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1. Explain the various automated systems for transfer of materials in the production plant?

Illustrate your answer by considering an example of an automobile showroom.

Answer: Basically, automation system comes to reduce labour power and time in the production. Here we can see the evolution systems with some examples. The goods requited by society were produces in small quantities by craftsman who would know the need of the community and produced them by their own hands with simple tools. The apprentices or by another craftsman, who would make them to meet the requests made.

The parts and components used to make these machines had to be replaced when they wore making parts so that interchangeability was achieved made setting up standards and specifications important for meeting

The craftsmen gave way to engineers, workers, superiors and inspectors. Division of labour became necessary to achieve efficiencies and the jabs that became specialized. Competition has necessitated improved quality, reduced sates and better services to the customer.

Automation systems cost huge sums of money and therefore a deep analysis of the various factors has to be done. For services, automation usually means labour saving devices in education, long distance learning technology helps in supplementing class room instruction. The facilitating goods that are used are web site and videos.

Automation in the banking sector has resulted in ATMs which same the banks a huge amount customer satisfaction. Automation is ideas when the service provided or the product manufactured is highly standardized.

Some extent of automation can be designed even with customization i. e. product or service a meant to produce or deliver low volume specific to a requirement. The advantages of automation is it has low variability and will be more consistent on a repetitive basis.

The machines have sensing and control devices that enable them to operate automobile. The simplest of them called machine attachments replace human effort. They guide, locate, move and achieve revise position by means of came, optical sensing. Load sensing mechanisms and activate the controls to remove human intention.

Robots are higher in the order of automation as they perform a variety of tasks. They are designed to move movements according to programmers written into the computer that inside them.

With the help of automation, inspection of component can be done 100% ensures highest quality identification and movement of materials are helped by bar codes which are read and fed into the system far monitoring quantity, location, movement etc. They help the automated systems to start information and provide information for effecting any changes necessary. To make effective use of automated machines, we need to have the movement of materials from and to different time as stores, automated, Automated storage and Retrieval systems- ASRS- receive orders for materials from anywhere in the production area, collect materials in the works times. Computers and information systems are used for placing orders for matters, give commands adjust inventory records which show the location and quantity of materials needed.

Automated guided vehicle systems- AGVS are pallet trucks and unit load carriers follow embedded guide wires or paint strips to destinations as programmed.

In an automobile showroom we can see all the work automatically with latest machine.

2. State the important considerations for locating an automobile plant? Collect information on layout planning of an automobile plant from various sources and furnish the same.

Answer: To locate an automobile company or plant many thing should be consider. For an automobile plant automated flaw lines, automated assembly lines, flexible manufacturing systems, global transition rapid prototyping. Building manufacturing flexibility things are necessity.

About the automated flow lines we can say it is a machine which is linked by a transfer system which moves the parts by using handling machines which are also automated, we have an automated flow line.

Human intervention ma is needed to verify that the operations ate taking place according to standards. When these cab be achieved with the help of automation and the processes are conducted with self regulation, we will have automated flow

lines established.

In fixed automation or hard automation, where one component is manufactured using services operations and machines it is possible to achieve this condition. We assume that product life cycles are sufficiently stable to interest heavily on the automate flow lines to achieve reduces cast per unit.

Product layouts ate designed so that the assembly tasks are performed in the sequence they are designed at each station continuously. The finished item came out at the end of the line.

In automated assembly lines the moving pallets move the materials from station to station and moving arms pick up parts, place them at specified place and system them by perusing, riveting, & crewing or even welding. Sensors will keep track of there activities and move the assembles to the next stage.

The machines are arranged in a sequence to perform operations according to the technical requirements.

The tools are loaded, movements are effected, speeds controlled automatically without the need for workers involvement.

The flexibility leads to better utilization of the equipments. It reduces the numbers of systems and rids in reduction of investment as well as a space needed to install them. One of the major cancers of modern manufacturing systems is to be able to respond to market Demands which have uncertainties.

Prototyping is a process by which a new product is developed in small number so as to determine the suitability of the materials, study the various methods of

manufactured, type of machinery required and develop techniques to over come problems that my be encountered when full scale manufacture is undertaken.

Prototypes do meet the specification of the component that enters a product and performance can be measured on these.

It helps in con be reforming the design and any shortcomings can be rectified at low cost.

Flexibility has three dimensions in the manufacturing field. They are variety, volume and time. There demands will have to be satisfied. In that sense they become constraints which restrict the maximization of productivity. Every business will have to meet the market demands of its various products in variety volumes of different time.

Flexibility is also needed to be able to develop new products or make improvements in the products fast enough to cater to shifting marker needs.

Manufacturing systems have flexibility built into them to enable organization meet global demand. You have understood how the latest trends in manufacturing when implemented help firms to stay a head in business.

3. Who are the players in a project management? What are the various roles and responsibilities of the players in a project management?

Answer: The players: Individual and Organisations That are actively involved in the project Whose interest may be affected positively or negatively by the outcome success or failure of the project Exert influence over the project and its result Players are also called stakeholders of the projects Project Manager-the individual responsible for managing the project Customer-the individual or organization who will use the product-the end result of the project Performing organization-the enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project. Sponsor-the individual or group within or external to the performing organisation that funds the project Roles and Responsibilities There are number of projects which an organization works on.

4. What are the various steps in project monitoring and controlling a project?

Monitoring and Controlling Monitoring and Controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and

corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan.

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Processes Monitoring and Controlling includes:

Measuring the ongoing project activities (where we are); Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline (where we should be);

Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly (How can we get on track again);

Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented

In multi-phase projects, the Monitoring and Controlling process also provides feedback between project phases, in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan. Project Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes:

Continuing support of end users Correction of errors Updates of the software over time

Monitoring and Controlling cycle In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved. Over the course of any construction project, the work scope changes. Change is a normal and expected part of the construction process. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. This is referred to as Change Management. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or, more specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. The record is made on the contract documents usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings, or more simply, as built. The requirement for providing them is a norm in construction contracts. When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be assessed again. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects. When the changes accumulate, the forecasted result may not justify the proposed investment.

5. Explain the necessity and objectives of SCM?

Answer. SCM is the abbreviation of supply chain Management. It is considered by many express worldwide as the ultimate solution towards efficient enterprise management.

Now, we explain the necessity and objectives of SCM-

SCM is required by and enterprise as a tow to enhance management effectiveness with a following organizational objective:

Reduction of inventory

Enactment in functional effectiveness of existing systems like ERP, Accounting. Software and Documentation like financial reports statements ISO 9000 Documents etc.

Enhancement of participation level and empowerment level

Effective integration of multiple systems like ERP, communication systems, documentation system and secure, Design R&D systems etc.

Better utilization of resources- men, material, equipment and money.

Optimization of money flow cycle within the organization as well as to and from external agencies.

Enhancement of value of products, operations and services and consequently, enhancements of profitability.

Enhancement of satisfaction level of customer and clients, supporting institutions, statutory control agencies, supporting institutions, statutory control agencies, suppliers and vendors, employees and executives.

Enhancement of flexibility in the organization to help in easy implementation of schemes involving modernization, expansion and divestment, merges and acquisitions.

Enhancement of coverage and accuracy of management information systems. With the objectives of SCM its implementation are required. Implementation is in the form of various functional blocks of an organization interpenetrated through which a smooth flow of the product development is possible.

A relatively new SCM option involves web based software with a browser interface. Several electronic marketplaces for buying and selling goods and materials.

6. What are the steps involved in SCM implementation?

Answer- There is many steps which involved in SCM implementation are- Business Process, sales and marketing. Logistics, costing, demand planning, trade- off analysis, environmental requirement, process stability, integrated supply, supplier

management, product design, suppiers, customers, material specifications, etc.

Some important aspect of SCM-

The level of competition existing in the market and the impact of competitive forces on the product development.

Designing and working on a strategic logic for better growth through value invention. Working out new value curve in the product development along with necessary break point.

Using it to analyses markets and the economies in product design. Tine, customer, quality of product and the concept of survival of fittest.

Steps of SCM principals:

Group customer by need: Effective SCM groups, customer by tietinct service meeds those particular segment.

Customize the logistics networks: In designing their logistics network, companies need to focus on the service requirement and profit potential of the customer segments identified.

Listen to signals of market demand and plan accordingly- sales and operations planners must monitor the entire supply chain to detect early warning signals of changing customer demand and needs.

Differentiate the product closer to the customer-companies today no longer can afford to stock pile inventory to compensate for possible forecasting errors, instead, they need to postpone product differentiation in the manufacturing. Process closer to actual customer demand. Strategically manage the source of supply-by working

closely with their key suppliers to reduce the overall casts of owning materials and services; SCM maximizes profit margins both for themselves, and their supplies.

Develop a supply chain wide technology strategy- as one of the cornerstones of successful SCM information technology must be able to support multiple levels of decision making.

Adopt channel spanning performance measures- Excellent supply performance measurement systems do more than just monitor internal functions. They apply performance criteria that embrace bathe service and financial metrics, including as such as each accounts true profitability.