Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 107

MS 304 / FALL 2007 / THE PROJECT



Hakan Özdemir (7643)

Koray Koçer (8421)

Page 1
0. The Product

0.1. Which industrial machine do you plan to produce? Why?

Figure 1 Extrusion line machine

Extrusion is a continuous shaping process of plastic material by forcing it, as a melt, by pressure
through a die. Extrusion industrial machine is planned to produce with respect to some features.
Extrusion machines which are used in industry have both simple rotating screws and screws
which both rotate and reciprocate. The main reason why we have chosen the extrusion machine
is that extrusion has a very large manufacturing process in many areas such as automotive
industry, white goods, chemical industry, cosmetics, plastic industry, food industry, paper pulp
processing and many others. There are some kinds of basic functions of the extruder;

 It leads to softening of the melt by heating process. This heating can be regarded from
internal generated shear forces and external applied heat.

 In order to produce a homogeneous emlt without impurities, it mixes the melt.

 There is a need to force the material through the die. This pressure is applied by this

Page 2
Basic extruder types

As said before, the extrusion is a widely used process which is applied in many industry with
different types of extruders. Mainly, the extrusion machines can be seperated into 2 groups as
single extruders and twin extruders. The summary graph can be given as below.

Figure 2 The groups of extrusion machine

There are some specific definitions of the extrusion process.

Extruder head; A part of the extrusion machine which can be linked or attached to the
discharge end of the extruder barrel. This leads to housing of the die.

Figure 3 Extruder Head

Page 3
Barrel; A component which covers the screw in the extrusion line.

Figure 4 Barrel

Die; The part is in the assembly line. It is forming the melt to get the desired profile.

Figure 5 Die

Haul off; A device continuously takes away extrude from the dice

Figure 6 Haul off

Page 4
Screw; The component in the barrel of a screw extruder

Figure 7 Single Screw

Figure 8 Twin Screw

Screw Diameter; It is about screw axis.

Screw extruder; It controls the temperature in the system. It also conveys the plastics materials
from the feed and delivers it to the die under the pressure.

Figure 9 Screw Extruder

Page 5
Extruder size; The inside diameter of the extruder barrel

Figure 10 Extruder Size

Extrusion coating; A method of coating in which molten plastics is fed direct from an extruder
die into a nip-roll assembly together with the substrate.

Figure 11 Extruder Coating

Page 6
Extrusion pressure; The pressure of the melt occurred at the end of the screw.

Figure 12 Extruder pressure

0.2. How is the machine used, and in producing which products / product families for
which industries?
To understand how the machine is used, the tasks applied to machine are listed below;


 Before the machine is functioned, a person should adjust some components of the system
to regulate speed, pressure, system of the temperature, amount of material, raw materials
and to control flowing of the material system.

 Make measurements of the materials which is participated in the process by using

templates, micrometers or scalars.

 By monitoring operations, obtain the gauges to detect malfunctions.

 Press the buttons to function the machine and equipments.

 Turn on the controls about pressure, vacuum and cooling operations

 Prepare the molds, or dies with respect to operation type.

 Record the measurement scale of the readings, quantities, types and dimensions

Page 7
 If the demands cannot be met, warn the supervisor.

 Control the speed of the operation

 By conveyor or hand, feed the raw materials into machine

 Clear jams and defective materials which can affect the process in a negative way

 Get the materials, supplies or finished products to put them storage with work aids like
racks and hand trucks

 In order to prevent the product from sticking condition, clean the molds properly

 Put the tickets on the products

 Activate the machines to shape or form products like insulation panels or candy bars.

 After the process is finished, Remove the molds and tubes

 Send the proto type of the product to be analyzed

 By using the torches, activate the heat

 Again clean the dies, molds, chamber and compression by swabbing

 If there is defective equipment, replace nozzle, punches and filters.

 Installation and alignment of the press plungers and feeder tubes.

 By using gas lines, keep maintain plasticity of material.

 Control the solidification of the final products

 Check the tickets to verify the size of the products.

Page 8
Figure 13 One pro type of the machine

As said before extrusion is very widely used manufacturing process used in many areas such as
automotive industry, white goods, chemical industry, cosmetics, plastic industry, food industry,
paper pulp processing and the others. For example, Glassware, food, rubber, soap, brick, tile,
clay, wax, tobacco, or cosmetics are some areas. And also in Irrigation ,Sewer ,Mining
Construction Drainage Gas & distribution, Irrigation, Sewer, Mining, Construction Drainage
Rubber ose, Irrigation tubing, Medical tubing, Cable & wiring, Rods and Straws, extrusion is

Page 9
Figure 14 the usage area of the machine

0.3. Which companies, both local and global, produce this industrial machine and what is
their position in the market? Evaluate each of your (significant) competitors according to
the criteria below:

The first company is XINDA Group. This company works for plastic machinery with extrusion
technique. This company produces PET fibre master batches about 10,000 tons per year. The
company claims that they are one of the biggest extruder producers in the world. And over 100
machines are sold every month.

Place of Origin: China

China Xinda is established in 1988 in China. Xinda is a famous group thanks to its quality
products both in domestic areas and worldwide. There are 3 companies which are related each

Price Terms: USD70, 000.00- 110,000FOB per machine (The machine below)

Page 10
Figure 15 One pro type machines

Delivery Lead Time: 5 days in China- the export days between 1 and 2 month.

Reliability: The company apply 3 guarantee policies for the maintenance services in the
machines’ lifetime. This company is awarded with various associations like Grade and High
Tech Company which is established by China government. The company expects the brighter
future with the customers in domestic areas and abroad.

Maintenance cost (regular and irregular costs and their lead time): For this cost, the average
maintenance cost can be given with respect to machine sold. For one year, if one company
earned 420000 Yuan (around 120,000.00 Euro) by selling of the extrusion machine, that
company will meet around 860000 Yuan (around 25,000.00 Euro) maintenance cost. This is
regular maintenance cost. However, sometimes, the machine can create a problem in any sudden
time. At this point, the company has to meet its irregular cost per a month. For this cost, the
company will pay around 20000 Yuan (around 5,000.00 Euro). The main difference between
regular and irregular cost is time. For regular maintenance, it keeps stable time gap. Normally,
the lead time for irregular maintenance cost is three times a week. For example, the some parts
such as pistons, barrels, screws or extruder head of the machine are lubricated with some
chemical solvents. The regular cost which is given above is for per year. However, irregular
maintenance cost can occurs any time in the process. In other words, it is unexpected condition.
The irregular cost which is given above is for per month. For irregular maintenance, the
materials can be problem because of their structure. For example, if one part the material is not
ductile enough, this leads to broken down some components such as screws, dies or barrels of the
Page 11
machine. There are also some other factors which lead to irregular maintenance. For instance, the
pressure cannot be adjusted by the technician. The temperature cannot be increased or decreased
with respect to operation required.

Types of energy: Because of the structure of the machine, electrical energy for the functioning
of the machine and natural gas for the heating are used.

Past references: For Xında group, the feedback of our clients from some countries such as
Indonesia, South Africa, Canada and India etc. are positive. They claimed that all the company
works properly. And due to this, the company has very prospective reputation.

Estimated life time: China Xinda is established in 1988 in China. The life time until time is very
long. The company is also international company. It exports the products to North America,
South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Eastern Asia, Southeast Asia, Mid East,
Africa, Oceania. According to its webpage, the total annual sales Volume of this company is
between $10 and $ 50 million. These factors can help to estimate life time of the company in the
future. It runs at least 15 years to the future.

The company is Enka. This company is a leading manufacturing company in Turkey. The
company mostly produces white and brown goods with plastic materials. The company considers
the customer satisfaction as a development base. The company manufactures the products which
are used by the many parts of the world like USA and UK.

Price terms: The prices are changed around 150.000 YTL. Because of the export, the shipment
cost is another factor which is taken in consideration as adding price.

Figure 16 The machine which is sold 150.000 YTL

Page 12
Delivery times: It depends on the region. The time for delivery is between 1 and 2 months by
sea route and between 2 and 4 months by land route because of some problems about duty to the
abroad.For the domestic markets, it takes almost one week.

Reliability: The company is estabtablish in 1983 . There is not yet any awards from any
associations. However, the company has so strong references from Vestel,SFA Cook,
B/S/H,Vestfrost and Arçelik. The company tries to increase the reability of its products by
focusing on the specific factors like saving time,labour and cost. Also, it conducts some project
to get more success. The guarantee time for its products is 3 years.

Maintenance cost (regular and irregular costs and their lead time): The machines are
designed and operated by thinking of the required minimal energy for the maintenance. For this
company, the maintenance cost is already as like as XINDA group. However, it is a bit more. For
one year, the regular maintenance cost is around 27,000.00 Euro regular maintenance cost, when
the company sells the products which are costed around 1500,000.00 Euro for per year. The
irregular cost in this company is charged around 4,500.00 Euro. As said before, the causes of the
irregular mainetenance is almost same with the XINDA group. The maintenance tecniques like
lubricating, and component replacing are same.

The important difference between XINDA group and Enka company is cost factor because of the
establisment of different country. The China is not comletely capitalist country. There are still
some workers who work under the unheathy conditions.

Page 13
Figure 17 the draft of the machine

Types of energy: This company like XINDA used electrical energy, and natural gas energy. The
cost of the production is a bit high. The electrical cost in Turkey is not like in China.

Past References: The company is almost new. It is establishes in 1983. The company has been
recovered itself and manufacturing product process with respect the feedbacks from the

Estimated life time: Extrusion technik is established in 1983. The Enka Group is established in
Turkey. The company expand in a wide working places in the world. The Group companies are
Enka Marketing, Enka Power, Çimtaş, Kasktaş,Titaş, Enet, Pimaş, Atlas, Entaş, Moscow Krasny
Holmy, Mosemka, and Ramenka. This company is also international company. The estimated
life time of this company is at least 10 years to runin the future. This is lower than Xinda Group.
This because of the development difference between China and Turkey. Today’s world, China
can be given as more developed than the other companies.

Page 14
0.4. How does your machine work? Explain its mechanical working principles in detail.
You can get help from your friends in the Mechatronics Engineering program. You can
also refer to online patents at Spacemen (www.turkpatent.gov.tr) or Google

Basic graph of the steps of the extrusion machine;

Figure 18 Simple line

How the machine works can be explained by explaining functionality of the components in the

 The extruder drive is functioning with electrical power. It is geared with thrust bearing to
create rotational movement of the extruder screw.

 The polymer feed the screw by hopper or gravity by metering screw or conveying spiral.

 The extruder barrel and screw include high concentration of strength steel. And the barrel
and screw are protected from wear or corrosion. This is because those components can be
hardened or coated treatments like nit riding or hard chroming.

 The barrel and screw can be placed between 3 and 7 zones. These sections can be heated
and cooled with respect to material and process parameters.

 The die directs the polymer melt from the front of the screw. This is because it will form
the basic shape of the product.

Page 15
Figure 19 Dies

 The calibration units keep stability of the form of the output. At this process, also, the
polymer is cooled.

 The haul off lead dragging force to struggle with frictional forces in the calibrators. And,
it pulls the process through the calibrators.

Figure 20 Haul off

 The saw or cutter cuts the profile until it catch the desired length.

Page 16
Figure 21 Saw blade systems

 After this process, additional manufacturing processes like rolling or casting can be
performed with respect to operation.

0.5 Patent research and report:

1) This patent is taken from following web site;


EXTRUSION MACHINE (by Arthus L. Phipps)

This patent is a method which by extracting of one material, especially fragile materials like
plastic foams, the material is removed from the chamber with atmospheric pressure. By doing
this, the materials can be given off from the cavity space. This is done without any forces which
are applied on that material. In other words, there is not extra force to apply this.

At this method, the barometric leg is used for this process. However, this does not mean that this
leg results in egress of the solid materials with reduced pressure. The leg is helping the worker to
extract the material without facing any problems like cracking

Figure 1 is the view of invention

Page 17
Figure 22 (1)

The materials are moving from up to down by the pressure

Figure 2, 3, 4, 7 is the embodied view of the extruder

Figure 23 (2, 3, 4 and 7)

This is better view to see how the materials flow on the line

Figure 4 is used for the Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Page 18
Figure 24 (4)

Figure 5, 6 is a bit similar to Figure 1. And this is also used with Figure 7.

Figure 25 (5, 6)

A combination comprising as follows:

1) The extruder for plastic material which expands in the form of rigid foam material when
is released from extruder, a vacuum chamber, a barometric leg, and a pool of liquid. It
means to lead the foam material from the chamber, barometric leg in to pool of liquid.

Page 19
The pressure is used to extract the material from the chamber. The extruder is connected
to vacuum chamber. This leads to directing extradite in that vacuum chamber. The
barometric leg has two ends such as the first end and the second end. The first end is
connected to vacuum chamber. It lead the material to flow. The second end extends in to
liquid in the pool. In order to stop pressure in outside, the liquid in the pool forms a seal
from the barometric leg. In other words, it evacuates to vacuum chamber and barometric
leg. At this point, the liquid in the pool is absorbed into leg with respect to pressure in the
chamber. This leads to guiding the foam material to engage in foam material in liquid.
After this, carrying of expanded foam material is materialized. In other words, the
materials are given a shape. Lastly, it pushes the material down in the pool. This process
occurs outside of the barometric leg

2) The barometric leg extends from the vacuum chamber to guide the foam material to
comprise a belt conveyor. As can be seen, the barometric leg is used for the movement of
the materials.

3) And lastly, that belt conveyor is placed in to the barometric leg. There must be some links
between leg and conveyor to function each other.

2) This patent is taken from following web site;


EXTRUSION MACHINE (by Arthus L. Phipps)

This patent creates one machine that has optimum cross section of a hollow concrete body can be
obtained. This means that the minimum amount of concrete can be used to have a body of the
required strength. This extrusion machine makes elongated materials (article) of the concrete by
forcing the concrete through a mold. That article has a large cavity. Therefore, by using optimum
amount of concrete with respect to strength, the machine is moved forwardly with reaction when
the concrete is controlled and when it is forced towards the molded concrete. One conveyor
which is rotatable and spiral is placed in the mold in a longitudinal way. By doing this, it moves

Page 20
the concrete through the mold. When a no rotatable forming element is used, it leads to internal
cavity with respect to the downstream end of the conveyor. With this internal cavity, there are
some spaces in the material. These spaces lead to material to have lower strength and poor
quality. There are three downstream of this system. The first one is that the element is formed
with its lower edge. This lower edge is positioned to leads to having no more than %10 of the
height. This is because less than %10 of the height is above the lower edge of the conveyor. The
lower edge and the lower side are going to be free from any substantial ramp. At this point,
second one comes out. The longitudinal center line is higher than the center line in conveyor.
And the third one is that, at the end of the conveyor, the ramp is extending through the upward.
In other words, it is extended from end of the conveyor. At that point, the conveyor forces the
concrete on the elements which is in the forming process. This is to form the concrete article, as
mentioned before. After this, there is a vibrator for resonance. This vibrator includes vibrator
plane which is placed in the top of the mold. As said before, the ramp should be in short distance.
It should not exceed %25 of its length. Otherwise, there can be energy lost because of the time
passing. Lastly, the plurality of the elements can be mentioned. The first element is obtained with
vibrator; however, subsequent elements are obtained without vibrate. In other words, vibrate is
used for the just first element. It must be for the starting process. There are also dampers which
compose links between elements.

Figure 26 (1) the general view of the machine

Page 21
Figure 27 (2) the view of the inside

Figure 28 (3) Twin screws

Figure 29 (4) the ram force

Page 22
3) http://www.google.com.tr/patents?id=eQ48AAAAEBAJ&dq=Extrusion+machine

Injection molding extrusion mixer (by William R. Meadors)

This patent is about injection molding machine. This is molding process, but there are some
points which are relevant to extrusion. Firstly, the charges of the suitable thermoplastics are
warmed up. Later they are applied pressure hydraulically by pistons in the melt chamber. The
piston makes pressure to the molten charge towards that chamber wall. These chamber walls are
got orders in a line with Belleville spring washers. These washers are clumped to have a
corresponding series of narrow and passages between those washers. After that, the molten metal
is put on extrusion towards outside for the extrusion passages. This is because of having
guarantee dispersion and warming all the charges. Without heating the charges, there can be
some problems. For example, the some parts of the material will be thicker than the other parts
without dispersion. The charges are flowing from the washers to the extrusion passages. This
leads to disposing the washers in a correct way. In addition to charges, the mold cavity is also
controlled. Mold cavity must be filled completely without vacancy or hole. At this injection
machine, the Belleville washers are placed vertically into cylindrical chamber. Its position is
made stable between upper shoulder, and lower valve assembly. The lower valve assembly
includes also valve stem and links to valve head. At the operation, the pressure is applied valve
stem and the valve head downwardly. This is because of assisting to go outwards of the molten
charge. This process occurred between the washers. At this process the charges are flowing in
mold cavity. After this, when the mold cavity is crowed fully, the inverse (back) pressure is
applied on the valve head. The pressure which is applied on the valve head results in closing the
mold cavity with the valve assembly which goes towards up. In other words, when the mold
cavity is filled completely, the system can realize this fulfillment. And later, it terminated the

Page 23
The figures about the patent are given following way;

Figure 30 (1) the view of the machine

Figure 31 (2) the view of force part

Figure 32 (3 and 4): The view of rotating part

Page 24
Selecting the Manufacturing Type and Equipment

1.1. What type of production system is typically selected (ex: job shop, flow shop, etc) to
produce the product?

Extrusion can be carried out in hot or cold process. A chamber which is the portion of the
barrel to being fired is involved in the process. Therefore, each billet is extruded
individually. Because of all these applications, the batch flow is applied in extrusion

Figure 33 the batch flow

1.2. What types of equipment are used for the production? You should consider not only
the equipment directly used in manufacturing the product, but also indirectly used
(ex: power generators)

There are some functions of the equipment for extrusion process. These items lead to increasing
of the effectiveness of the material and tools. These direct equipments can be listed and
explained in a detailed way as below:

Add on accessories (direct)

 Water recirculation systems

 product discharge and debris collection systems

Page 25
 safety guards and enclosures

Product interfacing parts

 Clamps and rollers

 Cleats, belts and conveyor systems

 Air and water outlets

 Saw and cutter blades

Control and measuring (direct)

 Digital and analog control panels

 Vacuum and water gauges

 Encoders

As can be seen, almost all the equipments lead to some protection of the materials and tools to
use them more. After the direct equipments, the next is the indirect equipments.

Power system (indirect)

 Motors and drives

 Vacuum and water pumps

 Hydraulics

 Pneumatics

1.3. From which suppliers in Turkey and abroad can this equipment be supplied? Judge
the suitability of each candidate supplier based on

The first one is that Shanghai Electric Group Printing and Packaging Machinery
Co., Ltd. The Company is established in 1999 in China. It is a manufacture Equipment
Company for the extrusion machine. The company claimed that the total annual sales
Page 26
volume of the company reaches above $100 million. The company is awarded with ISO
9000/9001/9004/19011: 2000 as a certification. The products of this company can be
exported and imported. It other words, it is international company. Some countries are
North America, South America, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, Oceania, Middle
East, Eastern Asia, and Western Europe.


 Water recirculation systems $1,564.00

 product discharge and debris collection systems $171.61

 safety guards and enclosures -White (1960mm) £22.95 - Color (1960)mm


 Clamps and rollers  $44.99 and $1.04 per roller

 Saw and cutting blades19.99 per each blade

 Cleats, belts and conveyor systems$1.59- $11.40 and $21.05

 Air and water outlets$26.95

 Digital and analog control panels $10,328

 Vacuum and water gauges $26.95 and $21.99

 Encoders $168.00

 Motors and drives $379.00

 Vacuum and water pumps $17,000.00 and $34,500.00

 Hydraulics $8900.00

 Pneumatics $399.00

Page 27
Lead time for delivery: The China has very large land like USA. For the domestic markets, it
takes almost one week. For export, the time for delivery is between 1 and 2 months by sea route
and between 2 and 4 months by land route because of some problems about duty to the abroad.

Reliability: The product life time is 3 years. It has a guarantee document. The company is
awarded with ISO document. The company meets all the services with respect to the scope of
guarantee document. They try to be expert for their extruders to satisfy the customers’ needs.

Maintenance cost (regular and irregular costs and their lead time): The equipment life,
replacement and damages can result in the needs of the maintenance. At this part, the
maintenance depends on the system. To illustrate, the production of the extrusion machine needs
the controls with computer system and the digital analog control panels. However, the computer
has low capacity like CPU or RAM. The computer can be hacked by someone. At this point, the
cost of the irregular maintenance is between $150 and $200. If the computer system is
functioning with any machine, this cost goes higher; between $400 and $500. The regular cost
for the computer system is the updates. The company can buy some software programs. For the
digital analog control panels, the same reasons like software programs can be said. The cost like
this is around $1000 per year for membership. Apart from the computer system, the water
recirculation and digital and analog control panels can need to be put in the maintenance with
replacement or damages. The price information is taken from the webpage:
http://www.shop.com/. This is not about fresh good. The company web site does not include the
cost of fresh goods like water circulation system or power system. The Guesstimate techniques
are used to have the cost numbers. For the water circulation, the water can cut off and the
machine cannot be produced. This is included in irregular cost. For this reasons, the cost value
can be anticipated with its price. If the price is around $ 120,000.00, the cost can be $75,000.00
per unit production. The machines have saw blades to shape some metals. These components can
wear out gradually, as time passes; therefore, the parts must be changed. The price of the $21.99
per each saw blade. The saw blades can be broken down. At this respect, the additional cost is
technician cost. It is around $12. After the direct equipment costs, the indirect equipment cost
comes out. This cost includes the power systems like Vacuum and water pumps, Hydraulics and
Motors. These are electrical devices. If the machine is broken down, the high cost will be met by

Page 28
the company. For example, the new Hydraulics system can be bought around $8,900.00. The
new vacuum and water pumps can be bought around $17,000.00 and $34,500.00 sequentially.
When the equipments are replaced, the company should regard these costs. There can be
irregular costs in any time. For this cost, the technician is given between 300 YTL and 550 YTL
with respect to the system

Past References: The lifetime of the company is so long. The company dedicates itself to the
customer needs. It claimed that every customer has different needs and wants. The company
works and manufactures a wide variety of products with respect to the customer types.

Estimated life time: The Company is established in 1999. It is almost fresh company. However,
the company can reach many countries. Therefore, it is international company. The
establishment year and the large export opportunities make the estimated life time difficult. For
this company, it can be considered as improving and expanding, the estimated life time is
between 12 and 15 years.

The second one is that Zhangjiagang Beier Machinery Co Ltd. The company is
established in 1989. It is a supplier of plastic machinery. It is claimed that the company
exports $9 million goods each year around the world. Some regions are Europe, North
America and Asia. Country origin is in China.


 product discharge and debris collection systems $163.63

 Water recirculation systems $1,364.00

 safety guards and enclosures -White (1960mm) £23.95 - Color (1960)mm


 Clamps and rollers  $442.99 and $1.08 per roller

 Cleats, belts and conveyor systems $1.75- $11.68 and $19.87

 Air and water outlets $24.95

Page 29
 Digital and analog control panels $19,498

 Vacuum and water gauges $27.95 and $23.89

 Encoders $159.00

 Motors and drives $378.00

 Vacuum and water pumps $1690.00 and $3350.00

 Hydraulics $8100.00.

 Pneumatics $389.00

Lead Time for delivery, between 35 days and 45 days

Reliability: The Company is certificated with ISO 9001:2000 in China’s Jiangsu province. The
issue date of the award is 25.08.2005 and the expiry date of the award is 25.08.2008. This award
is issued. This gives a proof that the company is functioning in a proper way.

Maintenance cost (regular and irregular costs and their lead time): The problems about the
equipment are almost same with Shanghai Electric Group Printing and Packaging
Machinery Co., Ltd. for the previous part. The cost can change a little. The computer is loaded
virus. The irregular cost of the repairmen is around between 100 and 150 YTL. If the system is
functioning with the any machine, the cost comes out between 350YTL and 400 YTL. And the
computer needs to update some problems. The regular costs for these updates around 1000 YTL
per year for membership. The other system costs can be given as follows:

 The water circulation system: Cutting of the water around $65000

 The saw blades$19.99 per each saw blade

Additional technician cost when the blades are broken is between $10- $15

For the indirect costs, the power systems can be given example again. This is again very high.
The system of water pumps can be bought around $36,500.00 and the system of vacuum pumps

Page 30
can be bought around $15,000.00. If any parts need to be replaced with the new one, this is again
additional technician cost is around 400 YTL.

Past References: The Company is awarded with ISO 9001:2000. This kind of award is given to
the institutions with respect to customer feedbacks. It is one of the important institutions. The
institution focuses on the quality and proper work style in the world. However, in the past, there
are some complaints about defective goods. The company changed the defective parts with the
new ones. The company claimed that if there are some problems with its products, the company
can get back the machine for a certain time.

Estimated life time: The lifetime of the supplier is 47 years (from 1962 to 2007). The company
exports $9 million goods in one year. The export countries are Middle East, Russia, East, South
Asia and Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, Mid East/Africa, Central/South America,
Asia, Western Europe, and Australasia. The company is international company. The estimated
life time of this company is at least 12 years.

Raw Materials Used;

2.1. What raw materials and/or subcomponents are used in manufacturing the product?
You can refer to patents online (www.google.com/patents) to learn about the raw materials
/ subcomponents used in manufacturing your industrial machine. Draw the complete Bill of
Material (BOM) for the product, identifying each node in the BOM with a label and
explaining each label later on in plain English. Draw your BOM using yEd Graph Editor, a
free software written in Java, that can be downloaded from the web site of
www.yworks.com. Once you draw your graph, select the appropriate layout technique to
show your graph aesthetically.

With respect to the performance requirements and economic conditions, the material selection
should be done. In addition to performance and economic conditions, the life of one machine is
also obtained with good quality and dimensional materials. For many machines, thermoplastic
polymers are used in the process.

Page 31
Typical Materials for the Plastic

 HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

 LDPE(Low Density Polyethylene)
 LLDPE(Linear Density Polyethylene)
 Flexible PVC
 Butyrate
 Polypropylene
 Polyatyrene
 Some metallic materils like Low carbon steel, Steel alloys, and Stainless steel
 Brass
 Aluminum

The most prefereable used material for extrusion is PVC. This material is used so widely. This is
because of low cost, chemical resistance and its availability with a wide range variety of colors
and hardness. Although the PVC has multiple functions, there can be some problems for critical
application like unsudden rise in temperature

Figure 34 Schematic of Extruder

Page 32
The Figure 34 is taken as a base of the BOM graph. The two major parts are composed; Flow
Line Part with Die, Barrel, Screw, and Cooling System, and Power Part with Powder Seal,
Thrust Bearing, Motor and Reducer. Dies have been made with Saw and Cutter which are
manufactured with High steel alloys, and shafts by pressure. Barrel are supported with Gears,
Shafts, LDPE, ABS and Low Carbon steel as a Barrel support. And, also, it is insulated with
HDPE and Low Carbon steel because of the sudden changes in temperature. Lastly, the barrel is
equipped with Gears. Screw are made with strong steel alloys because of high strentgh. Cooling
system is composed with flexible PVC, Water Cooled system and PETG. The water is used to
reduce the temperature on the material surface. Apart from the Flow line, the power part is
composed with Reducer, Motor, Powder Seal and Thrust Bearing. Motor has Belt and Sheave to
turn on the gears and broachers. The Throat and Hopper are combined on Powder Seal. These
two tools composed the Shaft. After the composing of Power part and Flow line part, these two
part is covered with base to keep safety from the enviromental causes like dust. Lastly, the
machine is composed with all the tools which is mentioned above.

2.2. What are the material characteristics of the raw materials and/or subcomponents, and
why are they required to exhibit these characteristics?

 HDPE (High Density Polyethylene); HDPE has very high density of PE plastic. It is
stronger than LPDE. This raw material gives stronger structure and tensile strength. This
material is so hard and opaque. Therefore, it can withstand to higher temperature
conditions. HDPE is ligther than water. In the welding process, it can be machined and
moulded.HDPE can be used for many applications like Tupperware, Laundry detergant,
milk jugs, fuel tanks and the others. This is because the HDPE can resist to many
solvents. HDPE is used for firetubes. This material makes the firetubes safer. Although
there is a dang)erous condition, the tube will not be shatter.

Page 33
Figure 35 HDPE

 LDPE(Low Density Polyethylene); This material is made from oil. It is very

economical for many application. When LDPE is compared with HDPE, the features are
less than HDPE. It is cheap, good chemical resistance, and good electrical properties. It
can be weldable and machinable. Its tensile strength is low, however the resilience is
high. Because of tight molecules, its density is low. This material is also used for
bottles,tubing, plastic bags, some computer components, containers and laboratory
equipment. The products which include LPDE has corrosion resistant work surface.

Figure 36 LDPE

 LLDPE(Linear Density Polyethylene); This material is produced with metal catalysts.

The tensile strenght is high. It shows higher resistance, especially Ultraviolet, than LDPE.
It is very flexible, and it can elongate under the stress. Great flexiblity leads to having

Page 34
conformance to differential settlement. It has good electrical properties. This material
has high mechinical property with low density.

Figure 37 LLDPE

 PETG: This material is transparency. It orher words, the light can be seen at the back
point. The other features of this product is high gloss, toughness, high impact strength,
good clarity, fast forming cycles and ease of forming. PETG can be sterilized with
gamma rays and resist to stress whitening. This material can be formed easily, cut and

Figure 38 PETG

Page 35
 Flexible PVC;( ½ ‘’ ID li olan 0.66 cent): This material provide high performance and
low cost requirements for successful extrusion process. It is opaque, lightly filled, clear
and super flexible.

Figure 39 Flexible PVC

 Butyrate; Bulyrate is a short chain fatty acid. The fatty acid gives energy to the colon. Its
cost is between $14 and $20. The inherent odor of Butyrate can be reduced by perfuming
it. This material show mechanical, electrical and colorful properties. For mechanical
property, it is specified with plasticizer. For electrical propery, it has a high dielectiric,
good dielectric strentgh and volume resistivity, and a high dissipation factor. For colorful
property, Butyrate can be obtained in natural, clear, selected amber(smoke transparents),
and black translucent.

Figure 40 Butyrate

Page 36
 Polypropylene; Polypropylene has low cost polymer with a wide variety of uses.
According to website (http://www.dynalabcorp.com), Polypropylene (PP), a polymer
prepared catalytically from propylene which differs from HDPE by having an isostatic
replacement of a hydrogen atom by a methyl group on alternate carbon atoms in the main
chain. Although largely unreactive chemically the presence of the methyl groups
makes Polypropylene slightly more susceptible to attack by strong oxidizing agents than
HDPE (2007). The important advantage of this material is that it can outstand higher
temperature resistance. For example, this material is used for chemical tanks; laboratory
cabinetry and semi conduct bench tops.

Figure 41 Polypropylene

 ABS; The plastic material is very strong, durable, and pretty inert. By molding at the high
temperature, the final product is contributed to the gloss and heat resistance. In addition
to this, it leads to having highest impact resistance and strenth with low temperature. As a
result, this material can be used in the high and low temperature. According to the
website (en.wikipedia.org), the ABS will be degraded (dissolve) when exposed to
acetone. This is already how you clear the etch resist off your pcb (2006).

Figure 42 ABS
Page 37
2.3. From which suppliers in Turkey and abroad can these materials and/or
subcomponents be supplied? Judge the suitability of each candidate supplier based on

The first supplier is Plastic Services Centers. The company is established in USA.

2.3.1. Prices of its products, depending on the order size

The product prices can be given as follows:

 HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) $29.56 for Bottle HDPE Wm 32 OZ 6/PK

 LDPE(Low Density Polyethylene) $29.19 for Bottle LDPE Wm 32 OZ 6/PK
 LLDPE(Linear Density Polyethylene) $25.14. Its size 43 x 48. High Density. 56 Gal
 PETG $64.16 for one piece. Its wide is 0.100.Its size is 48x72
 Flexible PVC $0.55 per foot
 Butyrate $42.99 for 45 gm Tube
 Polypropylene $109.95 for one plastic pag (225 pieces)
 ABS $11.99 for one piece

2.3.2. Mean and variance of lead time for delivery of a given order, depending on the order
size (ex: “delivery for batches of 2000 units is completed in 3.25 days on the average, with
0.85 days of variance”). You should specify the distribution as well, such as N(3.25, 0.85) if
the lead time for a particular order size is following a normal distribution.

HDPE- 200 Bottles of HDPE-3.25- 0.85- N (3.25, 0.85)

300 Bottles -3.50-0.82- N (3.50, 0.82)

LPDE- 200 Bottles of LDPE-3.25-0.85- N (3.25, 0.85)

300 Bottles -3.50-0.82- N (3.50, 0.82)

LLDPE- 300 pieces (43 x 48. high density. 56 Gal)-3.50-0.73- N (3.50, 0.73)

500 pieces -4.25-0.65- N (4.25, 0.65)

Page 38
PETG- 400 pieces (48x72)-3.75-0.68- N (3.75, 0.68)

600 pieces -4.50-0.60- N (4.50, 0.60)

Flexible PVC- 2000 foots-3.80-0.65- N (3.80, 0.65)

3000 foots-3.90-0.60- N (3.90, 0.60)

Butyrate- 250 tubes-3.45-0.78- N (3.45, 0.78)

350 tubes-3.75-0.70- N (3.75, 0.70)

Polypropylene- 100 plastic bag- 2.75-0.92- N (2.75, 0.92)

200 plastic bag-3.00-0.87- N (3.00, 0.87)

ABS- 250 pieces-3.45-0.78- N (3.45, 0.78)

300 pieces-3.75-0.70- N (3.75, 0.70)

The Guesstimate techniques are used for the mean and variance.

2.3.3. Transportation and storage requirements for the products (do the products have to
be kept in air-tight containers, cold storage, etc.)

The company reached CC agreements with various transportation companies like railcar. The
company can just export Canada and Mexico. There is no oversea export to the other continents.
By railcar, the products must be put in to containers. The materials can be combustible.
Therefore, it is dangerous to come close with fire. In addition to this, the materials should be
packed with polyester bag. The freshness of the material can keep more. For the temperature, the
raw material can stand at the room temperature. If the transportation occurs in the winter or
summer, there can be need to special enduring containers.

Page 39
2.3.4. Past References of the supplier (companies that have used the supplier’s products
and can express their satisfaction with the products of the supplier and the service quality
provided by the supplier)

The company is awarded with ISO 9002:2001 institutions. The company has also many reliable
suppliers like WP, Comtrex, Basell, GT, Cereplast, A. Schulman and Uniform Color Company.
These sponsors are also good indicator of the company reputation. The company gives a
certification with some specifications as a guarantee document . However the customers are
curious about the material structure and strength of the materials. For example, according to
FAQ in the web page (http://www.plasticservice.com), ‘’Does PSC offer filled and reinforced
products?’’ is asked by one of the customer. And the company replies that they present mineral,
talc, PTFE, calcium and glass.

Figure 43 Die parts

Page 40
2.3.5. Estimated life time of the supplier (for how long has the supplier been active in
industry and for how long will it be out there?)

Plastic Services Centers is established in 1904. The company has a very large agencies over the
USA. The company is not international. Actually, it is internaltional, but not oversea. This means
that the company does not supply the equipment to the other continents like Africa, Europe, Far
East and Turkey.

On the Bom graph, the modification with amounts, mean, and variance is shown as follows
because of the limited space on the graph.

HDPE- 200 Bottles N (3.25, 0.85) - 300 Bottles-3.50-0.82- N (3.50, 0.82)

LPDE- 200 Bottles of LDPE-N (3.25, 0.85)- 300 Bottles -3.50-0.82- N (3.50, 0.82)

LLDPE- 300 pieces- N (3.50, 0.73)- 500 pieces - N (4.25, 0.65)

PETG- 400 pieces N (3.75, 0.68)- 600 pieces- N (4.50, 0.60)

Flexible PVC- 2000 foots- N (3.80, 0.65)- 3000 foots- N (3.90, 0.60)

Butyrate- 250 tubes-N (3.45, 0.78)- 350 tubes-N (3.75, 0.70)

Polypropylene- 100 plastic bag- N (2.75, 0.92)- 200 plastic bag-N (3.00, 0.87)

ABS- 250 pieces-N (3.45, 0.78)- 300 pieces-N (3.75, 0.70)

Page 41
Figure 44 BOM graph
Page 42
3. Manufacturing Facility and Processes

Figure 45 the extrusion machine


In the extrusion process, in order to ensure high and stable output, high efficiency screw
designed materials. There is a strong abrasion resistance in caterpillar and also stable and high
speed pulling force. Lattice basket die can function under low melting pressure. It also has large
process range. In the dust free automatic cutting process, the cutting section is flat and smooth
with high precision and low noise.

3.1. How does the production actually take place? Draw a complete UML activity diagram
with swim lanes. Make sure to indicate which raw materials are used at each activity. Also
make sure to show the manufacturing processes of each type of manufacturing equipment,
using swim lanes in your UML activity diagram.

Page 43
Raw Materials

Low Carbon Steel Steel alloys Stainless stell Brass Aluminum Flexible PVC

Heat Treatment

Tension Residual Stress
Compression Fatigue

wrought materials

Autocad 3D design


Cooling system



Combination of the parts



Adding equipment machines

The product
Painting Testing


quality control Packing
Putting label

Figure 46 UML Diagram

Page 44
3.2. What type of a layout (process based or product based?) should the manufacturing
facility have? Find sample layouts from literature and Internet (related with
manufacturing the product), explain these layouts, and discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of each layout with respect to the demand conditions.

For the first time, all the components in the line are so basic functions. As time passes, the
developments are obtained. The main development is output rates. The advances are reached
with respect to demands of processors. In addition to this, the improved control system leads to
having low cost and high technological computer system. The output rates are checked easily
with that computer system. Today, the computer system is indispensable component of the
manufacturing system. It is the most powerful and faster solver for the manufacturing plan.
However, with respect to disadvantage, the capacity of the computer can sometimes be
insufficient. In other words, that problem makes the system difficult to plan. The capacity of
order cannot be met by the company. The all four systems have the same process for the first
three steps.

 Batch Mixer

 Continuous Moisturizer

 Extruder

After this point, the layouts have differences in the process. Below the each layouts, some
advantages and disadvantages are given specifically. Four different layout techniques can be
given as follows:

Page 45

Figure 47 Cerenals Sweet Snacks





This layout includes 7 different steps. This is used for the cereals. The raw material is put in the
batch mixer. By shaking, they are flown into moisturize to prepare it for the process. The cereals
are extruded by passing some heating and cooling processes. Lastly, the products are ready at the
G section. The temperature can create a problem. This is because almost all the process includes
the heating, cooling and moisturizing. If any problem occurs regarding temperature, all the
process comes to nothing. Because of the humidity, the dust can get dirty in the system.

Page 46

Figure 48 Snacks




This layout is more basic than the Cerenals one. The system includes 5 steps. As can be seen
above, this system does not include any heating, cooling or moisturizing parts. There are some
products which do not need to have those parts. With this respect, some problems like dust, and
temperature can be ignored for this layout. Like all the layouts, the system must be established
well. These lines are controlled with computer system. Therefore, all the layouts can create
problems regarding design by computer.


Figure 49 Coextrusion

Page 47



This system includes 5 parts. The more extrusion process is consolidated. Here, the more
strength materials which are needed more effort to be shaped are attributed to operations. This
layout includes cooling system at the last step. Therefore, the temperature problem can again
occur for this line process.


Figure 50 Flat Bread





The most complex layout is Flat Bread. The system includes 8 parts. This system has also special
oven for heating, cutting machine to cut hard materials, stacking part and calibrating part to
adjust the belt. The belt is plastic. It can break away by forcing more. Because of the heating and
cooling steps, there can be a problem about temperature. At the last step, Stacking process must
be organized well with the area-volume places and workers. The products can accumulate in

Page 48
3.3. What other products are typically produced together with this product in the same
production facility?

The line is a single. There is no any other products which are produced with our machine. The
machine is very complicated. There can be some wastes. These wastes which are composed with
very strength materials are used for petrol products like asphalt.

3.4. What are typical fixed costs for establishing the production facility?

The company can occupy around 40,000 sq. ft. or 50,000 sq. ft. in modern industrial area. The
facilities can be engineering, fabrication, transportation, machining assembly, packing and
electrical assembly. The ages of the employees can be between 18 and 30. The wages are
distributed to the workers. These wage amounts can be as below. All the machines can be
controlled with computer system robotically.

Workers in the extrusion line have a variety range of jobs. Therefore, many people can be
employed. Machine operations need to high skilled and experienced labor and engineers. Also,
sometimes, there can be temporary employees for the sudden demands. These temporary workers
are got paid more than normal worker. According to U.S. Department of Labor report, the
average hourly earnings of the workers in May 2006 can be given as follows:

 Model makers, metal and plastic $20.22

 Patternmakers, metal and plastic $17.01

 Layout workers, metal and $16.15

 Metal refining furnace operators and tenders $15.69

 Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic $15.46

 Milling and planning machine setters, operators and tenders, metal and plastic $15.18

 Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic $14.93

 Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic $14.83

Page 49
 Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners $14.73

 Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic $14.68

 Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic $14.36

 Pourers and casters, metal $14.22

 Forging machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic $13.94

 Foundry mold and core makers $13.82

 Extruding and drawing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic $13.50

 Plating and coating machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic $13.21

 Cutting, punching, and press machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and
plastic $12.66

 Molding, core making, and casting machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and
plastic $12.29

 Metal workers and plastic workers, all other $16.69

3.5. What are typical unit production costs?

If the items price values are summed, it is around;

Water recirculation systems $1,564.00 (1 item)

Product discharge and debris collection systems $171.61(1 item)

Safety guards and enclosures -White (1960mm) £22.95 - Color (1960) mm £24.95 (for each 1

Page 50
Clamps and rollers  $44.99 and $1.04 per roller (1 item) and (20 pieces)

Saw and cutting blades19.99 per each blade (1 item)

Cleats, belts and conveyor systems$1.59- $11.40 and $21.05 (1 item for each)

Air and water outlets$26.95 (1 item)

Digital and analog control panels $10,328 (1 item)

Vacuum and water gauges $26.95 and $21.99 (1 item)

Encoders $168.00 (1 item)

Motors and drives $379.00 (1 item)

Vacuum and water pumps $17,000.00 and $34,500.00 (1 item for each)

Hydraulics $8900.00 (1 item)

Pneumatics $399.00 (1 item)

HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) $29.56 for Bottle HDPE Wm 32 OZ 6/PK (1 piece)

LDPE(Low Density Polyethylene) $29.19 for Bottle LDPE Wm 32 OZ 6/PK (1 piece)

LLDPE(Linear Density Polyethylene) $25.14. Its size 43 x 48. High Density. 56 Gal (1 piece)

PETG $64.16 for one piece. Its wide is 0.100.Its size is 48x72 (1 piece)

Flexible PVC $0.55 per foot (20 piece)

Butyrate $42.99 for 45 gm Tube (1 piece)

Polypropylene $109.95 for one plastic pag (225 pieces)

ABS $11.99 for one piece (1 piece)

Page 51
All the production cost one unit goes around $ 64,000. It is tried to choose for just one process.

3.6. What are typical setup (fixed) costs for an order, depending on the order size?

The typical setup fixed costs for an order is around 100.00 Euro. It also depends on the size and
types like single extrusion or twin extrusion). The twin one is more complex because of
including more components. For the size, there is not so importance difference. For example,
normally it is said around 100.00 Euro. If the one bigger size is taken consider, the additional
cost is between $15- $20.

3.7. Can you find any remarks in the literature or on the Internet on the “break-even
point” when producing the product (and similar products together with it)

The breakeven point is an indicator of the going profit. While the company is establishing one
company with its facilities, high amount money is spent to catch the best. The company begins to
cover its costs after a while. At this point, the company passes the breakeven point. This means
that the company begins to get profit. The figure of this point is given below. This is very special
and secret information for the company.

Figure 51 Breakeven Point

Page 52
4. Manufacturing Decisions under Various Scenarios

Consider different levels for the following factors:

A1. Production volume characteristics (mean and variance of production quantity, range of
volume produced)

The production volume characteristics can be obtained from company which is called XinRong
Science & Technology Co. Ltd. At this company, it is claimed that screw make optimization
composing screw and mixing parts separetely. And also, barrel make optimization of composing
groove barrel and feeding segment which is lengthened. There are some data from that company
that can be obtained mean and variance of production quantity. There are five models of this
extrusion machine. The numbers are maximum output. For this number, the screw diameter,
motor power and screw speed can be given importance. By changing these three parameters, the
number of maximum output can be changed.

1)SJG45X33 150 150+250+350+500+800=2050

2)SJG60X33 250 MEAN: 2050/5 = 410

3)SJG75X33 350 VARIANCE: 20.2 (The square root of the mean)

4)SJG90X33 500

5)SJG120X33 800

Figure 52 single screw extruder

Page 53
A2. Demand characteristics (such as mean, variability) for the company’s products

The company view of the demand characteristics can cover the other companies’ missions. For
the extrusion machine, there are some good examples can be given as examples like
* High Impact Resistance
* Excellent Light Transmission
* Excellent Weather Resistance
* Heat Distortion Resistance
* Flame Retardant

These are all about the strength and well qualified products. The customers want to use their
products as long as possible.

A3. Demand characteristics (such as mean, variability) for the products in the market
offered by all the players in the industry

Some industries considers some demand characteristics such as utility, value, wealth,
consumption, wants, necessaries, comforts and luxuries. These items can be seen as a law of the
demand or elasticity of demand. The companies focused on the customers’ satisfaction.
Therefore, they modify themselves with respect to customers’ feedbacks about their products.

A4. Manufacturing facility characteristics

A4.1. location with respect to major demand locations such as big cities (especially for
consumer products) or organized industrial regions (especially for industrial products)

The company should be established with respect to having lower costs like shipment of the
products, and raw materials. The product can be sold with same price in any place. However, the
company should consider its cost. The company can be established in industrial park area in one
of the big cities such as Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa, Antalya or Izmit. In fact, this area can be close to
the sea due to easy shipment.
A4.2. area in m2

Page 54
The area of the company can be between 2500 sq. ft. and 3500 sq. ft. This can be considered as
the placement of the machines, the storage capacity, technician rooms, engineering rooms and
other facilities like cafeteria, restroom, and changing rooms for the workers.
A4.3. volume in m3

The volume of the company can be between 45000 cubic meters and 50000 cubic meters. If the
higher volume is considered, this leads to some problems like slow heating. If the slow heating
occurs, this will affect the machine to work improperly.

A5. Various product characteristics


The charging barrel heating and cooling is functioning with air cooling system and ceramic belt
type heater. This is because of controlling the temperature precisely. It prevents the temperature
from sudden increases and decreases. However, there is only middle air flow which can cool
cupper heat radiation sheets. These sheets are designed in a special way. In addition to cooling
cupper heat radiation sheets, it also produces high conductivity. This is because of decreasing the
loss of the energy. Its noise is very low. There is no need to supply earphone to the workers to
keep their ears in healthy. It can absolutely make sure about melt temperature.
Single screw extrusion machine;

1. Screw die: 70 MM.

2. L/D ratio: 24:1.

3. Screw material: SACM-1 all oyed steel.

4. Barrel material: SACM-1 all oyed steel.

5. Heating type: heater.

6. Cooling type: air cooling.

7. Heating zone: 6 zones.

Page 55
8. Heater capacity: 15 KW.

9. Screw R.P.M.: 10 ~ 50 RPM.

10. Main driving motor: AC 20 HP.

11. Center height: 1060 MM.

12. Output: 50 ~ 90 Kg/Hr.

13. Power consumption: 35 KW.

14. Machine dimension: 2.1M (L) x 0.8M (W) x 1.5M (H).

Twin screw extrusion machine;

Twin screw extrusion machines have the almost same features of the single screw extruder.
However, there are some properties which show differences. The twin one can do self cleaning
and wiping. These machines show precise works. And they can be used for simple compounding
to continuous chemical reactor.

Figure 53 Single screw extrusion machine Figure 54 Twin screw extrusion machine

A6. Geographical and climatic conditions; the company will employ highly well skilled and
qualified engineers and workers. These people will work and operate all kinds of machines and
equipment in all geographic areas and climatic conditions. In the company, the specialists who
are equipped with most advanced instrumentation will apply quality control tests. These tests

Page 56
lead to performing non destructive control of quality of welded joints and insulation. The
company can afford to produce the product as much as possible in all geographical and climatic
conditions. Because of this, apart from the employing the quality engineers, it also consider the
material selection serious. Facility in the company is so sufficient to perform the full range of
operations for construction and reconditioning of gas and oil pipelines, including construction of
roads and access roads, helicopter pads, buildings and facilities with all communication lines. It
should be possible to reach to every path.

Figure 55 Global warming

A7. Worker availability (both white collar and blue collar)

In Turkey, there are lots of people who can be classified into graduation of the university, high
school or elementary school. This number is can regarded as a great number and skilled number.
Because of the economic conditions in Turkey, the industries cannot employ the people with
good salary conditions. For example, every person who is graduated from the university expects
to work under the perfect opportunities and good wage. In order to have a job in this industry,
there are some knowledge, skills, and abilities.

For knowledge, first of all, the knowledge experience can be separated into 2 groups like
mechanical group and production and processing group. The mechanical group is an experience

Page 57
of machines and tools knowledge. This included the machines designs, uses, repair and
maintenance. The second one is that production and processing is information about raw
materials, production process line, costs, quality control on the materials and tools, and some
techniques to maximize the manufacturing process and logistic situation.

For skills, there are many skills needs to be employed. 10 skills can be given with definitions.

1) The equipment maintenance is about routine of the process. The person should aware of
its time of maintenance, equipments and the materials

2) Operation Monitoring checks the working conditions. In other words, the person will
control that the machine is works properly. He can watch the gauges or dials.

3) Operation and Control checks the equipment and system progress.

4) Troubleshooting controls the errors which lead to some causes of the machine.

5) Active listening listens to what other peoples tell about the machines.

6) Reading Comprehension understands written documents and add some sentences or

paragraphs in those related documents.

7) Critical Thinking focuses on the problem solutions techniques. The person will identify
the strengths and weakness of the problems. By using the logic, he will approach with
some solutions.

8) Learning Strategies determine the training, instructional methods and procedures for the
new applications on the machines.

9) Quality Control Analysis conducts some tests of the products, services, maintenances to
increase performance of the machine quality.

10) Monitoring is done to reveal the performance of the workers, organizations, machines,
improvements or non improvements.

Page 58
Figure 56 Planning

For abilities, there are many abilities needs to be employed. Again 10 abilities can be given with
definitions. These abilities focus on the experience about the function of the machines, the
direction of the workers and sudden intervention. 10 abilities can be classified with their tasks as

1. Control Precision is to adjust the machines or vehicles into exact position. In other words,
the machines will be functioned with respect to demand positions.

2. Oral Comprehension is to listen and understand the thoughts and the information from
the other people.

3. Problem Sensitivity is to recognize the problem. This is not included in a solution of the
problem. The person can realize that something is going wrong. This is a type of
problem recognition.

4. Finger Dexterity is to coordinate the movements of the fingers to grasp, manipulate and
assemble materials and tools.

5. Arm Hand Steadiness is to make the hand and the arm steady while moving the arm or to
put the hand and the arm in one position while holding the arm.

6. Manual Dexterity is to use the hand alone or with the arm to grasp, manipulate or
assemble the objects.

Page 59
7. Near Vision is to get the details at close range.

8. Oral Expression is to adjust the communication of the ideas and information in speaking.
This is because the other people can understand those ideas and information.

9. Reaction Time is to give a response with the hand tool to a signal like sound, light,

10. Inductive Reasoning is to combine all pieces of the ideas to obtain general conclusions.

Today, some companies also give a education to meet the worker capacity. With this respect, the
ordinary people can be got education for the future process of the company. The population in
Turkey is so high. There is high ratio unemployment in Turkey. According to Türkiye İstatisik
Kurumu, The ration of the unemployment is %9.9 in 2006. As a number of the workers, there is
no any problem; however it is difficult to find the skilled and experience workers because of the
insufficient education conditions.

A8. Capital availability; The capital availability is a problem for almost all the industries. It
leads to making itself superior among the other companies. The target audience of the company
is chemical, mechanical, plant, process, and design engineers; plant, process, engineering, and
maintenance managers; and other professionals concerned with extrusion. To manufacture of
extrusion machine, there is a need to have high capital availability. This is because this machine
has raw materials and equipments. It consumes energy and needs to maintenance. It is difficult to
find well skilled workers regarding maintenance. And lastly, the cost of workers comes out. In
Turkey, the supplement of those factors like raw materials, equipment or workers is more
difficult than China, Europe or ABD. This is because Turkey gets the some raw materials and
equipments from outside. The well qualified workers are not sufficient. In other words, it is so
costly. Also the energy reserve is very limited. For example, two or three months ago, there is
reserve problem regarding water. If water runs out at one time, the usage of electric will be
depended on the outside of country. That means the high cost.

Page 60
Figure 57 Capital Availability

A9. Global warming; Climate changes can affect the manufacturing process. Therefore, it is
necessary to have climate control in the manufacturing places. This leads to keeping in
temperature balance with respect to producing the machine. This climate control will not only
contribute to produce extrusion machine under the well conditioned place, but also it leads the
employers to work under the comfortable and cooled place.

Figure 58 Global Warming

A10. Economic crisis due to earthquake

The earthquakes are an indicator for the people to make their decisions more seriously. The
effects of earthquakes can be reduced with some precautions. To illustrate, the place must be
selected carefully with respect to dangerous zones. In other words, place which the factory is
established must not be become in the first degree dangerous zone. This is most important factor
to preserve the factory and tools in a safety. However, this economic crisis because of the
Page 61
earthquakes can affect the raw material supplier or any other factors which have contribution of
producing machine. At that time, the company can find any other supplier which is not affected
by the economic crisis.

Figure 59 Economic Analysis

A11. Economic crisis due to possible regional wars that our country may be involved in

The economic crisis is always a very serious problem for many countries without looking at the
causes of it. In other words, the economic crisis because of regional war, disaster, or any other
reasons is not important. Almost all the conditions can affect highly on the work conditions. If it
is emphasized more specific as a regional war, its results can create a serious problem. The
company profile is not embodied with its demands, workers and its popularity. There are other
indirect effects like stock market, foreign exchange and the some economical factors like
inflation or deflation. Under the possible wars condition, these factors can change dramatically in
a negative way. For example, the raw materials are supplied from abroad. This means that the
company will pay the bills with foreign money. At this respect, because of the inflation, the
company can suffer losses about money.

A12. Economic crisis due to other reasons

If the company has papers in BORSA, this can leads to an economic crisis for that company. The
values of the papers can decrease, and this can affect the financial position of the company.

Page 62
Figure 60 Economic Crisis

A13. Significant changes in Dollar ($) and Euro (€) parities

The changes of parities in Euro or Dollar are so effective the future condition of the company in
Turkey. The people in Turkey have many experiences with economic crisis because of the
sudden changes in Euro or Dollar. For instance, if the company supplied some raw materials
from outside or the company has some payments to the foreign company, this crisis can lead that
company to go bankrupt or to lose more money. Therefore, the economic policy must be planned
properly or carefully.

A14. Other factor that I can think of is advertisement. In order to be known by the customers,
the company should have a very close contact with the media. The media can make the company
the superior among the other companies. Also, the advertisements can be put on the popular
activities like sports, magazine or conferences.

Page 63
Figure 61 Advertisement

How do the following decisions/parameters change with respect to the above factors?

B1. Type of production system selected (ex: job shop, flow shop, etc)
B2. Raw materials and/or subcomponents used in manufacturing the product
B3. Selected layout for the manufacturing facility
B4. Supplier selection for equipment
B5. Supplier selection for raw materials
B6. Fixed costs for establishing the production facility
B7. Unit production costs
B8. Fixed costs for orders (depending on the order size, i.e. the number of machines ordered)

A. Impact of A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7 and A8 on B1

First of all, A2 and related to it, A3 have the most desired effects on B1. A3 is related to A2,
because the demand for the product in the whole market determines what the demand for a single
company’s products will be. If the general demand on the product is high, then the demand on
the company’s product also will be high. That is why A2 and A3 will have the same effect on
B1. Now discuss what this effect will be. If the demands are very high such as more than 100
machines per month, the production should be in a quick manner. Another point will be that the
company should not wait for the demand to produce the product; there should be a continuous

Page 64
production. So the most suitable production system for such a condition is the assembly line. If
A2 and A3 are low let say about 5-10 products per month, then you can choose a job shop
production system, where you will produce only if there is an order for your product. Actually,
A2 and A3 determine A1, the production volume characteristics. It means, you choose your
production volume characteristics according to demand. So if the demand is high, you have a
high mean of production and the reverse in the other way. So we can say that A1 has the same
effects as A2 and A3 on B1.

There are also other factors which have impact on B1. A4, for example, is also important for B1.
The location of the company is important, because it can change the demand on the company’s
products. So if the company is located to near of big cities or organized industrial regions, it can
need an assembly line again, because its sales will be higher compared to a company which is far
away from such centers and whose transportation costs are higher. Also the area and volume of
the company is an important factor on choosing the production system, because you may need a
wide and big place to perform an assembly line. On the other hand, a batch flow could need a
smaller place to perform.

Apart from these A5, A7 and A8 also have effects on B1. A5, the various product characteristics
may directly affects the production system. If the product consist of many subcomponents and
parts, it may be more logical to have a batch flow system. These different parts can be produced
at the same time and then brought together. For the extrusion machine, a batch flow can be
selected for instance, because the machine has many little parts. By producing it by an assembly
line could take a very much time and there should be a big place to have such as an assembly
system. But if the product is easier to produce and consist of fewer parts, an assembly line can be
selected for a quicker production. A7, the worker availability, also plays a role in the production
system. If you do not have enough number of workers to produce the subcomponents of the
product separately at the same time, then it would not be reasonable to choose a batch flow to
produce. So you should choose the assembly line in a condition like this. As said before, the
extrusion machine has many subcomponents and parts. So you should have many workers
available if you want to produce this product by batch flow system. If you do not have, you
should choose the assembly line system. And lastly A8, capital availability, has also impact on

Page 65
the selected production system. It is parallel to A7; if you do not have enough capital, then you
cannot have enough number of workers and that means an assembly line. Another point is that
you should have capital for the machines, too. For example, for an assembly line, you should
have a system where the components are scrolled on a line and the machines for this system
means money.

B. Impact of A5, A8 and A13 on B2

A5 has the most important effect on B2, because the characteristics of the product determine the
raw materials and subcomponents used in manufacturing it. If you want to produce a hard
product, you should choose raw material with high strength. Or if you want to have a soft, more
flexible product, then you should use raw materials alike to plastics. For example, by our
product, the extrusion machine, raw materials such as metals and steel should be chosen. But
there are also some parts which should be made of plastics.

Of course, your capital availability is also significant by choosing the raw materials. If you have
enough capital, then you can produce products of higher quality, where you use the best and
most suitable raw materials. But if you do not have, then you begin to look for ways to decrease
your production costs and you choose cheaper raw materials and you have a worse quality.

Another factor which affects B2 is A13, significant changes in Dollar and Euro. This can change
things especially for the companies which import their raw materials from foreign countries by
Dollar or Euro. By a change in Dollar or Euro, their raw materials’ prices can rise suddenly and
they should change their supplier or raw material in such a condition.

C. Impact of A1, A2, A3, A4, A6, A8, A9, A10 and A11 on B3

All A1, A2 and A3 are connected to each other for their impacts on B3. The connection between
A2 and A3 was written before; if A3 is high, then there is tendency of a high A2. And these two
have again a similar connection with A1. It is, if the demands are low, to have a high production

Page 66
volume would be senseless, so you have a low production mean. If the demands are high, the
production volume is also high to meet the demand. If all of these A1, A2 and A3 are high,
which means that you have a high production rate and high demand for your product, then you
are willing to have your company in a good layout, because you have to transport your products
easily. A4 is almost the same thing as B3, because location with respect to major demand
locations is directly a reason for the selected layout for the manufacturing facility.

A6, geographical and climatic conditions are indispensable for the layout selection of the
company. For example, if you want to ship your products by seaway, then it is important that you
locate your company near the seaside. Or if you have a company at the top of mountain let say, it
would be very hard to reach the company and ship company’s products. Also the climatic
conditions should be considered. An example for the climatic conditions can be that you select
the layout of your company in a town in Erzurum. Then you should venture that the roads will be
close for many days in winter because of the snow and your shipment can be made only in 8 or 9
months in a year.

A8, the capital investment determines the layout of the company. It is obvious that being located
in the middle of the big cities or organized industrial regions is more advantageous than being
located in a small town. But to select a layout for the company in an advantageous are such as
city centers is always very costly. For example, if you want to buy an area for your company in
Levent, İstanbul today, you should pay a lot of money. But you can buy an area in the same size
in Erzurum by paying much less. So if the capital investment is not so high, there is not a big
chance to select a good layout for the company.

A9, global warming, should be also considered by selecting B3. Global warming has not become
a fatal thing in Turkey yet, but it will become slowly. By choosing the layout of the company
you should take care of that the company is not located in a dry area, because it can become
much drier due to global warming. Another point can be that the sea level should be considered.
In Turkey, the sea level does not change so significant now, but for example in Holland
companies and houses at the seacoast are moved into the inner areas, because the sea level arises
very dangerously. This situation may occur in Turkey in the forthcoming years in Turkey.

Page 67
A10 and A11 are economic crisis based on two different reasons. First reason is the earthquake.
First of all the layout of the company should not be selected from a region with a high risk of
earthquake. This is the direct effect of A10 on B3. The second reason of the economic crisis is a
possible regional war. How it affects the selected layout of the manufacturing facility is that the
regions next to the countries, which can be the possible enemies in a war, should not be selected
as layout. For example, there is a conflict between Turkey and North Iraq nowadays because of
terrorism and there is a possibility of a forthcoming war in this area. So to choose the layout of
the company in Yüksekova, Hakkari is not logical.

D. Impact of A4, A5, A8 and A13 on B4

The manufacturing facility characteristics, A4, affect the supplier selection for equipment,
because the area and volume of the company determines which equipments can be used in it.
And location of the company is also important by selecting the equipment supplier, because
suppliers near the company are preferred because of the lower transportation costs.

Of course, various product characteristics (A5) are is the main criteria for equipment and
equipment supplier selection. The equipments in the company should be selected according to
the product characteristics. So the equipment supplier which can lead the exact needs for the
production will be selected by the company.

The capital investment (A8) of the company has a great influence on the supplier decision. The
equipments are very important and a long term investment. That is why they should be selected
properly, but if the capital investment is not enough equipments of less quality should be
selected. So the capital investment makes the company to select a suitable equipment supplier.

Significant changes in Dollar and Euro (A13) affect the decision of the companies if they want to
select their equipment suppliers from abroad or from supplier which work with firm abroad. For
example, if a sudden increase in Dollar or Euro occurs, it can be more advantageous for the
company to work with a regional supplier.

Page 68
E. Impact of A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A8, A11 and A13 on B5

A1, A2 and A3 can have impact on B5 in such a way that the unit prices for the raw materials of
the suppliers can change depending on the order size. The demand on the product and the
production volume determines the order size for the raw material. If you produce more, you
order more. Some suppliers can be more advantageous for small orders and some can be more
advantageous for large orders, because the unit cost may decrease for large orders.

It can be said that A4, A5, A8 and A13 have the same impacts on B5 as discussed above in D on
B4. The difference is that the suppliers are for equipment and for raw material, but for the factors
4, 5, 8 and 13 it does not matter. The impacts stay the same.

Different from B4, A11 (economic crisis due to possible regional war) has an effect on B5. If the
company has a trade with a country for its raw material, the relationship between this country
and company’s own country is very important. If there is a risk of a possible war between these
countries, the company should find another supplier in another area. For example, if the
company supplies their raw material from Iran and if a war occurs between Iran and Turkey, the
company cannot get its raw materials anymore. An embargo can be imposed on the trade
between these countries, so the company should change its supplier.

F. Impact of A1, A4, A6, A8, A10, A13 and A14 on B6

The production volume characteristics, A1, change the fixed cost for establishing the production
facility. If the production volume of the company will be high, then more equipment should be
bought to meet the high production rate. But if a company with a low production volume is
opened, then not so much machines are needed and the company’s fixed cost to establish
decreases. The area and volume of the company (A4) has the same effect on the fixed cost.
Lower area and volume means less equipment and less establishing fixed costs. Another

Page 69
important factor for the fixed establishing cost is the location of the company. This affects the
fixed costs for establishing the company very much, because to buy the area for the company is
one of the biggest parts of the establishing cost. As discussed before, if a location in the city
centers or near the big organized regional areas are selected, the fixed cost can be very high.
Geographical and climatic conditions (A6) can also be included in the fixed costs for
establishing. You may need to make some necessary attachments to the company to fit in the
geographical or climatic conditions. For example if the company is established in a very hot or
cold region, some air conditioners are needed in the company. Or if the company is in a bad
geographical area, it may need to build some new ways to reach the company.

As it has effect on many different parameters, the capital available (A8) has an impact also on
B6. It directly determines the fixed cost for establishing the production facility. The layout of the
company, its size, equipments should be selected according to the capital. The earthquake (A10)
may also influence the fixed costs for establishing, because if the company cares about the
earthquake, it searches for a safe area and a healthy building. If the company’s building will be
build newly, it should be build long lasting, which can increase the fixed cost.

Apart from these, an economic crisis in the country, no matter what its reason is, (A12) will
affect the fixed cost to establish a company directly. All the land, equipment prices can change
quickly in a crisis. The conditions to open a new company can be very harsh in such a crisis. The
last factor we can think of which can affect the fixed cost to establish a company is the
advertisement. If the company wants to be known widely, it should make a good advertisement
on the boards, in TV and radios etc. These advertisements mean money and it can counted as
establishing cost, if the company wants to let his name known by people as it is established.

G. Impact of A1, A4, A5, A7 and A13 on B7

Production volume characteristics (A1) play an important role in unit production cost. If you
have a large volume of production, which means that you can produce many products at the
same time by one process, the unit production costs will be lower. But if you are a small
producer, then your unit production cost is expected to be high. It depends also on the area and
volume of the company (A4). A small company cannot produce a lot at the same time.

Page 70
Product characteristics are main criteria for the unit production cost. Is the product a complicated
one to produce, what kind of raw materials are used for the product? These all are strongly
related to unit production cost. Another factor can be the workers available. How many workers
work to produce the product? Are they highly skilled workers? What are their wages? The
answers of these questions are also added to the unit production costs. The last factor that affects
the unit production cost is the significant changes in Euro and Dollar, which can change all the
raw material prices and workers’ wages. It means a significant change in unit production cost.

H. Impact of A1, A2, A3, A4, A6, A12 and A13 on B8

A1, A2 and A3 again together have an impact on the fixed cost for orders. If the demands are
high, the company’s production volume should be also high. It means that the company produces
large number of products and that is why large order sizes are made by the company. Large
orders mean low fixed costs for orders.

A4, the location of the company is very important for the fixed order costs; if the company is
located near the supplier or in a region easy to reach, the fixed cost for the order decreases, there
the shipment cost is lowered. But if the company is located in a far away area or in a area very
hard to reach (such as in an island or at top of a mountain) or in area with a bad climate (for
example in Erzurum; very hard to reach in winter) then the supplier may demand a higher order
cost for this company. As seen above the geographical and climatic conditions are also important

The last topics involved in the order cost are the economical crisis and significant changes in
Dollar and Euro. These both can change everything in the economy and the costs can rise

Page 71
Figure 62 Excel sheets of the impacts

5. SWOT analysis

First of all, it should be known what a SWOT analysis is to make it. SWOT Analysis is a
strategic planning tool used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
involved in a project or in a business venture. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swot_analysis) This
SWOT analysis will belong to the company that is going to be opened. In this SWOT analysis,
the strengths are the attributes of the company which will lead the company to achieve its
objectives. On the other side, the weaknesses are the attributes which will balk it from achieving
the objective or will harm the company by achieving the objective. Opportunities, like strengths,
are helpful for the company and threats, like weaknesses, are harmful for the company to achieve
its objectives. But they are different from strengths and weaknesses, which are internal factors,
as they are external factors.

Page 72
Figure 63. SWOT Analysis

There is also SWOT matrix (also known as TOWS matrix), which is a matrix of factors, where
opportunities and strengths form S-O, threats and strengths S-T, weaknesses and opportunities
W-O and weaknesses and threats W-T strategies. S-O strategies pursue opportunities which fit
the company’s strengths well. W-O strategies are to overcome weaknesses to pursue
opportunities. S-T strategies point out the strengths of the company which can be used to
overcome external threats. Lastly, W-T strategies are such as defensive plans, which prevent the
company from getting highly damaged by external threats because of its weaknesses.
(http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/swot/) The companies can use SWOT matrices to develop
better competitive strategies.

SWOT analysis is important for all the companies, as they use it to develop their self knowledge
and to develop the company’s competitive position. There exists some software for SWOT
analysis, which are widely used by the companies. One of them is SmartDraw, which can be
tried for free. It quickly and easily creates SWOT analysis diagrams and guides the user through
the process.

Page 73
Figure 64. SmartDraw Software

5.1. How much domestic market is there for the product? How do you think will it change?

In Turkey there is a small domestic market compared to global market of extrusion machines.
The market depends on import rather than export. Total import of Turkey is made mainly from
Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France. Approximately $100,000,000 was paid to Germany in
the last 5 years for extrusion machines. On the other hand, export is very small compared to
import in domestic market. The highest export value in the last 5 years was achieved in 2005 and
it was about $5,000,000. The countries, where the most export is made are India and Azerbaijan.
That is just one twentieth of the money paid to Germany in the 5 years. To sum up, there is not
enough production of extrusion machines in Turkey. Some machines are exported, but the import
is much more than the export. The related statistics about the domestic market are given below;

Page 74
Trade Trade NetWeight Trade
Period Reporter Partner Commodity Unit
Flow Value (kg) Quantity
Machines for preparing textile
fibres, other than Number
2002 Import Turkey World $47,015,962 3,187,710 610
carding/combing/drawing/r ... of items
[HS2002 code 844519]
Machines for preparing textile
fibres, other than Number
2003 Import Turkey World $71,702,251 3,845,567 859
carding/combing/drawing/r ... of items
[HS2002 code 844519]
Machines for preparing textile
fibres, other than Number
2004 Import Turkey World $48,515,946 2,384,417 810
carding/combing/drawing/r ... of items
[HS2002 code 844519]
Machines for preparing textile
fibres, other than Number
2005 Import Turkey World $48,577,200 2,670,162 491
carding/combing/drawing/r ... of items
[HS2002 code 844519]
Machines for preparing textile
fibres, other than Number
2006 Import Turkey World $19,485,446 1,130,206 285
carding/combing/drawing/r ... of items
[HS2002 code 844519]
Figure 65. Imports of Turkey Between 2002 and 2006

Top Import Partners in the selection (View Map)

Partner Title Trade Value
Germany $99,378,879
Switzerland $54,691,250
Italy $29,667,833
France $29,003,645
Japan $8,391,961
Other partners $14,163,237
Figure 66. Top import partners of Turkey between 2002 and 2006

Page 75
Figure 67. The map of the exporters of Turkey

The map shows from which areas Turkey buys extrusion machines. Much of the points meet in
Europe, especially in Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France.

Trade Trade NetWeight Quantity Trade

Period Reporter Partner Code
Flow Value (kg) Unit Quantity

2002 Export Turkey World 844519 $1,143,699 325,766 5 1,150

2003 Export Turkey World 844519 $1,328,368 495,379 5 599

2004 Export Turkey World 844519 $4,306,885 649,018 5 329

2005 Export Turkey World 844519 $5,189,450 1,551,476 5 517

2006 Export Turkey World 844519 $1,824,322 996,983 5 148

Figure 68. Exports of Turkey in the last 5 years

Page 76
Top Export Partners in the selection (View Map)
Partner Title Trade Value
India $3,171,539
Azerbaijan $2,424,124
Free Zones $1,792,687
Syria $1,560,038
Egypt $710,924
Other partners $4,133,412
Figure 69. Top exporters of Turkey between 2002 and 2006

Figure 70. The map of the importers from Turkey

The map shows that the export locations for Turkey are mostly located in the East.

As it can be understood from the statistics, the domestic market is not stable. For example,
import increases from 2002 to 2003, then it decreases from 2003 to 2004 and it again decreases
from 2004 to 2005. By exports there is a rise for 4 years from 2002 to 2005, but there was a

Page 77
decrease between 2005 and 2006. So it is hard to estimate the future of the domestic market, but
by paying attention to the developments in the machinery and technology, where the extrusion
machining is used very commonly, it can be said that there will be a rise in the domestic market.
It should be also considered that the prices for both export and import of the extrusion machines
increase. For example in 2004, 810 machines could be imported for about $48,000,000, but it
decreased to a 491 machines in 2005 for almost the same amount of money. By exports it is the
same; in 2002, 1,150 machines should be exported to become $1,150,000, but in 2006,
$1,800,000 can be gained only by 148 machines. So, there the prices of the machines increase, it
becomes for logical from day to day to produce it by own rather than importing it. That is why it
can be said that in domestic market there will be a need for companies, which will produce
extrusion machines. These companies can be advantageous over the companies in the global
market, because importing prices are very high. If the machines are produced and sold in the
domestic market, it can save money for the customers. In other words, there is a great potential
for such a company in domestic market.

5.2. How much global market is there for the product? How do you think it will change?

As it is noted before the extrusion machinery is used widely in many different areas. That is why
it has a huge domestic market. From the databases of Comtrade database of United Nations
(UN), it can be seen that the market is huge and it tends to grow. The leading country for exports
of extrusion machinery was Germany in 2006. Italy, Switzerland, France and USA were
following him. Germany had a total export of $156,893,000, where the total import was
$493,811,247. The leading country for the imports was India in 2006 and Pakistan, China,
Turkey and Germany were thereafter. India had a import of $48,938,586, where the total import
for 2006 was $250,733,805. The statistics below show the values of the 5 leading countries for
imports and exports in 2006;

Page 78
Top Importers in the selection (View Map)
Reporter Title Trade Value
India $48,938,586
Pakistan $30,042,948
China $22,000,204
Turkey $19,485,446
Germany $13,118,000
Other reporters $117,148,621
Total Import: $250,733,805

Figure 71. Top importers in the world in 2006

Top Exporters in the selection (View Map)

Reporter Title Trade Value
Germany $156,893,000
Italy $74,732,513
Switzerland $54,069,878
France $41,039,593
USA $37,512,811
Other reporters $129,563,452
Total Export: $493,811,247

Figure 72. Top exporters in the world in 2006

If we look at the table of the imports and exports for the last 5 years, we see that the order of the
leading exporters is the same as in 2006. There is a huge gap between Germany’s exports and the
countries’ below it. Germany’s export is nearly a triple of the follower Italy.

Page 79
The order of the top importers for the last 5 years is a bit different than the importers of year
2006. Turkey seems to the leading country for extrusion machines’ import in the world. It
consumed a $235,296,805 for extrusion machines in the last 5 years. Pakistan, China, Thailand
and India follow him, where the total import was $1,462,150,821. The statistics below show the
numbers for the last 5 years;

Top Importers in the selection (View Map)

Reporter Title Trade Value
Turkey $235,296,805
Pakistan $132,628,003
China $119,867,048
Thailand $116,034,624
India $113,643,745
Other reporters $744,680,596
Total Import: $1,462,150,821

Figure 73. Top importers in the world in the last 5 years

Top Exporters in the selection (View Map)
Reporter Title Trade Value
Germany $1,098,963,000
Italy $350,792,757
Switzerland $207,330,628
France $182,229,600
USA $178,785,190
Other reporters $512,299,105
Total Export: $2,530,400,280

Figure 74. Top exporters in the world in the last 5 years

Page 80
The first map below shows the leading importer countries of the extrusion machine in the last 5
years and the second map shows the exporters for the same conditions;

Figure 75. Top importers in the world in the last 5 years

Figure 76. Top exporters in the world in the last 5 years

Page 81
Recent Import Years in the selection
Period Trade Value
2006 $250,733,805
2005 $330,888,815
2004 $334,168,716
2003 $293,019,223
2002 $253,340,262

Figure 77. Import values of the last 5 years

Recent Exports Years in the selection

Period Trade Value
2006 $493,811,247
2005 $474,145,066
2004 $645,227,663
2003 $498,963,822
2002 $418,252,482

Figure 78. Export values of the last 5 years

As the recent imports and exports of the last 5 years above show, the global market is also not
stable like the domestic market for this product. There are generally increases in the exports and
imports, but sometimes decreases also occur. For example, between 2005 and 2006, the imports
were decreased by about $80,000,000 and the exports were decreased between 2004 and 2005 by
about $170,000,000. These examples tell that the market is not stable and it does not grow
continuously. But such as for the domestic market, it can be again said that the market for this
product tends to grow up, because the areas where the machine can be used are expanding and
accumulating every day due to developing of technology and machinery rapidly and
continuously. It means that more need for extrusion machines will be there, as these machines
are used in a very wide variety of production. For example, in 2006, China produced more than
Page 82
25,000 extrusion machines and the extrusion machining is becoming more indispensable from
day to day for China’s machinery export.
(http://plastics.2456.com/eng/epub/n_details.asp?epubiid=3&id=1981). This example clearly
shows the importance of the extrusion machinery and its future.

5.3. (S) Strengths of operating in Turkey and strengths that you believe do not exist in
other companies to the degree that you have

First of all, it is obvious that extrusion machinery has a very large market, but it is not developed
in Turkey yet. It means that the market in Turkey tends to grow in future and extrusion
machining is a potential profitable area in Turkey. It is showed in part 5.1 that imports of
extrusion machines are low in Turkey. So if a company is established in Turkey, it will not have
many global competitors. Companies in domestic market will be the competitors and they can be
passed. That is why operating in Turkey is advantageous and can be seen as one of the
company’s strengths.

Apart from that other strengths of the company can be listed as;

 As the company is newly constructed, skilled, determined workers, who can bring the
company to a pretentious place in the market, can be selected and hired.

 Quality processes and procedures can be carried out in the company.

 At the beginning there will be a small amount of customers and work, that is why a really
good customer care can be given to those customers and some loyal customers can be
gained and a good prestige can be achieved in this way.

 Being a small company at the beginning also means little overhead, so prices can be kept
low, which makes the customers to prefer our company. Low prices can be advantageous
to enter the market, too.

Page 83
 Last point is that a small company can easily change direction if the approach does not
work. In a big company with many workers, machines and processes, it would be very
hard and costly.

5.4. (W) Weaknesses compared to local and global competitors

 The company should start with a weak brand name, which means that the customers will
not know the company at the beginning and will look at the products of the company a bit

 The company needs some time to get known and preferred because it has no market
reputation and presence at the beginning.

 The cash flow may be insufficient, if the builders do not have enough capital at the

 The patents of the products that you want to produce or the machines that you are going
to use in production can belong to others and that is why you should pay money for them.

5.5. (O) Opportunities in the domestic and global market

 In Turkey, there is a small market for the product, which can be entered easily and then
even dominated.
 The number of the companies which are associated with this area is low, in other words
there are not so many competitors for the company.
 The business sector is expanding, so there will be many opportunities and chances to
success in the future for the company.
 The competitors may be too slow to adopt new technologies and approaches, as they have
a steady system and it can be hard to change it.

Page 84
To see the opportunities in the market better we carry the data of the exporters, importers and the
trade values between them in an Excel sheet and then use them in Omniscope to analyze them.
Here is a general view to the market;

Page 85
Figure 78. Omniscope- General view

Page 86
If we look at the imports of the countries separately, we realize that there are opportunities for
our company especially in Iran, India and Romania. In the market of Romania there exist 5
exporters including Turkey, USA, China, France and Germany. This market is advantageous for
our company, because Turkey is already one of the exporters, so Turkish machines are familiar
in Romania and a new company from Turkey can enter the market if it produces high quality
products with low prices. Another point is that there are not so many competitors in the market.
Companies in Turkey have an advantage over the other one; they are more close to Romania,
that is why transportation from Turkey can be made more easily and service and lead times will
be shorter. So, Romania is a good opportunity for our company. Other opportunities are the
market in India and Iran. There are a few exporters to Iran and Turkey is not one of them. If the
political problems can be passed beyond, then a company from Turkey can dominate the market
in Iran against the existing exporters, China, France, Germany, India and Switzerland because of
its near location to Iran. And the last opportunity is the market in India, where companies from
Turkey already exist. This market is a good opportunity, because India is one of the biggest
importers of this product in the world and Turkish products are already sold there. In other words
there is a huge market in India for the product and you do not to become dominant in there to
make good gains. If the company becomes one of the known Turkish companies in India, a lot of
machines can be sold to India. That is why this market is a big opportunity, which should be
entered. The related tables belonging to these 3 markets are given below;

Page 87
Figure 79. Omniscope for the market in Iran

Page 88
Figure 80. Omniscope for the market in Romania

Figure 81. Omniscope for the market in India

Page 89
5.6. (T) Threats to the success of the business and ways to avoid or minimize them

 A possible earthquake in the region of the company or the customer companies, which
can cause to breaking down of the companies. This threat can be avoided by building the
company in a safe region and strongly. But there is nothing to do when your customers
do not have safe buildings.

 A possible regional or global war which may affect the country’s economy. The
precaution to minimize the damage from a war can be not to trade with companies of a
possible involver of a war. The company should always have other options and
approaches for such an unexpected threat.

 A possible economic crisis, which can make the purchasing power decrease and the
manufacturing costs increase. Economic crisis can often occur in Turkey, that is why a
company should determine its strategies in a possible forthcoming crisis and apply them
when it occurs.

 The market can be changed or improved due to developments and changes in technology
and the company may not adopt these new changes, so it can not be a competitive
company in the market any more. The solution for this treat is to watch the developments
and innovations in technology very closely. The company can even have an innovation
management facility to adopt all the innovations in the technology.

 The changes in the strategies of large competitors may affect the market and company
very efficiently. It can cause to wipe out the market position the company has achieved.
At the early levels you cannot do anything about this situation, you just can hope that
such a thing does not happen. A possible prevention is maybe to work to grow up
rapidly, so you are not affected by decisions of large competitors.

 There can be price wars with the competitors and these wars may make the company to
lose money. Especially large competitors may reduce the prices very much and small
ones cannot answer it. The possible prevention is the same as the above one again.

Page 90
 A new competitor may enter the market. The company should always take into account a
possible new company entering the market by determining its strategies. The company
should produce products of high quality and minimum possible cost, so other companies
cannot compete with it.

 High taxation may be introduced on the product or service by government. Here again,
you have nothing to do, you just wish that the government does not do it.

6. Service System

6.1. Detailed Service System

The service system is very important for the customers’ happiness of the company. All the
customers want to buy products of good quality with appropriate price, but that is not all. Even
products of good quality may be broken down after some time. At that point the customer
expects the company to solve his/her problem with the product. The company should deliver
service by its configuration of technology and organizational network to meet the demands and
needs of the customer. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_system) Its service system is also
an important criterion by choosing a company such as its products’ prices and quality. That is
why it should be established properly. We plan to sell extrusion machines to both local and
global customers and extrusion machines may broke down after some time. So our company
should have an organized and broad service system, which can meet the needs and wants of all
the customers.

First of all the locations of the service centers should be selected. Presuming that the company is
located in Istanbul, Izmit or Adapazarı, one service center will be located in the location of the
company, because repairs can be also made in the company where the production will be made.
We assume that the products will be sold to all over Turkey. That is why we need 3 more service
centers in Turkey at the beginning. One can be located in Ankara and serve there and in the East
of Turkey. For example, if there is a problem in the machine, which is sold to a company in
Sivas, it will be sent to the service center in Ankara, repaired there and then will sent back to

Page 91
Sivas. The third service center should be located in the South of Turkey, in Antalya or Adana.
We think that Adana could be better, because it is more developed in industry than Antalya and
more machines can be used there. This third service center is responsible for southern Turkey.
The fourth and last service center will be located in Izmir, in the Western of Turkey. These
service points will be adequate for Turkey at the beginning. If the company grows in the later
stages and its sales increase, then other service points can be opened looking at the areas where
the most sales are made. For example, after 5 years the company may begin to sell a noticeable
number of machines to Trabzon. Then if the service demand cannot be met by the service center
in Ankara, a new service center can be opened in Trabzon. Mostly high way and sometimes
railroad will be used by the services. That should be also taking into account. Transportation can
be a serious problem in the Eastern of Turkey especially in winter and that is why a service
center in the East can also be opened if the sales to this area are high. One of the Erzurum or
Erzincan could be selected for the service center location in the East.

The service to the customer outside of Turkey will be harder. We think that it is not logical to
open a service center outside of Turkey at the beginning. If the company gets really strong by
the time and becomes one of the competitors in the global market, then service centers can be
opened abroad. But at the early stages the products of the customers from abroad can be brought
to Turkey and they can be sent back after the appropriate service. İzmir and İstanbul can be the
contact points for the customers in Europe or at the Black Sea, because they can be reached
easily by the sea- or highway. If there are customers in the Middle East they can send the
product to Ankara by highway or Adana by seaway. If there is a country to which the sales are
really high, then a service center can be opened in this country to meet the wants of the
customers more quickly. India and Azerbaijan are such potential countries, because they have
high imports from Turkey. Selected and potential service centers are shown in the map below;

Page 92
Figure 92. Service centers in Turkey

The lead times that will be quoted to customers depend on the location of the customer. In the
domestic market the lead times will not be long, because we plan to open service centers, from
which all the cities in Turkey can reached. The lead times in the domestic market will be
approximately 1 week. The lead time may be a bit longer only for the cities in the East, because
the transportation can be a problem. But if a service center is opened in Erzincan or Erzurum the
lead times will also not exceed 1 week in the East. But for the global market, the lead times are
much longer. It can take 1 or 2 months where the sea routes are used and up to 3-4 months where
the highways are used. That is why it seems to be logical to have service centers in the countries
where the company exports much. Of course another criterion for the time of the services apart
from the destination is the kind of the defect of the product and how busy the service point is. If
the product can be repaired easily, there is no problem, but sometimes is can take a long time or
it cannot be repaired where it should be changed with a new product or the service center may be
very busy at that time with waiting machines in the line and the product should wait in the
service center for the repair. All these conditions may longer the service time.

The services that will be offered by our company begin by a detailed manual of the product,
which will be sent to the user by the product. We think that the manual is a type of service and it
is very important, because the machines are complex to operate and many steps should be

Page 93
followed to operate them properly. The machines can be damaged if they are not used
appropriately. That is why a detailed manual is the first step of the services. The manual will be
in Turkish, English and different languages depend on the exporting countries. Apart from that
the service points will work as call centers, where the customers can call and ask about their
problems. If there is a need to repair the machine, there are two options. First one is; if the
machine can be repaired where it is, then a repairman can be sent to the company and the service
is given there. If the problem is more complex and it is impossible to repair it by a repairman in
its location, then the machine is taken and brought to the service center or if needed to the
company in İstanbul. If the problem is solved, it is then sent back to the customer. If the defect is
because of the product, then it is repaired for free. It can be also changed by a new one if there is
a flaw. But if the defect is due to mistake of the user, then the customer should pay for the

6.2. UML Diagram for the Service Systems

Page 94
Page 95
Figure 93. UML Diagram for the service system

7. Profit Patterns and Competitive Strategies

7.1. Profit Patterns appropriate for the product and industry

The profit patterns which will be followed by the company are very important for the progress
the company will have. Right patterns can bring the company in a very good position in the
market. Now, we look at the patterns which are most appropriate for our product and market.

We will discuss the profit patterns under seven different topics. First of them is the channel. We
think that the most appropriate channel type for our company and market is the concentration
which is used by Carrefour, USA Waste etc, since the industrial capacity of the company and the
market are high and technological innovations occur at a high rate and quickly. Apart from that
we believe that there is an untapped opportunity to exploit in the economies of scale especially
in the domestic market, since the market is growing and there are no real local rivals in the
market. This means if the company succeeds beating the global rivals, it can have an exploit in
the economy. If a new player, who is big enough to be a rival, enters the market, it results
changes in a large scale, but the small one does not affect it so much. Customers are dissatisfied
if the prices are high and that their selections are limited. So the appropriate profit patterns for
this channel are acquisition of the smaller players and consolidation of some parts of the
operation. Apart from these, customers can be made more satisfied through lower prices and
better selections.

In the customer topic, two different profit patterns can be chosen and applied to our market. One
of them is redefinition, which is used by Coke and DuPont. It exists where the profits from
traditional customers are low and players of decision-making are shifting to new actors. This
situation is appropriate for our company and the market, because if a new and strong company
enters the market, some players may shift to this new actor. It is also right that the profit from
the traditional customers is low, because they often need service for their products and they do
not tend to buy new products. There exists also an untapped group of customers and segments.
So one profit pattern is to target these untapped customers and segment and getting high profit
from them. The second strategy is profit shift, which is used by Kanthal. By this profit pattern
Page 96
you try to build strong relationships with highly profitable customers and you eliminate
unprofitable customers. A company may use this pattern if it is strong enough to refuse to work
with low profitable customers and it targets only the highly profitable ones.

For the knowledge, product to customer knowledge will be used such as in Coke and P&G. This
strategy involves little differentiation among products and in our market there are a limited
number of products. Customers have preferences, price sensitivity and buying behavior. The
profit pattern is the value creation where you make targeted sales and continuous, successful
innovations. Efficient marketing can also be applied where inventory and stock out reductions
can be made and mass marketing can be applied.

In the topic mass, the company should work under “Back to Profit”, which is applied by Swiss
and Starbucks. In this strategy, the customers’ priorities should be met and there are new
applications exist and real innovations can be made. The profit pattern appropriate to our
company is to make strategic and new business approaches. If good approaches are made, the
company can rise easily in the market.

For the organization, two ways can be followed. First of them is the skill shift, which is used by
HP and Pfizer. By the skill shift customers’ priorities are highly important and they are future
defining. In the market there exist some anticipating changes and current products, capabilities
and services are still inadequate. This situation matches with the present domestic market. That
is why it is logical to be able to make managerial, functional and technical shifts. These shifts
are the profit patterns for a newly constructed company in the domestic market. Organizational
focuses, resources and composition of skill sets can be changed by this pattern. Another scenario
is that the company grows and becomes one of the leading companies in the market. Then the
situation becomes “Cornerstoning” such as by Microsoft. The company’s growth rates are high,
its future prospects exist, capabilities and strengths of the company are high and it has
competitors in the market. In such a situation the profit patterns to follow should be
maximization of the market share in the business core.

Between the products, product to solution is the most appropriate for our product. After the sale
of the product, value shifts to product parts sales and services can be made. Price and quality

Page 97
variations are high, since there are a lot of companies and therefore a lot of products. More than
one vendor is needed for the production, because the product consists of many different parts
and the coordination for the production and sales is hard to make. So, a profit pattern of
integrated offering should be applied for our product, where a solution package is designed and
delivered for the product, service and finance. The costs for the customers and the complexity of
the operations are tried to be minimized.

For the value chain, we have “Reintegration” which is used by Merck and LVMH. The relation
among the chain steps are based on the benefit shift. The suppliers are weak and channel
partners are inefficient. The profit pattern that should be applied is to have control over customer
relationships and product presentation. The attractiveness and uniqueness of customer’s
offerings can be enhanced. Apart from these balancing the power between customer and supplier
and moving closer to the customer are effective ways.

7.2. Other Competitive Strategies

First competitive strategy we can think of is advertisement. Especially in the early stages,
advertisement is very critical. The company can have a known brand name by advertisement and
it is a good reason to be chosen. Another strategy can be hiring experienced and creative workers
in the industry, so the company may have efficient production and new ideas. For the new ideas
even an innovation department can be created in the company. If the workers have really good
ideas or strategies to improve the production or lower the costs, they can be given bonuses. The
prices of the competitive firms should be checked continuously and some balances can be made
according to these prices. If we have a large, strong company and if our unit production costs are
low, then we can sell our products with low prices to eliminate weaker companies with higher
unit production costs and we can be selected by more customers. If you trust to the quality of
your products, you can give longer guarantee times than the ones existing in the industry. It
makes people think that you produce products of higher quality than others and longer guarantee
times are reason to prefer a product. Some promotions can be made at the beginning, for
example installation of the machine can be made for free and then the first three services let say

Page 98
can be also for free. Other promotions can be given to the customers. An example can be that the
customers can be sent to holiday to a hotel if they buy a certain number of machines.

8. Innovation Management

Innovation is introducing of something new or a new method, idea or device in its simplest
explanation. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation) Improvements are made in the related
area by introducing new things. So, establishing a culture of continuous innovation means that
there should be always new introductions and improvements in the company. Innovations can be
made in 5 different areas.

First of them is the product innovation. In this type of innovation, a new and different product is
created and developed or an already existing product is changed or developed and become
something different than from its previous form. The source for this innovation is the needs of
the customers. The demands will show the producers how and in which direction they can
change the products.

The second one is the innovation of the service system. In this one, a noticeable change should
be made in the service approach or a nonexistent one should be found. The offering or
distributing style of the existing system also can be changed. Banking through web was a good
example for this kind of innovation.

Another type is innovation in the process. That is about the production processes of the product.
This innovation is made within the company, where more efficient production processes are
tried to be found.

The innovation in marketing the product is the fourth one. Some new marketing strategies and
packing of the product is included in this part. The packs of some products can be very
important for their sales, if they are attractive, they can be chosen more for example.

The last type of innovation is about organization. New working styles and schedules can be
introduced and the existing ones can be improved.

Page 99
For our company all of the product, service system, process, marketing and organization
innovations can be made excluding the packing innovations. How to establish a culture of
continuous innovation for all of these parts will be discussed below.

First of all we begin with defining what a organizational culture of a company is. That is the
shared experiences, norms, values and beliefs that shape the individual and group behaviors in
the company. (http://www.1000advices.com/guru/innovation_culture_sk.html) Every
organization has a culture, but our aim is to make our company to have innovational one. In
many companies there are some training and development programs to teach the culture of the
company to new employees and to lead the managers to become better leaders and influence the
company’s culture. The culture of a company is shaped with all the external and internal events
and decisions. The factors that lead to forming the culture of the company are shown below;

Figure 94. Model for the Establishing of Culture

External environment cannot be controlled by the company, but the other factor should be
treated carefully. Leadership is how the leader or managers of the company make their decisions
and influence the strategies of the company. This fact is very important, because most of the
workers take the styles of the leaders as an example and they want to be like them. So an
innovative leader or manager would encourage the workers to be innovative. Being an
innovative leader self and hiring innovative managers can be the first step of creating a culture of
Page 100
innovation in the company. Processes are the strategies used in the company and accomplishing
styles of the work. Structures are the formal organizing principles of the company which lead
worker to collaborate and guide their behaviors. People include all the employees, suppliers,
managers etc. These people perform together to achieve a common goal. Metrics and incentives
are some measures which show the behavior of the individuals, departments and teams. And
lastly technology, as it is known, is the abilities and capabilities to provide and deliver values.

A vision of the ideal state of the company in the future can be constructed by the leaders of the
company. This vision should have an innovative side in itself and should describe the
importance of innovation to achieve the ideal state. So, in this way all the workers in the
company seize the critical role of innovation and all can work for it. Communication with the
employees is very important at that point. A strong and healthy communication should be
created between leaders and workers, so that the goals and innovative approaches of the
company can be understood well by the workers.

Apart from these freedom of thinking and speech is very important by creating a culture for
innovation. People should think freely and they should be free to speak out their ideas. Such an
atmosphere should be created in the company, that no worker should feels himself/herself under
pressure and that he/she should know that his/her ideas will be considered by the leaders. For
such an atmosphere, the leader and managers should be open-minded. If a worker does not agree
with his strategies, ideas or methods, he should listen to him carefully and take his worker’s
ideas into the account. Colin Powell says about this topic: “If you have a yes-man in your
organization, one of you is redundant.”
(http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/innovation_system_culture.html) It clearly
shows the importance of different ideas in the company.

Other strategies that a company can or may be should establish are listed below;

 Emphasizing not the past but the future

 Giving possibilities to its workers, not constraints

 Encourage workers to take risk if they really have a new idea

Page 101
 As it is discussed above ensure workers their personal freedom and trust all of them

 Share all the information that you have with the workers in the company

 Let departments to work together and cooperate, do not put barriers between them

 Speak individually to workers if necessary and always try to motivate them

 Encourage workers to think for the long-term

 Award a prize to workers or departments if they are successful.

9. Framework for Planning a Manufacturing System

Page 102
Figure 95. UML Diagram for the Framework of the Project
Page 103
 Retrieved from http://www.polymerprocessing.com/operations/sscrew/index.html , 2007,
 Retrieved from
mp_type__51758.html , 2007, December,15
 Retrieved from http://www.manufacturingtalk.com/news/kra/kra121.html , 2007,
 Retrieved from
f12873a344430e , 2007, December,17
 Retrieved from http://www.clextrusion.com/imagesom/pdf/09uk.pdf ,2007, December,17
 Retrieved from www.flitetech.com/about.htm , 2007, December,17
 Retrieved from http://www.xrkj.cn/english/ProductShow.asp?ArticleID=356 , 2007,
 Retrieved from
ame=PIPE%20EXTRUSION%20LINES , 2007, December,17
 Retrieved from
ame=PIPE%20EXTRUSION%20LINES , 2007, December,17
 Retrieved from http://www.feedscrews.com/listnews/31 , 2007, December,22
 Retrieved from http://www.tangram.co.uk/TI-Polymer-Extrusion_Definitions.html ,
2007, December,22
 Retrieved from http://www.senmak.com/enjeksiyon.htm , 2007, December,22
 Retrieved from http://www.atstc.com/screw_and_barrel.html , 2007, December,22
 Retrieved from http://www.made-in-china.com/showroom/xindjx/product-
detailBoIxlLfHOpcg/China-Coinical-Twin-Screw-Extruder.html , 2007, December,22

Page 104
 Retrieved from http://www.made-in-china.com/showroom/wuhemachine/product-
detailSqXnrvzUCtWC/China-Single-Screw-Extruder.html , 2007, December,22
 Retrieved from http://www.mdionline.net/ , 2007, December,25
 Retrieved from http://www.texasextrusion.com/barrels_feed_screws.htm , 2007,
 Retrieved from
http://www.engormix.com/adding_flexibility_to_the_e_articles_498_BAL.htm , 2007,
 Retrieved from
http://www.b2bchinasources.com/showroom.php?c=4085&f=5&p=0000002249 , 2007,
 Retrieved from http://www.b2bchinasources.com/China-Manufacturers-58/Single-Screw-
Extruders.html , 2007, December,28
 Retrieved from http://www.thermo.com/com/cda/landingpage/0,10255,645,00.html,
2007, December,28
 Retrieved from http://www.pelletizer.com/?gclid=CJPk_MbYrJACFQuuQwoddhfghQ,
2007, December,28
 Retrieved from
http://www.b2bchinasources.com/showroom.php?c=4085&f=5&p=0000002249 , 2007,

 Retrieved from http://images.google.com.tr/imgres?imgurl=http://www.corrugated-

D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dtr%26sa%3DN , 2007, December,28

 Retrieved from http://www.schaaf-technologie.de/preextru.html , 2007, December,29

Page 105
 Retrieved from
NA_enTR252TR252%26sa%3DN,2007, December, 29

 Retrieved from
SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7SUNA%26sa%3DN, 2007, December,29

 Retrieved from http://www.xrkj.cn/english/ProductShow.asp?ArticleID=356 , 2007,


 Retrieved from http://www.shop.com/, 2008, January, 2

 Retrieved from http://www.plasticservice.com/, 2008, January, 2

 Retrieved from http://www.fuzing.com/qrx/31/sheet-extrusion , 2008, January, 7

 Retrieved from http://www.1000advices.com/guru/org_culture_growth_uzs.html, 2008,

January ,25

 Retrieved from http://www.smartdraw.com/exp/pre/product/ , 2008, January 25

Page 106
 Retrieved from
&r=792&p=0&rg=1&y=2006,2005,2004,2003,2002&so=8, 2008, January 24

 Retrieved from
&y=2006,2005,2004,2003,2002&so=8, 2008, January 25

 Retrieved from
&rg=2&y=2006,2005,2004,2003,2002&so=8, 2008, January 25

 Retrieved from
http://comtrade.un.org/db/ce/ceSnapshot.aspx?y=2006&px=H2%20&cc=844519 2008,
January 25

 Retrieved from
http://comtrade.un.org/db/ce/ceSnapshot.aspx?y=all&px=H2%20&cc=844519 2008,
January 25

 Retrieved from
http://comtrade.un.org/db/ce/ceSnapshot.aspx?y=all&px=H2%20&cc=844519 2008,
January 25

 Retrieved from http://www.1000advices.com/guru/innovation_culture_sk.html 2008,

January 25

Page 107