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STARTING METHODS OF MOTORS

INSTRUCTED BY : MR.H.L.R Gunawardane

NAME INDEX NO FIELD MODULE DATE OF PER DATE OF SUB

: Akalanka P.D.R : 100023A : C.P.E. : EE-2802 : 19.01.2012 : 13.01.2012

Introduction Motors are devices which converts electrical energy in to rotational mechanical energy and to other forms of mechanical energy. Motors can be classified depending on its structure, capacity, operating characteristics and many other classifications. When studying about motors, studying about its starting methods are equally important like its working characteristics. Starting methods are used to provide or control starting torque, provide safety for the motor, make the processing inside more durable. To provide these measures different methods are used according to the motor individually. Mainly the practical was based on studying different types of motors and different starting methods such as split phase induction, capacitor induction, DOL, star-delta, rotor resistance starter and many others.

Objective To study methods of starting of three phase, single phase induction motors and DC shunt motors

Apparatus Practical 1- Starting method of Single Phase Induction Motors 1. Single phase ceiling motor (Capacitor type) 2. Shaded pole induction motor (Crow type) 3. Voltmeter 4. Stroboscope

Practical 2 Starting Methods of Three- Phase Induction Motors 1. Three phase induction motors (Squirrel cage and round rotor) 2. Star-delta transmission panel (Automatic and manual) 3. Three phase auto transformer

Practical 3 Starting Method of DC Shunt Motor 1. 3 point starter

Theory Practical 1- Starting method of Single Phase Induction Motors For self starting a motor should have at least 2 phase windings and currents in the 2 phase windings must be 90o electrically out of phase. Unlike in multi phase motors, single phase induction motors have to be provided with a starting torque. Here are some starting methods are used in single phase motors. 1. Split phase induction motor In this starting torque is provided by an auxiliary winding. The phase difference is achieved by making one winding more resistive than the other. Normally main winding is with low resistance and high inductance while the auxiliary winding is with high resistance and low inductance. And the auxiliary winding is disconnected from the supply when the motor attains 75% of its synchronous speed.
V Im Ia I

2. Capacitor start motor Only deviation in this case from split phase motor is that a capacitor is used in series with the auxiliary winding. The value of the capacitor is chosen such that Im lags Ia by 90o.
Ia V I Im

3. Capacitor start capacitor run motor (Not done in practical) This method has a better power factor than of the methods mentioned above. In this auxiliary windings stays in the circuit all the time.

4. Permanent split capacitor motor (Not done in the practical) In this method same capacitor is used for starting and for running and no switch is used. Capacitor is selected to have a high efficiency at rated load. Therefore not the starting torque is low and hence suitable for low starting torque requirements.

5 Shaded pole motor In this method auxiliary winding is in form of a copper ring around the salient poles. This method has the simplest construction therefore the least expensive but also the least efficient motor compared to the other motors mentioned. This method also develops a low starting torque.

Practical 2 Starting Methods of Three- Phase Induction Motors Methods used in three phase induction motors heavily depend on the starting torque required and of the application of the specified motor. And the following methods can be used.

1. Direct On Line (D.O.L.) In this motor terminals are directly connected to supply terminals through a suitable starter. In this method current at the start is relatively high which might cause voltage fluctuation to the supply network and might be harmful as well.

2. Star-Delta In this method initially windings are star connected and when the motor reaches a substantial speed, windings are delta connected. At star phase voltage is reduced by (1/31/2) and therefore torque will be1/3 of the normal. When changing from star to delta the speed will also drop. This method does not reduce the peak value of starting current.

3. Auto transformer In this method starting voltage to the motor can be reduced by an arbitrary factor K unlike the fixed value in Star-Delta method. Therefore auto transformers can be considered efficient and more flexible than Star-Delta method. 4. Power Electronic Starter 5. Line Impedance Starter 6. Rotor Resistance Starter Wound rotor motors can be started by this method. This method gives a higher starting torque and a low starting current. As the machine increases its speed the rotor resistance gradually reduces and after awhile short circuits making the motor decelerate and comes to stationary.

Practical 3 Starting Method of DC Shunt Motor To minimize the starting current a series of resistances are connected in series with the armature during normal operation. If the supply disconnects or the current through become zero starting arm releases. And if motor is overloaded overload relay operates and overload condition the supply is disconnected.

At the start slip of the motor is 1. And also have a high current which might affect the motor. As a solution for this matter we can give a low voltage at the start but this method is suitable only for low starting torque requirements. Or else we can increase the rotor resistance at the start which is suitable for high starting torque requirements.

Procedure

Practical 1- Starting method of Single Phase Induction Motors

1. Applied a voltage of 130 to the rotor winding and given a small push in clockwise direction. And the rotational speed was measured after motor gained the maximum uniform speed using the stroboscope. After speed was measured voltage was brought to zero and the motor was allowed to stop. And again a voltage of 130 was applied to the rotor winding and speed was measured in the anti clock wise direction and voltage was again brought to zero after the measurements. 2. Two windings were connected in parallel and the supply voltage was adjusted to 130 to make the motor act like as a split phase motor. And the connection was changed in order to reverse the direction of rotation of the motor. 3. 2 F capacitor was connected in series with the stator winding and was given a voltage of 130 making the machine run as a capacity motor. And the connection was changed to reverse the direction. 4. Minimum voltage to start the motor was measured while changing capacity from 2 F to 12F and the values were noted down. 5. Shaded pole motor was connected and given a 130 V and the speed was observed when the motor came to equilibrium, and also the number of poles and direction of rotation whether its from shaded pole to the unshaded pole or the other way around.

Practical 2 Starting Methods of Three- Phase Induction Motors 1. The construction of wound rotor and squirrel cage induction machine was observed along with there name plates. 2. Manually operated star-delta switch (rotary type) was used to start the 3 phase induction motor 3. Automatic star-delta starter was used to start another three phase induction motor. 4. Rotor resistance starter and wound rotor induction motor was studied using the rotor resistance method.

Practical 3 Starting Method of DC Shunt Motor DC shunt motor was observed and it was properly connected and the rotation direction was determined.

Practical 2 Starting Methods of Three- Phase Induction Motors Squirrel cage Mot.3 ~ 50 Hz Code 140.0261 Typ M 80 B 19-4 S 43 0,75 kW 1 hp 1390 r/m 380 VY 2,1 A 220 V 3,6A Class E cos SEN 2601 IEC 34-1
Made in Sweden

= 0,76
10 kg

Fabr. On Suede

Round Rotor Mot Type MKD 11 18 kW 0.5 hp ~ 50 Hz N 5948 597 1390 r/m 480 V 4.5A

SEN 260402 S SEN 2601 1EC 34-1


Made in Sweden

Practical 3 Starting Method of DC Shunt Motor After properly connecting the equipment and supplying the voltage it could be observed that the motor started to shut down automatically. Results Capacitance (F ) 2 3 4 5 6 6.3 7 8.3 9 9.3 10.3 11.3 Method By pushing Using two windings in parallel Clockwise 238 220 Voltage ( V ) 30.2 21.6 21.9 22.4 23.9 26.7 25.8 27.1 27.0 29.0 28.7 31.8 Anti Clockwise 238 220

Running speed of the motors didnt change much though different starting methods were used only a slight change was observed. With the applied capacitance voltage that should be catered to the motor to start its rotating first drastically reduces then later it starts increasing steadily.

Calculations Synchronous speed in given by the equation, Ns= (120 x f ) / P Where f = frequency (usually 50 Hz) P = No of poles ( 4 in this case ) Ns = ( 120 x 50 ) / 4 = 1500 rpm = ( Ns Nr ) / Ns

Slip ( S )

Where Ns is synchronous speed and Nr is the running speed of the motor. Slip (By pushing) = ( 1500 - 238 ) / 1500 = 0.8413 = ( 1500 - 1326) / 1500 = 0.116

Slip (Shaded pole motor)

Discussion 1. Though in the observation the direction of the shaded pole induction motor is from shaded to unshaded in the literature it is said that the direction of rotation is from unshaded to shaded. Typically 1/3 of the pole is enclosed by a copper strap. This shading coil produces a time lagging damped flux with respect to the main field of the motor. This lagging flux produces a rotting field with a small torque to start the rotor. Owing to the difference of the magnitude of the flux in shaded pole, the rotation will be from unshaded to shaded pole.

2. In Direct On Line starters connection of the motor terminals are directly connected to supply terminals. DOL or across the line starters contain protection devices. It is designed to open the starting circuit and cut the power to the motor in case it draws too much current from the supply for an extended time. This protection method is done by a bi-metallic strip or by a eutectic alloy. When given the power, DOL starter immediately connects motor terminals directly to the power supply and apply full line voltage to the motor terminals. DOL starting is used to start small water pumps and compressors. This can gain the speed of 85% of synchronous speed.

3. When large motors are started using DOL starting method motor affects the supply voltage due to large starting current surges. This high starting current which causes voltage drops may cause mal functioning of the other equipments in use simultaneously. This starting method cant restart automatically after a power failure.

4. In star-delta method stator windings are star connected at the start and when the motor reaches a suitable speed the stator windings are delta connected. When star connected voltage and starting current will be reduced by a factor of 1/ 3 and the starting torque will be 1/3 of the normal.

When the connection is shifted to delta from star, air gap flux reduces to zero and speed drops. Since the rotor has gained some speed the duration of the existence of high current is reduced. In auto transformer starting method unlike star delta method we can determine a factor which the voltage current and torque changes rather than being stuck into a constant value mention in the above paragraph under star delta method. This starting method needs three wires and three terminals in the motor. Autotransformers are generally equipped with taps at each phase in order to adapt starting parameters to the applications starting requirement. 5. Basically there are two possible ways to troubleshoot the issues at the starting of the motor according to the following equation.

That is giving a low voltage at starting or increasing the rotor resistance. When a low resistance is given at the start torque reduces, hence suitable only for low starting torque requirements. When rotor resistance is increased the torque increases enabling using for high starting torque requirements. At high rotor resistance, developed torque reduces and also rotor copper loss increases reducing the efficiency. To overcome these issues we have two alternatives. That is using a wound rotor motor use a squirrel cage motor. The special advantage in using a wound rotor motor is that it has the ability to use external resistance and remove when is necessary. 6. Reversing the direction of a three phase motor can be easily done by inter changing two poles. 7. If we arrange the types we studied in order considering efficiency the order will be 1. Capacitor start motor 2. Split phase motor 3. Shaded pole motor In split phase motor, major disadvantage is we have to supply it a starting torque manually though its efficient than other two we studied. Shaded pole motor is the cheapest method that can be used but the least efficient from the three. 8. Motor has no counter e.m.f. at start and resistance of the motor coil is small therefore at the start there will be a high current through the motor which might damage the motor and therefore a properly controllable starting method is essential for DC motors.

9. Mainly there are three types of DC motors. 1. Series motor 2. Shunt motor 3. Compound motor According to the motor type there are different starting methods. Shunt and compound motors Three point type Starter has three terminals L, F and A. And the speed of the motor can be controlled. When working out the mechanism the holding magnet continues to weaken and will disconnect the motor from the line Four point type Disadvantage in the three point starter is eliminated here

Series motor Automatic starters There is a frequent use of automatic starters in industrial applications. Automatic starters can be started in minimum of time and also make it more user friendly.

Reference o o o o http://www.iaeng.org/publication/IMECS2009/IMECS2009_pp1558-1563.pdf http://iitd.vlab.co.in/?sub=67&brch=185&sim=470&cnt=1 http://www.most.gov.mm/techuni/media/EP_03061_4.pdf http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/74957.aspx