Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

UNIVERSAL

REFERENCE GRAMMAR


:
. . , . .

, -
--,
2013

www.phoenixbooks.ru

811.111`36
81.2-2
803
59
:
, . . ;
, . . ;
, . . .
, ,
, ,
59

/ . ..
, .. . - 12-. : -;
/: , 2013. 280 .: .
ISBN 978-5-222-20358-3 ()
ISBN 5-7651-0016-3 (-)
. , ,
, .
,
, .
, , ,
. .

______________________________________________


. .
. .
06.10.2012 . 84 108 1/16.
. . 17,5 ..
5000 .

344082, . --, . , 80
: www.phoenixrostov.ru
-: www.phoenixbooks.ru
. / (863) 261-89-50, 261-89-59
-
127521, , 17 . , .1, . 9
.: (495) 618-07-41, 8-915-187-73-57, e-mail: book@glossa.ru

ISBN 978-5-222-20358-3 ()
ISBN 5-7651-0016-3 (-)

-,
1994, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001,
2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008
. . , . .

www.phoenixbooks.ru

, .
: ; ; ; ; .
, , , , , , , , , .
,
.
, ,
-ing .
,
, .
- ,
, .
, , : 1) ; 2)
.
, .. ,
, , , 1 He explained me, : . : He explained to me.
, ,
.. . . , .
, :
2 I suggest they go to the museum.
I suggest they should go to the museum.
,
, .
, . ,
1
2

.
.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

, .
, .
,
, .
,
, . .
. .
,
. . . , , LINGUA . , , . . , 1272 . .
.
.
. , .

www.phoenixbooks.ru

MORPHOLOGY
()

www.phoenixbooks.ru

PARTS OF SPEECH
( )

:


the Noun
the Adjective
the Numeral
the Pronoun
the Verb
the Adverb
the Preposition
the Conjunction
the Interjection

www.phoenixbooks.ru

THE NOUN
(hl qryeqbhek|mne)


, : who is this? what is this? ( ? ?).

: a table, a book (); this table, that book ( ); my
book, my table ( ); with sugar (). , : ( ), ( ), ( , ).
.
.
, () ().
(class-nouns),
(names of materials), (abstract nouns).
, , , ,
..
, , : the bourgeoisie, furniture ..
, :
command commander commander-in-chief.

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS


( )
: .
, . , :
Carol wants an (one) apple. .
Carol has seven (a few, enough, some, several, a lot of, many) friends. (, , , ) .
, :
a ship, the ship, the ships

www.phoenixbooks.ru

,
. . :
They drank a little (much, some, enough, a great deal of, a lot of) tea. (, ) .
Knowledge is power. .
:
: education, music, time, courage, loneliness;
: cotton, hair, plastic, silk;
,
: cooking, exploring, farming, reading;
: chocolate, corn, fish, pasta, rice, meat;
: air, smoke, helium, oxygen;
: water, lemonade, milk, tea;
: cold, electricity, weather, rain, thunder;
: dust, sand, sugar, salt.
!
. :
advice
garbage
mail
information
homework
money
equipment
jewelry
news
furniture
luggage
work
, , ( . . 11). , , :
Corn is more valuable than gold. It feeds millions of people.
, . .

; . :
Our house is made of brick. .
He carried a brick in each hand. .

NUMBER ()
: .
1. :
a cup, a table, a teacher, a day.
2. -s -es:
a sea seas, a tent tents, a bus buses.
, , :

www.phoenixbooks.ru

THE NOUN ( )

, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -z, -es :


a process processes; a box boxes;
, -,
-es -s:
hero heroes, potato potatoes, tomato tomatoes
bamboos, photos, pianos, radios, solos, videos.
, -o, -s/-es:
cargo cargos/cargoes, volcano volcanoes/volcanos;
, -y , -
-i:
a baby babies, a country countries;
, -y , -y .
a day days, a boy boys;
, -f -fe,
-ves:
a wife wives, a knife knives, a shelf shelves, life lives, wolf,
self, calf, leaf, loaf, chief, half, thief, sheaf.
:
a handkerchief handkerchiefs, a roof roofs, a proof proofs, a belief
beliefs;
a hoof hoofs/hooves, a scarf scarfs/scarves, a wharf wharfs/wharves.


1. ,
:
a man men, a woman women, a tooth teeth, a foot feet;
a goose geese, a mouse mice, ..
2. ,
:
aircraft ( ), deer ( );
means ( ), salmon ( );
series ( , );
sheep ( ), trout ( );
works ( ).
3. child children.
4. ox oxen.
5. penny pence,
, pennies, :
It costs three pence. 3 .
Pennies are made of bronze. .

www.phoenixbooks.ru

10

6. gate, sledge, watch, clock :


The gate is open. .
My watch is slow. .
( ,
.)
All the gates are open. .
He has two watches. .
7. man-, woman-
:
a man-servant men-servants
8. , , s , :
a mother-in-law mothers-in-law
a commander-in-chief commanders-in-chief
9. - , (
, , ,
):
-us -es (horus choruses, circus circuses, bonus bonuses
.), -i (stimulus stimuli), (actus
cactuses/cacti; , focus, nucleus, radius,
syllabus);
-a -ae (alumna alumnae, larva larvae), -s
(area areas, arena arenas, dilemma dilemmas, diploma diplomas, drama
dramas .), (antenna antennas, ,
antennae ; formula formulas formulae ;
-um -s (album albums, museum museums, chrysanthemum
chrysanthemums, stadium stadiums .), -a (stratum strata, curriculum
curricula), (symposium symposiums/symposia, memorandum
memorandums/memoranda .);
-ex, -ix
-es -ices (index indices/indexes,
appendix appendices/appendixes, matrix matrices/matrixes)
-ices codex codices;
-is ,
-es (thesis theses, crisis crises, analysis analyses, basis
bases .),
-es (metropolis metropolises) .

www.phoenixbooks.ru

THE NOUN ( )

11

,

1. ,
, : advice ( ), information (
), knowledge, progress, furniture, money:
He gave me some useful advice. Ill follow it. () . .
The money is on the table. Take it. . .
2. , ,
: sugar, iron, love, friendship, peace, ink,
weather .
There is a lot of chalk on the table.
3. hair, vacation, fruit :
Her hair is dark. .
Summer vacation lasts three months. .
Fruit is cheaper in summer. .
:
,
fruits:
There are plums, peaches, oranges and other fruits on the table.
, , .
vacation ,
:
Our children have four vacations every year. 4 .
hair ,
:
a hair hairs ( )
4. fish ( , , ):
We caught only a few fish. .
Fish ( fishes) ,
:
the fishes of the Mediterranean
5. news
, :
Whats the news? ?
6. () , -ics,
, :
athletics, gymnastics, linguistics, physics . :

www.phoenixbooks.ru

12

Physics is not the most popular school subject.


.
acoustics, economics, phonetics, statistics, ethics, politics . , . , ,
:
His mathematics are poor. .
Your statistics are unreliable. .

,

1. , (: trousers, pants, shorts, scissors,
glasses, scales, spectacles, tongs, pyjamas), (: billiards,
draughts) (: clothes, goods, savings),
:
These scissors are very sharp. .
His clothes were wet. .
( , .)
2. potatoes, onions, carrots, oats
, :
Carrots are very healthy. .
The carrot you gave me was very tasty. , , .
3. people, the military, the police, cattle
; people
peoples , :
There were many young people there. (
).
The peoples of this country are happy. .


-s [z], [s]: books [buks], beds [bedz], doors [dC:z].
, - , [iz]:
bridges [bridGiz].
-es -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x [iz]: foxes
[fCksiz].
, -o, -es [z]: heroes [hi:rouz].

ASE ()
,
, .

www.phoenixbooks.ru

THE NOUN ( )

13

: ,
-s (: mother mothers).

The Common Case ( )


,

, .
:


(? ?)


(? ?)

of

This boy reads well.


The lesson begins at 9 oclock.
The book of the librarian is on the table.


(? ?)

(? ?)

to

He gave this book to Mary.

The teacher asked the boy many questions.


(? ?)

( ? ?)

by
with
about
of

This article is written by the professor.


I write with a fountain-pen.
Im fond of reading about animals.
She spoke of art, literature and music.

The Possessive Case ( )


1. s (.. s),
[s], [z] [iz], .. (. ):
the students bag
2.
:
the students bags
-s, , , -s:
the childrens room
3.
s :
my mother-in-laws house
Peter-the-Firsts reign
4. , :
Peter and Johns book

www.phoenixbooks.ru

14

5. ,
of:
the walls of the town
the legs of the table
, :
coffee table
tennis ground
6. ,
:
the students new dictionary
ates best dress
7. house, office, shop
, :
I dined at my friends (house). ( ).
8. :
, : second, minute, hour, day,
night, week, month, year, fortnight:
a months leave
, , , : country,
city, ship, world, nature, earth:
Moscows theatres are the best in the world. .
9. -s, s:
Deniss [denisiz] new book
Charless [t~a:lziz] wife
, , , s [iz]:
Dickens novel [dikinsiz]
Socrates ideas [sCkrEtisiz]
10.
:
for orders sake
at a stones throw
for all acquaintances sake

, . , , :
Deniss [denisiz] new book

www.phoenixbooks.ru

THE NOUN ( )

15

GENDER ()
; (, -ess ).
1. , (, a man,
a boy), he.
2. , (, a
woman, a girl), she.
3.
it:
a country
a book
a head
a club
it. ,
, ,
she he.
4. president, teacher, doctor, friend, neighbour .., , :
They elected him president of the club (president = he). .
His mother, a teacher, was a popular figure in the town (teacher = she).
, , .
5. :
a host a hostess, an actor an actress;
a tiger a tigress, a tom cat a tabby cat;
a he-wolf a she-wolf, a man-servant a servant-maid.
6. ship, boat, car
she:
The Cutty Sark used to be the fastest clipper afloat. Now she is in dry dock. p - p . .
7. , , it ( ) she (
):
Looking at the map we see France here. It is one of the largest countries in this part
of the world. , .
.
France has decided to increase her trade with Russia. .

it

www.phoenixbooks.ru

16

8.
:
sun, time, war, death = he
moon, earth, nature, night = she
You can drive out Nature with a pitchfork, but she keeps on coming back.
, .

I met the Jacks new girl-friend yesterday.


Theres a Bachs violin concert on the radio this evening.
, :
I met Jacks new girl-friend yesterday. .
Theres Bachs violin concert on the radio this evening.
.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

.............................................................................................................................. 3
MORPHOLOGY () ............................................................................................ 5
Parts Of Speech ( )............................................................................................. 6
THE NOUN ( )
................................................................................................................ 7
........................................................ 7
................................................................................................................................... 8
................................................ 9
, ................... 11
, ............... 12
................................................................................................................................ 12
.............................................................................................................. 13
............................................................................................. 13
..................................................................................................................................... 15
THE ARTICLE ()
..............................................................................................................
..................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
........................................................................................
...........................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................
() ..............................
....................................................................................................
..............................................................................................
..........................................................................................
....................................................................................................
...........................................................................
.............................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................

17
17
18
19
20
20
21
24
24
28
29
32
35
36

THE ADJECTIVE ( )
.............................................................................................................. 37

www.phoenixbooks.ru


..........................................................................
..............................................................................
.......................................................................................
..................................................................
...................................................................................
: as, how, so, too ................................
-ed, ..........................................................................

39
43
44
45
45

THE NUMERAL ( )
..............................................................................................................
......................................................................................
..............................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
, , .....................................

46
46
48
49
50

THE PRONOUN ()
..............................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................
.......................................................................................
............................................................................................
- .........................................................................
........................................................................................
..........................................................................................
.......................................................................................
, some, any, no, every................................................
much, many, little, few ..........................................................................
e one........................................................................................................
it, ...................................................................
none......................................................................................................
all ..........................................................................................................
every, each ...........................................................................................
other .....................................................................................................

51
51
52
54
55
56
58
59
59
61
62
62
63
63
64
65

THE VERB ()
..............................................................................................................
To Be .....................................................................................................................
To Have .................................................................................................................
To Do .....................................................................................................................
Shall Will ..........................................................................................................
INDEFINITE (SIMPLE) TENSES ( ) ..............................
The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense ( ) ................
The Past Indefinite (Simple) Tense ( e ).....................
The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense ( ) ......................

66
68
69
71
71
72
72
74
76

www.phoenixbooks.ru

37
38


CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) TENSES ( ) ................ 78
The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense ( ) ......... 79
The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense ( )............. 83
The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense ( ) .............. 85
PERFECT TENSES ( )........................................................ 86
The Present Perfect Tense ( ) ........................................ 86
The Past Perfect Tense ( )............................................ 90
The Future Perfect Tense ( ) ............................................. 91
THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) TENSE ( ) ...................................................... 92
THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) TENSE
( ) ..................................... 96
THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) TENSE
( )............................................ 96
THE FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST TENSES ( ) ......... 97
SEQUENCE OF TENSES ( ) ................................................ 97

- ................................................... 99
............................................................................................................. 99
......................................................................................................... 100
..................................................... 101
..................................................... 102
........................ 103
........................................................... 104
............................................................................................................... 104
THE PASSIVE VOICE ( )
...................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
- .................................
T ........................................................................................
................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................

........................................................................................................
THE MOOD ()
...........................................................................................
..........................................................................................
.........................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
............................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

www.phoenixbooks.ru

106
108
109
110
110
111
112
114
115
115
116
117
118
122


.................................................... 125
THE VERBALS ( )
THE INFINITIVE ()
....................................................................................
.........................................................
to ............................................................................................
to ..........................................................
to .......................................................................
...........................................................................
(The Complex Object) .................................................................
+ .......................................................................................................
+ .......................................................................................
+ for + + .......................................................
+ ....................................................................................
+ infinitive .................................................................................
(The Complex Subject = Nominative With The Infinitive)...........

126
127
129
130
131
132
133
135
140
141
142
143
143

THE PARTICIPLE ()
...................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................
..............................................................................
I II .......................................................................................
.............................................................................................
..........................................
........................................
.............................................................................
...........................................................................................................

145
146
146
150
151
151
151
152
153

THE GERUND ()
.........................................................................................................
+ ..........................................................................................................
............................................................................................
?.............................................................................................

156
158
160
162

THE MODAL VERBS. MODALITY ( . )


.............................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
can (could) .......................................................................................
may (might) ......................................................................................
must
..................................................................................
.....................................................................................
to have to (to have got to) ................................................................
should ..................................................................................................................

www.phoenixbooks.ru

167
168
168
171
173
174
176
177


ought to............................................................................................
need.....................................................................................................................
to be to.............................................................................................
shall will..........................................................................................................
would ...................................................................................................................
dare......................................................................................................................
.......................................
-
.............................................................................................................................

177
178
179
179
180
181
182
183

THE PREPOSITION ()
....................................................................................
On In, At In ........................................................................................................
Against........................................................................................................................
Away From, Off, Out of...............................................................................................
Across, Through, Past ................................................................................................
Up, Down, Along, Across............................................................................................
Around, Round, About ................................................................................................
Toward, Towards........................................................................................................
p ..........................................................................................................
: for, over, all through, throughout, from... to,
(from)... through .
For During ..............................................................................................................
From Since.............................................................................................................
For Since................................................................................................................
Over, All Through, Throughout ...................................................................................
Till/Until.......................................................................................................................
, ........................................................
.............................................................................
...................................................................
............................................

200
201
201
201
202
203
203
205
206

THE ADVERB ()
................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
..........................................................................................
......................................................................................
very very much ..............................................................................................
THE CONJUNCTION () ...............................................................................................
INTERJECTION () ........................................................................................

208
209
209
211
211
212
213

191
192
193
193
196
196
198
198
199

SYNTAX () ........................................................................................................ 214


THE SENTENCE ()
............................................................................................................. 215

www.phoenixbooks.ru


..................................................................

.............................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
...............................................................

...............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
......................................................................................
...............................................

.........................................................................................................
.............................................................................................
........................................................................................
........................................................................................
...........................................................................................................
There Is ..............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................

...........................................................................
.........................................................................
....................................................
.................................................

...........................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.................................................................................
THE INDIRECT SPEECH ( )
.............................................................................................................
......................................................................................
.....................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
() ....................................................................
.....................................................................

.........................................................................................
................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................

www.phoenixbooks.ru

216
216
217
218
218
219
220
220
220
222
223
224
225
225
227
229
229
230
230
230
231
231
231
231
232
232
235
236
238
239
239
240
240
241
241


..........................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
, .................................................................................................
,
( say, tell, ask) ...........................................................................................

.................................................................................................................
, ...............................................................................................
, , ..........................................................................
, , ..........................................................................
, ........................................................................................
must .......................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

241
242
242
244
247
248
248
249
250
250
250


......................................................................................
.......................................................................................
- .....................................................................................................................
- .....................................................................................................................
ie ei ............................................................................................................
....................................

253
254
255
255
255
256


..............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
( ' ) ..................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................

258
258
262
263
263
264
264
264
264

....................
..................................................................................
, .................................................................................
, ..............................................
........................................................................................................

265
268
271
271
273

www.phoenixbooks.ru


344082, . --, . , 80

.: (863) 261-89-50, 261-89-54, 261-89-55,
261-89-56, 261-89-57.
: 261-89-58.



.: (863)261-89-52.
E-mail: nevenchenkool@mail.ru



(. 110), e-mail: torg@aaanet.ru

(. 123), e-mail: torg188@aaanet.ru

(. 151), e-mail: torg103@aaanet.ru

(. 111), e-mail: torg152@aaanet.ru

(. 153), e-mail: torg153@aaanet.ru

(. 155), e-mail: torg155@aaanet.ru


(. 156), e-mail: sibir@aaanet.ru

- www.phoenixbooks.ru.
,
--.
,
www.phoenixbooks.ru.
. 8(928)622-87-04 E-mail: myphoenixbooks@gmail.com
: www.phoenixbooks.ru
,
:
344082, . --, . , 80,
, -,
.
.: 8-909-4406421. E-mail: tvoyakniga@mail.ru
www.shop50.ru

www.phoenixbooks.ru