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Chapter 3 Beam column

3.1 Introduction
1 What is beam-column
Beam columns are member that are subjected to
both axial compression and bending while bending is as
important as axial compression.
For example in an actual construction, columns in
frame are typical beam columns.
Beam-column axial pressure is the primary effect
while bending (intentionally applied) is also
important the research is mainly to discuss the
effect of axial load on bending.
2 Different between eccentrically loaded
column and beam-column
Eccentrically loaded column axial pressure is the
primary effect while bending (unavoidable imperfections)
is the secondary ; the research is mainly to discuss the
effect of bending on axially loaded column.
3.2 Deformation and internal force of beam-column
This section will discuss the deformation and internal
force of beam-column in two kinds of loading conditions
condition 1 combined action of axial load and
concentrated lateral force
condition 2 combined action of axial load and
distributed lateral force
1 Combined action of axial load and

N N
Q
l/2 l/2
Research object: effect of axial load N on bending
Characteristic : must establish equation of deformed state
1 Fundamental assumption
1 material follow Hookes law :
2 deformation of structural member is small
curvature:
3 bending of structural member is limited in vertical
plane xy
2 Establish differential equation
0
2
Ny
Qx
M

x
y
N
N
y
x
Q/2
M
Q/2
y EI M
hence
2
Qx
Ny y EI +

y

& / 1
E
EI
Qx
y k y
2
2
+ 3.1
EI
N
k
2
3.2
3 Effect of axial load on deflection
1 general solution of equation 3.1
N
Qx
kx B kx A y
2
cos sin +
3.3
and A B are undetermined coefficients
Hence B=0
Boundary condition: y=0 at x=0
Symmetry condition: , at
0
dx
dy
2
l
x

1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

kx
kl
kx
Nk
Q
A
2
cos
sin
2
and
then put the value of A,B into (3.3), hence
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

kx
kl
kx
Nk
Q
y
2
cos
sin
2
3.4
2 calculate the deflection of span centre
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

2
2
cos
2
sin
2
kl
kl
kl
Nk
Q

[ ] u tgu
Nk
Q

2

3.5
and
2
kl
u
3.6
3 analysis the effect of N on
While only lateral load Q act on simply supported beam,
the deflection of span centre is
EI
Ql
48
3
0

3.7
Both numerator and denominator in eq. (3.5) are multiplied
by , one obtains

,
_

EI
l
24
3
[ ] u tgu
Nkl
EI
EI
Ql

3
3
24
48

3.8
Making use of Eqs.(3.2),(3.6),(3.7),and(3.8), one obtains
[ ] u tgu
kl

,
_

3
0
2
3

3.9
[ ] u tgu
u

3
0
3

By introducing the infinite series of

tgu
L + + + + +
9 7 5 3
2835
62
315
17
15
2
3
1
u u u u u tgu

,
_

+ + + + L
6 4 2
0
945
62
105
17
5
2
1 u u u
3.10
And making use of Eqs.(3.2) (3.7) one obtains
the simplified representation of takes form

e
N
N
EI
Nl
u 4674 . 2
4
2
2 2
2

3.11
and is Eulerian load
e
N
2
2
l
EI
N
e

Eq.(3.10)can be rewritten as:

1
]
1

+ + + + L
3 2
0
) ( 9855 . 0 ) ( 9856 . 0 9869 . 0 1
e e e
N
N
N
N
N
N

or very nearly
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+ + L
3 2
0
1
e e e
N
N
N
N
N
N

3.12
Since Eq.(3.12) is the sum of infinity descending
geometric series and reduces to
1 <
e
N
N
)
1
1
1
) ( 1
lim , 1 (
1
1
0
e e
n
e
n
e
e
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
if
N
N

<

3.13
Eq.(3.13)approximates very closely the maximum deflection
of a simply supported member that is simultaneously bent by a
transverse load Q and an axial force P. Its a approximate
expression because of using of Eq.(3.12).
Eq.(3.13)indicates that the maximum deflection of the
member is equal to ,the maximum deflection that would
exist if only Q were acting, multiplied by an amplification factor.
The effect of the axial load is thus to magnify the deflection that
would exist in the beam if it, the axial force, were no present.

4 the effect of axial load on bending moment

N
Ql
M +
4
max
3.14
In view of (3.5)and(3.13) Eq.(3.14) can be rewritten as

,
_

+
e
N
N
EI
Ql
N
Ql
M
1
1
48 4
3
max
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
e
N
N
EI
Nl Ql
M
1
1
12
1
4
2
max 3.15
We introduce the Eulerian load to replace the notation
e
N
EI
l
12
2
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
e
e
N
N
N
N Ql
M
1
1
82 . 0 1
4
max
Then we get
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

e
e
N
N
N
N
Ql
M
1
18 . 0 1
4
max
3. 17
3. 16
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

e
e
N
N
N
N
M M
1
18 . 0 1
0 max
3. 18
Eq.(3.18)indicate that the deflection of member is amplified
by the presence of axial load. Its interesting to note the
similarity between the amplification factor for moment and the
corresponding amplification factor for deflection.
2 Combined action of axial load and distributed
l

N N
w
The member bent by a uniformly distributed lateral load
W and a set of axial forces N. As before, we assume that the
material obeys Hookes law, that deformation remain small,
and that the member is restrained against lateral bucking.
Solution using Rayleigh-Rize method
The front investigation was carried out by setting up and
solving the governing differential equation. To illustrate an
alternative method of analysis, we shall now use the Rayleigh-
Ritz method.
1 Energy equation
In a beam column, bending and axial compression usually
proceed simultaneously. However, the bending deformation
can be assumed to be independent of the axial deformations as
long as deformations in general remain small.
The analysis of a beam column by the energy method is
therefore similar to the analysis of an axially loaded member.
That is, the energy of axial compression is omitted and only
bending energy is considered.
The strain energy that is stored in the member as it bends is

,
_

l
dx
dx
y d EI
U
0
2
2
2
2
and the potential energy of the external loads is

,
_

l l
dx
dx
dy N
ydx W V
0 0
2
2
Thus the total energy in the system is

,
_

+
l
dx
dx
y d EI
V U
0
2
2
2
2

,
_

l l
dx
dx
dy N
ydx W
0 0
2
2
(3.19)
To satisfy the boundary condition, the deflection y is assumed
to be of form
sin
x
y
l

(3.20)

+
l
W dx
l
x
l
EI
V U
0
2
4
4 2
sin
2

l l
l
x
l
N
dx
l
x
0 0
2
2
2 2
cos
2
sin

3.21
We make use of the following definite integrals:
where is the midspan deflection. Substitution of this
expression into Eq.(3.19) gives

l
l
l
l
dx
l
x
l
dx
l
x
l
dx
l
x
0
2
0
0
2
2
cos
2
sin
2
sin

Thus Eq.(3.21) becomes

3.22
l
N l w
l
EI
V U
4
2
4
2 2
3
4 2

+
2 The effect of axial load on midspan deflection
For the system to be in equilibrium the derivative of U+V
with respect to must vanish. That is,
0
2
2
2
) (
2
3
4

+
l
N Wl
l
EI V U

from which
2 2 4
4
1 4
l N EI
W l

3.23
If the numerator and denominator of Eq.(3.23) are multiplied
by , one obtains
EI 384
5
2 2 4
4
1
5
1536
384
5
l N EI
EI
EI
Wl

Which reduces to

,
_

e
N
N
EI
Wl
1
1
5
1536
384
5
5
4

or very nearly to

,
_

e
N
N
EI
Wl
1
1
384
5
4

3.24
In material mechanics, the maximum deflection of simply
supported beam on which only lateral load W acted is
EI
Wl
384
5
4
0

3.25
And Eq.(3.24) rewrite as

,
_

e
N
N
1
1
0

3.26
Eq.(3.26) gives the maximum deflection of a simply
supported beam that is bent simultaneously by a distributed
transverse load w and axial forces P. Since the assumed shape
for y was not exact, the deflection given by Eq.(3.26) is only an
approximation. However, it has been shown by Timoshenko and
Gere, who solved the problem rigorously, that the approximate
solution differs from the exact answer only slightly
3 The effect of axial load on M
max
The next topic we will discuss is the maximum moment
in midpoint of member on which distributed transverse load
and axial load simultaneously act.
The maximum moment in the member is
In view of Eq.(3.25) and Eq.(3.26) this expression can be written
as

,
_

+
e
N
N
EI
Wl
N
Wl
M
1
1
384
5
8
4 2
max
or
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
e
N
N
EI
Nl Wl
M
1
1
48
5
1
8
2 2
max
which reduce to
N
Wl
M +
8
2
max
3.27
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
e
e
N
N N
N Wl
M
1
1 03 . 1
1
8
2
max
from which
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

e
e
N
N
N
N
Wl
M
1
03 . 0 1
8
2
max
3.28
The factor is the maximum moment that would exist if
no axial force were present. If one lets
8
2
Wl
8
2
0
Wl
M
(3.29)
Eq.(3.28) can be written in the form
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

e
e
N
N
N
N
M M
1
03 . 0 1
0 max
(3.30)
We tabulate the calculation formula of deformation and
internal force of beam column for easily remembrance. We
should endow and M
0
with the correct meaning when we
use them.
0

Moment
calculation
formula
Deflection
calculation
formula
Lateral
distributed force
Lateral
concentrated force

,
_

e
N
N
1
1
0 max

,
_

e
N
N
1
1
0 max

1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

e
e
N
N
N
N
M M
1
03 . 0 1
0 max
Formula
Table 3-1 The maximum deflection and moment
calculation formula of beam column
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

e
e
N
N
N
N
M M
1
18 . 0 1
0 max
From table 3-1, we can find that the deflection and
moment of beam column were increased because of
presence of axial force no matter which form of force,
lateral distributed force or lateral concentrated force,
acted on the beam column. What is most interesting in
these relations is their similarity to the corresponding
expressions for deflection and moment. Its at least
partially due to this similarity that a relatively simple
design criterion can be formulated for beam columns.
Now we run a load-deflection curve to study the
property of beam column. Obviously the forms of
Eq.(3.13)and Eq.(3.36) are completely uniform. It indicate
that the maximum deflection of beam column is equal to the
maximum deflection of member on which only lateral force
acted multiplying a amplified factor about N/N
e
.
The other important aspect of studying the effect of
axial compression on the bend of beam column is to find the
buckling load of beam column. In section 3.2 ,we got general
conclusion that the presence of axial compression amplified
the deflection and moment of member.
3.3 buckling load of beam column
In Eq.(3.13) we assume that N equal to constant , such as
N=0 0.4N
e
0.7N
e
, and construct Q- curve(Fig.3-4a).
Similarly we assume that Q is equal to constant or linearly
vary with N, then we will get N- curve(Fig.3-4b).
Fig.3-4 load-deflection curve of beam column
applied by concentrated force
Q

N=0
N=0.4N
e
N=0.7N
e
N/N
e

1.0
Q=constant
Q and N in
direct ratio
The curve (Fig.3-5) similar to the Fig.3-4 can be obtained
from Eq.(3.26).
W

N=0
N=0.4N
e
N=0.7N
e
Fig.3-5 load-deflection curve of beam
column applied by lateral distributed force
N/N
e

1.0
W=
W N
Analysing these curves, we can find several characteristics
of beam column.
1 Whether Q and W keep constant or vary with N the
relation between N and is nonlinear.(Fig.3-4b Fig.3-5b)
2 The relation between Q(W) and is always linear as long
as N is equal to constant.
3 The slop of curve Q w -d decreases with the increase of
N. The bending rigidity of beam column decreases with
increase of axial compression.
Eq.(3.13)and Eq.(3.26) indicate that the deflection of beam
column will infinitely increase while N/N
e
approach 1. In
other words, the bucking load of beam column is axial load
making bending rigidity equal to zero. We can also find that
the buckling load of single beam column is same to the
critical load of central compressed bar at the same time.
3.4 Slope-deflection equation of beam column
1.Slope-deflection equation of beam
According to the structural mechanics, the bending
rigidity of beam (no axial force) can be described by
curvature and-deflection equation. Generally, the equation
is in following form
and influence coefficient of rigidity
angle of rotation in the end of beam
linear relative displacement of one end to
other end
1
C
2
C
3
C
A

+ +
3 2 1
C C C M
B A A

3.31
A B
B

M
A
M
B
Q
A
Q
B
l
l
EI
i
l
i
c i c i c

6
, 2 , 4
3 2 1
2. Slope-deflection equation of beam column
Now lets begin our research about the effect of axial
load N on C from basic equation.
a effect on C
1
and C
2
rule of sign clockwise angular displacement and moment
are positive
axial compression is positive;
sign symbol of shear is determined by equation.

A
M
A
M
B
(M
A
+M
B
)/l (M
A
+M
B
)/l
N N
l
y
x
M
A
(M
A
+M
B
)/l
N
x
M
(M
A
+M
B
)/l
N
y
x
( ) 0 + + M
l
x
M M Ny M
B A A
y EI M

l
x
M
l
x
M Ny y EI
B A
+

,
_

+ 1
l
x
EI
M
l
x
EI
M
y k y
B A
+

,
_

+

1
2
3.32
EI
N
k
2
and
The general solution of Eq.(3.32) is
l
x
N
M
l
x
N
M
kx B kx A y
B A
+

,
_

+ + 1 cos sin
3.33
where a and b are arbitrary constants. The boundary
condition y=0 at x=0
and y=0 at x=l
kl N
M
kl
kl
N
M
A
B A
sin
1
sin
cos

N
M
B
A

and
Substitution of A and B in Eq.(3.33) gives

,
_

+ +

,
_

+ +
l
x
kl
kx
N
M
l
x
kx kx
kl
kl
N
M
y
B
A
sin
sin
1 cos sin
sin
cos
From which

,
_

,
_

kl
kx k
l N
M
kl
kl kx kx kl
k
l N
M
y
B
A
sin
cos 1
sin
sin sin cos cos 1
Then we will get
( )

,
_

+
1
]
1

kl
kx kl
Nl
M
kl
x l k kl
Nl
M
y
B A
sin
cos
1
sin
cos
1
3.34
Deformation is small so

tg y
The end rotation at A is obtained by setting x=0. Thus
( ) ( ) kl kl
Nl
M
klctgkl
Nl
M
B A
A
csc 1 1 +
If numerator and denominator in Eq.(3.34) are multiplied by l,
and is substituted for N, one obtain
EI k
2
( ) ( ) kl kl
EI l k
l M
ctgkl
EI l k
l M
B A
A
csc 1 1
2 2 2 2
+
or
3.35
( )
f B n A A
M M
EI
l

where
( )
( )
( )
( )

1 csc
1
1
1
2
2
kl kl
kl
klctgkl
kl
f
n

3.36
So , while N>0 one obtains
( )
( ) 2 csc cot
1
2
+ kl kl kl kl
kl
f n

(3.37)
While N=0 , we use rule in Eq.(3.36) ,then we
will get
0 kl
[ ]
( ) [ ]

2
0 0
1
kl
klctgkl
Lim Lim
kl
n
kl

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
( ) kl
Lim
kl
kl kl kl
Lim
kl
kl kl ctgkl
Lim
kl
kl
kl
2 cos 3
1
sin
cos sin
2
csc
0
3
0
2
0

=1/3
[ ]
( ) [ ]

kl kl
kl kl
Lim Lim
kl
f
kl
sin
sin
2
0 0

[ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ]
( ) [ ]

kl kl kl kl kl
kl
Lim
kl kl kl
kl
Lim
o kl
kl
sin cos 4 sin 2
sin
cos sin 2
cos 1
2
2
0
( )
6
1
cos sin 2 sin 4 cos 6
cos
2
0

kl kl kl kl kl kl kl
kl
Lim
kl
so

,
_

6
1
3
1
f
n

3.38

,
_

B A A
M M
EI 6
1
3
1 1

While N is tension or N 0 hence

ikl
EI
N
l l k

1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

kl ith ikl tg
kl ikl
kl i ikl
kl ikl
cosh cos
sinh sin
2 2
3.39
Substitution of Eq.(3.39) in Eq.(3.36) gives
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

kl
kl
kl
kl th
kl
kl
ikl tg
ikl
ikl
f
n
sinh
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2 2

3.40
In the same way, we can obtain equation to calculate angle of
rotation in end B.
Setting x=l in Eq.(3.34) gives
( ) ( ) klctgkl
Nl
M
kl kl
Nl
M
B A
B
+ 1 csc 1
from which
( ) ( ) klctgkl
EIl k
l M
kl kl
EIl k
M
B Al
B
+ 1 csc 1
2 2 2 2

or
( )
f A n B B
M M
EI
l

3.41
Solving Eqs.(3.35)and(3.41) for and , one
obtains
B
M
A
M

,
_

2 2
f n
f B n A
A
l
EI
M

3.42
3.43

,
_

2 2
f n
A n B
B
l
EI
M

3.44

2 2
2 2
f n
f
f
f n
n
n
a
a

Letting
3.45
2 2
f n
f n
f n
a a

+
+
then
Eq.(3.44) can be put into Eqs.(3.42) and (3.43) that is
( )
B f A n A
a a
l
EI
M + 3.46
3.47
( )
A f B n B
a a
l
EI
M +
Eqs.(3.46) and (3.47) give the relation between end
moment M
A
and M
B
and end rotations
A
and
B
for a member
subject to both bending and axial compression.
Let us now consider for the same type of member the
relation between the end moments and a relative joint
displacement.
2 the effect on C
3
3.45
2 2
f n
f n
f n
a a

+
+

-M
A
-M
B
N
N
l
y
M
i
(-2M-N)/l
N
y
x
x
(-M
A
-M
B
-N)/l
(-M
A
-M
B
-N)/l
-M
N
(-2M-N)/l
y
0
2
) (
' '

+ + x
l
N M
Ny M EIy
Balance equation
l
Nx
l
x
M Ny y EI

+

,
_

+

1
2
l
x k
l
x
EI
M
y k
dx
y d
+

,
_

+
2
2
2
2
1
2
or
3.48
where
EI
N
k
2
The solution of Eq.(3.48) is
l
x
l
x
N
M
kx B kx A y

+

,
_

+ + 1
2
cos sin 3.49

Boundary condition y=0 at x=0

and y= at x=l
So we can get constant
N
M
B
kl
kl
N
M
A
sin
cos 1+

Substitution of A and B in Eq.(3.49) gives
( )
l l
x
kx kl
kl
kx
N
M
y

+
1
]
1

+ + + 1
2
cos cos 1
sin
sin
3.50
and
( )
l l
kx k
kl
kl kx k
N
M
y

+
1
]
1

+
+

2
sin
sin
cos 1 cos
3.51
Furthermore, the condition at x= leads to
l 0

y
( )
l l
kl k
kl
kl kl k
N
M
+
1
]
1

+
+

2
sin
sin
cos 1 cos
0
or
( ) 2 csc +

klctgkl kl kl
Nl
M
l
3.52
Substitution of Eq.(3.37) in Eq.(3.34) gives
( )
f n
EI
Ml
l

3.53
If numerator and denominator are now multiplied by ,
one gets
f n
+
( )
f n
a a
l
EI
M +

2
3.54
3 slope-deflection equation
1
]
1

+ +
1
]
1

+ +
l l
EI
M
l l
EI
M
f n A f B n B
f n B f A n A
) (
) (

3.55
4 Discussion
This is the slope-deflection equation adjusted to include the
effect of axial compression.
1 the relation between
n
and kl
From Eqs.(3.36) and (3.44)
( )
( )
( )
( )

1 csc
1
1
1
2
2
kl kl
kl
klctgkl
kl
f
n

3.36
3.44

2 2
2 2
f n
f
f
f n
n
n
a
a

one obtains
( )

,
_

kl
kl
tg
klctgkl kl
n
2
2
1

3.56
and sketch
n
-kl curve
kl

n
1 2
3
5 6
1
0
-1
-2
2
3
4
5
4.49
Fig3-8
We can find three characteristics shown in Fig3-8
when kl=0
n
=4. general beam
Between kl=0 and kl= 4.49,
n
decreases as kl
increases. The bending stiffness is thus reduced by an
increase in the magnitude of the axial load. This conclusion
is similar with the general conclusion of beam column
applied by lateral distributed force in section 3.2.
2 Setting
B
and in Eq.(3.55) equal to zero, one
obtains
A n A
l
EI
M
1
A

when
l
EI
M
n A

And
n
is measure of bending rigidity and named rigidity factor.
At kl=4.49
n
=0. Its the reason the bending stiffness
vanishes at this load. According to the definition of buckling
e
N
N
EI
Nl
EI
N
l kl

2
2
e
cr
N
N
49 . 4
e cr
N N 04 . 2
Because
B
==0 was set in analysis the member was in
effect hinged at end A and fixed at end B. According to the
section 1.3 the critical load of central compressed bar that is
hinged at one surport and fixed at the other is
( )
e
e
cr
N
N
l
EI
N 04 . 2
7 . 0 7 . 0
2 2
2

3.5 Inelastic deformation of beam column
1 object
study failure load of beam column
Failure load inelastic buckling load of beam column
2 Derivation
l
N
M M
N
x
y

T
b
h
Idealized beam column of Jezek
a Basic assumptions
(1)The cross section of member is rectangular.
(2)The material id an ideal elastic-plastic material.
(3)The bending deflection of the member takes the form of a
half-sinewave.
Assumptions 1 and 2 greatly simplify the manner in which
stress and strain vary at that one section. Assumption 3 makes it
possible to predict the behavior of the entire member from a
consideration of the stresses at only a single cross section.
In addition to these major idealizations, the follow
(4)Deformations are finite but still small enough so that the
curvature can be approximated by the second derivative.
(5)The member is initially straight.
(6)Bending takes place about the major principal axis.
1 elastic load-deflection relation
Ny M M
x
+ 3.58
M
M
x
N
y
y EI M
x

3.59
3.60
y EI Ny M +
If the deflection is now assumed to be the form
l
x
y

sin
3.61
3.62
l
x
l
y

sin
2
2

N
b Derivation of equation
Substitution of Eq.(3.62) into Eq.(3.60) gives
l
x
l
EI Ny M

sin
2
2
+
which reduces to the following form at midspan.
2
2
l
EI
N M

+
3.63
We introduce the notation
3.64
N
M
e
where e is eccentricity, and M is the moment introduced by
eccentricity of N to centroid axis. We can rewrite Eq.(3.63) in
the form
3.65
( )
2
2
l
EI
e N

+
3.66
( )
e
N e N +
If both side of Eq.(3.66) are divided by the depth h and the
terms rearranged one obtains
1
1

N
N
h
e
h
e

1
1
0

e
h
e
h
3.67
where
e
Euler stress

0
average axial stress
2 inelastic load deflection relationship
EIy=M becomes invalid. One must consider the maximum
stress in the member.
6
2
bh
N M
bh
N
mnx

+
+
3.68
Substitution and , gives
Ne M
bh
N
0

( )
1
]
1

+
+
h
e

6
1
0 max
3.69
When is equal to yield stress, elastic load-deflection
relationship given by Eq.(3.67) becomes invalid.
max

h
b

1
d
c
f
M
N

T
Fig 3-10 stress distribution for
beam column in inelastic range
Calculation of moment
Because of condition of balance we can get

,
_

+
2 2
1
d c
f b N
T T

( )( )
1
]
1

+ +
T T
d c h b N
1
2
1
3.70
which, after dividing both side by bh can be written as
3.71
( )( )
1
]
1

+ +
T T
d c h
h

1 0
2
1 1
f
where the definitions of c d and h illustrated by
Fig.3-10
the yield stress acting at the extreme fiber on
concave side of the member
the tensile stress acting at the extreme fiber on the
convex side
average axial stress
T

The internal moment is obtained by making the moment of

all the forces about the centroidal axis. thus
3.72 ( )( )

,
_

+
+ +
3 2 2
1
1 int
d c h
d c b M
T

moment-deflection relationship
x
c
d

dx
Centroidal
axis

c
x
x d

c
T
3.73
3.74
T T
E
b d h
d
c
f h c f h f M
T
T
)] 3 / 2 / (
2
) 3 /
2 / (
2
) 2 / 2 / ( [
1
int
+
+

Ec
y
T

3.76
From Fig.3-10 it is evident that
c
d
T

1
c
d
T

1
3.77
Using Eqs.(3.70) (3.72) (3.77), we can get
3
0
0
2
int
0
1 2
1
2
9

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

T
T
T
h
N
M h
c
3.81
Ec
T

1
3.75
Finally, substitution of expression of c into Eq.(3.76)
gives
2
int
0
3
0
0
1
2
9
1 2
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

N
M h
E
h
y
T
T

3.82
This is the inelastic moment-curvature relation
At midspan

2
2
2
l
y
l

3.83
( ) ( ) + e N M
l
2
int
3.84
Substitution of Eqs.(3.83) and (3.84) into Eq.(3.82) gives

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

1
9
2
1
2
1
0
2 2
0
2
0

T T
h E
l
h h
e
h
3.85
Since the Euler stress cab be expressed as
2
2 2
2
2
12l
Eh
Al
EI
e

Eq.(3.85) can also be written as
8
0
0
2
0
1
54
1
1
2
1

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

T
e
T
h h
e
h
3.86
Eq.(3.86) gives the load-deflection relation in the inelastic
range. It can be used from the onset of yielding up to failure,
provided failure occurs before yielding commences on the
convex side of the member.
3 concept of failure load
To the members defined in the beginning of this section,
we can get their entire load-deflection curve from the
beginning of loading to failure by using elastic and inelastic
load-deflection equation. The curve is plotted in the following
Fig.

0
/h

The failure load is the maximum load in inelastic state.
Its also a ultimate load and a buckling load.
3.6 Design of beam column using interaction
equation
1. too complex;
2. too many tables for different sections;
3. Too big deflection.
So most codes use empirical N-M interaction equation based
on theory and test data.
Let us introduce the ratios and
cr
N
N
u
M
M
where
N axial load acting on the member at failure when both
axial compression and bending are present
M maximum primary bending moment acting on the
member at failure when both bending and axial
compression exist; this excludes the amplification in
the moment due to presence of the axial load.
M N are unknown failure loads
ultimate load of the member when only axial
compression is present, that is , the buckling load
of member
ultimate bending moment when only bending exist,
that is, the plastic moment of the section
cr
N
u
M
The form of interaction equation
1 +
n cr
M
M
N
N
3.87
0 . 1
1

,
_

+
e
u
cr
N
N
M
M
N
N
3.88
Whether the failure load obtained from theory research or
model test is below the imaginal line as shown in Fig .
The reason for the discrepancy is that M in Eq.(3.87) does
not include the secondary moment produced by the
product of the axial load and the lateral deflection.
For same boundary bending moments:
For different boundary bending moments:
0 . 1
1
1

,
_

+
e
u
m
cr
N
N
M
M C
N
N
3.89
where
maximum boundary bending moment;
equal moment coefficient;
equal bending moment when comparing with same
boundary moments.
1
M
m
C
1
M C
m
2
sin 2
cos 2 1
2
kl
kl
C
m
+

Through deferential equilibrium equations:

Approximately:
3 . 0 4 . 0 3 . 0
2
+ +
m
C
or
1 . 0 , 4 . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 +
m
C
Chinese code:
f
N
N
W
M
A
N
e
x x
x m
x

,
_

+
8 . 0 1
1

) (
2 1
1
2
M M
M
M
>
where
considering partial plasticity.
X