MACHINERY:- The new C/E for a passenger ship should test out the critical machinerys operating procedures, also with the outgoing C/E & deficiencies rectified, if any

- Main Engine change over procedure to emergency mode from remote/bridge control - Fire pumps & emergency fire pumps - Emergency generator & emergency batteries - Emergency air compressor, time taken for filling up the Emergency air bottle - Sprinkler, S.W. pumps, cut in/out, and compressor - Life boat engines - Water tight doors & their indicator mechanism - O.W.S - Incinerator - Sewage Treatment plant

17) List the objectives of an ISM internal audit of a ship? How an internal audit helps in satisfactory external audit of vessel? Name the salient issues addressed in the Internal Audit and the persons responsible to carry out the same. The objectives of an ISM Internal Audit can be listed as below: - It is a tool to monitor, how well the SMS system is implemented on board regarding the safety practices and pollution prevention activities.

- Internal Audit should be carried out at least 4 weeks prior to the External Audit. - This allows some corrective actions to be carried out from the findings of that audit on Non-conformances and observations. - Shows evidence of the SMS working and that the procedures are being followed. - To determine compliance with regulatory requirements - Provides an opportunity for possible changes in SMS system The Internal Audit identifies the shortcomings of the ship board SMS, if any in form of Non-conformances and observations and provides the company a chance to rectify the same before the external I&M audit. This also helps the shipboard personnel in overall preparedness towards the external audit and provides time and guidance for improving their preparedness for the external Audit. Thus the Internal Audit helps in satisfactory external audit of the vessel. Internal Audit serves as a rehearsal to the external audit. Internal Audit is carried out by the company itself, using one of their own qualified people as Appointed Auditor. In simple terms, it is self-verification. Several administrations have specified that all elements of SMS must be subjected to audit at least annually. The company decides the internal audit procedures, based upon the organization structure, ships training pattern, availability of trained auditors, role of Master, etc., The Internal Audit is almost similar to the external audit in terms of the scope of the audit. The internal auditor checks all the elements of the ISM and the shipboard SMS. It is checked that the plans and procedures are being properly followed or not, whether the laws and regulations are being followed or

not. The records and documents of shipboard operations and maintenances, all the documents related to the qualifications, competency and training requirements of shipboard personal also checked during external audit. All pollution prevention equipments on board the vessel are also check as those validate the companys commitment towards environment protection policy. The ISM Internal Audit thus basically deals with the safety of ship & personnel and environment protection.

18) As a Chief Engineer you have joined a vessel which is about to undertake a six month round voyage. Underline and describe the key areas that you will inspect, check, prepare, establish and maintain towards proper planned Maintenance of Engine Room Machineries and associated areas, under ISM codes. The ISM code is adopted under SOLAS Chapter IX with reference to the IMO resolution 741(IB). A safety Management system has to be developed approved, documented and this should be implemented on board a ship/shore for operation and maintenance of the engine room machineries should be made prior to proceeding for six months long round voyage: 1) Go through the Handling over report of the outgoing Chief Engineer and verify any doubts with him. 2) Fuel oil, Lube oil, Diesel Oil, Gas ROBs should be checked, tallied and ensures sufficient stock on board for the ensuring voyage. 3) Check the consumables store ROB and make a list of critical store items needed. 4) Check the bunker requirements for their voyage.

5) Study the consumption patterns of F.O, D.O, and L.O. 6) Check the Oil Record Book entries and ensure that they match with the tank contents. 7) Check for the survey status of the ship and ensure that there are no surveys overdue. 8) Check the condition and maintenance status of Main and auxiliary machinery. 9) Check the Running house record of all machineries and make sure that these are updated. 10)Check spare parts inventory, ensure it is updated and ensure enough spare parts are available to carry out routine maintenance/breakdown maintenance. 11)Check the list of critical spares on board and ask for any items which are not there. 12)Consumable stores supply should be planned at a convenient port in order to avoid urgent/ expensive supplies in emergency. 13)Check inventory of special tools and equipment. 14)Be familiar with the sailing program. 15)Check port state control inspection records. 16)Check all records and documents on board the ship 17)Ensure that the vessel is ready for PSC inspections 18)Check & read the maintenance records of the ship staff/workshop people prepare lag abstract & forward to the superintendent. 19)Check whether complete set of manuals and drainages are there on board and mention of structural changes, if any.

20)Check record of testing of alarms and cut-outs of various machineries. 21)Check record of CSM survey & plan accordingly 22)Ensure all E/R personnel are familiar with PMS and safety & environment protection policy of the company. 23)Take a through round of the E/Room and check general appearance and note any defects noted. 24)Check appropriate warning and instructions are posted at proper places. 25)Check operation of all pollution prevention equipments. 26)Verify INSP/TSMA

19) Explain the following: (a) World scale (b) Responsibilities of a shipbroker (a) World Scale: This is used in chartering of oil tankers whereby freight rates are equated with reference to an international scale called the New World Wide Tanker Nominal Freight scale or world scale in short. This is used as a reference by the parties in the tanker market to easily compare and evaluate freight rate for all the different voyages and market lands. The basis of World scale is a standard tanker with a carrying capacity of 75,000 tones making round voyage calculations for practically all known tanker trades. In these calculations, specified figures have been used for all items involved e.g. distance of 1500 Nm, port cost, port time (4 days), bunker cost, etc., and an additional fictional cost element of 12,000 dollars/day, arriving at the required freight

/MT. these freight figures are printed for various voyages in the schedule. The freight as per World scale is called w.w.100 or we. Depending upon the prevailing market levels, actual ship size, type & quality of product to be shipped and the voyage, the freight is arrived at for the charter, as above or below the reference level of WE100. If the freight is WS150, this means this 150% of the WS100 freight. World scale is available on a subscription basis and the annual fee entitles the subscriber not only to the schedule itself but also to notices of full amendments and the right to request rates for any voyage not shown in the schedule. Advantages of World scale: 1) Simplified negotiations of tanker charters 2) A simple reference covers all possible voyages with in the agreed trading areas. 3) Facilitate ready and quick comparison of fixtures. Disadvantage of World scale: 1) World scale is not a substitute for voyage estimating 2) It does not allow for income or freight tax etc., 3) It is only a method of comparison and tool for negotiations, not a substitute for risk management and / or business fore castings. (b) Responsibilities of a Shipbroker: Ships are normally fixed on charters between ship owners and charters by middlemen, known as shipbrokers are self-employed, while others work in large firms active in several of above disciplines. Shipbrokers are remunerated by commissions called brokerage, payable by the ship owners to each broker involved in arranging a contract. In a voyage or time charter, the brokerage payable is stipulated in the

brokerage clause and is normally 1.25% of the ship owners gross receipts from hire, freight, dead freight and demurrage, payable to each broker involved. The professional body for shipbrokers worldwide is the Londonbased Institute of Chartered shipbrokers, which sets and maintains professional standards for the shipbrokers. Sometimes they are also referred to as chartering agents or chartering brokers. The main responsibilities of a shipbroker include 1) To determine the form of charter and special provisions that must closely meet the needs of particular transaction. 2) To facilitate the negotiations of the terms and broker the charter on behalf of the principles. 3) To chart the vessels position and availability for loading and to co-ordinate delivery of cargo to the ship. 4) To ensure that the required notices of readiness are given, that the election of loading or discharging ports or berths are declared and appropriate insurance coverage is obtained. 5) To supervise the preparation of dispatch demurrage and layday statement, payment of dues and customs of various ports and settlement in so far as possible of disputes arising in this connection. 6) To obtain certification of freight invoices, arrange for surrender, bills of lading, facilitate collection of freight etc., 7) To arrange for appointment of port agents appropriate and to issue appropriate instructions. 20) A second hand single hull VLCC built in 1990 is to be taken over. The vessel is to be registered under Indian flag. As a chief Engineer/Owner representative, what

aspects you would look for, with respect to; (a) SOLAS 74 (B) MARPOL 73/78 (C) CREW ACCOMMODATION (D) MACHINERY/ BOILERS (E) PREVIOUS SURVEY REPORT

As the single hull VLCC is to be registered under the Indian flag, she must have the following as per the requirements under different heads. a) SOLAS 74: 1) GMDSS certificate, operational test of GMDSS equipments. 2) HSCC certificate a) SC, b) SE, c) SR

Cargo ship safety certificate which includes all requirements. 3) DOC L& SMC (Complete implementation of ISM code) Interim DOC & SMC Effective SMS on board 4) ISPS Ship security plan, security alert system, into ship safety certificate. Interim ISSC Continuous Synopsis Record 5) Emergency towing arrangements 6) Safe access to Bows for crew (catwalk) 7) Safe access for tank inspection

8) Voice Date Recorder 9) Automatic Identification system 10)Enhanced survey Programmed, check survey report files 11)Fail safe method of steering gear 12)Fire control plan booklet 13)Fire safety training manual 14)LSA, FFA drawing plan 15)Radio survey no of EPIRB 16)Light/sound signal plan 17)Exemption certificates, if any 18)Intact stability booklet 19)Subdivision and damage stability b) MARPOL 73/78 : As per revised Annex I, Regulation 20 (B Gold) ships are built in 1990 and she is single hull, hence she has to comply with the CAS survey requirements. Inspection of survey report files i) ii) iii) iv) Report of structural survey Condition evaluation report Thickness measurement report Survey planning document

Additional documents required are I) Main structural plan of cargo & ballast tanks


Previous repairs history Inspection records of structural deterioration in general, leakage in bulkhead & piping and condition of tank coatings and preventive system.

Ship should meet the above requirements and should be scrapped latest by 2010 or be converted to double hull. In addition to the above, the v/L must have with respect to MARPOL i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) IOPP certificate Oil Record Book 1& 2 SOPEP Record of ODMCS, ODMCS operation Manual Hydrostatically balanced loading operation Manual IAPP certificate.

c) Crew Accommodation: As per ILO convention C075 adopted in 1946 and revised in 1949 as C092, Article 2, crew accommodation is defined and also specified the minimum standards like i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Access to escape arrangement Size of bunks (bed) and chair Sanitary arrangements Accommodation AC with heating arrangements Accommodation sealing arrangements with cargo area. Condition of bulkheads, floors, overhead decks, mess room, alleyways and cabins.


Provision of LSA & FFA in Accommodation

viii) Fixed fire detection system in all working zones. ix) x) xi) General alarm & PA System working Food as per MUI (Indian Flag Vessels) and sufficient utensils to be provided. Sufficient drainage should be provided.

d) Machinery / Boilers : The following must be checked with respect to machinery & boilers i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) CSM Report (Continuous survey of machine) Overall status of various Engine Room & cargo machinery Sea Trial Reports Fuel consumption of M/E, A/E & boiler Location of M/E safety systems Condition and operation of pollution prevention machine. Fixed fire/smoke detection system

viii) Availability of critical spares on board ix) All F.O. / L.O. high pressure pipes must have double protection and high temperature lines must have insulation on top. Cargo P/PS performance Boiler performance and survey report. As per Indian flag, boiler survey to be carried out annually as the boiler is more than 8 years old.

x) xi)

e) Previous Survey Report :

i) ii) iii) iv)

Check the status of survey reports Any outstanding Recommendation must be attended to at the earliest opportunity Check the Condition Assessment Reports of the Vessel. Check the thickness measurement reports.

The previous survey reports will give an idea of ships overall condition regarding documentation, hull structure, installations, equipments, pumps and piping systems etc., This also helps in planning for the forthcoming surveys.

20) State the responsibilities and liabilities under the Hague-Visby rules of a) shipper, b) Ship owners Explain the difference between Hague rules and Hague Visby rules. The duties of the ship owner/carrier are covered under Article III of The Hague Visby Rules. They are 1) The carrier is obliged to exercise due diligence before and at the beginning of the voyage in respect of the following: a) To make the ship sea-worthy b) To properly man, equip and supply her c) To make the holds and other places, where goods are to be carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation. 2) The carriers duty to exercise due diligence in above respects is a paramount duty and an overriding

obligation. If subsequently it is established that loss of or damage to cargo resulted from failure of the carrier to exercise due diligence, the carrier will not be permitted to avail of the benefit of the protection otherwise available to him under the rules. 3) The carrier is obliged to properly and carefully load, handle, stow, carry and discharge the cargo. The carrier must have a proper system for taking care of cargo during the time he is in custody thereof. This provision includes aspects such as security, ventilation, maintenance of required temperatures and avoidance of contamination. 4) The carrier must demand of the shipper a Bill of Lading showing (a) leading marks necessary for identification of goods, (b) No of packages / quantity / weight in writing by the shipper, (c) The apparent order & condition of goods. 5) A Bill of Lading issued as above must be shipped any mates receipt. Such a Bill of Lading is evidence of receipt of goods as described therein. Liability of Carriers / ship owner: 1) Unless the value of goods has been declared by the shipper before shipment & has been inserted in Bill of Lading, the carriers liability for loss or damage to goods is limited as provided in the rules. 2) By Hague Visby amendments in 1968, carriers liability was 10,000 francs per package or 30 francs per Kg. [one francs = 65.5 mg of gold of 90% purity] 3) By amendments in 1979, this limit was raised to 666.6 SDRs per package or 2 SDRs per Kg.

4) The 1968 amendment provided that where a container or similar article of transport is used to consolidate goods, this shall be deemed to be the unit concerned. 5) The right to limit liability and for various defenses was extended also to any servant or agent of the carrier but not to an independent contractor. Responsibilities of Shipper: 1) Bill of lading must be prepared by shippers or their freight agents on the carriers printed preform and presented to the carrier or his agent for signature. 2) Following information must be included in Bill of Lading i) Shippers identity, (ii) Vessels name , (iii) Port of loading, (iv) Port of discharge, (v) Quantity of cargo, (vi) Condition of goods, (vii) Date of loading, (viii) Freight, (ix) Condition of carriage

3) It is the responsibility of shipper to clearly declare the nature of goods being shipped. When goods are being shipped without knowledge or consent of carrier, the carrier is free to Jettison land or destroy the goods without any liability. 4) The shipper is responsible for all damages and expenses resulting from the shipment of dangerous goods even when such goods are shipped with knowledge of carrier. The carrier can deal with goods when they become dangerous to ship without any liability except general average. But in such case the shipper is not liable for any consequential loss. Liability of Shipper: 1) If value of goods has not been declared in Bill of Lading,

the shipper will get only 666.6 SDRs per package or 2 SDRs per Kg. 2) In case of loss/damage written notice must be served on carrier within one year of delivery of goods. Difference between Hague Rules & Hague Visby Rules: 1) Under Hague Rules (framed in 1920s) carriers liability was restricted to Great Britain Pounds 100 (gold equivalent) per package. Under Hague-Visby Rules this limit was raised to 10,000 francs (gold e.g.) per package or 30 francs per Kg. As per Hague-Visby Rules the carrier loses his right to limit liability if the damage to cargo resulted from an act of omission of the carrier done with the intent to cause such damage. As per Hague rules no such provision was provided. Thus the carrier could limit his liability to 100 GB pounds even if the damage caused to cargo was done, intentionally with the intent to cause damage.

22) What is General Average Act? Name the essential features of a General Average Act. As per Rule A of the York-Antwerp Rules 1994, there is a general average act when, and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure. Essential features of General Average Act In order to have a right to claim a contribution from other

parties to the common maritime adventure, the owner of the vessel which together from danger must be able to show that there was a General Average Act. The components of a general average act are:1) An extra ordinary sacrifice or expenditure 2) Which is intentionally 3) And reasonably made 4) Against a peril, 5) In order to benefit the common venture Sacrifice or Expenditure:Sacrifice examples which may be allowed under G.A.Act are 1) Cargo jettisoned to refloat a grounded vessel or prevent capsizing of dangerously listed vessel. 2) Machinery damage sustained during refloats operations. Expenditure examples a) Cost of salvage expenditure include the salvage award b) Cost of entering, staying & leaving a port of refuge. Moreover the sacrifices or expenditures must be extraordinary in nature & not an ordinary or everyday loss / expense incurred in running a ship & carrying cargos. International sacrifice / expenditure: when a ships CO2 (carbondi-oxide) cylinders are discharged in order to put out fore on board, an international expenditure is incurred which will be allowed in General Average. The cost of refloating in accidentally grounded ship would be allowed in general average since the act of refloating is international. The cost of damage done during running aground however would not be allowed in General Average Act.

Reasonably made sacrifice / expenditure: - Suppose more cargo is jettisoned than was necessary to refloat a grounded ship, the excess would probably not be allowed in General Average Act. Expenditure at a Port of Refuge even or above reasonable expenditure would not be allowed in General average act. Against a Peril:The Peril must have been real & most substantial, although it need not have been imminent. A vessel which lost M/E power in mid ocean would be in peril even though the weather at the time might be good & there seemed to be no immediate threat. The ship its cargo might be endangered if the ship ran aground. The cost of towing to a port of Refuge would normally be allowed in General Average Act. It might be agreed that expenses incurred in taking shelter from a tropical storm during a voyage should be allowed in G.A act, since any tropical storm constitutes a real & substantial peril and action of sheltering is for preservation of all the property involved. Since action however would be ordinary practice of a prudent seaman & hence would not be extraordinary and thus might not be allowed in G.A. act. For Benefit of the Common Venture:The sacrifice / expenditure must be for the common safety and not for the benefit of only one party. E.g. where the refrigerating machine of a loaded reefer vessel breaks down during a voyage through tropical waters, making it imperative for the sake of cargo to put into a port for repairs. The threat of loss is limited to the owners of the cargo & perhaps the freight. As far as the ship itself is concerned, it would quite safely continue, so the cost of the deviation to the repair port would not be allowed in the General Average Act.

23) What are the principles of modern salvage law? What is general average? Explain with content to general average (i) Entitlement, (ii) Artificial, (iii) Adjustment, (iv) Contestation. Salvage occurs when a person, in the absence of a contractual or legal obligation, volunteers to expert efforts to preserve or save a vessel or its contents from peril. Once the property had been successfully salved, the salver is entitled to recover salvage remuneration not surpassing the value of the property so salved. This value is determined at the time and place the salvage service is concluded. But in absence of success, the salvo is entitled to nothing. This is the famous principle of No cure no pay which appeared in Lloyds form of Salvage Agreement in the 19th century. The salvers right is enshrined in a maritime lien on the property to be salved, and this creates a trident of rights for the Salver the lien may be enforced in persona against the vessel owner, in rein against the vessel, and in rein against a sister ship. As per the Rule A of the York Antwerp Rules 1994, There is a general average act when, and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonable made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure. As per Maritime Insurance Act, 1906, There is a general average act where any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is voluntarily and reasonable made or incurred in time of peril for the purpose of preserving the property imperiled in the common adventure.

The five components parts of a general average loss are: 1) An extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure, 2) Which is intentionally, 3) And reasonably made 4) Against a peril 5) In order to benefit the common venture. i) Entitlement to General Average:

- The general average act was normally ordered by the master originally. But now, the York-Antwerp Rules do not restrict the power to the master alone. The ship owner can order the act, directly or through agents. - A claimant is not entitled to obtain contribution from the other parties to the common venture simply because his sacrifice or expenditure falls within the terms of Rule A of the York/Antwerp Rules. The carrier must not have been at fault in law. - There must be a causal connection between the loss and the general act i.e. only such losses, damages or expenses which are the direct consequence of the general average act shall be allowed as general average. - The onus of proof is upon the party claiming in general average to show that the loss or expense claimed is property allowable as general average. ii) Artificial General Average:

Artificial general average is the granting of a claim for general average even when one of the five basis principles of general average found in Rule A of the York/Antwerp Rules of 1994 is not present. The creation of artificial general average

was part of the slow evolution favoring ship-owners. If peril was an essential ingredient of general average, it was reduced in importance in 1890 and 1950 by the safe presentation rule of Rules X (b) & XI (b) and the absence as well of the peril requirement in these two rules and in Rules X (a) & XII. Peril did not have to be immediate, provided that it was real and not imaginary, substantial and not merely slight or nugatory. Potential, as opposed to only imminent, danger thus qualified. General average may now be declared whether or not, as normally required under Rule A, there is a) an extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure made for the common safety or b) a peril, unless the numbered rule under which the claim is made so stipulates. iii) Adjustment of General Average:

In the adjustment of general average the numbered and lettered rules of the York-Antwerp Rules shall apply except as provided by the numbered rules, general average shall be adjusted according to the lettered rules. The process of adjusting a general average sacrifice or expenditure begins with the declaration of general average, which is ordinarily made by the ship-owner through his underwriters. General Average claims must be submitted in writing to the average adjuster within 12 months of the date of termination of the common maritime adventure, where cargo has been sacrificed, the ship-owner must obtain security from other cargo before delivering it. Such security normally takes the form of a general average bond or an undertaking from a cargo underwriter. General Average is adjusted at the place where the voyage

terminates, according to the law applicable these, if there is no clause on general average in the contract of carriage. The contract usually provides for G.A. adjustment as per York/Antwerp Rules, Rules, and Rule G as follows: General Average shall be adjusted as regards both loss and contribution upon the basis of values at the time and place when and where the adventure ends. The value of property sacrificed for the common safety and the corresponding contributory values of the ship and remaining cargo are measured as at the date of discharge at the port of destination. The general average is calculated by multiplying the value of each contributory interest by a fraction, composed of the value of all the general average expenses, divided by the sum of contributory values. iv) Contestation of General Average : The Principle of general average has been the subject of considerable dissatisfaction in recent years for six main reasons:

1) Exoneration of carriers for fault of the crew causes ill feeling to the concerned parties, whereas in other modern rules regarding civil liability all carriers/employers are directly responsible for their own fault & fault of their employees. 2) The Interpretation Rule -- gives the numbered rules precedence over the lettered rules. Thus four of the five basic principles of general average in Rule a have no effect of a lettered rule contradicts any one of them. 3) Emergency of marine insurance because of the risk involves in G.A., all parties now insured against responsibility of G.A. contribution 4) Expense & delay in G.A. adjustments-

5) Contribution collection problems Collection after the event difficulties are encountered in obtaining G.A. bonds, while the collecting of contributions form cargo interests is made difficult in some countries, due to exchange control regulations. 6) Small General Averages Unless the G.A. claim is very large, G.A. adjusters find adjustments quite unremunerated.

24) With Respect to E/R mean management enlist the key issues you will address with proper justification in the following areas: 1) Incentive Programmed 2) Long term personnel development concept 3) Human resources quality assurance 4) Attitude and motivation development 5) Emergency response 6) Training programmers 7) Coping with stress.

Man is a social animal and to make him work in isolation will lead to dissatisfaction and unnecessary stress. Many companies are trying hard to remove this dissatisfaction by implementing motivational techniques as below: 1) Loyalty - Creating greater trust, better communication and sharing problems: - The sense of belonging motivates the person to work for the team. 2) Understanding needs/ grievances with respect to money /

wages, appraisal / promotion, special recognition for good work by seeking to create a more transparent atmosphere, so that no ambiguities remain. 3) Rewarding performance, which will motivate the performer to work harder and create an environment of willing her to improve. 4) Justifiable praising as per performance creates a feel good factor in the workers often a pat on the back works wonders. The motivated worker will work harder that one who is only doing it for money. 5) Responsibility helps the person to participate willingly as responsibility imparts a sense of importance. 6) Encourage interaction thereby facilitating teamwork. 7) Genuine empathy improves relationships & individuals performance. 1) INCENTIVE PROGRAMME Considering the motivational techniques, money can never be overlooked as a motivate. Whether in the form of wages, bonus, incentives etc. An incentive programmed based on performance may be developed for the engine room and deck crew on quarterly basis. This in turn increases the effectiveness and performance levels of the workers. Crew members may be rewarded for good work either giving extra overtime, bonus, incentives etc. Junior officers may work harder for the much sought after promotion which in turn brings better wages. Thus incentive in any form increases the overall effectiveness of the crew. 2) LONG TERM PERSONNEL DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT an individual is judged for his skill and job competence. Special sills & innovative jobs should be recognized and the same can be entered in his Appraisal Report for further

development without delay and can be recommended for promotion. By developing such a transparent atmosphere, individual will have long term inter-personnel relation development. 3) HUMAN RESOURCES QUALITY ASSURANCE Shipping companies are very particular while recruiting personnel for deployment on their ships. The background of the person is known his qualification and last company records are checked. Their skills are tested before finally employing them. These techniques are really working and quality of personnels on board the ships is getting better day by day. An individual is also assessed and approved on board the ship. On board training helps to improve the individuals overall competence. 4) ATTITUDE AND MOTIVATION DEVELOPMENT Shipping companies are trying various theories to develop individuals attitude and motivation by applying techniques like positive reinforcement, behavior modification, stress relief etc. It may be in manner of continuous employment in company and on rotation basis, so that the individual can plan his leave and come back on finishing his leave, for better prospect and need of money, self-esteem, security etc. As a Chief Engineer, one should deploy techniques to identify and slowly change the behavior of dissatisfied personnel. Due to the complexity of the world & increase in personal- needs, competition is also increasing. One has to prove that he can fit into any organization. The attitude and motivation is improving by the fear of losing job. 5) EMERGENCY RESPONSE Each and every person should be allotted his duties in the case of different types of emergencies. All personnel should be educated about their duties and responsibilities. Further frequent drills and exercises on board helps the personnel to be familiar with

the procedures and improves their response to any type of emergency situation. Also during drills the importance of team work is emphasized, which motivates people in acting faster & in an organized manner in any kind of emergency. 6) TRANING PROGRAMMES One should conduct realistic drills and exercises on board regularly. The response of personnel is assessed & any need of training is considered. Training programmers make people more confident in all aspects of their jobs and enhances their competencies. Different methods and means can be adopted for training purposes on board the ships. These may include videos, giving lectures, giving practical demonstration etc. Now a days computer based training programs are also available which enables easy and effective training of the personnel. 7) COPING WITH STRESS The personnel on board a ship are burdened with the magnitude of work due to reduction crew strength on ships. This along with the fear of doing something wrongly, differences among various people and lack of sleep may lead to tremendous amount of stress in the personnel. Living away from home for months together compounds this problem many folds. It is the duty of the Chief Engineer to ensure that his staff does not get overstressed. This can be done by encouraging better inter personnel relations, praising persons for good jobs done, briefing them how to avoid mistakes and delegating work so that no body is overburdened. In addition to all these, talking personally to people, enquiring about their family and other personal matters. Sometimes helps in keeping the environment cool and thereby reducing the chances of overstressing.

25) Give a brief back ground of ILO, its inception and its

fields of mandate for Maritime Labor Development. Name three conventions/protocols of ILO concerning maritime labor, which has come in force in 1996. World War I transformed the worlds social and economic map. The International Labor Organization (ILO) emerged together with the League of Nations from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. It gave expression to the concern to the concern for social reform that grew with the industrial revolution and the conviction that realistic reform had to be conducted in an international plane. The members of the organization were to be countries of the world-member states. Created to develop international labor and standards and ensure their application, the ILO devoted the bulk of its energies to this major task during its first forty years. During the 20 years period from 1919 to 1939, 67 conventions and 66 Recommendations were adopted. Originally, standards focused on working conditions. The first convention in 1919 dealt with hours of work, the famous 8 hours day and 48-hours weak. In 1926, an important innovation was introduced when the International Labor Conference set up a supervisory system on the application of standards, which still exists today. It created a Committee of Experts composed of independent jurists responsible for examining government reports on the application of conventions ratified by them & presenting its own report each year to the conference. Its mandate has been broadened to cover reports on ungratified Conventions and Recommendations. The International Labor office in Geneva is the permanent secretariat of the ILO. Administration and management are decentralized in regional, area and branch offices. The office, headed by a D.G., employs 2500 officials & experts at Geneva and in more than 40 field offices around the world. Regional

meetings of the ILO member states are held periodically to examine mattes of special interests to the regions concerned. Tripartite committees covering major industries and committees of experts and the Governing body & the ILO on matters as vocational training, management development, occupational safety and health, industrial relations etc. The ILO formulates international labor standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations setting minimum standards of basic labor rights freedom of association, the right to organize, collective bargaining abolition of forced labor, equality of opportunity and treatment and other standards regulating conditions across the entire spectrum of work related issues. It provides technical assistance primarily in the fields of: - Vocational training & vocational rehabilitation ; - Employment policy; - Labor Administration; - Labor Law & Industrial Relations; - Working conditions; - Management development; - Co-operatives; - Social security; - Labor statistics & occupational safety and health. It promotes the development of independent employers and workers organizations and provides training and advisory services to those organizations. Within the UN system, the ILO has a unique tripartite structure with workers and employers participating as equal partners with governments in the work of it governing organs.

The 84th session of the International Labor Conference concluded its work in October 1996 with the adoption of 3 conventions, 3 recommendations and a protocol concerning the living and working condition of seafarers. The conference revised and adopted the following international legal instruments: 1) Seafarers Hours of work and the Manning of ships convention 2) Seafarers Wages, Hours of work and the Manning of ships Recommendation, 1996 3) Labor Inspection (Seafarers) Convention and Recommendation, 1996 4) Recruitment and Placement of Seafarers Convention (revised) and Recommendation, 1996 5) 1996, Protocol to the Merchant shipping (Minimum standards) Convention, 1976.

26) Socio cultural differences have been an accepted fact in major merchant ships around the globe. Explain how such differences generate inter personal conflict and affect safety management. How can they be resolved on board for better team work?
Major merchant ships trade internationally and also have multi-national crew on board. Thus the environment on ships is mostly multi-cultural. Crews from different cultures have different beliefs, values and attitudes. This type of environment can lead to differences in opinions / perceptions in any type of situations, which may create problems on ships. While satisfying organizational needs, people often tend to satisfy their own needs. Individuals basically form part of groups and social systems. Being a social animal, individuals have to interact with each other in day-to-day activities. Given the differences in beliefs

values, attitudes and needs, chances of interpersonal conflicts are always there.

Attitude and behavior are important traits and determine how one is accepted in a group. So like-mind people mostly form a group. Within a group also there are differences in aims/goals, which lead to chances of conflicts. If a superior does not approve of a subordinate who happens to be of other cultural setup, the work environment deteriorates. Although people are working together, work gets hampered due to these perceived differences. These conflicts on board ship can seriously hamper not just the team efforts but also the efficient running vessel. This can also become a safety hazard. It can be said that inter personal conflicts can be due to - Unnaturally competitive environment; - Differences in values, goals, attitudes, culture and expectations; - Stereo type behaviors, stubbornness unfair decisions or wrong judgment due to some prejudices. - People taking undue advantage & not taking part is team; - Misunderstanding / faulty communication - Ego I instead of We Conflicts may be actual or threatened with the misuse of force, which proves a hindrance in any continuing social or working relationship. Inter personal conflicts create an unhealthy atmosphere on board and due to increasing workloads people tend to lose their piece of mind. This in turn results in reduction of concentration which may lead to an accident on board the ship, hence a safety hazard.

Conflicts may be lead to problems when it: - Hampers productivity Lowers morale - Causes more and continued conflicts - Causes inappropriate behaviors. Strategies for resolution of inter-personal conflicts: Basic theories for inter-personal conflict resolution are - LOSE-LOSE -- Both parties lose a) Compromise b) Pay off one of the parties c) Arbitration d) Resort to bureaucratic rules - WIN-LOSE -- One party attempts to marshal its forces to win and other party loses. - WIN-WIN -- Most desirable strategy of conflict management in which both parties win. Inter personal conflicts cab be resolved by taking into consideration the nature of differences between the parties in the conflict. An amicable solution could be found by accepting differences without conflict. Measures should be taken to develop a co-operative relationship based on job-related performance rather than on communed / racial basis. This will motivate people to work as a team - Biased approach should be avoided - A common language should be used for communicate efforts irrespective of their nationality & culture - Regularly review job descriptions and explain to the

employees. - Internationally build relationships with all subordinates - Conduct trainings about Inter Personal communication conflict management etc. - Regularly hold management meetings Basically there is no thumb rule/formula to resolve conflicts and one should go by his own judgment and experience. Adopt strategies based on facts and not on prejudices to achieve trouble free, peaceful relationships, which would yield positive results.

27) Differentiate between Rules, Regulations, Protocols, Act, Tacit Acceptance and Conventions as adopted by IMO. Describe the process by which a draft proposal gets converted into a Statutory Rule administered by a maritime member country.

Rules are guidelines laid down to be followed under specific circumstances, in order to maintain harmony and uniformity. e.g. Rules of the road: these are an aid to navigation, in order to prevent collision between ships, as per COLREG 1972 Convention. Regulations are standards/conditions/requirements, which are to be met; in order to comply with a convention Protocol is an instrument, by which developments are added to an existing convention, which are not included in the parent convention. E.g. Protocol of 1978 to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships 1973, together known as MARPOL 73/78. Act is an action, by which amendments are made to the

convention e.g. Act of the STCW 95 conference, amending the STCW. To incorporate the provisions of any adopted convention into the country annexure law: an act is passed whereby it becomes a part of the national law of that country. Conventions: - These are multilateral treaty documents - These are main instruments of IMO, a legal binding instrument regulating some aspect of maritime affairs of major concern - Have detailed technical provisions attached in annexes. - A member country that ratifies the convention is obliged to put it into effect by making its requirements, part of its own law. - Ratification means dual obligation a formal commitment to apply the provisions of the convention and also to accept a measure of international supervisions. Tacit Acceptance: It is the procedure of acceptance of any amendments, conventions or protocols in which unless a majority of agreed member states, with agreed amount of world tonnage, objected before the cutoff date. The amendment, conventions or protocols would then be taken for granted to be accepted. In case of the explicit system of acceptance, countries were taking years before an amendments could enter into force. With increasing number of IMO member countries the acceptance procedure was becoming more difficult. Most of the countries chose to remain quiet, hence with the introduction of Tacit Acceptance system changes

are enforced relatively very fast. Process by which draft proposal gets converted into a rule administrated by maritime states: Developments in the shipping industry and offer related issues are discussed in the committees or the subcommittees which require adaption of a new convention or /amendments to the existing ones. - The proposal then goes to the council in the form of a Draft - The council forwards it to the Assembly, after checking - It is discussed in the Assembly and, if approved/authorized to proceed further on the topic, it is sent to the one of the (five) committees concerned with the matter. - The committee works on it in greater detail and prepares a Draft Instrument. If required, a sub-committee may be handling it or a specialized sub-committee, consisting of representatives of member states. The views and suggestion of intergovernmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations are also included, who may have the necessary special skills in that matter. - The agreed Draft Instrument is sent to the Council, with a recommendation that a conference of member nations of IMO be convened to consider the Draft for formal adoption - The council sends copies of the proposed draft to member nation of IMO, UN other agencies of UN, Intergovernmental & non-governmental organizations for their views and comments along with an invitation to send a representative for the conference to be convened to consider the draft proposal - The proposal Draft (convention) along with comments is then

discussed in the conference and necessary changes made in order to produce a Draft Acceptance to all or to the majority of member nations present. - The corrected Draft (convention) thus agreed upon is formally adopted by the conference and deposited with the secretary General, who sends copies to governments. - The convention is open for signature by states, usually for a period of 12 months. - Upon notification by the state, it becomes the statuary Rule of that state.

28) With reference to marine insurance, write short notes on the following: a) Port of Refuge, b) Particular Average & General Average c) Total loss and constructive loss. a) PORT OF REFUGE: A port of refuge is a port or that place that a vessel diverts to when the Master considers it unsafe to continue the voyage due to peril that threatens the common safety, e.g. when there is a dangerous ingress of water unto the vessel, a dangerous shift of cargo, the vessel adopts an angle of roll, there is a serious fire on board, etc, where such a deviation is for the preservation from peril of property involved in a common maritime adventure, it will usually constitute a general average act and the cost of deviation to and stay at the port of refuge will be allowed in general average. Port of refuge is a term usually associated with a general average act under the York/Antwerp Rules certain costs and expenses incurred in making for entering, staying at and leaving a port or place of refuge, even where the ship returns to her port or place of loading are admitted as

general average. Valid reasons for deviating to a port of refuge usually include: 1) Weather, collision or grounding damage affecting sea worthiness of the ship; 2) Serious fire; 3) Dangerous shift of cargo; 4) Serious machinery breakdown; 5) Any other accident causing some serious threat to the vessel & cargo; 6) Shortage of bunkers (if it can be proved that vessel left the port with adequate bunkers for the foreseeable voyage and ran short as a consequence of weathering) b) PARTICULAR AVERAGE AND GENERAL AVERAGE: Particular Average:- Marine Insurance Act 1906 defines particular average as a partial loss, proximately caused by a peril insured against and which is not a general average loss. The insured perils in a hull and machinery policy are listed in a perils clause, which are: 1) Perils of the seas, rivers, lakes or other navigable waters, 2) Fire Explosion 3) Earth Quake, Volcanic eruption or lightening 4) Accidents in loading, discharging or shifting of cargo or fuel etc. Structural damage proximately caused by collision, grounding, heavy weather etc. perils of the seas would normally be classed as Particular Average.

General Average:General Average means partial loss, as opposed to particular average under Marine Insurance. A general average act is defined in Rule a of the York/Antwerp Rules as follows: there is a general average act when and only when any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally, and reasonable made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure. Some examples of general average are: 1) Towing to port of refuge after a major machine failure; 2) Jettisoning/discharging cargo to refloat vessel after stranding; 3) Wetting of cargo while extinguishing a fire; 4) Beaching a vessel to avoid foundering; 5) Damaging engine, propeller or hull in refloating; 6) Slipping an anchor & cable to avoid a collision, etc. General average losses are equitably shared by all parties to the common maritime adventure. Calculation of contributory values and assessment of G.A. losses is done by an average adjuster. c) TOTAL LOSS AND CONSTRUCTIVE LOSS: Actual Total Loss: - The Marine Insurance Act 1906 provides that there is an Actual Total loss where the subject matter insured is destroyed or so damaged as to cease to be a thing of the kind insured or where the assured is irretrievably deprived of the subject matter insured or when the ship concerned in the adventure is missing i.e. where s ship has not reported for several weeks.

Examples of Actual Total Loss: 1) When a ship is wrecked or burnt out or where the goods are crushed in the collapse of a stow of cargo; 2) Cement powder solidifies; 3) When a ship sinks in very deep water; 4) When ship is missing for several weeks. Constructive Total Loss:In Marine Insurance Act a constructive total loss occurs when an assured is deprived of possession of his ship or goods by a peril insured against and where the subject matter injured is reasonably abandoned on account of its actual total loss appearing to be unavoidable or because it could not be preserved from actual total loss without an expenditure which would exceed its value when the expenditure has been incurred. After a valid abandonment, the insurer is entitled take over the interest of the assured in whatever remains of the insured property, including all proprietary rights in it. E.g. - The right to any freight in the course of being earned when the causally occurred. - The right to take over the ship or goods - The right to dispose of the ship or goods as he think fir and retain all the proceeds (even if more than the claim paid)

29) Why does a ship require Marine Insurance Cover? Explain Hull Claims and cargo claims related with Marine Insurance. State the related documents and information required from the ship in this regard highlighting their validity.

Marine Insurance is the method whereby one party, called the assurer or underwriter, agrees for a stated consideration known as a premium to indemnify the other party called the insured or assured, against loss, damage or expense in connection with the commodities at risk if caused by perils mentioned in the contract known as the policy of insurance. All ship owners and shipping merchants should insure their property against losses or damages. They are not legally bound to insure except for liability for oil pollution claims. However, the modern methods of financing, trade and shipping make it essential that they do so. The capital that is exposed to loss in modern ships is so huge that no shipping company can afford to bear the liability incurred. Besides, most of the tonnage is mortgaged to banks and other financial institutions and they require insurance as collateral security. A ship owner or ship manager requires marine insurance cover for the following: 1) Actual or constructive total loss; 2) Particular Average, liability for General Average Charges, liability for salvage charges; 3) Liability for 3rd partys property damage & other 3rd party risks, liability for oil pollution claims. 4) Loss of earnings due to strikes, war risks, loss of freight, loss of charter hire, increased value, disbursements and excess liabilities. Hull Claims: Following any case of hull or machine damage, e.g. due to collosions, groundings or perils of the ship owner / managers insurance department will normal immediately inform, via the broker, the lead hull and machinery insurer. As per Clause 49 of IHC (Internate Hull

Clause) the lead underwriter will instruct a surveyor to ascertain the nature, cause and extend of damage. Documents and information required from the ship:1) Relevant insurance policies copies supplied by owner 2) Deck and engine room logbooks covering the casualty repair period; 3) Masters or Chief Engineers detailed report; 4) Relevant letters of Protest; 5) Protests and extended protests; 6) Underwriters surveyors report; 7) Class surveyors report; 8) Receipt of accounts for repairs; 9) Receipt of accounts for incidental disbursements, port charges, watchmen, communication & expenses agency fees etc. 10)Details of fuel and engine room stores cons during the repair period; 11)Accounts for owners repairs affected concurrence with damage repairs. 12)Copies of telexes and faxes sent in connection to the casualty and their costs. 13)Any accounts rendered by surveyors, etc. 14)In case of collision - Details of steps taken to establish liability - Detailed copy of the items allowed from the claim by the

owner of the colliding vessel. - A detailed copy of any claim received from other vessel; - Details of efforts to limit liability. CARGO CLAIMS: Cargo must be inspected on arrival for loss or damage. Usually carriers can be held responsible for loss or damage by insurer after claim has been settled. So when cargo loss or damaged is discovered by the receiver or consignee at the discharge port or destination, a delivery note or consignment note will be clause with a note of the loss or damage. The cargo owner will immediately inform his insurer. The underwriter or insurer will normally ask or a surveyor. After the claim is quantified and documented, the underwriter settles the claim through the agent. Documenting required includes:1) Bill of Lading/airway bill; 2) Commercial Invoice 3) Insurance Certificate 4) Copy of notice of claim reported against carrier; 5) Documentation relating to out-tum/receipt of goods; 6) Local carriers way bill, where applicable ; 7) Copy of temperature records, where available; 8) Copy of instructions to carriers regarding carriage temperature, where applicable 9) Invoices to confirm salvage/sale price, where applicable.

30) During a PSC inspection, PSCO desired to carry out

detailed inspection of the vessel. What are clear grounds for a PSCO to conduct a more detailed inspection? State your answer with examples. What is the difference between Corrective action and Preventive action? The Port State Control Officer (PSCO) conducts a general inspection of several areas on board to verify that the overall condition of the ship complies with that required by the various certificates. If valid certificates or documents are not on board, or if there are clear grounds to believe that the condition of a ship, its equipment or its crew does not substantially meet the requirements of a relevant convention, a more detailed inspection will be carried out. CLEAR GROUNDS are evidences showing that the ship, its equipment or its crew are not as per the requirement of relevant conventions or the master or crew are not familiar with essential ship board procedures relating to safety of ships or prevention of pollution. The clear grounds for a detailed inspection by the PSCO are: 1) Serious deficiencies in equipment or arrangements 2) Master and crew not familiar with essential shipboard operation 3) Evidence that the ship certificates are clearly invalid e.g. CO2 bottles, foam test certificates expired; 4) Evidence that the certificates required by different laws and conventions are not complete or not maintained or falsely maintained e.g. IOPP certificate is not endorsed or renewed. 5) PSCOs self-observation that hall or structure has

serious deficiencies that may risk the water tight or weather tight integrity of the ship. E.g. damaged hatch coaming or packing or badly corroded hatch cover. 6) PSCOs observation that serious deficiencies exist in the safety, pollution prevention or navigational equipments. E.g. OWS, Emcee five P/P not working properly. 7) Evidence that key members are not able to communicate with each other. 8) A report or notification by another Authority 9) The ship has been accused of an alleged violation of the provisions on discharge of harmful substances or affluent 10) The ship has been involved in a collision, grounding or stranding on its way to the port. 11) The emission of false distress alerts not followed by proper cancellation procedures. 12) The sip has been identified as priority case for inspection 13) The ship is flying the flag of a not-party to relevant instruments 14) Other indications of serious deficiencies 15) Safe manning & certification as per ISM & STCW codes CORRECTIVE ACTION: is action taken to eliminate the cause of an existing non conformity, noncompliance, defect or other undesirable situation in order to prevent reoccurrence. The corrective action required may take two forms to address the situation.

1) Immediate or adaptive corrective action will correct or address the current noncompliance. They are actions taken to reduce or eliminate a noncompliances effect; 2) Permanent corrective action will ensure that the required steps are taken to see that the noncompliance does not reoccur. They are actions taken to eliminate the cause(s) of a noncompliance. PREVENTIVE ACTION is an action taken to eliminate the causes of a potential non conformity, noncompliance, defect or other undesirable situation in order to prevent occurrence. Preventive3 actions are actions taken to reduce the probability that a potential problem will occur. Preventive actions may also include contingent actions taken to reduce the seriousness of a future problem if it should occur.

31) With reference to port state control inspections: a) What are clear grounds and ISM related deficiencies for a Port State Control Officer to conduct a more detailed inspection of the ship? b) List out five deficiencies, which may lead to detention of the vessel. Also enumerate the cause of such deficiency and preventive action you, as Chief Engineer will take to avoid re-occurrence of such detainable deficiencies.

CLEAR GROUNDS: - Refer Previous question ISM RELATED DEFICIENCIE - for detailed inspection by a PSCO can be: 1) Company Safety and Environment Protection Policy is not

on board or the ship personnels are not familiar with it. 2) Safety Management documents are not readily available e.g. SMS manual not kept in library. 3) SMS documentation is not in ships working language or the language is not understood by ship personnels 4) A senior officer does not identify the DPA 5) Emergency situation contact procedures and contact number details of the shore management not in place. 6) For emergency actions, programs for drills and exercises not available on board 7) Master not able to provide documented proof of his responsibility and authority including overriding authority. 8) Non-conformities from internal and it not been reported or reported to company but no corrective action has been taken. 9) Ship is not mentioned or is not having maintenance routines & records available. 10)When a newly joined crew member is not familiar with his duties & the necessary instructions which should be given to him to sailing are not available. 11)When senior ship officer is not aware of company responsibility for operation of the ship. 12)If the vessel has been issued with intern certificate (BOC & SMC) not in accordance with provisions of Resolution A788 (19) Five deficiencies which lead to Detention: 1) SMC is not valid (expired) - This may be due to negligence

on the part of the ship staff or the company. To avoid such a situation a programmer may be made to review all certificates at regular intervals and keeping a track of their validity and required date of renewals. Company must be kept informed accordingly and well in advance so that necessary steps may be taken well in time to avoid such circumstances. 2) Company safety and environment protection policies are not known to senior staff This is a case of a Major deficiency and reflects a major negligence and nonprofessional attitude of the personnel. To avoid such circumstances the personnel must be trained in the aspects of ISM and all personnel briefed adequately at the time of joining the vessel. Conducting of proper Internal Audits will also keep the ship and personnel well prepared and avoid such a deficiency in subsequent Audits and inspections. 3) Emergency Preparedness procedures not on board This is also a major deficiency since it involves safety of the ship and its personnel. Such a situation reflects major in competence on port of senior officers and laxity in companys Internal Audit procedures. Again this may be avoided by conducting proper Internal Audits and reviewing all documents at regular intervals. 4) Oil Record Book not available on board This reflects a major non-professional ion and negligence on port of the ships personnel and company. Proper care must be taken to ensure that the oi record book is on board and properly filled up. It should be ensured that new ORBs are ordered well in advance so that company can send them before the old ones finish, therefore ensuring continuity.

5) Emergency equipments on board not operating properly This is due to improper planning and maintenance. This also concerns the safety of the ship & its personnel and hence it is a major deficiency. To avoid such deficiencies the emergency equipments must be maintained properly and tested at specific intervals as per laid down standards and results lagged down to keep a track and help in future maintenance.

32) Underline the general procedures followed for flow of information among ship personnel. As a Chief Engineer on a ship having multinational crew, how instructions received from shore office for engine management can be best utilized? Information is one of the basic resources of any organization. Same applies in the shipping industry also. Sharing of relevant information is very important in fast and efficient operation of the system. Information is required to be send from higher to lower positions in the hierarchy and vice-versa. The flow of information si an important parameter in the ifficient operation of the vessel and an important ingredient of an effective management. Flow of imformaion from owner/managers office to the ship and vice-versa may be through e-mails, telex, telephones etc., within the ship the information mahy be shared according to the requirement and relevance. Generally office sends the information addressed to the ships Master. Master then forwards the same to the department heads i.e. Chief Officer or the Chief Engineer to whom the matter concerns. The Chief Officer then passes on the same to the 2nd Officer and the 3rd Officer. The Chief Engineer passes the info to the 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 5th Engineers. Some information which are required to be shared with the crew are passed on by the concerned

department heads. Some things are confidential in nature and must be kept to the management level officers only. Sometimes meetings are conducted in which the Master/Chief Engineer discuss the matter with everybody. Information regarding safety, pollution prevention and security related issues can be conveyed to all staff in these meetings. Also company circulars concerning new requirements regarding amendments of different conventions as applicable to the vessel are discussed with the ship staff. The requirements & details for the next port of call are also discussed in details with the crew. Circulars regarding accidents and incidents occurring on various ships of the company and corrective actions taken are also discussed with the ship staff, well understood and signed by everybody in acknowledgement of reading and understanding the matter. Such circulars are generally kept for reading and signature in common places like smokeroom, notice vessels etc. Feedback is important aspects in the procedure of flow of information since it reflects how well the information is understood. Also feedback brings forward the practical difficulties arising in implementation/execution of certain directives. Information can also be passed on through other aids such as training videos, which are shown usually on weekends and followed with interactive feedback sessions. In case of multinational crew on board passing of information may be slightly difficult even though English may be the official language on board the ship/ all people might not be very conversant with the English language which makes it difficult for them to comprehend the information. Instructions/directives half understood or not understood affects the implementation process. In such situations proper meetings should be organized by the Chief

Engineer with the engine room staff and the matters should be explained to all. People may use sign languages, body language, certain gestures, pictures etc. to make the crew understand the information/directives. Feedback they ensure the extent of comprehension of the information. Feedback plays a more important part in communication when the elements involved their in are of different nationalities/cultures. This ensures the completion of the cycle of information flow process. So in case of multinational crew the process becomes difficult but resorting to various other techniques as discussed above can help in resolving the problem.

33) What are the primary strategies that may be employed for coping with stress affected personnel? How can these elements be best implemented in ships personnel motivating them for better team work? Stress is one of the primary ingredients of modern day to day life. Increasing pressures, expectations, targets and deadlines are prevalent in every aspect of life, which lead to unnecessary physical and mental stress in the personnel. Stress can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel us to action, can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it can result in feelings of distrust, rejection, anger and depression, which in turn can lead to health problem such a s headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke. Stress cannot be eliminated completely. We have to learn how to manage it and how to use it to our advantage. Different stress levels are associated with different work environment. Insufficient stress brings boredom and a feeling of dejection. Excess stress brings a feeling of tied up

to knots. Optimal level of stress will individually motivate but not overwhelm us. If there is no pressure of work people will be sitting idle and there is no motivation as such: Management of stress can be done in the following steps;1) Become aware of your stress factors & your emotional and physical reactions; 2) Recognize what you can change; 3) Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress; 4) Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress; 5) Build your physical resources:- Yoga, Exercise, Meditation, Diet 6) Maintain your emotional reserves All the above actions help in successful stress management. Basically there is no foolproof formula for success. Individuals differ markedly in the events they define stressful in the ways they react to pressure and specific techniques for dealing with stressful events that will be most successful. On board the ships, people work in isolation for months together. Also companies often employ multinational crew, which may lead to varying levels of interpersonal conflicts. The manpower on the ships is very less resulting in non-workload on an individual. All the above factors make the work environment more stressful as compared to other fields of work. Elaborating on above mentioned strategies, we can see that the basic strategies for coping with stress affected personnel are: Efforts to increase physical & mental preparedness i.e. doing yoga, exercises, meditation, diet etc.

Creative diversions for emotional enrichment i.e. by art, music, movies etc. Identifying basic problems leading to stress and working together to minimize them. Introspection and examining ones own contribution to stress afflicted to others. Avoidance of Isolation whenever possible. Regular communication with friends, colleagues and family. Update knowledge & skills as per the changing technological environment.

As an officer of the management level on board the ship, one of the most important jobs of a Chief Engineer is to ensure that his stress is working efficiently which is not possible if they are affected by stress. The Chief Engineer can provide emotional support by various ways and means which are as follows; Allotting different types of work to avoid monotonicity Speaking to them and discussing regarding their problems on board or at home Providing enough hours of rest to all personals. This is also required by the ILO rules. Ensuring proper living and working environment Stress is personnel can be addressed to through the following which also create motivation:-

Feeling is personnel creating greater trust, better communication & sharing problems. The sense of belonging will motivate the person to work as a team. Understanding needs/grievances with respect to money/wages/appraisal/promotion/special recognition for good work, creating a transparent atmosphere so that no ambiguities remain. Rewarding performance Motivation to work harder Ego is the key factor in motivation praise when deserving Make responsible makes a person feel important Encourage interaction reduces interpersonal conflict Providing enough rest hours Make proper plans/guidelines for work and provide necessary resources. Sharing the work load Given everything, lastly the strategies of coping with stress affected personnel may vary with different people. But the basic elements remain the same everywhere.

34) Name the various statutory certificates and documents to be carried on board giving reference to the IMO conventions. A part from these, what other statutory certificates are required to be carried in vessels carrying a) Dangerous goods, b) Chemical Cargoes, c) Gas Cargoes

State the relevant IMO conventions / codes and the significances of these documents.

CERTIFICATE 1) Certificate of Registry


VALIDITY Indefinite

Convention 2) International Tonnage certificate To be issued to all ships the gross And net tonnage of which has been Determined in accordance with the Convention. Tonnage convention Art - 7 5 years

3) International Load line certificate years To be issued to all ships which have Been surveyed & marked in Accordance with the Load line Convention 1966 as modified By 1988 protocol

Load Line convention?

Art 7 1988 L.L. protocol Art - 18

4) International Load line exemption years Certificate to be issued to any ship For which an exemption has been

L.L. convention Art 6 1988 L.L. protocol

Granted under & in accordance With article 6 of L.L. Convention

Art - 18

5) Intact stability Booklet Applicable for every passenger

SOLAS 1974

Life long

Reg II 1/22 II 12 S 1988 L.L. protocol Art - 10

ship regardless of size & every cargo ship over 24 m. The master shall be supplied with a stability book containing such information is necessary to enable him by rapid & simple procedures to obtain accurate guidance as to the ship under varying conditions of loading.

6) Damage Control Booklet. All ships will have permanently marked plans showing clearly for each deck & hold the boundaries of the watertight compartments, the openings therein with the means of closure & position of and controls these of and the arrangements

SOLAS 1974 Reg II 1/23

Life Long

for correction of list due to flooding.

7) Minimum safe manning Documents to be issued by Administration as evidence of minimum safe manning.

SOLAS 78( 95) Reg V - 13

Life Long

8) Certificates of Master, Officers, Ratings Certificates must be issued by administration as per STCW code 1978 as amended in 1995 9) IOPP Certificate To be issued to any oil tanker >150 GT and any other ship > 400 GT

STCW78(95) Art VI, Reg 12 STCW Code Sec A 1/2

5 years

MARPOL 73/78 Annex I Reg - 5

5 years

10)Oil Record Book every tanker > 150 GT shall be provided with ORB part I (M/c space) and ORB part II (cargo / ballast) operation

MARPOL 73/78 Annex I Reg - 20

other ships > 410 GRT shall be provided only with ORB Part I


MARPOL 73/78 Annex I Reg 26

5 years

Every oil tanker > 150 GT and every other ship > 400 GRT to carve SOPEP approved by Administration

12)Garbage Management Plan Every ship >400GRT and every ship which is certified to carry 15 or more passengers shall carry a Garbage Management Plan approved by Administration. MARPOL 73/78 Annex V Reg 6

13)Garbage Record Book Every ship >/400 GRT and every ship which is certified to carry 15 or more passengers shall be

MARPOL 73/78 Annex V Reg 6

provided with a garbage record book

14)Document of Compliance issued by Administration

SOLAS 74 Reg IX of ISM code

5 years

ensuring that the company meets requirements of ISM Code

15)Safety Management Certificate Issued by Administration ensuring compliance of ship with Safety Management system

SOLAS 74 Reg IX of ISM Code

5 years

16)IAPP Certificate 17)ISSC (Security) 18)Ship safety Certificate (Includes SAFLON, SEQ & SRT certificates)


5 years 5 years

5 years

19)Cargo Security Manual Cargo units including containers

SOLAS 74 Reg VI / 5

Life Long

shall be loaded stowed & secured throughout the voyage in accordance with cargo Security Manual

VII/6 MSC Live 745

21)VDR Document of Compliance.


Additional certificates to be carried on board ships carrying a) Dangerous Cargo:1) Document of compliance with the special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods. 2) Dangerous goods manifest or stowage plan b) Chemical cargo:1) Certificate of fitness for the carriage of dangerous chemicals is bulk. BCH is mandatory under Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 for chemical tankers constructed before 1st July 1986 or 2) International Certificate of fitness for the carriage of dangerous chemicals in bulk. IBC code is mandatory for tankers constructed on or after 1st July 1986. c) Gas Cargos:1) Certificate of fitness for the carriage of gases in bulk issued to all gas carriers constructed before 1st July 1986 as per GC code. 2) International Certificate of fitness for the carriage of liquefied gases in bulk. This certificate is to be

issued to all gas carriers constructed on or after 1st July 1986 as per IGC code

35) How many types of warranties are there in Marine Insurance? Give an example of each type with reference to a hull and machinery policy of insurance. Warranty is the term used in formatting the contract. A warranty is a promissory by the Insured that a specific state or condition will continue to exist for the duration of the policy. Any breach of warranty makes the policy voidable from the time of breach. A breach of warranty occurs when the promise is broken i.e. the specified condition / state is not met. Warranties are basically of two types:

1) Express Warranty 2) Implied Warranty Express Warranty is specifically written into the policy or contained in some document (e.g. Institute Warranties). An express warranty does not override an implied warranty unless the two are conflicting. Express warranty is basically based upon the agreed conditions of the contract / policy. Only if the conditioins agreed to are not met, any claim against the express warranty comes into picture. The types of express warranties are limited only be the imagination and ingenuity of underwriters. Almost anything can be made to be an express warranty provided the proper words are used. Some of the common express warranties are - Navigation / Trading Warranty - Private pleasure

- Towing Warranties - Ice Zones - War Zones Implied warranties are not written into the policy. They are set out in the Act. They are - Warranty of legality - Warranty of neutrality Warranty of sea worthiness

The warranty of neutrality is not really an implied warranty as it applies only when there is an express warranty of neutrality with respect to insurable property. It merely defines and delimits the express warranty of neutrality. The implied warranties of sea worthiness and legality are however, true implied warranties in that there existence is assumed at law and they will form part of any contract of marine insurance unless inconsistent with an express warranty. Sea Worthiness: The implied warranty of seaworthiness applies with full effect only to voyage policies. The warranty is that the ship will be seaworthy at the commencement of the voyage for the particular venture insured. A seaworthy ship is one that is reasonably fir in all respects to encounter the ordinary perils of the adventure insured. In a time policy there is no warranty of seaworthiness but where, with the private of the assure the ship is sent to sea in an unseaworthy state, the insurers is not liable for any loss attribute to seaworthiness. Thus in a voyage policy the insurer needs to prove only one thing, that the ship was unseaworthy at the commencement of the voyage. In a time policy the insurer needs to prove three things that the ship was unseaworthy, that the unseaworthy caused the loss and the

assured was privacy to the unseaworthy state of the ship. The warranty of seaworthiness relates not only to the hull but also to the machinery and equipment, the crew and the way in which a ship is loaded (or overloaded) Illegality:- The warranty of legality is one which is often expressly is lawful and that so far as the assured can control it, the adventure will be carried out in a lawful manner. If the adventure is illegal at the time the insurance is affected the policy will be void. Thus drug running or gun running trips or voyages to countries or ports subject to a government embargo, would be deemed unlawful.

36) Emphasize the validity of the statement that classification societies are Recognized Institutions (R.O). In your view if the statement carries some limitations, highlight them with reasons. List the statutory services undertaken by a classification body on behalf of the Administration.

The classification societies undertake statutory surveys on behalf of flag administration as they have good experience and technical expertise in maritime matters. Societies however, are private entities and class surveyors are not a substitute for government officials who have enforcement powers. Societies have to be approved by individual state administration for acting on behalf of the states to survey and issue convention certificates. Thus a classification society becomes a Recognized Organization (R.O) by the Flag State. Government Administration codifies safety standards for ships on the basis of International Conventions or laws

enacted on their own authority. Vessels are required to undergo periodic survey and inspections and to hold valid certificates as per the statutory requirements. Just as a member of society has a duty to obey the law, the ship owners also have a duty to maintain ship with statutory requirements. While government authorities have a obligation to perform statutory surveys, the technical expertise and rules of classification societies have to be seen as important means of meeting these responsibilities. Increasingly Govt. authorities entrust surveys to class who act in the role of Recognized Organizations. The IMO adopted assembly resolution A739 (18) and A789 (19), which set guidelines and standards for entrusting survey work to Recognized Organizations and made them mandatory through SOLAS Chapter XI Reg-1. Reasons & Limitations: - A unique characteristic of this system is that it was not developed in response to the regulatory demands of a state authority but rather evolved as a system supported voluntarily by ship owners and other members of the industry itself. When issuing / endorsing statutory certificates on behalf of the flag administration, it acts as an agent of the same to examine that the conditions of the ship confirms with relevant rules and regulations of the flag state. It must be stressed here that while the authority to carry out statutory surveys and inspections on behalf of flag administration may be delegated to the R.O. the power of enforcement of R.O., are limited when required repairs or corrective actions are not carried out or a survey is not passed satisfactorily, R.O. does not have the power needed to detain the ship. At the most, the R.O. can withdraw the statutory certificate or declare them invalid, and notify the

flag state and port state where the vessel happens to be located for further action. ISPS survey cannot be done due to non-availability of expertise, which is to be done by recognized security organization. Statutory services by classification societies as RO Through their extensive resources of manpower worldwide expertise and technology, the classification societies have the capability to undertake surveys, maintain records and conduct the technical review necessary to fulfill the requirements of various IMO conventions and codes based on national standards imposed by individual flag states. Classification societies undertake statutory work on behalf of individual IMO member states well over 100 governments around the world delegate this authority to the classification societies. The most common authorizations are in connection with 1) Loading Conventions 2) SOLAS Conventions 3) MARPOL Conventions 4) Tonnage Conventions Contained in these convention are mandatory codes that address transportation of dangerous goods (IMD code), IGC code, IBC code as well as International Safety Management Code.

37) Highlight the following amendments to IMO conventions and its effect in ship operation thereof,

mention their date of entry into force a) CLC and Fund Conventions b) SOLAS - IMDG Code a) CLC Convention (International Convention on Civil Liability for oil pollution damage, 1969) was adopted on 29th of Nov 1969 and entered into force on 19th June 1975. It was adopted to ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer oil pollution damage resulting from maritime causalities involving oil-carrying ships. The convention places the liability for such damage on the owner of the ship from which the polluting oil escaped or was discharged. This protocol changed the BOF requirements from six to four large tanker owning countries. The compensation limits: - Ship < 5000 GT, Liability = 3 million SDR Maximum - Ship < 5000 1,40,000 GT, 420 Liability = 3 million SDR +

SDR for each additional unit of tonnage - Ship > 1,40,000 GT, Liability = 59.7 million SDR Maximum The 1992 protocol widened the scope of the convention to cover pollution damage caused in the exclusive economic zone or equivalent area of a state party. Also a ship owner cannot limit liability if it is proved that the pollution damage resulted from the ship owners personal act or omission, committed with the intent to cause such damage or recklessly and with knowledge that such damage would probably result

2000 Amendments - Adoption - 18 Oct 2000 EIF - 1 Nov 2003 (under tacit acceplane) It raised the compensation limits by 50% compared to the limits set in the 1992 protocol, as follows :- Ship < 5000GT, Liability = 4.51 million SDR maximum

- Ship 5000 to 1,40,000 GT, Liability = 4.51 million SDR + 631 SDR for each additional GT over 5000 - Ship > 1.40,000 GT, Liability = 89.77 million SDR maximum FUND CONVENTION International Convention on the establishment of an International Fund for compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971 - This was first adopted on 27 Nov 1992, EIF 30th May 1996. A un of this convention is to provide compensation for losses due to pollution where the security provided by 1992 CLC convention is inadequate. Fund provides supplementary compensation to oil pollution disasters. The convention is an attempt to ensure that losses due to oil pollution damage are not borne only by the shipping industry, but in part also borne by the cargo interests. Salient Features:1) All persons/ companies in any country importing more than 1,50,000 tons of oil in any year shall make contributions to the fund. The fund is managed by an independent identity under the overall supervision of a director who is appointed by and responsible to IMO. 2) Oct 2000 amendments, EIF 1st Nov 2003, raised the maximum compensation to 203 million SDR. If three states contribute to the fund, receiving more that 600 million tons of oil per annum the maximum amount is raised to

3,00,740,000 SDR (386 million USD). 3) The supplementary fund, 2003 Protocol provides for a three tier compensation of 750 million SDR. The compensation payable for any single incident will be limited to a combined total of 750 million SDR, including compensation payable under 1992 CLC and fund conventions. Effects of CLC & Fund Conventions in ship operation:1) After the implementation of CLC convention every tanker of 2000 GT and above has to maintain an insurance or other financial security and obtain a certificate for that 2) CLC convention fixed the upper limit to liability of ship owners in case of oil pollution from tankers. So ship owners were encouraged to invent in high risk ventures like oil transportation. 3) Both CLC and Fund Conventions ensure adequate compensation to parties which suffer from oil pollution even if owner is located in a country far away from the ocean of disaster or he may not have adequate fund to meet the claims. 4) Encourage Government and others to take early and decline action in containing or minimizing adverse effects of oil pollution. If owner insures any expense to prevent/minimize poll damage such expenses are deduced from his total liability. b) IMDG Code:- International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code was developed as a uniform international code for transport of dangerous goods in packaged form by sea covering such matters as PACKING, CONTAINER, TRAFFIC and STOWAGE with particular reference to the segregation of incompatible substances. The IMDG Code lays down basic principles, detailed recommendations for individual substances, materials

and articles and a member recommendation for good operational practices including advice on terminology, packing, labeling, storage, segregation and handling and emergency response action. The IMDG Code was made mandatory from 1st Jan 2004 by IMO, by adopting SOLAS Chapter VII on 24th May 2002. This code applies to all ships carrying dangerous goods in packaged from provisions of this code do not apply to ships stores. Effects of IMDG Code in ships operation:1) In documents relating to the carriage of dangerous goods a proper shipping name of the goods shall be used. 2) The transport document prepared by the shipper shall include a signed declaration/certificate stating that the consignment is properly packaged, marked, labeled and in proper condition for carries. 3) The person responsible for loading of dangerous good in a container shall provide a signed container packing certificate stating that in cargo has been properly packed. 4) Ship shall have a detailed storage plan which is identified by class and sets out the location of all dangerous goods on board. 5) Administration shall issue detailed instructions on emergency response (EMS Guide) and medical first and (MFA Guide) relevant to incidents involving dangerous goods.

38) Piracy and terrorism is a fearsome situation for shipboard personnel and frequent in present shipping

activities. As a Chief engineer onboard and as a member of SMS implementation team, draw an emergency preparedness plan to encounter such situations involving ships personnel. What measures shipboard personnel can take under contingency plan while vessel i.e. (i) in a port (ii) at sea. Ship is a very soft target for privacy and terrorism where privacy is done for piracy and terrorism. Where piracy is done for monetary gain, terrorism is a way to prove ones point in a violent way. Both the acts are not specifically against the persons on board. One is the way of robbing money irrespective of who is on board whereas the other against a particular nation which is directly concerned with the movement of ship. A need for security of ship was specifically felt after the September 11th 2001 attack in U.S.A as ships were considered soft targets which may be used as easy means of terrorist attracts. This resulted in the introduction of additional CH.XI/II (SOLAS 94) enhanced security of ship as given in ISPS code special measures to enhance maritime security. Role of a Chief Engineer:The Chief Engineer/Master in consultation with the crew members, prepare ship security assessment which is sent to the company. On the basis of the ship security assessment, the ship security plan is prepared. SSP is approved by administration after surveying the ship for implementation of security measures. Normally this is done after companys internal verification of the ship security system. The emergency preparedness plan should give the duties of all shipboard personnel under different security levels to combat piracy and acts of terrorism. Security level of the ship must be either same or higher than that of the port of call. Security level of the port is declared by the contracting

government. In Port Security level 1 (Normal) 1) Check identity of all persons on board ship 2) Access point should be attended to or secured to prevent unauthorized access 3) Search should be carried out randomly of all those seeking to board the ship 4) Restricted areas to be clearly marked and sealed/locked to prevent unauthorized access. 5) Check to ensure that cargo being loaded matches cargo documentation 6) Off side checking, sealing, scheduling and documentation can be agreed upon. 7) Checking all store, match the order prior loading on board & ensuring immediate secure stowage. 8) Any such accompanied baggage should be screened/ searched. 9) Security measures should be established lighting, watches, security guard or use of security & surveillance equipment to assist ships personnel. Security level 2: Heightened Risk of security incident 1) Assisting additional patrol & limiting the number of access points to the ship. 2) Deterring water side access to ship.

3) Increase the frequency & detail to search persons, personal effects etc., 4) Dedicating extra personnel to guarded patrol restricted areas. 5) Increased frequency & detail to check seals ensuring no tampering 6) Additional screening of unaccompanied baggage (100% X-ray screen) 7) Increase lighting & coordinate with water sider boat patrol. Security level 3: 1) Limiting access to a single, controlled access point 2) Granting access to only those responding to the security incident or threat thereof. 3) Directing persons on board 4) Suspension of embarkation / disembarkation 5) Suspension of ship 6) Evacuation of ship 7) Movement of ship 8) Preparing for full/partial search of ship 9) Searching of Restricted areas 10)No handling of ships stores 11)Switching of all lightings 12)Underwater inspection of the ships hull 13)Propeller rotates slowly.

At Sea A thorough search of bomb /explosive should be carried out prior departure to avoid the inevitable at sea. When passing through entre sensitive areas, a special exercise should be carried out with a charged fire hose. The main aim at sea should be to prevent the pirates / terrorists boarding the ship. In case of fire circumstances, the ship security alert system can be activated. Training & drill Regular drill should be carried out to ensure that all on board know what actions to take under different situations. Various contingency plans include: 1) Action on bomb threat 2) Action on finding a suspicious device / package 3) Action of searching of ship / establish a search plan 4) Action on weapon / explosive discovered on board 5) Action on hijacking or hostile boarding 6) Action on suspect boat approaching the vessel 7) Action on breach of security

39) Explain the associated key factors and activities to ensure successful Planned Maintenance Programed on board ships under ISM codes with the following terms. a) Corrctive action process b) Developing and improving maintenance procedures c) Systematic approach to maintenance

d) Maintenance intervals e) Inspection The ISM code is included to improve the safety of shipping and to reduce pollution from ships by stressing on the way shipping companies are managed and operated. Elements to the ISM code which is been made mandatory for all ships deals with the maintenance of ships and equipments. The company should establish procedures to ensure that the ship is maintained in conformity with provisions of the relevant rules and regulations and with any additional requirements which may be established by the company. In meeting these requirements the company should ensure that, inspections are held at appropriate intervals, any non-conformity is reported with cause and appropriate corrective action is taken and records of these activities are maintained. The company should establish procedures in its safety management system to identify equipment and technical systems the sudden operational failure of which may result in hazardous situations. Specific measures to be provided for promoting the reliability of such equipment / system. These measures should include the regular testing of standby arrangements and equipments / technical systems that are not in continuous use. These should be integrated into the ships operational maintenance routine. Maintenance of the ship and equipment should be in accordance with procedures based on Conventions, Flag State, Classification society and Company policies. The associated key factors and activities relating to planned maintenance system under ISM with following terms are 1) Corrective Action Process: Identify the problem IDENTITIFY THE PROBLEM

Establish the causes Propose solutions Evaluate solutions Accept one or reject others ALL Implement solution


Evaluate effectiveness of solution EFFECTIVENESS If effective, close corrective action INEFFECTIVE If ineffective, repeat process

CORRECTIVE ACTION PROCESS FLOW CHART/ DIAGRAM 2) Developing & improving maintenance procedures:While developing & improving the maintenance procedure, following should be taken into account. > Maintenance recommendations and specifications of the manufacturer > History of equipment, including failures, defects and damage and corresponding remedial action > Results of third party inspections > Age of the ship > Identify critical equipments / systems > Consequences of failure of equipment on the safe operation of the ship. 3) Systematic Approach to Maintenance:-

> Establishment of maintenance intervals PMS > Definition of the methods & frequency of inspection > Specification of the type of inspection & measuring equipment to be used & their accuracy. > Establishment of appropriate acceptance criteria. > Assignment of responsibility for inspection activities to appropriately qualified personnel 5) Maintenance Intervals:- based on > Acceptance criteria > Use of suitable and accurate measuring & testing equipment > Calibration of measuring / testing equipment to regd. Standards Types of Inspection Visual, Vibration, Pressure, Temperature, Electrical, Load, Water-tightness. Inspection Methods Where appropriate, checklists should be developed to ensure that inspection, test & maintenance activities are performed in accordance with the procedures and at the specified intervals. These checks lists may be developed from manufacturers recommendations. Routine inspections have to be carried out to access the performance of the equipment and its operational readiness for the intended purpose. Some need to be documented as per ISM procedures.

40) With reference to record keeping on board discuss i) ii) iii) The necessity of proper filing Efficient control of following and verification activities Accident investigation

Describe a situation on board, which will highlight the importance of record keeping of above three cases. 1) The necessity of proper filing:- Proper filing of a document means that it should be numbered, put in the proper files in proper order and proper time. The files can be stowed according to the date / month & year concerned. Proper maintenance of files. Reduces the time to find out the document, thus saving time. Avoids creation of confusion & irritation in work. Gives a better outlook and gives the storage space an organized look Makes it easy to find quick references for different works like repairs, dry dockings, stores and spare managements, etc., ii) Efficient control of follow-up and verification activitiesFollow-up means keeping oneself updated regarding queries, requirements etc., and to ascertain the progress of the process as a whole. It is very important to keep the initial letter number in case of correspondence in black and white. While using electronic means of communication e.g. email, it is always beneficial to send all the previous communications in the present content which makes follow-up easier on both sides. Verification

of the receipt / non receipt of the said information is equally important in todays age of communication. If follow up and verification is proper then it becomes easier for both parties to arrive at an effective and quick decision, again resulting in saving in time. All the correspondence done including the follow up request must also be filed properly. Accident Investigation: Records are the main keys in investigating the reasons for any accident. The records can tell when and how the problem started and what were the initial indications. It also shows Whether people were aware or not What steps were taken to avoid the problem What correspondence was carried out with office or others Who was the in charge of the job How many people were involved and whether they were right for the job or not Whether the correct procedures were followed All these queries can be answered from the records and can lead to the root cause of the accident. Also the records will eliminate the root cause and avoid reoccurrence of the event. Example Break down of Main Engine (Liner cracking) during manicuring resulting in collision of the ship with the jetty.

41) Apart from statutory surveys what all other surveys can be undertaken for a clarification body for a ship? What are the limitations for the society in these cases?

Enlist them and emphasize how these cases are taken care of. Clarification societies carry out statutory surveys on behalf of the Administration as Recognized Organizations. These are basically in requirement of fulfilling various International Convention provisions. Apart from statutory surveys the following surveys are carried out by the classification societies: 1) Survey for classification - As per rules and regulations pertaining to safety and operational requirements of the ship and its equipments, the classification societies inspect the hull structural design for ensuring proper strength standards, Hull equipment and appendages such as stem frames, rudders and steering gears, stability aspects, different equipments and machinery Navigational aids etc. 2) Appraised surveys - Appraisal of ships and offshore units, ship under writers surveys, appraised for the value of the ship, appraisals relating to International Conventions. 3) Installation Surveys - Following installations are surveyed Refrigeration machinery Centralized monitoring & control system for machinery Operating system for periodically UMS vessel Safety Equipments Marine Pollution Prevention Equipments Cargo Gear Electrical Installations

4) Damage Survey - If invited by the ship owner in case of any accident to access the cause & extent of damage and nature of damage. If invited by a third party in case of collision. To

determine the repair recommendations. Classification is a system for safeguarding life and Property Sea and the environment due to operational consequences by verifying ship standards against a set of requirements as laid down in the society rules. As a limitation, classification is not performed as a substitute for the clients own quality and safety control related duties, or the clients obligations to third parties, nor relieve the client of any consequences of default. Classification implies that rule requirements are verified at regular intervals. It is the owners responsibility to maintain the ship so as to comply with the rules at all times. Classification societies are not entitled to issue certificate or detain the ships in case of any deficiencies observed therein. At the most they can issue outstanding recommendations which can lead to withdrawing of the class from the vessel if these are not rectified within the prescribed time limits. The classification on society keeps complete files of all classed ships covering the documentation required by the rules. Reports will not be disclosed to any party, apart from the national authorities involved, without the owners consent. The society also undertaken all reporting to national authorities required in connection with the safe certificates. Based on the reports of the classification societies, subject to verification, the national authorities / flag state can issue the required certificates or detain the ship as the case may be.

42) Explain the influence of the external factors in higher consumption of fuel oil and how at best they could be controlled? (i) ships hull condition (ii) weather condition, (iii) Maintenance of different elements in fuel

oil system, (iv) Damage to propeller blades. As there is a very close business competition in the market, each and every company keeps a very good eye on their quality of service. This has to be done at minimum and optimum expenses on the part of the company as the venture must also be commercially viable for them. As part of daily expenses of the ships mining cost the bunkers & bunker related operations cover about 40% of the overall expenses. Hence savings in fuel is a very important aspect for all shipping companies and their vessels. A small saving in bunker expense surprisingly contributes a significant amount in the long run for the ship. The external factors which can lead to higher consumption of fuel oil can be explained as follows: i) Ships hull condition - Resistance as most of us avoid in our daily life is applicable for ships also. Resistance on a ships movement comprises of Frictional resistance and residues resistance. Frictional resistance is a function of density of water, hull roughness and length of the ship. Residual resistance is due to wake forming tendency caused due to movement in water and shape of the ship. Frictional resistance can be up to 70% of the total resistance of the ship and hull condition is a major contributory factor in frictional resistance. Thus it is very important to keep the Jull clean. Jull can be cleaned by several methods while ship is afloat but majority of these are not effective in the long run. So regular dry-docking is the best solution in this regard.

Factors responsible for hull following are: 1) Use of improper techniques in applying paints 2) Poor quality of applied paint 3) Long port stays or anchorages 4) Damaged hull surface 5) Poor maintenance of hull protecting system i.e ICCP 6) Poor ship design increasing resistance in water Appropriate measures should be taken as regards the above points to reduce the extent of hull fouling of the ship. Antifouling paints of approved type and a well maintained antifouling system plays an important role in ships regular operating period between dry-docks. ii) Weather Condition:- Ships are designed and constructed to withstand the forces of nature up to certain extend for a certain time. Depending upon the area of trading, weather conditions keep changing along with the condition of the sea. Seasons of extreme natures are also common in the ships routes. If climatic / weather conditions are favorable, it may result in a +ve ship i.e. the ship travels more than the distance given by the engine and with adverse weather conditions the ship may be ve, that means that the actual distance travelled by the ship is lesser than the engine distance, resulting in extra fuel consumption due to higher power demands and over loading of engines. Good judgment and regular

updates regarding weather conditions help the Master in choosing a route to avoid adverse weather conditions. This may result in lesser fuel consumption in the long run. Engine manufacturers guidelines must be strictly followed in severe weather. % slip = Engine distance --- observed distance Engine distance Conditions - Governor load index, hunting, R.P.M., sea verge air limits, torque limits, etc., must be taken into account to avoid thermal and mechanical overloading of the engine. These guidelines can be kept in mind for keeping fuel consumption within limits. Effect of humidity plays a very important role as it also reduces the Nox limit. Humidity affects the density of charge air, development of power, heat release, maximum temperature in a unit and exhaust temperature. iii) Maintenance of different elements in Fuel oil system:Although the condition of the hull and weather play a significant role in regulating fuel consumption, elements which directly control fuel have a proportional relation to the consumption of fuel. The different elements of fuel oil system are: 1) Fuel oil injection / nozzles: regularly changed after fixed running hours as per makers guidelines. Overhauled and tested values to be used. 2) Fuel Pumps injection timings to be checked regularly and adjusted as required. 3) Variable Injection timing - adjusted as per the requirements

4) Fuel oil filters regular cleaning 5) Viscotherm regular maintenance & maintaining proper fuel oil temperature to achieve desired viscosity as per the F>O> analysis reports. 6) Service Tank proper temperatures to be maintained 7) Joints is pipelines, any leaks to be rectified 8) Greasing of fuel linkages 9) Regular Indicator cards to be taken to evaluate performance and take action accordingly. 10)Follow PMS for all above elements of fuel oil system iv) Damage to Propeller blades:-

43) Explain the following maritime term: a) Charter party b) Freight c) Bare Boat Charter d) Bill of Lading e) Lay Time, Demurrage and off-Hire a) Charter Party: Refer Q 15 b) Freight: Freight is the remuneration payable by the charterers to the owners for the performance of the contract and may be called charter party freight. Thus is normally payable in accordance with the terms of a

freight clause which stipulates the amount of freight, the time for payment and the method of payment. The freight is expressed as per ton loaded cargo. This is usually expressed in dollars per MT or long ton. Freight is often payable under the charter party terms partially or fully in advance e.g. on loading or on issue of bill of lading. Dead freight is not genuine freight but owners compensation for loss of freight, payable by charters on a quantity of cargo short shipped in quantity they agreed upon but failed to load. c) Bare Boar Charter:- Refer Q 1 d) Bill of Lading: Refer Q 11

e) Lay Time, Demurrage and off-Hire: Lay Time - The lay time is the allowed time for loading and unloading of the vessel. The lay time is determined in the charter party. If this time is exceeded by the charterer, he has to pay to the owner, compensation called the Demurrage. On the other hand if the ship has loaded or discharged quicker than foreseen / agreed, than the owner will have to pay the charterers compensation called Dispatch. Lay time consists of a specific number of days. Day means a period of 24 consecutive hours running from 00:00 to 24:00 hours. DEMURRAGE:- Rate of amount payable per weather working day a portion there of to the ship owner by the charterers as penalty for the latters failure to load or discharge cargo within the lay time specified in the

charter party, provided however that the delay was not either due to circumstances within the control of ship owners or beyond control of the charters. OFF-HIRE:- It is the responsibility of the owner to provide the vessel in a seaworthy condition for the purpose of the contract at the time of making the contract. Owners usually agree to exercise due diligence to make the vessel sea worthy for each voyage during the charter period. The term off-hire means that in certain circumstances for which the charterer is not responsible, the hire will be temporarily suspended, when the charterer cannot use the vessel for which he had hired it. The circumstances in which off-hire is allowed are given in the Charter Party e.g. Dry docking, strike of officers/crew, breakdown of machine, to maintain efficiency of vessel, etc., Boiler & piston cleaning time is allowed up to 48 hours per year exceeding which vessel goes off-hire. If deviating for owners purpose e.g. loading a sick person, repairs, dry dock vessel will be off-hire from the moment of deviation until it is ready to resume service. If the deviation is for charterers purpose e.g. rough weather the vessel will remain on hire.

44) UNCLOS and SOLAS 74 as amended states that it is mandatory for a flag state to conduct investigation into a marine casualty. Explain with detail with reference to M.S. Act, the authority and responsibility vested with the Administration. In India, the Mercantile Marine Departments execute the functions under section 8 of M.S. Act 1958 regarding

registration, survey, manning and safety of ships, investigation into shipping causalities, prevention of pollution, examination and certification of officers etc. As per Merchant shipping Act 1958, for investigations and inquiries, a shipping casualty is said to occur when a) Any ship is lost, abandoned, shrouded or materially damaged. b) Any ship causes loss or material damage to any other ship c) Any loss of life ensues by reason of any causality happening to or on board any ship. The person(s) in charge of the ship(s) at the time of the shipping casualty shall, on arriving in India, give immediate notice of the same to the officer appointed in this behalf by the Central Government who shall report in writing the information to the Government and may proceed to make a preliminary enquiry into the casualty and send a report to the Central Government. The officer may under the direction of the Central Government, make an application to an empowered court to make a formal investigation into any shipping casualty, and the court shall investigate whether the casualty was due to the incompetence or misconduct, a wrongful act or default on part of any Master, mate or engineer opportunity is to be given to the person to make defense. A court making a formal investigating shall constitute as its assessors not less than two and not more than four persons of who one shall be a person conversant with maritime affairs and the other(s) shall be conversant with either maritime or mercantile affairs. As it is likely to involve, any question of cancellation or suspension of the

certificate of a master, master or engineer, two of the assessors shall be personal having also experience in the merchant service. The court transmits the full report of the conclusions arrived together with the evidence to the Government. A certificate of a master, mate or engineer may be cancelled or suspended If it is found that the loss, standing /abandonment of a damage to, any ship or loss of life has been caused by the wrongful act or default of the person. If it is found that he is incompetent or has been guilty and gross act of drunkenness tyranny or other misconduct or in a case of collision has failed to vender assistance or give information. If cancellation / suspension of certificate is not justified the court may pass an order the master, mate or engineer in respect of his conduct. When similar marine casualties occur outside India, a compliant in made to an India Consular officer or a senior officer of any ship of the Indian Navy in the vicinity by the Master or any member of the crew of an Indian ship, who converses a Board of Marine Enquiry to investigate the compliant and similar actions can then be taken by the Marine Board. The central government may order the case to be reheard by the court or Marine Board if required. If a surveyor authorized to inspect a ship makes a statement in his report of inspection with which the owner or his agent or the master of the ship is dissatisfied, the owner, master or the agent may appeal to a court of

survey of a port consisting of a judge sitting with two assessors. The court of survey shall hear every case in open court. The judge may appoint any competent person to survey the ship and report to the court, based on which the judge may order the ship to be released or finally detained. But unless one of the assessors concurs in an order for the detention of the ship, the ship shall be released. Reference is also made to scientific persons in difficult cases where such help is deemed to be necessary.

45) A ship is required to be registered at a specific port in India. List the documents that will be required for such registration, detailing related flow process thereof. What statutory surveys will be required to be carried out, before the ship makes her first voyage? As per Merchant Shipping Act 1958, in Part V of the heading Registration of Indian ships (section 20-74) and Registration of ships rules 1960 as amended, when a ship is required to be registered in India, the ship should be fully owned by such persons for whom the following conditions apply He should be a citizen of India or if it is company than at least 3/4th of the shares should be held by Indian citizen etc., Normally an Indian ship is registered at any one of Mumbai, Kolkata or Chennai ports. The principal officer of the MMD is the Registrar of Indian ships at that particular port. The registrar has a book called Register book, which carries entries made in accordance with the following provisions. a) The property in a ship is divided into ten shares. b) Not more than ten individuals are entitled to the Registered as owners of any one ship at the same time.

c) A company may be registered as the owner. SURVEY AND MEASUREMENT OF SHIP BEFORE REGISTRY:The owner of the ship, which is to be registered makes the arrangement for the survey by a surveyor, who then ascertains the tonnage of the ship. The surveyor then grants a certificate specifying the ships Tonnage and other particulars. This certificate is delivered to the Registrar for the purpose of registry. The owner of the ship also makes arrangements, that the ship is marked permanently and conspicuously in the prescribed manner and to the satisfaction of the Registrar. Such makings are Name, Port of Registry, Load line marks, Draught marks etc., DECLARATION OF OWNERSHIP ON REGISTRY:A person / company requiring to be registered as the owner of an Indian ship should sign a declaration of ownership in the prescribed format which contains following particulars. i) ii) A statement confirming citizenship of India A statement of time and place where the ship was built. If the ship was built outside India and the time and place are not known a statement to that effect must be given in addition. In case of a ship registered previously outside India, a statement of previously registered name and other particulars to be given. The name of her Master The no of shares held by Individual / company A declaration of trueness of the information.

iii) iv) v)

EVIDENCE ON FIRST REGISTRY:1) In case of ship built in India, a builders certificate i.e. a true account of the proper denomination and the tonnage of the ship as estimated and the name of the person if any, on whose account the ship was built and the instrument of sale, if any. 2) In case the ship was built outside India, the same evidence should be produced as in the above case. If the builders certificate cannot be produced, then the instrument of sale, under which the ship was sold earlier is required. PROVISIONAL CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRY:In case the ship is built abroad or when a sale deed for foreign acquision is signed abroad and the ship is not readily available for inspection by any departmental surveyor. The Registrar advices the nearest Indian Embassy/Consular office to issue a provisional Certificate of Registry, for entry of vessel into Indian Flag. The procedures leading to issue of provisional certificate are quite similar to the issue of Regular Certificate of Registry. The provisional certificate has a validity of 6 months, within which the ship must be put up for first entry inspection at an Indian Port by an authorized surveyor. Alternate arrangement for Inspection can be made by authorizing to Recognized Organization abroad such as a classification society. If the ship trades abroad permanently and cannot make it to Indian Coastal waters within the relevant period. Some of the forms required to be filled up, for Registration of ships

SI:NO NO 1 2

DESCRIPTION OF FORM Certificate of Indian Registry


Provisional cut of Reg. granted by Indian Embassy

3 4 5 6

Declaration of ownership by joint owners Declaration of ownership by Individual Declaration of ownership on behalf of co. Application for approval of Name allotment of signal letter and official No

4 3 5 15

7 8

Certificate of survey

16 17

Report of allotment of signal letter to the Ministry of communication GOI

Register Book form & 22(b)


Having performed all the procedures for registration, filling up all the relevant forms and paying of all the fees, the Registrar issues a certificate of Registry to the ship & retains in his custody the following documents. a) The surveyors certificate, b) The Builders Certificate c) Any instrument of sale by which the ship was previously sold d) All declarations of ownership. STATUTORY SURVEYS BEFORE SHIP MAKES HER FORST VOYAGE:-

Statutory requirements broadly cover three district areas. 1) Aspects of ships design & its structural integrity so load line and stability in the intact & damaged condition, essential propulsion, steering equipment etc., 2) Accident prevention including navigational aids and pollution and fire prevention 3) The situation after an accident (fire containment and escape ) including

So following surveys to be carried out i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Tonnage survey to issue certificate of Registry & international Tonnage Certificate (1969) Load Line Survey to issue Int. L.L. certificate Stability survey to issue Intact & damage stability IOPP survey to issue IOPP certificate Safety construction (SAFLON) survey Safety equipment survey Safety radio, telegraphy & telephony (SRT) survey

viii) Cargo gear survey.

46) What is the main objective of the SOLAS convention 1974? Under the said convention state the responsibility and control provisions of flag state/contracting governments. MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE SOLAS CONVENTION 1974:1) The convention is to specify the minimum standards for the construction, equipment and operation of ship and

their reliability towards safety. 2) Flag states are responsible for ensuring that the ships under their flag, comply with its requirements. 3) A number of certificates are prescribed in connection as a proof of compliance. 4) Contracting Government to inspect the ship of other contracting government states. If there are clear grounds for believing that the ship and its equipments do not substantially comply with the requirements of the convention. RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONTROL PROVISIONS :1) The contracting governments undertake to give effect to the provisions of the present convention and the Annexes threats, which shall constitute an integral part of the present convention. 2) The contracting governments undertake to promulgate all laws, decrees, orders and regulations and to take all other steps, which may be considered necessary to give the present convention full and complete effect so as to ensure that from the point of view of safety of life at sea, the ship is fit for the service for which it is intended. 3) The contracting governments undertake to communicate and deposit with the secretary General of the IMO: a) A list of non-governmental agencies which are authorized.

47) (a) Describe the legal significance of certificate of Registry ? (b) Enumerate the entries required as per the M.S.

Act 1958 as amended to be made in the official ligbook. Every Indian ship, more that 15 tons net, solely employed in navigation on the coasts of India is required to be registered under M.S. Act 1958. The acts describes under part V 1) the provisions for obligation to register 2) procedure of registration, 3) Grant of certificate of registry 4) endorsement for change of Master and owner 5) provision for transfer of ship shares etc., rules as top name of ship 6) provisions for registry of alternations registry a new and transfer of registry 7)national character of the ships and flag etc. After being registered under a flag state, the ship is liable to be governed by the national rules of that state. It is entitled to 1) any privileges 2) advantages or protection usually enjoyed by ships under the flag state and the ship can use the national flag of the flag state it is registered into 1) Payment of dues 2) the liability to fine and for forfeiture and the punishment of offences committed on board the ship are all governed as per the national rules and regulations. The owner / company is legally liable to produce the certificate of registry whenever demanded by the flag state or any other state where the ship is trading. Any person refusing to produce the same on demand is liable to be summoned by the court of law. If the Master/owner is navigating with a certificate of registry not legally granted in respect of the ship, he shall be guilty of offence and the ship shall be liable to forfeiture. If there is any change of Master or of the ownership of the ship, the same shall be endorsed on the certificate of Registry by the authorized personnel.

Regarding Registry of the ships, the following documents shall be admissible in evidence in any court of law for the purpose of any investigation concerning that ship a) The Register book b) The certificate of Registry c) An endorsement on a certificate of registry d) Any declaration made in this respect As per the M.S. Act 1958, every ship is required to maintain official log book and every Master has the responsibility of keeping this book properly and duty making all the entries at the proper time, with the strictest regard to form, failing which the Masters / owners are liable to heavy penalties. Entries must be made in order of date and no blanks should be left. An entry must be made a soon as possible after the occurrence to which it relates and every entry in the official logbook shell be signed by the Master and by the mate or some other member of the crrew. Entries made in an official log book shall be admissible in evidence. ENTRIES REQUIRED TO BE MADE IN OFFICIAL LOG BOOKS:The Master of a ship for which an official log is required shll enter in the official log book the following matters 1) Every conviction by a legal tribunal of a member of his crew and the punishment inflicted 2) Every offence committed by a member of his crew for which it is intended to prosecute, forfeit or exact a fire, along with the statement and reply of the crew member. 3) Every offences for which punishment is inflicted on board

and the punishment inflicted 4) A report on quality of work of each member of his crew 5) Every case of illness, hurt or injury the medical treatment adopted (if any) 6) Every case of death happening on board and the cause thereof 7) Every birth happening on board with the sex of the infant, the nmaes of the parents 8) Every marriage taking place on board with the names and ages of the parties 9) The due to every seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyage and the gross amount of all deductions to be made therefrom 10)The name of every seaman or apprentice who ceases to be a member of the crew otherwise than by death, with the place, time, manner and cause thereof. 11)The money or other property taken over of any seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyage 12)Any other matter which is to be or may be prescribed for entry in the official log

48) What are the basis contracts used in Marine Transportation? Discuss basic elements of the Time Charter and Demise (Bare Boat Charter Parties ). State the conflicts between chastening and Maritime Law. A charter party, or charter is an agreement between a ship owner, a crew (the charterer), and the owner of the goods to be transported. Charter parties are basically of three types

Time charter, Voyage charter and demise charter. A time charter is the lease of a ship to a charterer for a specified period of time. A voyage charter is the lease of a ship for a specific number of voyages. A demise charter (so called because the ship owner effectively relinquishes ownership for a certain period, causing a demise in ownership interest) is usually a bareboat charter, which means that the charterer supplies the master and crew for the ship. Other demise charters provide that the ship owners master and crew take charge of the vessel. Time Charter: It is a contract for the hire of a named vessel, for a specified period of time. The ship owner is responsible for the vessels running expenses. The ship owner operates the vessel technically but not commercially. The owners bear no cargo handling expenses and do not normally appoint stevedores. The charterers are responsible for the commercial employment of the vessel, for the purchase of bunkers (fuel) and for Insurance, Port and Canal dues (including pilotage, towage, lineman, etc.,) and all loading/stowing/trimming/discharging arrangements and costs. A direction and logs clause required the charterers to provide the Master with all instructions and sailing directions and the Master and Chief Engineer are to keep the logs available to the charterers or their Agents, so that they can monitor the vessels efficiency. Stove doing damage notifications forms and log extracts will usually be required to be sent to the charterers. There will usually be an Agreement, that there will be an On hind survey or Delivery survey before start of the charter and after the charter respectively. Bare Boat Charter: It is a contract of hire of a vessel for an agreed period, during which the charters acquire most of the rights of the owners. In , the vessels owners put their vessel at the complete

disposal of the charter, paying only the capital costs but no other costs. The charterers have commercial and technical responsibility for the vessel and pay all costs except capital costs. Different forms used for Bare boat charters are BARECON A, BARECON B, and BARECON 89 forms. These contain different terms and conditions as regards the Bare Boat chartering of the ships. CONFLICTS BETWEEN CHARTERING AND MARITIME LAWS:Charters parties are often a topic of concern in maritime law. In contrast to the usual contract practice of providing risk-of-loss insurance for one party, charters utilize what is called a general average. General average is the traditional, primitive form of maritime risk allocation whereby all participants in a charter agree to share any damages resulting from an unsuccessful voyage. Parties to a charter obtain insurance to cover their portion of risk. However because a charter involves multiple parties and because insurance policies are subject to interpretation, insurance coverage does not always prevent disputes over damages. Risk of loss is sometimes decided according to a bill of lading. This document confirms 1) a carriers receipt of goods from the owner (consigner) 2) verifies the voyage contract. 3) and shows rightful ownership of the goods. Most of the time the carrier has numerous ways of escaping from paying any compensation to the consigner when the cargo is lost a damaged by setting different terms and conditions written in the charter party. The court of law cab also not force anything upon the carrier as they are rightfully protected by the terms and conditions. These ambiguities result in conflicts in chartering and maritime law. Considering the complexity and urgency of maritime endear ours, the international native of high-seas navigation and it attendant perils also demand much more carefully crafted laws

regarding maritime adventures.

49) Illustrate the provision kept towards establishing procedures to identify and testing of critical equipment under ISM codes. How the list of critical equipment and systems are made and on what factors they are dependent? ISM is the International Safety Management Code for the safe operation of ships and pollution prevention, as stipulated in SOLAS Ch IX Objectives of ISM Code:1) Provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working Environment. 2) Establish safeguards against all identified risks. 3) Continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and on board ships, including preparing for Emergencies related both to safety and environmental protection. ISM code has 16 elements out of which the 10th element deals with maintenance of ship and equipments. Critical Equipments :- are the equipments where failure can cause an accident or result in a hazardous situation, thereby causing injury to personnel or loss of life or damage to the maritime environment or property. As per element 10 of ISM Code, Maintenance of ship and Equipment, it is the responsibility of the company to establish procedures in the safety management system to identify such systems or equipments.

The Safety Management System must with respect to critical technical systems / equipments I) II) III) IV) V) Have procedures to identify them Have procedures to ensure their tests and functional reliability Have procedures to establish and use alternative arrangements on sudden failure. Have procedures to test standby equipments Have procedures to ensure that single failure does not cause loss of critical ship function that could lead to accident. VI) Have procedures to ensure that system / equipment inactive for some time is tested regularly & prior to conducting critical operations.

As per Element 7 of the ISM Code, the company must establish procedures for the preparation of plans and instruction including checklists, if any, for key shipboard operation related to the safety of the ships & the prevention of pollution. Hence in combination with Element 10, the following shipboard operations / items are injected to inspection & test Securing water tight integrity Navigational safety, including corrections to charts and publication Oil transfer operations

Maintenance operations related to (including but not limited to) Hull & super structure steel works

Safety, free fighting, pollution & life saving Equipments Navigational Equipments Steering Gear Anchor & incoming gears Main & auxiliary Engines Pipelines & values Cargo handling Equipment CRITICAL SHIP BOARD OPERATIONS:1) Navigation in restricted visibility 2) Navigation in high density traffic area 3) Navigation in restricted / narrow area 4) Handling of hazardous cargo and noxious substances 5) Heavy weather operations 6) Bunking & oil transfer operation at sea 7) Cargo operations on Gas/Oil/Chemical tankers 8) Critical Machinery operations. Considering factors affecting the systems for critical equipment & systems while recognizing that all shipboard operations can affect safety and pollution prevention, companies divide safety related shipboard operations into special operations and critical

operations. This may be done to prioritize operational planning and allow the maximum level of attention to be paid to those shipboard operations which are critical to safety & for the protection of the Environment. Special shipboard operations are those where errors may become apparent after occurrence of a hazardous situation and or accident e.g.- Maintenance operation, Bunking operation in port. Critical operations - error directly leads to accident.

50) State the action which will be taken by the Administration / Classification society towards handling of an ISM certificate in case 1) When a major non-conformity in observed 2) When corrective action has not been taken to the non-conformities raised during external audit within the time period 3) What circumstances may lead to withdraws and SMC/DOC 4) When a newly formed shipping company requests for interim DOC certificate. The ISM Certificates namely D.O.C to the shipping company for the said type of ships and SMC to the specific ship are issued under the provisions of chapter IX of SOLAS (Management for the safe operation of ships or ISM Code), by the Administration, by an R.O. or by another contracting Government. 1) When a major non-conformity is observed

a) Society may decide not to issue/renew a DOC or SMC if a major non-conformity exists, as per the provisions of 13.5 and 13.9 of the ISM Code. b) But it will surely ask the company for immediate corrective action to at least downgrade the major non-conformity to a non-conformity to a nonconformity as early as possible. c) Prior to issuance endorsement or renewal of certificate it will ensure that immediate CORRECTIVE ACTION has been implemented by the company & verified by the auditor. d) Immediate corrective action shall be such as to remove SERIOUS THREAT to the personnel / ship or a SERIOUS RISK to the environment. 2) When corrective action has been taken to the NonConformity raised during external audit, within the time period. a) The time frame is generally adopted as per the past experience and if a Non-Conformity has not been completed, it may be upgraded to a Major Nonconformity as it is non-follow up / observance of ISM Code. b) Based on the companys past record the Administration may allow for some more time or invalidate the SMC/DOC with immediate effect. c) The consideration of extension of time frame will depend on the factor that some change of voyage/ itinerary has caused the delay in such occurrence. Some valid proof / effort in this regard by the company may be helpful in the same.

d) The Administration will most probably otherwise cease the ship from sailing/operating and will allow only if the corrective action has been taken & checked by an auditor. e) The company will certainly be asked to pull up its socks and try not to repeat such occurrences in future for continuous operation. 3) Circumstances that may lead to withdrawal of SMC/DOC:I) II) III) IV) If corrective action was not carried out at the agreed dates Due Annual, periodic audit at companys office or Intermediate ship audit has not been carried out. Amendments to ISM code have not been taken into consideration in developing SMS. Major NCR occurred, affecting people, ship or marine environment, which are considered as the basis for the same.

Additional SMC may be withdrawn when i) ii) No valid document of compliance is available on board. The ships class has not been reviewed by Administration or their classification society authorized by the Administration. No valid statutory certificates are available on board.


4) When a newly formed shipping company requests for

Interim DOC certificate:As per paragraph 14.1 of ISM code (interim certification), an Interim DOC may be issued following verification that the company has a Safety management System that meets the objectives of paragraph 1.2.3 as below 1) 2) Compliance with mandatory rules & regulations and That applicable codes, guidelines and standards recommended by the organization, Administrations, Classification societies and maritime industry organizations are taken into account.

The company demonstrates plans to implement an SMS meeting the full requirements of this code with in the time period of validity of the Interim DOC (which can be issued for a period not exceeding 12 months) A copy of this DOC should be placed on board for verification by Administration or control as referred to in Regulation IX / 6.2 of the SOLAS Convention. An Interim SMC will be issued to the ship on the basis of thin Interim DOC for a period of time not exceeding 6 months.

51) A) Define the meaning of the term Condition of

Assignment as applied to ship for Load Line Survey. b) State how conditions of assignment contribute towards water tight integrity of ships. c) Give reasons why conditions of assignment need periodic inspection, giving specific instances where they can be found to less that fully effective A) CONDITIONS OF ASSISNMENT These are the conditions which must be met before freeboard is assigned to a ship and load line certificate is issued following a load line survey. This enables the Load Lines and mark to the engraved on the ship. These conditions are a s follows: 1) Enough structural strength should be possessed 2) Enough reserve buoyancy should be processed 3) Safety & protection of crew 4) Prevent entry of water into the hull Ships are to be surveyed annually to ensure that they fulfill the conditions of Assignment.


Most of the conditions of assignment are concerned with the water-tight integrity of ships. Hull construction should meet the highest standards load down by classification society. This ensures protection against flooding of the ship. Superstructure and bulkheads must be strengthened sufficiently Hatchways - Coaming height should be as per SOLAS Ch II -1

Hatch cover construction, thickness of the platings & approved means of securing Machinery space opening Ventilations Air pipes - cargo ports side scuttles

Scuppers - Inlets & discharges All the above parameters ensures water tight integrity and protection against flooding of compartments. NEED FOR PERIODIC INSPECTION: Conditions of Assignments need periodic inspections to ensure that ships conditions are such that the above mentioned items are maintained in good order. During periodic inspections surveyor shall assure that no material alteration have been made the hull or superstructure that would affect the calculation determining the position of the load line. This can be formed once by reviewing the records of condition of Assignment. Examples of items that may no longer fulfill the conditions could be - In hatch covers, cargo ports, water-tight doors, scuttles and other closing appliances. Corrosion reduced resilience or damage of seals locking arrangements damaged. In coaming of hatches, ventilators, Air pipes corrosion, especially at weather deck level Gangways, rails, bulwarks damaged or not secured properly.

52) In case of major fire on board, explain the salient advantages of documented procedures under

emergency prepared men over normal fire fighting procedures. Before implementation of the ISM code the firefighting operations on board have been successfully carried out in numerous cases with the content of the statement give your opinion for requirements of documented procedures under emergency preparedness. As per ISM code, company needs to have in place adequate procedures for dealing quickly and efficiently with all identified emergency situations. The procedures cover the requirement that all drills and training be analyzed and recorded. Also SOLAS Ch II deals with carriages of the following: Maintenance plan for fire protection system Fire training manuals Fire control plans Fire safety operation booklet

The ships provide with various safety measured dealing with fire protection and detection 1) The document under major fire on board reflects that the company as well as the ship board management identified the potential emergencies that may arise due to fire on board & contingency plan and response by the ship staff for the same is in readiness. 2) In case of a major fire, a proper layout of action is drawn to regain control and restore normally. 3) Composition and allocation of duties of persons acting within contingency plan is laid down. This ramous any causes of ambiguity during firefighting. 4) All crew members are trained as per the documented Fire

Control Plan & Master list duties to fight fires. 5) All drills should be carried out in a realistic manner in this regard and training is imparted considering alternate fore scan circumstances. 6) In case of there is fore at the primary or secondary muster station and in case emergency team leader is unavailable to carry out his responsibilities, the deputy will take care of his responsibilities. 7) Documentation is laid down and procedure is known for the requirement of assistance from third party. 8) Documentation has laid to development of proper reputing method with list of contact names & telecommunication details. Thus it helps in mobilization of appropriate company emergency response to restore normally in time. 9) Documentation also insures that all loop helps are attended to and thus last minute panic situation can be avoided. 10)Ships particulars, plan and stability information are documented both on board as well as companys office. This will help to arrest any damage to ship, property and consequently to any loss of life at sea. All equipments related with safety dealing with fire prevention and detection should be regularly maintained, inspected and tested so that all items are in effective and good working condition in case of an emergency. It helps to fight fire more effectively and rapidly without causing major damage and delay. The maintenance plan is supplemented by emergency preparedness of the ship staff. ADVANTAGES OF DOCUMENTED PRODEDURES:

1) Provides guidelines to act in a systematic manner 2) Minimizes stress to persons who are under panic and confused state in emergency situations. 3) In panic, chances of mistakes are more which could lead to serious situations. Documented procedures help to avoid this possibility. 4) Effectiveness of the actions as per documented procedures is more, because it provides systematic / sophisticated approach to handle such situations. 5) As duties are defined & documented there is no ambiguity in responsibilities and authorities. 6) Provides better team work which again leads to effectiveness. 7) Checklist / procedures will not allow to miss any minor points of action. 8) Documented procedures provide great help during emergencies as these procedures have been assessed and proved earlier. 9) Situations can be tackled at any time round the clock & proves that company & ship board management is following safely the safety management system. Before implementation of the documented procedures, fir fighting operations on board have been successfully carried out in numerous cases. Regardless of the validity of the above statement, it can be stressed that documented plans for emergency preparedness provide full proof method and each & every individual is made sure of his duties and responsibilities in case of a major fore. It also ensures that every crew member is accounted for. Also conditions may not be same in

different vessels in case of a fire on board. Thus it cannot be said that previous successful adventures will ensure the same in every case. With the help of the ISM code, each and everything is preplanned and well exercised, so the action is quick and correct in case of emergency. So we can say that after implementation of the documented procedures the chances of success in each case becomes better than when acted unprepared.

53) Underline the importance of communication in emergency preparedness on ships. Under these safety procedures, discuss contingency plans for the office involving (i) contact between ship and the office, (ii) communication equipment, (iii) dealing with the media, (iv) dealing both relevant next of kin Communication plays a vital role especially in case of emergency situations. Therefore it should be brief, precise and very clear to avoid any misunderstanding. In case any emergency situation occurs, there is a tense situation and shortage of time and there are more chances of making mistakes while communicating which can lead to major total loss of life, ship, its cargo & the environment. Contingency plans & checklists shall be prepared and must be strictly exercised regularly by conducting drills and discussing the matter in safety meeting, giving training by videos or computer or by practical means on board and ashore to the persons involved. So everybody gets familiarized with the use of equipments and their duties in case of any emergency situation instead of creating a panic situation. By doing so, the confidence level among personnel will increase and then they can handle any emergency comfortable and effectively with competence and confidence.

Regarding importance of communication in emergency preparedness following points should be considered. 1) CONTACT BETWEEN SHIP AND OFFICE:- As we all know, time plays a vital role while dealing with emergency. If any emergency situation occurs on board the ship. It should be communicated to the office by the fastest means available thereof. An initial report is to be sent briefing about the incident, to the office. On receiving such report, the emergency/contingency team in the office will follow their contingency plan and inform various authorities who can in turn render their help and services as early as possible. The company should be kept informed of the priceedings at agreed regular intervals. The ship must send a detailed situation report after taking initial actions & assessing the situation. All these allow the company to adequately assist / instruct the ship staff in order to effectively deal with the emergency. Shore based contingency plan includes: 1) The composition & duties of persons acting within the contingency plan will be assigned. 2) Procedure to follow up in response to different types of emergency, accident & incident or hazardous situation should be made available. 3) Procedure for mobilization of an appropriate company response (which may include the establishment of an emergency team) 4) Procedure for establishment and maintaining contact between ship and management at shore.] 5) The availability of ships particulars plans, stability information and safety and environmental protection equipment carried on board, photographs of ship etc., will be

made available in contingency room in the office. 6) Checklist appropriate to the type of emergency, which may assist in systematic questioning of the ship during response will be made available and will be strictly followed. 7) List of contact names and telephone number, details of all relevant parties when may need to be notified and consulted (P&I club, Coastguard, port authorities, classification society, flag state, etc.,) 8) Reporting method for both ship and shore based management will be established and agreed. 9) Procedure of notifying and liasioning with next of kin of persons on board will be established. 10)Backup arrangement for company initial response in the event of practical emergency. 11)Restoring of company personnel, specialized, dedicated to support the response and adequate relief for maintaining their routine duties. 2) COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT Following communication equipment can be used while dealing with any emergency situation. The lines and communication mode is specifically mentioned in the company manuals & in vessels response plan. These equipments shall be tested and used regularly so that they will be readily available when required. The people involved in emergency team should be briefly familiar with the use of all such equipment. 3) DEALING WITH MEDIA:- In case of serious accident, the media will probably have known about it at the same time or much before the contingency time be ready to answer.

While dealing with the media, one has to be very careful in what to say or report to them. The dealing reflects the image of the company and nobody wants a bad face in the public. Hence in the shore based contingency plan, procedure for issue information bulletin to and answering queries from media are to be established. The information should be delivered to the media by only one person, company legal expert or companys spokes person. Nobody else shall be allowed to face the media or express their ideas comments about the incident. In the report correct facts should be disclosed to the media, no hypothetical or modified report as this may lead to misinterpretation by the public Media shall be briefed with the initial report of the incident and to be told that they will be uploaded as required. Media should not be allowed to interface with the contingency team. So that it does not affect their working. The quotations (if form more than one working) should be assessed, by taking into account, the reputation of the workshop, quality of job undertaken previously, approval by class, cost of manpower and material. A sound judgment is arrived at, after taking into consideration all these factors. Only then one can be in a position to decide the best quotation. ii) SUPERVISION DURING REPARIS:- During repairs, Master shall be responsible for the safety of the vessel, officers & crew members Chief Engineer shall continue to be responsible for the safety of Engine room machinery spaces under his specific charge. The repair specification, with all details, shall be handed over to the repairer and job explained at site, to ensure that the workshop has understood the job. Job progress shall be supervised & communicated to the

superintendents on a daily basis Master and Chief Engineer shall ensure that all safe working are adopted and Hot Work is done in an approved way. Escape routes, communication, warning signs should be discussed with all repair personnel working on board. The master & Chief Engineer may delegate the supervisory responsibility to responsible officers (C/O & 2/E) to supervise the job being done. This however does not remove the ultimate responsibility of the Master & Chief Engineer. iv) CORDINATION WITH CLASS & FLAG ADMINSTRATION

Depending on the nature of repair & location, all surveys shall be planned and completed within the window period, without undue delay to the vessel. However, depending upon the Voyage schedule, survey states & future trading pattern, survey shall be undertaken in other ports with concurrence of the concerned superintendents. Master & C/E to ensure that there is no communication gap between superintendents, local office, Agents, Surveyors and other concerned parties. Depending upon the schedule of completion of job, the Master & C/E shall inform superintendents (Agents regarding the readiness of the vessels departure). v) NECESSARY TRIALS AND TESTING:-

In completion of work, the respective system, equipment or machinery shall be tried out, to ensure that the repairs carried out are satisfactory. Any repairs to Hull and Machinery required retaining CLASS must be carried out to the satisfaction of the designated classification society. V) FULL REPORT ON ACTUAL REPAIRS EFFECTED FOR RECORD PURPOSE:

On completion of repairs, all corrections / deletions in repair

sheets, completion copies and work done reports shall be initiated by concerned officer. When signing the work done certificates, the Master & C/E shall advise repairer, of the requirements to forward the bills to the company head-office, along with his quotations, copy of work done certificates and repair specification,. Record of repairs carried out, including details of running hours, consumed and other observations during surveys should be made as report, which may serve as a guideline for future reference.

54) With reference to emergency preparedness, discuss (i) search & rescue, (ii) Evacuation of critically injured personnel, (iii) Helicopter operations, (iv) Rescue from enclosed spaces, (v) abandon ship. Emergency preparedness procedures are provided in the section 8 of companys safety management system / ISM code Manual under the head Contingency Plan. These are the following given scenarios 1) SEARCH AND RESCUE a) Contact port, which sends distress to nearest coast station or MRCC and request advise. b) Give information regarding your vessel (position, course, speed, type of ship, ETA, etc.,) and confirm that you are heading for search area. c) Inform company and charterer about the deviation and keep a log of all events. d) Establish continuous radio watch on all frequencies as advised by MRCC. e) Before reaching search area, past additional lookouts to continuously monitor the search area.

f) Rig equipment such as net, ladder etc., to aid rescue, make ready first aid equipments and hospital. g) Coordinate search pattern with other ship/MRCC & coast radio station h) Monitor X band radar for locating survival craft transponder (SART) signal using 6or 12 range scale. RESCUE i) Contact survivors, if possible to establish locals condition and situations. ii) Rescue may be affected from wreck or from survival craft or from sea. iv) If survival craft sets adrift after rescue, notify nearest RCC advising position, type of craft and whether any radio equipment left on board that may transmit distress signal automatically.

2) EVACUATION OF CRITICALLY INJURED PERSONNEL I) II) III) IV) V) VI) If it is decided to evacuate the critically injured personnel, the decision for deviations to be made. Inform office and P&I correspondent of deviation in order to land sick personnel. Inform Port Health Authorities and local Agents to take care of the legal matters and responsibilities. Keep monitoring the person and provided first aid and treatment as advised by Radio Medical Advice. Keep the persons documents (Passport, CDC, health report) ready. Keep Oxygen bottles standby in case external breathing

support is required. VII) As per M.S. Act, entry should be made to this effect in the official log book. 3) HELILCOPTER OPERATIONS- Prior to the helicopter operations the following contingency plan is to be followed: a) Insert Gas pressure should be slightly reduced 30 min before the helicopter operation b) Vessel with IG, the tanks should be ventilated to reduce H.C Concentration below 4% of LEL. c) All cargo & ballast tanks openings, pump rooms to be closed and secured. d) Loose objects removed from helicopter operation area. e) A pennant / wind sock to be hoisted at point conspicuous to helicopter pilot to indicate wind direction. f) Communication should be established between both sides g) Fire line to be pressurized and fire hoses kept charged h) A competent person should be standby at foam station. i) Foam monitors, portable foam nozzles and foam liquid supply should be ready for use. j) Deck fire fighting and rescue team should be ready with all protective gears on & following equipments at hand 1) 2 life buoys, 2) 2 portable DCP extinguishers, 3) Red emergency signal/torch, 4) 1 portable CO2 extinguisher, 5) A large axe, 6) Crew ban, 7) first aid kit, 8) rope massager for securing helicopter (only on pilots instructions) k) Rescue ready for lowering

l) Ships should be displaying signals as per rules of road m)Deck party aware of hand signals n) Communication with helicopter pilot & radio channel set o) Landing area should be clear of any heavy spray & sees p) All outgoing personnel are well instructed & carry all relevant documents. 4) RESCUE FROM ENCLOSED SPACES1) Sound alarm and inform master 2) Mobilize emergency squad with SCBA and spare bottles

Mobilize stretcher party with first aid equipments to be standby at the scane of the incident. Ensure or ventilation of the space.

4) 5)

Rig harness and rescue lines

6) 2 persons wearing SCBA to enter space with harness & EEBD


Remove the casualty from the space & transfer is to hospital for treatment Inform office about the incident


9) Take Radio Medical Advice.


for deviation to land the person if situation is

critical. 5) ABANDON SHIP - Decision of abandoning ship will be taken by Master either himself or in consultation with the company. 1) Emergency alarm will be sounded followed by Masters vessel orders on P.a. System ATSANDON SHIP

2) Prior to abandoning ship if possible a) Inform company, b) inform ship is vicinity, c) Advice MRCC, d) Transmit distress signal 3) Muster all persons, if any 4) Select survival craft / raft & prepare for launching 5) People will perform their assigned duty as per muster list with regards to a) Collect official log book (D/O & Engineer) b) Collect all passports & CDCs c) Collect extra water & ration (steward) d) Collect VHF, SART, EPIRB etc., 6) Launch the boat, go away from ship, but stay in vicinity 7) Activate EPIRB & SART 8) Once ship sinks, stay in vicinity of ships position 9) Be calm & together execute the survival techniques and try to keep yourself busy & wait for rescue. 10)Keep book onto & use pyro techniques when required to attract the attention of others.

55) A) what are the essential elements of preventive maintenance on board ships? b) Analyze the link between statutory and classification survey of ship machinery and equipment with respect to routine maintenance

and how it is effectively merged in ships safety management system under the ISM Code The purpose of ISM code is to provide an International standard for the safe management and operation of ships and pollution prevention. As per the ISM code requirements company has to establish procedures to ensure that the ship is maintained in conformity with the provisions of the relevant rules and regulations and with any additional requirement which may be established by the company. Thus ISM code makes the company to establish & implement the planned maintenance system on board ship to maintain the ship in favorable condition & to prevent pollution Under planned maintenance system, the maintenance of machinery / equipments on board is divided into two basic categories such as 1) Preventive maintenance & 2) Breakdown maintenance here we will only focus on preventive Maintenance as required by the question. Following are the essential elements of preventive maintenance on board the ship: 1) Maintenance if the machinery / equipment carried out before any breakdown takes place which could cause danger or involve high maintenance coat. Also reduces risk of offhire due to sudden breakdown. 2) Planning of maintenance schedule well in advance. Thus the maintenance of machinery is decided well in advance and can be carried out in off-line periods during port stay & thus reduces the cost. Also spares can be ordered & made available on board before the maintenance take place.

3) Higher level of efficiency of the machinery is achieved as break downs are rare. 4) Anticipation of breakdown is most essential factor of preventive maintenance. 5) Timely service and Ohaul of machinery. 6) Helps to make the quality inventory management plan & thus bulk storage of spares on board is avoided 7) Ultimately preventive maintenance confirms that ship is maintained in conformity with the provisions of the rules and regulations laid down by the code. c) Link between statutory & classification survey of ship machinery and equipment with respect to routine maintenance. The objectives of Ism code include 1) safety at sea 2) prevention of human injury or loss of life and avoidance of damage to the environment. The objectives of the ISM code and more or less similar to the objectives of classification societies and SOLAS convention of , which is statutory requirement of the flag state. So, when company establishes the safety management system, it should ensure that the SMS includes applicable code, guidelines and standard recommendations by Organization, Administration, Classification societies. If ISM code is implemented onboard via planned maintenance system, there are rare chances of failing in statutory and classification Annual & Intermediate surveys. The planned maintenance of machinery/equipment

can be planned is such a way that classification societys continuous machinery survey (CMS) also can be done at the same time. Thus avoidance of same job of opening the machinery twice is possible and swing in time/works hours is achieved. Document of Compliance (DOC) issued to the company and ship board Safety Management System Certificate (SMC) are issued by Administration with regard to Ism. SMC is issued to every ship after verifying that company & its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved Safety Management System. To have these two certificates, company has to make sure that the Ism code is implemented on board ships. By establishing company policy addressing to ISM requirements and assigning responsibilities and authorizes company will ensure that the SMS has merged effectively on board ships. To achieve the above, company has to do the followings Establish company policy Assign authority and responsibility for implementation Clarify & define Masters authority and responsibility Employ properly qualified & certified people onboard Establish procedures for preparation of plans and instructions checklists for key operations concerning safety and prevention of pollution Establish programmer for drills & exercises to prepare for emergency actions (Emergency Preparedness)

Establish system for reporting non-conformities, accidents and hazardous situation. Also establish procedures for corrective actions. Establish procedures to ensure that the ship is maintained in conformity with the ISM Code Estblish procedures for controlling document and date Company should carry out internal and external audits to confirm the implementation and effectiveness of the ISM code onboard ship.