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Lecture 6

Wind Resistant Design AIJ Recommendations for Wind Loads on Buildings


Tokyo Polytechnic University The 21st Century Center of Excellence Program Yukio Tamura

Background
Building Standard Law of Japan (BSLJ) --- Minimum building design requirements - completely revised in 2000 - Performance Based Design (PBD) AIJ Recommendations for Loads on Buildings (AIJ-RLB) 1993 - to be revised in 2004

Major Revisions
Introduction of the wind directionality factor (8 wind directions); Explicit introduction of wind load combinations; Correction and addition of topographic effects; Substantial fulfillment of aerodynamic shape factors

Wind Load Estimation in AIJ-RLB


Buildings and Structures
High-rise HighLow-rise LowMediumSmall Size Medium-rise Rigid Particularly Slender Flexible Wind Sensitive

- Crosswind Detailed Method Simplified - Along-wind - Roof Along- Torsion Method - Cladding - Quasi-steady - Size Reduction Effects Quasi- Quasi-static - Resonance Effects Quasi-

- Vortex Resonance - Aerodynamic Instability - Wind Tunnel Tests, etc.

Design Wind Speed UH (m/s)

U H = U 0 K D E H k rW
U0 : Basic wind speed KD : Wind directionality factor EH : Wind speed profile factor krW : Return period conversion factor

Basic Wind Speed


Meteorological Standard Condition - 10min mean - 10m above ground - Open flat terrain - 100-year-recurrence Typhoon Winds : Monte-Carlo Simulation Synoptic Winds : Meteorological Data Combined probability

Basic Wind Speed U0 (m/s)


34 32 3234 30 Lower Limit: 30m/s 30

36 34 32 34 34 40 34 32 30 36 3230 36 36 30 40 32 36 44 36 34 42 34 3034 44 36 36 40 3840 36 44 Okinawa: 50m/s 40 42 44

32 32 36 30 32 32 38 30

Orientation of Building and Wind Direction


B = 20m, D = 40m, H = 40m Maximum Acceleration Maximum Displacement

63%

100%

50%

100%

Wind Directionality Factor


Davenport (1969) Holmes (1981) Cook (1983) Melbourne (1984, 1990) AS 1170.2 (1989) AS/NZS 1170.2 (2002) Simiu & Heckert (1998)

Wind Directionality Factor in Major Codes


ASCE 7-98 - Buildings: 0.85 for all directions Chimneys: 0.9 or 0.95 for all directions Except for hurricane-prone regions AS/NZS1170.2(2002) - Tropical-cyclone-prone regions: 0.95 or 1.0 for all directions - Non-tropical-cyclone-prone regions: Wind Direction Multiplier for 8 sectors

Wind Directionality Factor


Difficulty in tropical-cyclone-prone regions Meteorological records in Japan: - 75 years of reliable records at most - Approx. 3 landfalls/year of typhoons - Very few typhoon data in each sector divided into 8 or 16 sectors of azimuth for a given site Large sampling error

Wind Distribution in Typhoon


Direction of Movement

10m/s

20m/s 30m/s 50m/s 40m/s

Northern Hemisphere

Dangerous Semicircle

Wind Directionality Factor in Japan


Hybrid use of meteorological data during typhoon passage and Typhoon Simulation technique Reflecting effects of large-scale topography and terrain roughness - Correlations between observed wind speed and simulated friction free wind speed - Correlations between observed wind direction and simulated friction free wind direction

Generation of Virtual Meteorological Data in Tropical Cyclone Prone Region


Simulated Friction Free Wind (FFW) Correlations - Wind Speed UFF - Wind Direction DFF p1 Typhoon Path p3 p p2 p4 pi Pressure Records at Meteorological Stations Meteorological Records - Wind Speed UME - Wind Direction DME

Typhoon Simulation (FFW) 5000 years

Virtual Meteorological Data 5000 years

Generation of Virtual Meteorological Data in Tropical Cyclone Prone Region


Calculation of Correlations Correlations Between Evaluated FFW (UFF, DFF) and Observed Wind Records (UME, DME) Using All Available Typhoon Records (U Typhoon Simulations (5,000 years) Monte-Carlo Simulation Monteat Meteorological Stations Stations - Wind Speed USFF - Wind Direction DSFF (FFW) Virtual Meteorological Wind Data (5,000 years) Probabilistic Conversion of Simulated FFW (USFF, DSFF) FFW (U to Virtual Meteorological Wind Data (Uvir, Dvir) (U

Evaluation of Directional R-year Recurrence Wind Speed in Tropical Cyclone Prone Region
Virtual Long-term Meteorological Data

Sufficient Wind Records in Each Sector

R-year Recurrence Wind Speed for Each Wind Direction

Wind Directionality
(Tokyo, 100-year Recurrence)

Hybrid Use of Typhoon Simulation and Meteorological Records

Equivalent Annual Exceedence Probability of Directional Wind Speed


Corresponding to an annual exceedence probability of load effects (base shear, base moment, etc.) corresponding to 100-year recurrence Under different conditions: - load effects - building shape - orientation - geographic location - design target (structural frames, components and cladding)

Equivalent Directional Design Wind Speed UD


Annual probability of exceedence of a wind load effect = 1/100 (100-year Recurrence) Calculation of 100-year recurrence wind load effect (e.g. internal force, peak pressure) based on the actual wind climate at a given site Site, Building Shape, Orientation, Load Effect, etc.

1.

QX,100

Equivalent Directional Design Wind Speed UD


2.

Calculation of equivalent return period causing the same 100-year recurrence wind load effect in the most unfavorable case 150 200 years

QX,100

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Equivalent Directional Design Wind Speed UD


2.

Calculation of equivalent return period causing the same 100-year recurrence wind load effect in the most unfavorable case Calculation of average directional wind speeds UD based on the equivalent return period for various cases at each meteorological site

3.

Equivalent Directional Design Wind Speed UD

Ave. (m/s)

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Equivalent Directional Design Wind Speeds

Chiba

Wind Directionality Factor KD (8 azimuths)


KD = Basic Wind Speed U0
If you have aerodynamic shape factors for all wind directions, KD can be used directly. If you use aerodynamic shape factors Cf specified in the AIJ-RLB, there is a limitation. Structural Frames : Specified method Cladding/Components : KD = 1
Equivalent Directional Design Wind Speed

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Wind Speed Profile Factor E

E = Er E g
Er : Exposure factor for flat terrains E g : Topography factor for mean
wind speed

Z 1.7 ZG Er = 1.7 Z b Z G

Exposure Factor for Flat Terrains Er

Zb < Z ZG Z Zb

ZG Zb

: Gradient height : Interfacial layer height

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Exposure Factor for Flat Terrains Er


700m

V IV

600 500

400 300 200 100 0 0


Category V IV III II I

III II

0.5

1.5

Er

Topography Factor Eg
S
Escarpments HS XS HS XS

S
Ridges

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Topography Factor Eg
A series of wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations U+U
U U

Eg=(U+U)/U

Topography Factor Eg
Z E g = (C1 1)C2 H C3 + 1 S Z exp C2 H C3 + 1 1 S
C1 , C2 and C3 : Constants depending
on slope angle and distance from upper edge

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Topography Factor Eg
0

Eg

Proposed Formula Eg

1
-3 -3 --2 2 -1 -1 0 0 1 1
2 XS 2 Xs/Hs HS

1
3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6

Return Period Conversion Factor krW

k rW = 0.62(U 1) ln r 2.9U + 3.9

U = U 500 U 0
U 500: 500-year-recurrence wind speed U0
for the meteorological standard conditions : Basic wind speed (100-year-recurrence)

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500-year-recurrence Wind Speed U500 (m/s)


38 36 3638 34 36 36 Lower Limit: 34m/s 34 34 36 36 38 42 34 42 40 38 38 38 36 34 38 46 4436 36 3436 34 40 40 40 34 34 36 44 42 36 48 40 48 40 44 36 36 34 44 48 4240 3842 40 44 48 40 Okinawa: 58m/s 44 46 48 40

Turbulence Intensity IZ at Height Z

I Z = I rZ E gI
I rZ
: Turbulence Intensity for flat terrains
Topography factor for fluctuation wind speed u

EI EgI = Eg

: Topography factor for turbulence intensity


Topography factor for mean wind speed U

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Turbulence Intensity for Flat Terrains IrZ at Height Z

I rZ

Z 0.1 ZG = 0.1 Z b Z G

0.05

0.05

Zb < Z ZG Z Zb

Turbulence Scale LZ (m) at Height Z

Z 0.5 LZ = 100 30 100

30m < Z Z G Z 30m

for every terrain category

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Wind Loads Specified in AIJ-RLB


For Main Frames - Horizontal Along-wind Load Ccrosswind Load Torsional Load - Roof Wind Load For Cladding / Components - Peak Cladding Load

Along-wind Loads on Ordinary Buildings WD (N) at Height Z

WD = q H C D G D A
: Velocity pressure at reference height H CD : Aerodynamic shape factor GD : Gust loading factor A : Projected area GLF based on Base Bending Moment (Zhou & Kareem, 2001)

qH

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GLF for Along-wind Loads on Ordinary Buildings

GD = 1 + g D

' Cg

gD : Peak factor C g and C g : Fluctuating and mean

Cg

1 + D 2 RD

D
RD

coefficients for alongwind OTM : Correction factor depending on mode shape : Resonance factor

Wind Loads on Roof Structures WR (N)

WR = qH CRGR AR
qH CR GR AR
: Velocity pressure at reference height H = C pe C pi : Aerodynamic shape factor : Gust loading factor : Subjected area for roof beam

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GLF for Wind Loads on Roof Structures


GR = 1
2 12.3rRe (1 + R Re ) + 0.3rc 2

1 rc

C pi = 0.4, CR 0

2 C R G R = 0.25 12.3rRe (1 + R Re ) + 0.3 C pi = 0.4, CR = 0

2 G R = 1 12.3rRe (1 + R Re ) + 0.3rc

C pi = 0

rRe , RRe , and rc : Parameters depending on roof

beam direction, dynamic characteristics of roof structure, and wind characteristics

Along-wind Loads on Lattice Towers WD (N) at Height Z

WD = qZ C DGD AF
qZ CD GD A
: Velocity pressure at height Z : Aerodynamic shape factor : Gust loading factor : Projected area

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GLF for Along-wind Loads on Lattice Towers

GD = 1 + g D

Cg Cg

D 1 + RD

gD : Peak factor C g and C g : Fluctuating and mean

D
RD

coefficients for alongwind OTM : Correction factor depending on mode shape : Resonance factor

Crosswind Loads and Torsional Loads


Slender and flexible buildings to satisfy following condition:

H 3 BD

UH

H D B

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Crosswind Loads on Buildings WL (N) at Height Z

Z 2 W L = 3q H C L A g L 1 + L R L H
CL = 0.0082(D B ) 0.071(D B ) + 0.22(D B )
3 2

g L : Peak factor

RL

: Correction factor for mode shape : Resonance factor

Torsional Wind Loads on Buildings WT (Nm) at Height Z

WT = 1.8qH CT AB
gT : Peak factor

Z gT 1 + T 2 RT H

CT = {0.0066 + 0.015( D / B) 2 }0.78

RT

: Correction factor for mode shape : Resonance factor

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Correction Factors Depending on Mode Shape


Ordinary buildings
D =
1 0.4 ln M 2+ MD
Along-wind loads Along 1

Z = H

M (B 2 + D 2 ) Z T = (1 0.4 ln ) Crosswind loads 36 I T H 1 M Z L = Torsional wind loads (1 0.4 ln ) 3M L H

Mode shape

Lattice Towers
D =
M 5M D

BH 0.3( 2) + 1.4 (1 0.4 ln ) 0.5 B0 Along Along-wind loads

Vortex Resonance and Aerodynamic Instabilities


Particularly wind-sensitive U buildings to satisfy following H H conditions: Non-dimensional NonH B 4 onset velocity D BD UH UH * * 0.83U Lcr or 0.83U Tcr and f BD f T BD L f L , f T : Fundamental natural frequencies of crosswind vibration and torsional vibration

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Non-dimensional Onset Velocity (Crosswind)


Terrain Category Side Ratio

D/B D/B 0.8 0.8 <D/B 1.5

Mass-Damping Parameter L

Onset Velocity

L 0.7 L > 0.7

I & II

1.5 <D/B 2.5 D/B > 2.5

All L 0.2 0.2<L 0.8 L > 0.8 L 0.4 L > 0.4 All

III, IV &V

D/B 0.8 0.8 <D/B 1.2 D/B>1.2

U*Lcr 16L 11 1.2L +7.3 2.3 12 15 L 3.7 Not occur 4.5L +6.7 0.7L +8.8 11

Non-dimensional Onset Velocity (Torsional)


Side Ratio

D/B D/B1.5

1.5 <D/B 2.5 2.5 <D/B 5

T 0.05 0.05 <T 0.1 T > 0.1 T 0.05 0.05 <T 0.15 T > 0.15 T 0.05 T > 0.05

Mass-Damping Parameter T

Onset Velocity

U*Tcr 2 11 Not occur 2 4 + 8T 8.6 + 7.4T 2 5 + 10.5T

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Vortex Resonance of Circular Cylinders


Buildings with a circular plan to satisfy following conditions:

H UH 7 and 4.2 Dm f L Dm
fL

UH Dm H

: Fundamental natural frequency of crosswind vibration

Wind Loads on Circular Cylinders Wr (N) for Vortex Resonance at Height Z

Z 2 Wr = 0.8U r C r A H
Cr fL

UH H Z Dm

U r = 5 f L Dm : Resonance wind speed


(m/s) : Equivalent aerodynamic shape factor for vortex resonance - tabulated in AIJ-RLB : Fundamental natural frequency of crosswind vibration

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Phase-plane Expressions of Column Tip Displacements and Base Bending Moments

Displacement

Bending Moment

Peak Normal Stresses in Column C1


Load Conditions
ALL : FD FL FT MD ML MT Along-wind FD only Crosswind FL only Torsional Moment MT only ALL Along-wind FD only

(Low-rise Sq. Model, =1/4) (Low-

Tensile Stress kN/cm2 Peak Value (P.F.)

Compressive Stress kN/cm2 Peak Value (P.F.)

5.4 (4.56) 4.2 (4.42) 1.7 (3.95) 0.9 (4.36)

4.7 ( 4.50) 4.1 ( 4.42) 1.8 ( 3.95) 0.9 ( 4.36)

130%

115%

Ensemble averaged values of 12 samples The worst case was a 75% increase in tensile stress.

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Combinations of Wind Load Components


Low- and medium-rise buildings - Y. Tamura, H. Kikuchi and K. Hibi (2002) - H. Kikuchi, Y. Tamura and K. Hibi (2002) Peak normal stresses in columns High-rise buildings - Asami (2000, 2002) Combination methods considering correlations of along-wind, crosswind and torsional responses

Wind Load Combination for Low- and Medium-rise Buildings

WD

WLC = WD
Combination Factor

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Combination Factor for Lowand Medium-rise Buildings


Combination Factor
Column Normal Stress by All Wind Force Components Column Normal Stress by Along-wind Force only Along-

Combination Factor for Lowand Medium-rise Buildings


(Kikuchi, Tamura & Hibi, 2002) Hibi,

Combination Factor

Only Quasi-static QuasiComponent With Resonant Component

Building Height

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Combination Factor for Lowand Medium-rise Buildings


(Kikuchi, Tamura & Hibi, 2002) Hibi,

Combination Factor Combination Factor

1.5 B 1

WL= WD WD D

0.5

1 2 3 Side Ratio D/B

(H = 40m)

Combination Factor for Lowand Medium-rise Buildings


(Kikuchi, Tamura & Hibi, 2002) Hibi,

Combination Factor

1.5 B 1

WL= WD WD D

With Resonant Component Quasi-static Component only

0.5

= 0.35 (D/B)
1 2 3 Side Ratio D/B (H = 80m)

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Wind Load Combinations for High-rise Buildings


my m y ,max

2 + 2 1

Design Points for Mx,max


mx m x ,max

= M x + m x ,max

1 2 2

0 (M x , M y ) 1

Wind Load Combinations for High-rise Buildings


Combination

Along-wind Load

Crosswind Load

Torsional Load

WD

0.4 WL
WL

0.4 WT

0.6 0.4 + WD GD 0.6 0.4 + WD GD

( 2+2 1)W
LT

( 2+2 1)W
LT

WT

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Correlation Coefficient LT between Crosswind Response and Torsional Response


- tabulated in AIJ-RLB - depends upon D/B f / fL f1B/UH
The smaller of f and fL

Combinations of Horizontal Wind Load and Roof wind Load


It is recommended to simply superimpose the horizontal wind load and roof wind load. - Y. Tamura, H. Kikuchi and K. Hibi (2003) The vertical component of the wind force acting on medium-rise buildings tended to become largest when one of the horizontal wind force components reached its maximum value .

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Wind Loads for Components and Cladding WR (N)

WC = q H C C AC
C C = C pe C * pi C : Peak external pressure coefficient

pe * pi

: Coefficient accounting for the effect of the internal pressure Equivalent internal fluctuation pressure coefficient : Tributary area

Aerodynamic Shape Factors


External wind pressure coefficients C pe for structural frames:

- Buildings with rectangular sections (H>45m) - Buildings with rectangular sections with flat, shed, or gable roofs (H45m) - Circular arc roofs (H45m) - Dome roofs

Internal wind pressure coefficients for structural frames


- Buildings without dominant openings

C pi

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Aerodynamic Shape Factors


External wind force coefficients for structural frames: CD , C X

- Buildings with circular sections - Pitched free roofs with a rectangular plan - Lattice structures - Fences - Members with various sections - Nettings

, CY

Aerodynamic Shape Factors


- Buildings with rectangular sections (H>45m) - Buildings with rectangular sections with flat, shed, or gable roofs (H45m) - Buildings with circular sections - Circular arc roofs (H45m) - Dome roofs

External peak pressure coefficients C pe for cladding and components:

Coefficients accounting for the effect of the internal pressure fluctuation for C * pi cladding and components
- Buildings without dominant openings

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Aerodynamic Shape Factors


- Pitched free roofs with a rectangular plan

External peak wind force coefficients for cladding and components: C

1-year-recurrence Wind Speed U1 (m/s)


AIJ Guidelines for the Evaluation of Habitability to Building Vibration (1991)
(Its revised version will be published in 2004)

- 1-year-recurrence peak acceleration has been applied for the evaluation

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1-year-recurrence Wind Speed U1 (m/s)


20

10min mean Flat open category 10m above the ground

20 20

20

15

20 15 15 20

20

20

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Miscellaneous
Evaluation formulae for along-wind, crosswind and torsional acceleration responses Interference effects of neighboring buildings Uncertainty and dispersion of parameters included in AIJ-RLB-2004 - to achieve reliability based design

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