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Computer 9th Class

FILL IN THE BLANKS Complete the following blanks with suitable answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The processing unit responsible for mathematical computation is called __________. A kilobyte is equal to __________ bytes. The electronic technology used in second generation computer system was __________. A __________ translates program language instructions one at a time. Output on the screen is called __________ whereas output by the printer on paper is called __________. IBM stands for __________. In BASIC, function key F4 is used for __________. Machine language is a __________ level language. GOTO statement is known as __________ statement. __________ is a set of well-defined instructions. The diagrammatic representation of logic is called __________. A computer output taken on paper is called the __________ copy. Monitors and printers are __________ devices. Mathematical calculation is carried out by __________ of C.P.U. The use of _________ was a marked feature of the generation of computers. __________ command branches unconditionally to a specified line number. Vacuum tubes were used in the __________ generation of computers. Charles Babbage invented __________. __________ statement in DOS is used to delete a file from the disk. The volatile part of internal memory is called __________. __________ is the set of instructions that tells the computers what to do. A kilobyte is equal to __________ bytes. Each statement or command is preceded by a line number in the __________ mode. The keyboard and the mouse are __________ devices. A diagram to plan a program is called __________.
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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

26. 27.

Data processing consists of three basic steps __________, __________ and __________. __________ memory is that type of memory which does not lose the information stored when the power is turned off. Every BASIC statement consists of a __________, keyword and the parameter. __________ statement is used to transmit numeric or string output data from the computer and displays it on the screen. We use __________ to convert the digital data into analog data. The introduction of __________ brought the computer age into the third generation. In computer terms 64k means __________ bytes or characters. A software developed for specific purpose is called an __________ software. Data processing devices are __________, __________, and __________. In first generation __________ symbolic languages were used. Disk oriented computers were introduced in __________ generation. A micro second is equivalent to 1/__________. PC stands for __________. The term VLSI is used for __________. Humanware is an alternative word for __________. A firmware is necessary to __________ the computer. __________ computers have both analog and digital methods of processing information. The introduction of __________ brought the computer age into fourth generation. The physical units making up a computer system are known as computer __________. Charless Babbage is called the father of __________. EDP stands for __________. A __________ data processing system consists of various input and output devices connected with an electronic computer. A microprocessor chip consists of three basic parts __________, __________ and __________. A blinking point on the CRT, whose position can be controlled by the operator of the computer, is known as __________. The very small bulbs on the keyboard or CPU are called __________. In BASIC function key F2 is used to __________. ASCII stands for __________.
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28. 29.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

48. 49.

50. 51. 52.

53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79.

A __________ is used to play games. __________ and __________ are the latest input devices. CRT stands for __________. SVGA stands for __________. __________ and __________ are impact printers. __________ and __________ are non-impact printers. A small spot of light displayed on the screen is called __________. The devices through which we enter data into the computer are known as __________ devices. A blinking cell on the display screen is known as __________. __________ and __________ are the only figures used in binary number system. DOS is an acronym for __________. __________ data represents only numbers. There are three types of languages translators: __________, __________ and __________. A keyboard has a number of keys, but usually it has __________ keys. Types of data are __________, __________ and __________. Types of numeric data are __________ and __________. Types of numerical real data are __________ and __________. Machine language programs are usually written in __________ number system. A program translated by the compiler is called __________. Destructive programs are classified as __________, __________ and __________. BASIC is an acronym for __________. __________ is the lowest limit of line number allowed in BASIC program. In BASIC each statement must begin with a __________. __________ statement clears VDU. The __________ statement accepts data in execution mode. Before a value is assigned to a numeric variable, its value is assumed to be __________. __________ command produces the source statements of current program, available in memory, on CRT. __________ and __________ statements may be used to define the beginning and the end of a loop. __________ allows to write more than one statement on a line.
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80. 81.

82. 83. 84. 85. 86.

BASIC was developed at __________ by __________ and __________. __________ command automatically generates line numbers. BASIC program is a collection of __________. The purpose of __________ command is to re-sequence the line numbers of the program. In the year __________ the __________ standardized an essential subset of BASIC, in order to promote uniformity from one version to another. The maximum line number in BASIC is __________. The data can be distributed over __________ statements within a program. There can be up to __________ characters in a single program line. Numeric data can be expressed in two ways: __________ and __________. The use of __________ can alter the normal hierarchy of calculation operations. BASIC statements are __________ and __________. REM is used to __________. __________ is used to reuse the data given in __________ statement (s). Semicolon is used to suppress __________ in __________ statement. When a variable name appears in a __________ statement, the contents of location are displayed. __________ is used to access an individual element from an array. The __________ statement is used to assign a numerical or string value to a variable. __________ command prints the source statement of current program available in the memory, on the printer.

87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99.

100. A __________ is a quantity that may change during the execution of program. 101. __________ and __________ statements are used to execute a series of statements in a loop as long as given condition is true. 102. __________ statement is required to create arrays. 103. The purpose of __________ is to part from usual execution in the order given by the line number. 104. __________ notation is used to represent very very small or very very large numbers. 105. Remarks statements are only shown up when you __________ a program. 106. RABs must be in ascending order in a __________ statement. 107. A set of values arranged in regular order is called __________. 108. The __________ statement in BASIC program has the highest statement number (logically). 109. The symbols <, > and = if used in a program are called __________ operators.
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110. A pictorial representation of the sequence of steps of computation for solving a problem is called __________. 111. __________ command returns control to operating system. 112. __________ statement is used to transmit numeric or string output data from the computer and display it on the screen. 113. The LINE statement is used to draw a straight line in __________ screen mode. 114. __________ is simply paper work and documentation involved with the operation of computer. 115. __________ software is supplied by the computer manufacture. 116. __________ software is the set of instructions that are developed by the computer user. 117. A computer __________ is a set of instructions sequenced in a logical manner to achieve a definite task. 118. The set of information that are fed to the computer is called __________. 119. __________ is the person who designs and writes the computer program. 120. __________ level language is nearest to the human language. 121. Assembly language is __________ level language. 122. Two classes of High level language are__________ language and __________ language. 123. A __________ is a way of communicating with the computer. 124. Internal Command is a part of __________. 125. CLS is an __________ command. 126. FORMAT is an __________ command. 127. The information stored in computer is in __________ state. 128. The bi-stable state ON is known as the state of __________. 129. The bi-stable state OFF is known as the state of __________. 130. A __________ represent a meaningful information like a number, an alphabet or any special character. 131. The computer stores an extra bit, called __________ bit. 132. The traditional five stages in development of source program are __________, __________, __________, __________ and __________. 133. An algorithm gives the __________ of solution of a problem. 134. A flow chart depicts the __________ of solution of a given program. 135. Types of flowchart are __________ and __________. 136. The __________ statement is used to reserve storage for an array. 137. DIM is usually placed at the __________ of the program.
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138. A$(5) will reserve __________ spaces in memory. 139. Table is a __________ array. MATCHING OF COLUMNS Match the correct answer from Column A to Column B:

Exercise 1 Column A A set of instruction for computer Volatile Memory Grouping of Bits Charles Babbage The language that computer can understand Exercise 2 Column A Parallelogram Diamond Connector Rectangle Flow Lines Exercise 3 Column A Converts high level language into machine language The manipulation of data into a more useful form Permanent storage outside the computer An electrical component which was used in the first generation of computers. An internal DOS command Exercise 4 Column A Vacuum Tube Integrated Circuit Artificial Intelligence Transistors Physical parts of computer Large Scale Integrated Circuit Exercise 5 Column A Result Set of instructions The process understanding the problem Algorithm Manual Condition box Block diagram Exercise 6
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Column B Byte Program RAM Machine Language Analytical Engine

Column B Used to connect page Process Box Used to connect symbols Used for decision I/O Box Column B Backing Storage Vacuum Tube DIR Data Processing Compiler

Column B First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Hardware

of

Column

B Flowchart Final output Diamond shape

Program Documentation of program Step wise solution Problem analysis

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Column A High level language 222 Arithmetic expression BASIC prompt

Column B BASIC Ok Integer value A = 111 + 111

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Choose any one of the following correct answers:

1.

__________ is a category of computer hardware.

(Input, Output, Storage, Processing, all of the above) 2. __________ is an important component of microcomputer system.

(Kilobyte, Microprocessor, Megabyte, Byte, None of the above) 3. __________ is not found in C.P.U.

(ALU, Control Unit, RAM, Processing Register) 4. __________ is a type of impact printers.

(Laser, Thermal, Dot-Matrix, Inkjet) 5. __________ program design technique shows program logic.

(Flow chart, Logical Operation, Computer, None of the above) 6. __________ is used as counter in BASIC programs.

(A = A+1, A<1, A or 1, None of the above) 7. __________ characteristic is applied to the third generation of computers.

(Integrated Circuit, Transistor, Vacuum Tubes, All of the above) 8. The most important characteristic of ROM is __________.

(It performs mathematical calculation, it is volatile, it is non volatile, None of the above) 9. __________ statement is used to transfer the control of program conditionally.

(GOTO, ON GOTO, END, All of the above) 10. Disk operating system is abbreviated as __________.

(DOS, DS, OS, None of above) 11. __________ is an example of integer data.

(HASAN, D-143, 143, all of the above) 12. High level languages were designed in __________.
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(Laboratory, Third generation, Computers, New York) 13. __________ is a high level language.

(BASIC, BESIK, BACIK, BESIC) 14. Binary number system has __________.

(Ten digits (0,9), Three digits (-1,0,1), One digit (1), Two digits (0,1)) 15. LET statement is __________.

(Optional statement, Assigning statement, Used for expression assignment, all of the above) 16. DATA statement is __________.

(Executable statement, Non-executable statement, Optional statement, None of the above) 17. BASIC stands for __________.

(Basic All-purpose Symbolic Instructon Code, Beginners Assembly Symbols Instruction Code, Basic All Standards In COBOL, Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) 18. When using READ statement, it must to provide __________.

(PRINT statement, RESTORE statement, INPUT statement, None of above) 19. ANSI stands for __________.

(All New Small Integration, A National Small Institute, American National Standard Institute, None of the above) 20. Sign of exclamation is __________.

(!, :, I, %) 21. The example of random access storage media is __________.

(Floppy disk drive, Hard disk drive, Tape unit, 51/4 floppy disk) 22. The type of memory whose contents can not be changed is __________.

(ROM, RAM, Cache, EAPROM) 23. The command to see the contents of a disk is __________.

(DIR, CD, MD, TYPE) 24. DISKCOPY command can format the destination disk __________.

(Before copying, after copying, can not format, format while copying) 25. TYPE command is used to __________.

(To see the contents of a file, Chage the type of a file, make a sub directory, Type a file in the computer) 26. Each statement of BASIC must have a __________.
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(Function, Statement number, Program name, File name) 27. The command to create a sub-directory is __________.

(DIR, CD, MD, APPEND) 28. TAB () function is used to __________.

(Print, Display, Print and Display, None of the above) CONVERSION OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS TO BASIC EXPRESSIONS Convert the following algebraic expressions into BASIC Expressions:

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1.

a2 + 2ab + b2

2.

x+ y
a -b a+b
(a b)1/2 [2x2 4y2]2

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

x=-b+

b 2 4ac

Y = a2 + 2ab + b2 A = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3 (a + b) (a b)

10.

2a / 4a
x+y ab

11.

12. 4x2 y3 13. 4a 3b 14. a4b2 40a2 3ab2

15.

(x - y) - (2x 2 - 3xy)

16.

K 2 lm 3 2l m
s (R + ) t J(L +
u -5

17.

18.

R ) 150

n -1

19.

b2 +

2a 2 b - 4ac 2a

20.

L+

1 mn 5 4

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21.

T = 40 W + 5x 3 y 2xy 3 + xy 6y 2
a c + b d

6u 3 - v 2 u4

22.

23.

24. 25.

x (2x + ) n 1 y
(a + b)(a3 + b3) (a2 + b2)

26. 27. 28. 29.

K + L2 (M) k + L 100 N2
(a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5)1 T + T 3T + T 13C + 12C + 11C + 10C + 9C
2

30.

L+

1 mn 4

31. 32.

6ab 7cd 19ab 5d 2


a2b

33. 34. 35. 36.

a (a 2 + ) b

a -5

2a3b + 3b3c2 4a2b2 (a b)(a2 b2) (a3 + b3) (2x + y)(3z 4w)

37.

a (3 + ) b

m -1

38. 39.

x5 5
4x2y 3xy + 7yz3
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40. 41.

a +x b
(2x2 + 4y3 + 2z3)

42.

x2 + y2

43.

(x - y 5 ) 5 (3 + x ) y
a-b

44.

CONVERSION OF BINARY NUMBERS INTO THEIR DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS Convert the following binary numbers into their decimal equivalents:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10111 111 101001 100101 101011 0011 1100 1001 1111

10. 10101 11. 010101 12. 000011 13. 1111111 14. 100011 15. 100 16. 10 17. 11101011 18. 000001 19. 101110 20. 0001000 21. 111101 22. 0101011 23. 11111 24. 10101101 25. 1100110 26. 1010101 27. 101 28. 0011101 29. 1100001
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30. 110011 31. 111111 32. 101100110 33. 1111010010 34. 1110001 35. 11011 36. 10011 37. 1100110 38. 111101 39. 00011 40. 010111 41. 1110011 42. 10001001 43. 0100111001 44. 0101011 45. 0000 46. 11100111 47. 100011 48. 1001110 49. 101101 50. 10000000000 51. 10100 CONVERSION OF DECIMAL NUMBERS INTO THEIR BINARY EQUIVALENTS Convert the following decimal numbers into their binary equivalents:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

211 222 333 444 0014 1024 100 786 909 898 386 221 116 8 19 0418 29 333 936 0410 312 217 111 826 999 995 894 402 25
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30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56.

408 1024 001122 801 312 235 211 765 111 0100 26 0 55555 6666 3368 765 1750 826 12 100 1023 4587 69523 8776 328 496 507

OUTPUT OF BASIC PROGRAMS Write down the output of the following BASIC Programs:
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1.

10 READ J, K, L 20 FOR I = J TO K STEP L 30 PRINT I 40 NEXT I 50 DATA 2, 10, 3 60 END

2.

10 CLS 20 FOR I = 1 TO 10 30 PRINT I, MY NAME 40 NEXT I 50 END

3.

10 READ A, B, C 20 FOR I = A TO B STEP C 30 PRINT I 40 NEXT I 50 DATA 2, 10, 2 60 END

4.

10 CLS 20 INPUT U, V 30 LET W = U + V 40 LET Y = W * V 50 LET Z = Y/U 60 PRINT U, V 70 PRINT W, Y, Z 80 END


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5.

10 CLS 20 LET R = -2 30 FOR T = 2 TO 15 40 LET R = R + 1 50 PRINT R 60 NEXT T 70 END

6.

10 A = 5: B = 13: C = 931 20 C = 5 * A B + B 2/2 30 PRINT C 40 END


7. 20 30

10 FOR I = 1 TO 100 STEP 10 PRINT I IF I = 10 THEN I = 100

40 NEXT I 50 END

8.

10 CLS 20 N$ = ABDUS-SAMAD 30 N1$ = LEFT$ (N$, 1) 40 N2$ = MID$ (N$, 5, 1) 50 N3$ = MID$ (N$, 8, 1) 60 N4$ = RIGHT$ (N$, 1) 70 NN$ = N1$ + N2$ + N3$ + N4$ 80 PRINT NN$ 90 END
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9.

10 X$ = DATA SOFT 20 FOR I = 1 TO 9 30 40 50 NEXT I 60 END Y$ = LEFT$ (X$, I) PRINT Y$

10.

10 LET A = 11 20 WHILE A < 99 30 40 50 WEND 60 END LET A = A + 11 PRINT A

11.

10 LET A = 0 20 LET B = 1 30 LET C = A + B 40 PRINT C 50 LET A = B 60 LET B = C 70 IF C < 21 THEN GOTO 30 80 END

12.

10 CLS 20 FOR I = 1 TO 10 30 40 50 FOR J = 1 TO I PRINT I; NEXT J


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60 70 NEXT I 80 END

PRINT

13.

10 FOR A = 10 TO 0 STEP 2.5 20 30 PRINT A LET S = S + A

40 NEXT A 50 ? S 60 END

14.

10 CLS 20 LET K = -1 30 FOR L = 1 TO 20 40 50 LET K = K + 2 PRINT K;

60 NEXT L 70 END

15.

10 ? This is first line 20 ? It is second row 30 ? What is it? 40 ? Remember where it should be!

16.

10 CLS 20 FOR I = 1 TO 8 30 40 50 NEXT I


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PRINT X PRINT I

60 END

17.

10 CLS 20 A = A + 1 30 B = A 2 40 C = A 3 50 D = A 4 60 PRINT A, B, C, D 70 IF A = 6 THEN END ELSE GOTO 20


18.

10 LET K = -1 20 FOR I = 1 TO 20 30 40 50 NEXT I LET K = K + I PRINT K

19.

10 FOR I = 1 TO 10 20 30 NEXT I 40 END PRINT I, PAKISTAN ZINDABAD

20.

10 FOR X = 0 TO 20 STEP 2 20 30 SUM = SUM + X PRINT X, SUM

40 NEXT X

21.

10 FOR X = 6 TO 18 STEP 2 20 LET A = X- 4 30 IF A = 10 THEN 60


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40 PRINT A, X 50 GOTO 70 60 PRINT X=;X 70 NEXT X 80 END Remove the errors in the following BASIC Statements, if any:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

5 REEM ** MARKS SHEET ** 5.5 INPUT TAB (90) NAME : N$ 65 PRINT MY SCHOOL 100S$ = MID$(A$5) 99 READ 4, 5, SIX: DATA A, B, C$ 25 GOSUB R 10 IF A = 10 TO 50 THEN END 15 LET X = A * B 80 FOR I = 20 TO 10 STEP 2 18 LOCATE (5, 10): PRINT ME 10 LET Z = PAKISTAN 06 PRINT RIGHT (8, A$) 20 IF X $ = 6 THEN : GOTO 120 41 DATA 18, CLASS, SCHOOL: READ N, P, C 5.5 INPUT YOU NAME N RAM TO CALCULATE NUMBERS 8 ON GOTO CH 100, 200, 300 66 A$ = 5 TO 1 STEP 1 PRINT OK: TAB (10) 50.5 PRIT MY SCHOOL 38 REED A: DATA 40 141 RAM PRACTICAL EXAM
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23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

80 FOR R = IT 0010: NEXTR 100 PRINT TAB (10); PAKISTAN 32C= 10 TO 20 STEP 2 53 READ A$; B; C$ : DATA AEROPLANE ; 200; CARD 200 INPUT; WHAT IS YOU NAME?; A$ 10IF A = 100 THEN GOTO R 20 REEM ABC 10 LET A = Karachi City 06 PRINT RIGHT (A$, 8) 20 IF X$ = 6 THEN GOTO 120 41 DATA. 18, page, Cat: READ N; P$; C$ 50.5 INPUT What is your age? A 66 PRINT TAB (2): ALL; TAB (7); The; TAB (12) Best 32 SCREEN 86 706 LINE (40, 80) (300, 150); 3 25 LOCATE 12.30: PRINT Friendship 14 PRINT MID$ (A$, 10, 3) 10 For X = 1 TO 5 STEP 1 20 J=X = 10 30 IF J = 80 THEN 100 40 NEXT Y 50 END

41.

10 INPUT 20 B C = D 30 B = A * 2 40 PRINT E 50 END

42.

10 CLS 20 FOR I = 1 TO 10
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30 LET A = 1 40 ? A 60 ? This is the end of program. 70 END 43. 10 INPUT A.B 20 LET A = A * 5 30 LET B = B * 2 40 TAB 20, 30: PRINT A;B 50 FINISH 44. 10 LOCATE 75, 10 20 PRINTER Am I wrong?; 30 LET T = 25 X 4 + 60 40 PRINTER T 50 END 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 10 LET A = KARACHI CITY 06 PRINT RIGHT (A$, 8) 20 IF X$ = 6 THEN GOTO 120 41 DTA 18, PAGE, CAT: READ N; P$; C$ 50.5 INPUT WHAT IS YOU AGE? A 66 PRINT TAB (2); ALI; TAB (7); THE ; TAB (12); BEST 32 SCREEN 86] 70.6 LINE (40, 80) (300 150) ;3 25 LOCATE 12, 30 : PRINT FRIENDSHIP 14 PRINT MID$ (A$, 10, 3) 10 GOTO 60, 70 20 FOR I=1 10 STEP 2 14 S$ = PAKISTAN 26 READ P$, X: DATA THRE, 3 65 PRINT A = A, B, C
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60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88.

121 IF X = 20: THEN GOTO 20 70 LET X = LAE A + Y 20 INPUT ENTER YOU NAME;N 46.5 IF C$= COMPUTER THEN END 25 C$ = A4 + B + C 10 CLS, X = X + 1 55 Z$ = CHR (29) 129 READ 50, 100 :DATA A, B 30 FOR 50 = A TO B 40 GOTO CLS 66 IF X$ = 50THEN GOTO A$ ELSE GOTO 30 55 REM REM 100 LET P$ = X 123 LOCATE 35, 90 : PRINT PAKISTAN 999 PRINT TAB (90) STRING$ (120, - 50 N$ = RIGHT$ (C$, 3) 7 A = LET M +1 10 LPRINT = A, B, CAT AN INPUT STUDENT ROLL NUMBER ;SRN 8 SCREEN: COLOUR A, B 41 C = 10 TO 20 STEP 2 100 GOTO 4 265 IF W$ = YES THEN STOP 2C LINE (20, 50) (300, 150) ,2 PRINT A$ , B$, C 10 PRINT 5(2 + 7) 20 PRINT 8x8 20 PRINT X = 15 20 PRINT NAME IS =; N$
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89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94.

30 PRINT: PRINT PRINT PAKISTAN ZINDABAD 10 PRINT TEMPERATURE =; T; C 10 INPUT CAPITAL IS = C$ 30 INPUT ENTER VALUES OF A, B AND C 50 AND PROGRAM IS FINISH

TRUE AND FALSE Write True or False for the following sentences:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

The central processing Unit (C.P.U) is the brain of computer system. Logical errors are caused by faulty program designs. Diamond-shaped symbol in program flow chart is used for decision points. Dot Matix printers are non-impact printers. Data stored in ROM can be changed. Impact printers work by hitting an inked ribbon against the paper, High level language is used to convert the source program into object program. Mark-1 is the first Digital Computer. ROM stores data or program permanently and RAM stores data or program temporarily. A set of bits considered as a unit, normally consisting of 8 bits is known as Byte. Abacus is an early Electro-Mechanical device for counting. Software comprehends computers programming languages; translates application programs and operating systems programs. Mark-I is the first digital computer. First microprocessor chip INTEL 4004 was developed in 1990. The heavy computers are called Laptops. A digital computer can work at high speed. Registers are the part of ROM. RAM stands for Read Access Memory. Convention memory and extended memory almost work at the same speed. EPROM is a special type of RAM.
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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

The main memory of CPU is the place where the computer programs and data is stored permanently. RAM is a volatile memory for temporary storage of data or programs. Data processing is the manipulation of data into more useful form. EDP stands for Expanded Data Processing Cycle. An input device receives data from computer. Mouse is an input device. It is possible to display several colors on a monochrome monitor. A printer does not provide a soft copy of output. Impact printers can produce carbon copies. LASER does not stands for Low Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Rays. Keyboard is a backing storage device. Magnetic tape is the fastest media for data storage. There are several tracks on a floppy disk, which are further divided into sectors. 2KB = 2024 bytes. Impact printer work by hitting an inked ribbon against the paper. Backing storage devices are the permanent storage outside the main memory. A mouse is called pointing device. Micro floppy disks were developed before mini floppy disks. 90 IF X$ = DATA THEN PRINT SOFT is a valid statement. The FOR statement must not be used with NEXT. There is no difference between A1 and A(1) as variable names. 50 PRINT TAB (30); S$; TAB (10); Y$ prints S$ and Y$ on same line. DATA statement is used with INPUT statement. The purpose of GOTO statement is to transfer control. 20 IF A$ = 1234 THEN 50 ELSE 80 is a valid line. When the command AUTO1, 10 is given, then the first line number will be 10. INPUT statement is often useful when no interaction between computer and user is required. It makes a sense to use the condition A = B in a IF Then statement.

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T=
49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. Formula

K U(P + A) can be written as T = K/U*(P + A).

DATA statement is optional with READ statement. BASIC is a difficult language. User defined functions do not act like library function. There is nothing wrong in NO ERROR GOTO 100 statement. CLS statement can be used to clear half of the screen. The symbol is used for division in BASIC programs. A subroutine may also be called from with in another subroutine. Software comprehends computer-programming languages, translates application program and operating system programs. Application software is prepared by computer manufacture. Low level language is nearest to machine language. COBOL stands for Commercial Business Oriented language. FORTRAN is an interpreter language. Assembler translates the high level language into machine language. The interpreter is a program that serves the same purpose as des the compiler. Compiler translates the high level language into low level language. RPG stands for Report Program Generator. FORTRAN was basically developed for scientific and engineering data processing purpose. Statement number are must in BASIC program. Since they are required to establish a sequence in which the instructions are to be executed. BASIC uses statement number as address for the conditional and unconditional branching instruction. REM statement cannot be accessed via branching instructions. REM statement should be the first statement in a program. CLS statement cleans the disk. PRINT statement assigns value before printing. PRINT statement prints only values of the variables. LOAD command load a program from the disk. DELETE command delete a line from the disk
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58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67.

68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

SAVE command is used to store a program in a computer memory. List command displays the contents of the disk on a screen. GOTO statement unconditionally transfers the program control to the new location. Branching if IF THEN takes place only if the condition specified in IF is false. In nested loops, the computer reaches the outer most loop before reaching the inner most loop. Therefore, the outer loop is executed completely before taking up the execution of the next inner loop. Line number after ON-GOTO must only be in ascending order other wise error conditions result. One can have more than one NEXT statement for every FOR. However at least one NEXT for every FOR is mandatory. A subroutine contains repetitively used statements. It can be accessed via a GOTO or a GOSUB statement. The computed GOSUB statement is similar to compute GOTO. However, it calls to four subroutine at the maximum. There can be many RETURN statements in a subroutine and they can be placed anywhere, even at the first line of the subroutine. A subroutine may contain any number of RETURN statements. However the last statement must be a RETURN statement. The first statement of the subroutine must be a REM statement. DIM statement can be used to reserve memory space even below 10 spaces reserved implicitly. Array can store only numeric values. DIM statement, like RAM, is a non-executable instruction. DIM statement should be placed before the array is called in the program. Negative sign is allowed in a subscript. A file is a collection of record. A random file record can be read sequentially. CLOSE statement only close the sequential file. FIELD is a key word of BASIC language.

81. 82.

83.

84.

85.

86.

87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96.

READ statement is used to read the record from a file.

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