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15 1 2012

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15 1 2012
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15 1 2012

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39

15 1 2012

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Hu Jintao Holds Talks with Afghan President Karzai // Consulate General of the Peoples Republic of
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.: Marketos Th.N. Chinas Energy Geopolitics: The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Central Asia //
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Iran and Russia: New Start after 30-Year Pause // Strategic Culture Foundation, 27 January 2009 [http://
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5
.: Felgenhauer P. After August 7: The Escalation of the Russia-Georgia War. .: The Guns of
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8
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12
.: Ratliff R. South Ossetian Separatism in Georgia // ICE Case Studies, May 2006, No. 180 [http://
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17
.: Morgenthau H., Thompson K., Clinton D. Politics Among Nations. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social
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18
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19
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[http://www.rsf.org/ennemis.html], 2010. P. 2.

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Rights in the Digital Age. Mapping Digital Media: Reference Series No. 6. London: Open Society Media Program, 2011[www.mappingdigitalmedia.org].
3
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and Democracy: Information Technology and Political
Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
4
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Contributions to Development: Evaluating the Evaluators / Ed. by M.E. Price, S. Abbott, L. Morgan. New York:
Peter Lang, 2011. P. 119; Shafer R., Freedman E. Press Constraints as Obstacles to Establishing Civil Societies in
Central Asia // Journalism Studies, 2009, No. 10 (6). P. 851869.
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Role of Media Watch and Media Advocacy Organizations. Paper presented to the International Association for
Media and Communication Research. Istanbul, 2011.
7
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.: Media Sustainability Index 2011: Development of Sustainable Independent Media in Europe and
Eurasia. Washington, D.C.: International Research & Exchanges Board, 2011.
14
.: Freedom on the Net // Freedom House, 2011 [www.freedomhouse.org].

172

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2
Facebook
30 2011


( , %)


Facebook

34,1

293 040

39,2

49 820

9,2

20 260

1,6

13 000

26,8

82 900

: Internet World Stats (2011).

15
16

Morozov E. Op. cit. P. 87.


.: Internet World Stats, 2011 [www.internetworldstats.com].

173

15 1 2012

.
, ,
.
: , , , , , , ? ? : ,
, - ?
. : XXI
. 2010 2 .
,
17.
, , , , , ,
,
, , . 18.
: 2010
. 2010 Facebook 250 , 600 . 175
, 19.


, ,
. , 2011 ,
WordPress : - ,
WordPress 20. WordPress
21. , 2011 - guljan.org
17
Dutton W.H., Dopatka A., Hills M., Law G., Nash V. Freedom of Connection, Freedom of Expression: The
Changing Legal and Regulatory Ecology Shaping the Internet. Oxford, UK: Oxford Internet Institute, 2011. P. 45.
18
.: Morillon L., Julliard J. Op. cit.
19
Ibid. P. 4.
20
.: Kazakh Bloggers Say Blockage of Blog Website for Political Reasons // Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty, 13 July 2011 [www.rferl.org/articleprintview/24264250.html].
21
.: Schwartz C. Kazakh Blog Ban Demonstrates Complexity of Digital Free Speech // Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 25 July 2011 [www.rferl.org/content/transmission_kazakh_blog_ban_shows_complexity_of_
digital_free_speech/24275964.html].

174

15 1 2012

(DDoS-),
10 000 IP- , . - 22.
23,
. , . ,
Stan.TV , . .
. , 24.
2009 ,
. , ,
.
(Freedom on the Net) : 37 . , ,
. , ,
,

. ,
.
, - . .
- , , , 25.

. 2009 15
95% .
, 2010
7%26. ,
63,42% 106,9% .
75% 27.
22
.: Lillis J. Kazakhstan: Is State-Sponsored Hacking Curbing Internet Freedom? // EurasiaNet.org, 2011
[www.eurasianet.org/node/63987].
23
.: 2010 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices // U.S. Department of State, 2011 [www.state.gov/
g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/index.htm].
24
Freedom on the Net.
25
Ibidem.
26
.: Ibidem.
27
.: Mobile Cellular Subscriptions per 100 Inhabitants // International Telecommunications Union, 2011
[www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics].

175

15 1 2012

,

28.
,
- . ,
, . , EurasiaNet.org :
, .
,
29. ,
, , , , : , -
30 , 31.
. . 32.
; , . , . ,
, .
,
... , , , ,
.
.
2010
- .
, , , 33.
.: 2010 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.
. : // EurasiaNet.org,
15 2011 [http://russian.eurasianet.org/node/58679]).
30
2010
, . .
31
Ognianova N. Interview with E. Freedman and R. Shafer. New York City, 11 March 2011.
32
Kohlmeier K., Nekbakhtshoev N. Internet Libel Law and Freedom of Expression in Tajikistan. .: After
the Czars and Commissars. Journalism in Authoritarian Post-Soviet Central Asia / Ed. by E. Freedman, R. Shafer.
East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University Press, 2011.
33
.: Turkmen Rights Groups Website Hacked // Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 2010 [www.rferl.org/
content/Turkmen_Rights_Groups_Website_Hacked/2189615.html].
28
29

176

15 1 2012

34 ,

. , ,
.
. - , , .
, , ,
, ,
.
2009 OpenNet , . .
, : , ( )35.
.
, 2010 36. , , - , . ,
Uznews.net,
, . , ,
. ,
, , ,
.


,
, , . , ,
34
.: Hoerdegen Z. The Future of Internet Media in Uzbekistan: Transformation from State Censorship to
Monitoring of Information Space since Independence. .: After the Czars and Commissars. Journalism in
Authoritarian Post-Soviet Central Asia.
35
.: Dutton W.H. et al. Op. cit. P. 4243.
36
.: 2010 Prison Census // Committee to Protect Journalists, 2010 [http://cpj.org/imprisoned/2010.php].

177

15 1 2012

,
37.
, - , 38.

. , , . . . -, ,
2005 , ,
- : 39.
, 2011 , ()
, .
,

- ,
.
/ ,

, . ,
, ,
40.

:

,
, .
, - ,
.
, , , ,
, , -.
.: Puddephatt A. Op. cit.
.: Bowe B.J., Blom R., Freedman E. Negotiating Boundaries between Control and Dissent: Free Speech,
Business and Repressitarian Governments. .: Human Rights and Information Communication Technologies:
Trends and Consequences of Use / Ed. by J. Lannon. IGI Global ( ).
39
.: Kulikova S.V., Perlmutter D.D. Blogging Down the Dictator? The Kyrgyz Revolution and Samizdat
Websites // International Communication Gazette, 2007, No. 69. P. 2950.
40
Tahir M. Citizen Journalism Scores Breakthrough in Turkmenistan // Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,
2011 [www.rferl.org/content/citizen_journalism_scores_breakthrough_in_turkmenistan/24266428.html].
37
38

178

15 1 2012

41. . , . ,
:

, 42.
, , , , . , , ,
, :
, , 43.
. ,
. . ,

, :
, , ,
Facebook,
44.

. ,
,
.
. . : , - , ? , ,
, ,
?
, , ?45
, . ? . 46.
41
Kazakhstans Traditional Mass Media May Lose Out to Online Media Masimov // Interfax Central
Asia & Caucasus Business Weekly, 2011 [www.allbusiness.com/economy-economic-indicators/money-currencies/
15624949-1.html].
42
Howard P. Op. cit. P. 201.
43
Morozov E. Op. cit. P. xiii.
44
Ibold H. Disjuncture 2.0: Youth, Internet Use, and Cultural Identity in Bishkek // Central Asian Survey,
2010, No. 29 (4). P. 524.
45
Shafer R., Freedman E. In Need of Defenders...
46
Kenny T. Kyrgyzstan: Are Mobile Phones a Blessing or a Curse? // EurasiaNet, 2011 [http://www.eurasianet.
org/node/63958].

179

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, 75% 30 47. .
, , , . :
, - , , , ,
Yahoo48.
47
48

Kenny T. Op. cit.


Ibidem.

180

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