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F235

Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

Electrochemistry
Electrode potentials define the term standard electrode (redox) potential, Eo describe how to measure, using a hydrogen electrode, standard electrode potentials of: (i) metals or non-metals in contact with their ions in aqueous solution (ii) ions of the same element in different oxidation states calculate a standard cell potential by combining two standard electrode potentials Feasibility of reactions predict, using standard cell potentials, the feasibility of a reaction consider the limitations of predictions made using standard cell potentials, in terms of kinetics and concentration Storage and fuel cells apply principles of electrode potentials to modern storage cells explain that a fuel cell uses the energy from the reaction of a fuel with oxygen to create a voltage explain the changes that take place at each electrode in a hydrogenoxygen fuel cell outline that scientists in the car industry are developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), fuelled by: (i) hydrogen gas (ii) hydrogen-rich fuels (including methanol, natural gas or petrol, which are converted into hydrogen gas by an onboard reformer) state advantages of FCVs over conventional petrol or diesel-powered vehicles, in terms of: (i) less pollution and less CO2 (pure H2 emits only H2O whilst hydrogen-rich fuels produce only small amounts of air pollutants and CO2) (ii) greater efficiency (efficiency can be more than twice that of similarly sized conventional vehicles; other advanced technologies can further increase efficiency) understand how hydrogen might be stored in FCVs: (i) as a liquid under pressure (ii) adsorbed on the surface of a solid material (iii) absorbed within a solid material consider limitations of hydrogen fuel cells, for example: (i) storing and transporting hydrogen, in terms of safety, feasibility of a pressurised liquid and a limited life cycle of a solid adsorber or absorber (ii) limited lifetime (fuel cells have a finite life, requiring regular replacement and disposal) and high production costs (iii) use of toxic chemicals in their production comment that a hydrogen economy may contribute largely to future energy needs but limitations include: (i) public and political acceptance of hydrogen as a fuel (ii) handling and maintenance of hydrogen systems (iii) initial manufacture of hydrogen, requiring energy (it is an energy carrier, not a source)

Redox reactions and half-equations If we dip a zinc strip into copper(II) sulphate, a layer of copper is deposited on the zinc. We might also observe that the blue colour of the copper sulphate solution fades towards colourless as zinc(II) sulphate solution is formed. CuSO4(aq) + Zn(s) Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq) By considering oxidation numbers we can reduce the equation to two half-equations, removing sulphate spectator ions. Reduction: Cu2+ + 2e- Cu p. 1

F235 Oxidation: Zn Zn2+ + 2e-

Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

The oxidation of zinc is producing electrons, while the reduction of copper ions is consuming them. If we could separate these two reactions, we could have the electrons flow though an electrical circuit to get from where they were produced to where they are consumed. This is what happens in the cells of a battery. Cells and half cells An electrical cell comprises two half-cells, one in which oxidation is taking place to supply electrons, and one in which reduction is taking place to consume them. Each half cell therefore contains an element which changes oxidation state.

The simplest half-cell comprises a metal placed in an aqueous solution of its ions. An equilibrium exists at the surface of the metal between the oxidation state of the metal and the metal ion, with its different oxidation state. By convention, the equilibrium is always written with the electrons on the left side: e.g. for copper and copper(II) ions: and for zinc and zinc ions: Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e- Zn(s)

This convention means that the forward reaction is REDUCTION (gaining electrons) and the reverse reaction is OXIDATION (losing electrons). We have written these as reversible reactions because either oxidation or reduction could take place. In an electrical cell, there is one half-cell where the reaction is going in the forward direction and one half-cell where the reaction is going in the reverse direction. Electrode Potential What we need is value which shows us which way the reaction will go in a particular half-cell. That is, whether a half-cell will act as a producer of electrons, or as a consumer of electrons. The electrode potential of a half cell is this measure. We compare the electrode potentials of the two half cells. In the half-cell with the largest (most positive) electrode potential, the reaction will go in the forward direction, and in this half cell the element being reduced will gain electrons. This will be the positive terminal of the cell. p. 2

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Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

In the half-cell with the smallest (most negative or least positive) electrode potential, the reaction will go in the reverse direction, and in this half cell the element being oxidized will lose electrons, supplying them to flow around the circuit. This will be the negative terminal of the cell. The electrode potentials for the two half cells we have considered so far are: Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) + 0.34 V 2+ Zn (aq) + 2e Zn(s) - 0.76 V Here we can see that the Cu2+/Cu half-cell has the more positive electrode potential: - so this will be the positive terminal of the cell - the reaction will go in the forward direction - copper ions are reduced - the electrons to do this flow IN from the external circuit The Zn2+/Zn half-cell has the lowest electrode potential - so this will be the negative terminal of the cell - the reaction will go in the reverse direction - zinc is oxidized to zinc ions - electrons are given up to flow OUT into the external circuit The experimental setup would be: It is the difference between the electrode potentials for the two half-cells which drives one half-cell to produce electrons and the other to consume them we can measure this with a voltmeter. It is referred to as the potential difference (p.d.) The salt bridge may need some explanation: As the reactions proceed, both half-cell ends up with an imbalance between positive and negative ions. The Zn2+/Zn half-cell ends up with extra positive ions, and the Cu2+/Cu half-cell ends up with fewer positive ions. The salt bridge allows ions to move from one half-cell to the other in order to correct this imbalance, otherwise the electrons would stop flowing in the external circuit. The salt bridge could be as simple as a strip of filter paper soaked in an aqueous solution of an ionic compound, however the ionic compound chosen mustn't react with the solutions in either of the half cells ! Often aqueous KNO3 or NH4NO3 is used.

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Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

Other types of half-cell Recall that a half-cell simply has to support an equilibrium where an element is in two different oxidation states. Rather than having a metal and a solution containing the metal ions, we could have: A non-metal/non-metal ion half cell e.g. a hydrogen half-cell comprises hydrogen gas, H2, in contact with aqueous hydrogen ions: 2H+(aq) + 2e- H2(g) An inert platinum electrode is used to transfer the electrons into or out of the half-cell and make the connection to the rest of the electrical circuit. The platinum does not react at all. The platinum electrode is immersed in an acid solution, providing the H+ ions, and hydrogen gas is bubbled over the electrode surface. Non-metal/non-metal ion half-cells are not limited to hydrogen and positively charged ions. We could just as well have e.g. chlorine gas in contact with aqueous chloride ions: Cl2(g) + 2e- 2Cl-(aq) A metal ion/metal ion half cell This type of half-cell contains an aqueous solution with ions of the same element in two different oxidation states, e.g. Iron(II) and iron (III). Fe3+(aq) + e- Fe2+(aq) As before, an inert platinum electrode is used to transfer the electrons into or out of the half-cell. Standard electrode potentials If we are going to measure and compare electrode potentials, we need to do so under controlled and reproducible conditions. We therefore choose to compare the electrode potentials of different half-cells to the electrode potential of a hydrogen half-cell (our reference standard), which we define as having an electrode potential of 0.00 Volts when under standard conditions of 298K (25C) and with a H2 gas pressure of 101kPa (1 atmosphere) and an H+ solution concentration of 1 mol dm-3. Standard electrode potentials of other half-cells also need to be measured with the same standard conditions: 298K, 101kPa gas pressure, and 1.00 mol dm-3 solution concentrations. To measure the standard electrode potential of other half-cells, we combine them with a standard hydrogen electrode to form a complete cell, then measure the overall cell potential, (the potential difference across the cell) with a high resistance voltmeter. This gives a direct reading of the standard electrode potential of the half-cell. p. 4

F235 Definition: The standard electrode potential of a half-cell, E, is the electrode potential of a half-cell compared with a standard hydrogen half cell, measured at 298K with solution concentrations of 1 mol dm-3 and a gas pressure of 101kPa. Overall cell potential Electrode potentials can be used to predict the voltage or overall cell potential of any combination of half-cells.

Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

For example, if we used our Zn2+/Zn and Cu2+/Cu half cells together to make a cell, what would the overall cell potential (the voltage produced by the cell) be ? Firstly we need to decide which half-cell undergoes reduction (the one with the most positive standard electrode potential), and which undergoes oxidation (the one with the least positive standard electrode potential). We can then calculate the standard cell potential, Ecell. Ecell = E (reduction reaction) - E (oxidation reaction) N.B. Cell potentials should be positive if it comes out negative, you've got the wrong halfcells doing oxidation and reduction ! To see how this works: Zn2+/Zn E = -0.76V most negative : oxidation reaction 2+ Cu /Cu E = +0.34V most positive : reduction reaction Ecell = 0.34 - (-0.76) = +1.10 V This cell would have an overall cell potential of +1.10V SHOW THE + SIGN ! Worked example: A silver-copper cell is made by connecting together an Ag+/Ag half cell and a Cu2+/Cu half cell. What will be the cell potential ? The half-cell equilibria and standard electrode potentials are: Ag+(aq) + e- Ag(s) E = +0.80V reduction reaction goes forward 2+ Cu (aq) + 2e Cu(s) E = +0.34V oxidation reaction goes backward Ecell = 0.80 - 0.34 = +0.46V

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F235

Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

Practice: 1) For each of the half-cell combinations below, give the value of Ecell i) Ca2+/Ca | 2H+/H2 E values: Ca2+/Ca -2.87V 2H+/H2 0.00V Mn2+/Mn -1.19V Cl2/2Cl+1.36V Cr3+/Cr2+ -0.41V

ii) Mn2+/Mn | Cl2/2Cliii) Cr3+/Cr2+ | Mn2+/Mn

Cell reactions We may also be asked to derive the overall equation for the reaction taking place in the two half-cells. Step 1: Write the two half equations + Ag (aq) + e- Ag(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) Step 2: Change the to to show which way each is going + Ag (aq) + e- Ag(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s) Step 3: Turn around to get arrows going the same direction Ag+(aq) + e- Ag(s) Cu(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2eStep 4: Get the same number of electrons in each half-equation, by multiplying + 2Ag (aq) + 2e- 2Ag(s) Cu(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2eStep 5: Add the two equations and cancel the electrons on each side Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq) + 2e- Cu2+(aq) + 2e- + 2Ag(s) Practice: 2) For each of the half-cell combinations below, give the overall cell reaction: i) Ca2+/Ca | 2H+/H2 E values: Ca2+/Ca -2.87V + 2H /H2 0.00V Mn2+/Mn -1.19V Cl2/2Cl +1.36V Cr3+/Cr2+ -0.41V

ii) Mn2+/Mn | Cl2/2Cliii) Cr3+/Cr2+ | Mn2+/Mn

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F235

Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

We might also be given the overall equation and one of the half equations, and asked to work out what is going on in the other half-cell: e.g. In a cell, the following overall reaction occurs: Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Cu2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) The half-equation for the Ag/Ag+ electrode is Ag+ + e- Ag Work out the half-equation for what is taking place in the other half-cell: METHOD: Calculate the changes in oxidation number taking place in the overall equation, and multiply up the known half equation to the corresponding number of electrons. Then subtract the known half-equation from the overall equation to reveal the other half-equation: Overall Cu + 2Ag+ Cu2+ + 2Ag 0 +1 2+ 0 +1 2Ag+ + 2e- 2Ag What remains after subtracting is: Cu - 2e- Cu2+ Cu Cu2+ + 2eso 2 electrons are being transferred because oxidation numbers increase by 2 (for Cu) and decrease by 2 (for Ag) multiplying up the known half-equation to get 2 electrons now rearrange to turn subtraction into addition so this must be the other half equation

This is a trivial example, and they can be quite a lot harder to figure out, but the method is as above. Multiply the known half equation up to get the right number of electrons for the overall change in oxidation state in the overall equation, then work out what is missing on each side to add up to the overall equation. e.g. In a methanol fuel cell, the overall equation is CH3OH + 1 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O At one electrode, the reaction taking place is 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O Work out what happens at the other electrode: Oxidation number changes: C H3 O H -2 +1 -2 +1 +1 +1 + 1 O2 0 C O2 +4 -2 -2 + 2 H 2O +1 -2 +1

-2 to +4 = 6 electrons

0 to -2 (3x) = 6 electrons

Now multiply up known half-equation to get 6 electrons transferred: 6H+ + 6e- + 1O2 3H2O

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Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

Subtract this half equation from the overall equation (don't worry about signs yet) CH3OH + 1 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O + minus 6H + 6e + 1O2 3H2O equals CH3OH 6H+ - 6e- CO2 - H2O

Finally rearrange to get rid of subtractions (and check if the half-equation will simplify) CH3OH + H2O CO2 + 6H+ + 6eStorage Cells (batteries) Half-cells are combined to produce two types of commercial electrical storage cell, or battery. i) non-rechargeable cells e.g. alkaline cells These provide electrical energy until the oxidation and reduction has been carried out to such an extent that the potential difference can no longer be maintained. The cell is then "flat", and must be disposed of.

The zinc anode supplied electrons, as the zinc is oxidized by the hydroxide ions: ZnO(s) + H2O(l) + 2e- Zn(s) + 2OH-(aq)

At the graphite cathode, electrons are supplied to the manganese(IV) oxide which is reduced. Hydroxide ions are produced, replacing those which were consumed at the anode 2MnO2(s) + H2O(l) + 2e- Ecell is + 1.5V (typical of AA cells) Mn2O3(s) + 2OH-

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Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

ii) Rechargeable cells e.g. NiCd, NiMH, Lithium ion batteries (in laptops), Lithium ion polymer batteries (iPod etc.) The reduction and oxidation in the two half-cells which supplies the electrical current can be reversed during recharging. This reverses the two redox equilibria, recreating the reactants so that the cell can be used again and again. Cadmium is toxic, so there are environmental problems associated with its disposal, hence its use only in rechargeable and therefore reusable cells. In NiCd batteries the positive and negative electrodes, isolated from each other by the separator, are rolled in a spiral shape inside the case, and surrounded with potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte. This allows a NiCd cell to deliver a much higher maximum current than an equivalent size alkaline cell. The oxidation half-cell reaction at the negative terminal in a NiCd battery during discharge is: and the reduction half-cell reaction at the positive terminal in a NiCd battery is: This gives a cell reaction of: Details not required for A-level exams

When the storage cell is recharged, these two reactions go in the opposite direction. Feasibility of reactions The usefulness of electrode potentials is not limited to calculating the cell potential of a cell. More generally, we can use the electrode potentials to predict whether a redox reaction will take place. For example, "Will a solution containing iron(III) ions oxidise nickel to nickel(II) ions ?" We need to look at the electrode potentials for the oxidation and reductions involved. We use the same convention of writing each with the electrons on the left Now draw arrows to show which way you want the reaction to go in each half cell - in this case we want Ni Ni2+ and Fe3+ Fe2+ Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) Fe (aq) + e- Fe2+(aq)
3+

E = -0.25V E = +0.77V

Now check that one arrow is going in each direction. If not, you don't have a redox reaction, you have two species that both want to be oxidized, or both reduced so no reaction will occur. If you do have one arrow going in each direction, work out Ecell. Ecell = E reduction reaction (forward arrow) - Eoxidation reaction (backward arrow) p. 9

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Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

If Ecell has a positive value, the reaction is feasible. If the value is negative, the reaction is not feasible. - in our example Ecell = 0.77 (-0.25) = +1.02V

So we can say that iron(III) ions CAN oxidize nickel to nickel(II) ions. In doing so the iron(III) ions will be reduced to iron(II). Now we need to be able to explain our answer: "Why does Fe3+ react with Ni ?" The electrode potential for the Ni2+/Ni, half cell is more negative than the electrode potential for Fe3+/Fe2+ so in the Ni2+/Ni half cell, Ni will be oxidized to Ni2+, releasing electrons. These electrons will reduce the Fe3+ to Fe2+in the other half cell. Now let's look at the opposite situation. Another possible redox reaction question might be "Will nickel(II) ions oxidize iron(II) ions to iron(III) ?" We approach this the same way: We want Fe2+ Fe3+ and Ni2+ Ni Fe3+(aq) + e- Fe2+(aq) Ni2+(aq) + 2e- Ni(s) Check 1: Check 2: E = +0.77V E = -0.25V

Yes we've got one arrow going each way Ecell = -0.25 0.77 = -1.02V

Since Ecell is negative we can say that nickel(II) ions CAN'T oxidize iron(II) to iron(III). The explanation goes: The electrode potential for the Fe3+/Fe2+, half cell is more positive than the electrode potential for Ni2+/Ni, so the Fe2+ cannot be oxidized to Fe3+ to release electrons in order for the Ni2+ to be reduced to Ni. So long as we know the standard electrode potentials, we can deal with quite complicated redox systems.
Zn2+(aq) + 2e Zn(s) Fe2+(aq) + 2e Fe(s) 2H+(aq) + 2e H2(g) Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) Fe3+(aq) + e Fe2+(aq) Ag+(aq) + e Ag(s) NO3-(aq) + 2H+(aq) + e- NO2(g) + H2O(l) O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e 2H2O(l) Cl2(g) + 2e 2Cl-(aq) E = -0.77V E = -0.44V E = 0.00V E = +0.34V E = +0.77V E = +0.80V E = +0.80V E = +1.23V E = +1.36V

most likely to lose electrons and be oxidised i.e. reducing agents

Example: Does copper react with acids ? If we consider the usual reaction of a metal with an acid, i.e. metal + acid metal salt + hydrogen then we want H+ H2 and Cu Cu2+ p. 10

most likely to gain electrons and be reduced i.e. oxidising agents

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Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

2H+(aq) + 2e- H2(g) Cu2+(aq) + 2e- Cu(s)

E = 0.00V E = +0.34V

Ecell for this reaction = 0.00 0.34 = -0.34V so copper won't react with the H+ ions. The electrode potential for the Cu/Cu2+ half cell is more positive than that for H+/H2 so Cu can't release the two electrons needed for H+ to be reduced to H2. Ecell for this reaction would be negative. While copper is "too unreactive" to react with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, it does react with nitric acid, forming blue Cu2+ ions in solution and releasing orange-brown NO2 gas. Here we must also consider the nitrate ions in the acidic solution: Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) + NO3 (aq) + 2H (aq) + e NO2(g) + H2O(l) E = +0.34V E = +0.80V

Ecell for this reaction = 0.80 0.34 = +0.46V so copper will react with H+ and NO3- ions together. The electrode potential for the Cu/Cu2+ half cell is more negative than that for the NO3-/NO2 half cell, so the Cu can release electrons to form Cu2+ ions, and the electrons will reduce the NO3- ions to NO2. Overall equations Once we have determined that a redox reaction will work, and we know in which direction the reaction in each half-cell is going, we can rearrange, balance the electrons and combine the half equations to get an overall equation for the redox reaction EXACTLY as we did when considering the overall reactions in electrical cells. e.g. when copper reacts with concentrated nitric acid: Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) NO3-(aq) + 2H+(aq) + e- NO2(g) + H2O(l) Step 1: Cu(s) NO3-(aq) + 2H+(aq) + e- Cu(s) 2NO3-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2eCu(s) + 2NO3-(aq) + 4H+(aq) E = +0.34V E = +0.80V

Cu2+(aq) + 2eNO2(g) + H2O(l) Cu2+(aq) + 2e2NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) 2NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) + Cu2+(aq) p. 11

Step 2:

Step 3:

F235

Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

Limitations of predictions using standard electrode potentials 1) Non-standard conditions alter the values of the electrode potentials, so if the redox reaction is to happen under any conditions other than 298K, 101kPa and concentrations of 1 mol dm-3 then the electrode potentials won't be correct. e.g. Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) E = +0.34V

If we increase the concentration of Cu2+ ions, Le Chatelier tells us that the position of equilibrium moves to the right to oppose the change and use up the Cu2+ ions. The electrode potential measures the tendency of the reaction to go in the forward direction (to the right), so the electrode potential increases compared to the E value. 2) Standard electrode potentials apply to aqueous equilibria. Many redox reactions don't happen under these conditions, so the electrode potentials can't reflect those conditions. e.g. CuO(s) + Mg(s) MgO(s) + Cu(s) 3) Even if the electrode potentials indicate that a redox reaction is feasible, it says nothing about the RATE of the reaction which may be so slow, due to a very high activation energy. As a general rule: - the larger the difference between the electrode potentials of the two redox equilibria, the more likely it is that a reaction will take place - if the difference in electrode potentials is less than 0.4V, then a reaction is unlikely to take place. Consider again the reaction of copper with nitric acid, using these rules. Cu2+(aq) + 2e Cu(s) E = +0.34V + NO3 (aq) + 2H (aq) + e NO2(g) + H2O(l) E = +0.80V Standard conditions means the concentration of nitrate ions must be 1 mol dm-3. So for copper reacting with 1M nitric acid, the difference in electrode potentials is 0.80 0.34 = 0.46 V. This is just about enough to suggest the reaction might take place.

What if we use concentrated acid ? If we increase [H+] then the position of equilibrium for the NO3-/NO2 redox equilibrium shifts to the right to use up the H+. This means the electrode potential of this half-cell gets more positive. The difference between the electrode potentials increases, and the reaction is more likely to take place. Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy Development of fuel cells, in which hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (from the air) are converted into electrical energy and water, provides an alternative to use of finite crude oil-based fuels in p. 12

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Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

cars. Scientists and engineers are developing FCVs (fuel cell vehicles) as the next generation of cars. Hydrogen can be used directly, or hydrogen-rich fuels such as methanol, natural gas, or petrol, can be converted into hydrogen gas by an onboard reformer. Used as a fuel, pure hydrogen fuel emits only water whilst hydrogen-rich fuels produce only small amounts of air pollutants and CO2, so less pollution arises with FCVs. Efficiency of FCVs can be more than twice that of similarly-sized conventional vehicles; other advanced technologies can further increase efficiency, so there is political desire to move to a hydrogen economy. There are logistical problems for their development and use, however, mainly due to the explosive nature of hydrogen. The main engineering/scientific challenge is not how to make fuel cells, but how to store the hydrogen fuel safely. Current ways being developed include: (i) as a liquid under pressure (feasibility and safety concerns) (ii) adsorbed on the surface of a solid material (iii) absorbed within a solid material - both the latter suffer from limited life cycle, need for regular replacement, high production costs and use of toxic chemicals in their manufacture (leading also to disposal problems) It must be recognized that energy is needed to produce hydrogen, and that fuel cells have a finite life. Hydrogen is therefore not a source of energy, but an energy carrier. The principle barriers to be overcome before hydrogen becomes a widespread fuel are: (i) public and political acceptance of hydrogen as a fue (ii) handling and maintenance of hydrogen systems (availability of service and repair) (iii) initial manufacture of hydrogen, requiring energy (cost and scale of manufacture) How a fuel cell works: The reactants (hydrogen and oxygen) flow in and the products (water) flow out, while the electrolyte remains in the cell Fuel cells do not have to be recharged and can operate virtually continuously as long as the fuel and oxygen continue to flow into the cell The electrodes are made of a material such as a titanium sponge coated in platinum The electrolyte is an acid or alkaline membrane that allows ions to move from one compartment of the cell to the other (like a salt bridge)

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F235 The equilibria involved in an alkaline solution are: 2H2O (l) + 2e- H2 (g) + 2OH-(aq) E = -0.83 V (negative electrode) O2 (g) + H2O (l) + 2e- 2OH-(aq) E = +0.40 V (positive electrode) The equilibria involved in an acidic solution are: 2H+(aq) + 2e- H2 (g) E = +0.00 V (negative electrode) O2 (g) + 2H+ (aq) + 2e- H2O (l) E = +1.23 V (positive electrode)

Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

The overall reaction in both cases is the same: H2 (g) + O2 (g) H2O (l) The voltage produced is 1.23 V

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F235 Answers to Practice Questions:

Electrode Potentials and Fuels Cells

1) For each of the half-cell combinations below, give the value of Ecell Ca2+/Ca | 2H+/H2 i) E cell = 0.00 (-2.87) = +2.87V Mn2+/Mn | Cl2/2Clii) Ecell = 1.36 (-1.19) = +2.55V Cr3+/Cr2+ | Mn2+/Mn iii) E cell = -0.41 (-01.19) = +0.78V 2) For each of the half-cell combinations below, give the overall cell reaction: i) Ca(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + H2(g) ii) Cl2(g) + Mn(s) Mn2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) iii) 2Cr3+(aq) + Mn(s) 2Cr2+(aq) + Mn2+(aq)

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