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3.1 Introduction

1 What is beam-column

Beam columns are member that are subjected to

both axial compression and bending while bending is as

important as axial compression.

For example in an actual construction, columns in

frame are typical beam columns.

Beam-column axial pressure is the primary effect

while bending (intentionally applied) is also

important the research is mainly to discuss the

effect of axial load on bending.

2 Different between eccentrically loaded

column and beam-column

Eccentrically loaded column axial pressure is the

primary effect while bending (unavoidable imperfections)

is the secondary ; the research is mainly to discuss the

effect of bending on axially loaded column.

3.2 Deformation and internal force of beam-column

This section will discuss the deformation and internal

force of beam-column in two kinds of loading conditions

condition 1 combined action of axial load and

concentrated lateral force

condition 2 combined action of axial load and

distributed lateral force

1 Combined action of axial load and

concentrated lateral load

N N

Q

l/2 l/2

Research object: effect of axial load N on bending

Characteristic : must establish equation of deformed state

1 Fundamental assumption

1 material follow Hookes law :

2 deformation of structural member is small

curvature:

3 bending of structural member is limited in vertical

plane xy

2 Establish differential equation

0

2

Ny

Qx

M

x

y

N

N

y

x

Q/2

M

Q/2

y EI M

hence

2

Qx

Ny y EI +

y

& / 1

E

EI

Qx

y k y

2

2

+ 3.1

EI

N

k

2

3.2

3 Effect of axial load on deflection

1 general solution of equation 3.1

N

Qx

kx B kx A y

2

cos sin +

3.3

and A B are undetermined coefficients

Hence B=0

Boundary condition: y=0 at x=0

Symmetry condition: , at

0

dx

dy

2

l

x

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

kx

kl

kx

Nk

Q

A

2

cos

sin

2

and

then put the value of A,B into (3.3), hence

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

kx

kl

kx

Nk

Q

y

2

cos

sin

2

3.4

2 calculate the deflection of span centre

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

2

2

cos

2

sin

2

kl

kl

kl

Nk

Q

[ ] u tgu

Nk

Q

2

3.5

and

2

kl

u

3.6

3 analysis the effect of N on

While only lateral load Q act on simply supported beam,

the deflection of span centre is

EI

Ql

48

3

0

3.7

Both numerator and denominator in eq. (3.5) are multiplied

by , one obtains

,

_

EI

l

24

3

[ ] u tgu

Nkl

EI

EI

Ql

3

3

24

48

3.8

Making use of Eqs.(3.2),(3.6),(3.7),and(3.8), one obtains

[ ] u tgu

kl

,

_

3

0

2

3

3.9

[ ] u tgu

u

3

0

3

tgu

L + + + + +

9 7 5 3

2835

62

315

17

15

2

3

1

u u u u u tgu

,

_

+ + + + L

6 4 2

0

945

62

105

17

5

2

1 u u u

3.10

And making use of Eqs.(3.2) (3.7) one obtains

the simplified representation of takes form

e

N

N

EI

Nl

u 4674 . 2

4

2

2 2

2

3.11

and is Eulerian load

e

N

2

2

l

EI

N

e

1

]

1

+ + + + L

3 2

0

) ( 9855 . 0 ) ( 9856 . 0 9869 . 0 1

e e e

N

N

N

N

N

N

or very nearly

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

+ + L

3 2

0

1

e e e

N

N

N

N

N

N

3.12

Since Eq.(3.12) is the sum of infinity descending

geometric series and reduces to

1 <

e

N

N

)

1

1

1

) ( 1

lim , 1 (

1

1

0

e e

n

e

n

e

e

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

if

N

N

<

3.13

Eq.(3.13)approximates very closely the maximum deflection

of a simply supported member that is simultaneously bent by a

transverse load Q and an axial force P. Its a approximate

expression because of using of Eq.(3.12).

Eq.(3.13)indicates that the maximum deflection of the

member is equal to ,the maximum deflection that would

exist if only Q were acting, multiplied by an amplification factor.

The effect of the axial load is thus to magnify the deflection that

would exist in the beam if it, the axial force, were no present.

N

Ql

M +

4

max

3.14

In view of (3.5)and(3.13) Eq.(3.14) can be rewritten as

,

_

+

e

N

N

EI

Ql

N

Ql

M

1

1

48 4

3

max

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

+

e

N

N

EI

Nl Ql

M

1

1

12

1

4

2

max 3.15

We introduce the Eulerian load to replace the notation

e

N

EI

l

12

2

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

+

e

e

N

N

N

N Ql

M

1

1

82 . 0 1

4

max

Then we get

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

e

e

N

N

N

N

Ql

M

1

18 . 0 1

4

max

3. 17

3. 16

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

e

e

N

N

N

N

M M

1

18 . 0 1

0 max

3. 18

Eq.(3.18)indicate that the deflection of member is amplified

by the presence of axial load. Its interesting to note the

similarity between the amplification factor for moment and the

corresponding amplification factor for deflection.

2 Combined action of axial load and distributed

lateral load

l

N N

w

The member bent by a uniformly distributed lateral load

W and a set of axial forces N. As before, we assume that the

material obeys Hookes law, that deformation remain small,

and that the member is restrained against lateral bucking.

Solution using Rayleigh-Rize method

The front investigation was carried out by setting up and

solving the governing differential equation. To illustrate an

alternative method of analysis, we shall now use the Rayleigh-

Ritz method.

1 Energy equation

In a beam column, bending and axial compression usually

proceed simultaneously. However, the bending deformation

can be assumed to be independent of the axial deformations as

long as deformations in general remain small.

The analysis of a beam column by the energy method is

therefore similar to the analysis of an axially loaded member.

That is, the energy of axial compression is omitted and only

bending energy is considered.

The strain energy that is stored in the member as it bends is

,

_

l

dx

dx

y d EI

U

0

2

2

2

2

and the potential energy of the external loads is

,

_

l l

dx

dx

dy N

ydx W V

0 0

2

2

Thus the total energy in the system is

,

_

+

l

dx

dx

y d EI

V U

0

2

2

2

2

,

_

l l

dx

dx

dy N

ydx W

0 0

2

2

(3.19)

To satisfy the boundary condition, the deflection y is assumed

to be of form

sin

x

y

l

(3.20)

+

l

W dx

l

x

l

EI

V U

0

2

4

4 2

sin

2

l l

l

x

l

N

dx

l

x

0 0

2

2

2 2

cos

2

sin

3.21

We make use of the following definite integrals:

where is the midspan deflection. Substitution of this

expression into Eq.(3.19) gives

l

l

l

l

dx

l

x

l

dx

l

x

l

dx

l

x

0

2

0

0

2

2

cos

2

sin

2

sin

3.22

l

N l w

l

EI

V U

4

2

4

2 2

3

4 2

+

2 The effect of axial load on midspan deflection

For the system to be in equilibrium the derivative of U+V

with respect to must vanish. That is,

0

2

2

2

) (

2

3

4

+

l

N Wl

l

EI V U

from which

2 2 4

4

1 4

l N EI

W l

3.23

If the numerator and denominator of Eq.(3.23) are multiplied

by , one obtains

EI 384

5

2 2 4

4

1

5

1536

384

5

l N EI

EI

EI

Wl

Which reduces to

,

_

e

N

N

EI

Wl

1

1

5

1536

384

5

5

4

or very nearly to

,

_

e

N

N

EI

Wl

1

1

384

5

4

3.24

In material mechanics, the maximum deflection of simply

supported beam on which only lateral load W acted is

EI

Wl

384

5

4

0

3.25

And Eq.(3.24) rewrite as

,

_

e

N

N

1

1

0

3.26

Eq.(3.26) gives the maximum deflection of a simply

supported beam that is bent simultaneously by a distributed

transverse load w and axial forces P. Since the assumed shape

for y was not exact, the deflection given by Eq.(3.26) is only an

approximation. However, it has been shown by Timoshenko and

Gere, who solved the problem rigorously, that the approximate

solution differs from the exact answer only slightly

3 The effect of axial load on M

max

The next topic we will discuss is the maximum moment

in midpoint of member on which distributed transverse load

and axial load simultaneously act.

The maximum moment in the member is

In view of Eq.(3.25) and Eq.(3.26) this expression can be written

as

,

_

+

e

N

N

EI

Wl

N

Wl

M

1

1

384

5

8

4 2

max

or

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

+

e

N

N

EI

Nl Wl

M

1

1

48

5

1

8

2 2

max

which reduce to

N

Wl

M +

8

2

max

3.27

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

+

e

e

N

N N

N Wl

M

1

1 03 . 1

1

8

2

max

from which

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

e

e

N

N

N

N

Wl

M

1

03 . 0 1

8

2

max

3.28

The factor is the maximum moment that would exist if

no axial force were present. If one lets

8

2

Wl

8

2

0

Wl

M

(3.29)

Eq.(3.28) can be written in the form

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

e

e

N

N

N

N

M M

1

03 . 0 1

0 max

(3.30)

We tabulate the calculation formula of deformation and

internal force of beam column for easily remembrance. We

should endow and M

0

with the correct meaning when we

use them.

0

Moment

calculation

formula

Deflection

calculation

formula

Lateral

distributed force

Lateral

concentrated force

,

_

e

N

N

1

1

0 max

,

_

e

N

N

1

1

0 max

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

e

e

N

N

N

N

M M

1

03 . 0 1

0 max

Formula

Load

Table 3-1 The maximum deflection and moment

calculation formula of beam column

1

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

e

e

N

N

N

N

M M

1

18 . 0 1

0 max

From table 3-1, we can find that the deflection and

moment of beam column were increased because of

presence of axial force no matter which form of force,

lateral distributed force or lateral concentrated force,

acted on the beam column. What is most interesting in

these relations is their similarity to the corresponding

expressions for deflection and moment. Its at least

partially due to this similarity that a relatively simple

design criterion can be formulated for beam columns.

Now we run a load-deflection curve to study the

property of beam column. Obviously the forms of

Eq.(3.13)and Eq.(3.36) are completely uniform. It indicate

that the maximum deflection of beam column is equal to the

maximum deflection of member on which only lateral force

acted multiplying a amplified factor about N/N

e

.

The other important aspect of studying the effect of

axial compression on the bend of beam column is to find the

buckling load of beam column. In section 3.2 ,we got general

conclusion that the presence of axial compression amplified

the deflection and moment of member.

3.3 buckling load of beam column

In Eq.(3.13) we assume that N equal to constant , such as

N=0 0.4N

e

0.7N

e

, and construct Q- curve(Fig.3-4a).

Similarly we assume that Q is equal to constant or linearly

vary with N, then we will get N- curve(Fig.3-4b).

Fig.3-4 load-deflection curve of beam column

applied by concentrated force

Q

N=0

N=0.4N

e

N=0.7N

e

N/N

e

1.0

Q=constant

Q and N in

direct ratio

The curve (Fig.3-5) similar to the Fig.3-4 can be obtained

from Eq.(3.26).

W

N=0

N=0.4N

e

N=0.7N

e

Fig.3-5 load-deflection curve of beam

column applied by lateral distributed force

N/N

e

1.0

W=

W N

Analysing these curves, we can find several characteristics

of beam column.

1 Whether Q and W keep constant or vary with N the

relation between N and is nonlinear.(Fig.3-4b Fig.3-5b)

2 The relation between Q(W) and is always linear as long

as N is equal to constant.

3 The slop of curve Q w -d decreases with the increase of

N. The bending rigidity of beam column decreases with

increase of axial compression.

Eq.(3.13)and Eq.(3.26) indicate that the deflection of beam

column will infinitely increase while N/N

e

approach 1. In

other words, the bucking load of beam column is axial load

making bending rigidity equal to zero. We can also find that

the buckling load of single beam column is same to the

critical load of central compressed bar at the same time.

3.4 Slope-deflection equation of beam column

1.Slope-deflection equation of beam

According to the structural mechanics, the bending

rigidity of beam (no axial force) can be described by

curvature and-deflection equation. Generally, the equation

is in following form

and influence coefficient of rigidity

angle of rotation in the end of beam

linear relative displacement of one end to

other end

1

C

2

C

3

C

A

+ +

3 2 1

C C C M

B A A

3.31

A B

B

M

A

M

B

Q

A

Q

B

l

l

EI

i

l

i

c i c i c

6

, 2 , 4

3 2 1

2. Slope-deflection equation of beam column

Now lets begin our research about the effect of axial

load N on C from basic equation.

a effect on C

1

and C

2

rule of sign clockwise angular displacement and moment

are positive

axial compression is positive;

sign symbol of shear is determined by equation.

A

M

A

M

B

(M

A

+M

B

)/l (M

A

+M

B

)/l

N N

l

y

x

M

A

(M

A

+M

B

)/l

N

x

M

(M

A

+M

B

)/l

N

y

x

( ) 0 + + M

l

x

M M Ny M

B A A

y EI M

l

x

M

l

x

M Ny y EI

B A

+

,

_

+ 1

l

x

EI

M

l

x

EI

M

y k y

B A

+

,

_

+

1

2

3.32

EI

N

k

2

and

The general solution of Eq.(3.32) is

l

x

N

M

l

x

N

M

kx B kx A y

B A

+

,

_

+ + 1 cos sin

3.33

where a and b are arbitrary constants. The boundary

condition y=0 at x=0

and y=0 at x=l

leads to

kl N

M

kl

kl

N

M

A

B A

sin

1

sin

cos

N

M

B

A

and

Substitution of A and B in Eq.(3.33) gives

,

_

+ +

,

_

+ +

l

x

kl

kx

N

M

l

x

kx kx

kl

kl

N

M

y

B

A

sin

sin

1 cos sin

sin

cos

From which

,

_

,

_

kl

kx k

l N

M

kl

kl kx kx kl

k

l N

M

y

B

A

sin

cos 1

sin

sin sin cos cos 1

Then we will get

( )

,

_

+

1

]

1

kl

kx kl

Nl

M

kl

x l k kl

Nl

M

y

B A

sin

cos

1

sin

cos

1

3.34

Deformation is small so

tg y

The end rotation at A is obtained by setting x=0. Thus

( ) ( ) kl kl

Nl

M

klctgkl

Nl

M

B A

A

csc 1 1 +

If numerator and denominator in Eq.(3.34) are multiplied by l,

and is substituted for N, one obtain

EI k

2

( ) ( ) kl kl

EI l k

l M

ctgkl

EI l k

l M

B A

A

csc 1 1

2 2 2 2

+

or

3.35

( )

f B n A A

M M

EI

l

where

( )

( )

( )

( )

1 csc

1

1

1

2

2

kl kl

kl

klctgkl

kl

f

n

3.36

So , while N>0 one obtains

( )

( ) 2 csc cot

1

2

+ kl kl kl kl

kl

f n

(3.37)

While N=0 , we use rule in Eq.(3.36) ,then we

will get

0 kl

[ ]

( ) [ ]

2

0 0

1

kl

klctgkl

Lim Lim

kl

n

kl

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

( ) kl

Lim

kl

kl kl kl

Lim

kl

kl kl ctgkl

Lim

kl

kl

kl

2 cos 3

1

sin

cos sin

2

csc

0

3

0

2

0

=1/3

[ ]

( ) [ ]

kl kl

kl kl

Lim Lim

kl

f

kl

sin

sin

2

0 0

[ ]

( ) [ ]

[ ]

( ) [ ]

kl kl kl kl kl

kl

Lim

kl kl kl

kl

Lim

o kl

kl

sin cos 4 sin 2

sin

cos sin 2

cos 1

2

2

0

( )

6

1

cos sin 2 sin 4 cos 6

cos

2

0

kl kl kl kl kl kl kl

kl

Lim

kl

so

,

_

6

1

3

1

f

n

3.38

,

_

B A A

M M

EI 6

1

3

1 1

ikl

EI

N

l l k

1

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

kl ith ikl tg

kl ikl

kl i ikl

kl ikl

cosh cos

sinh sin

2 2

3.39

Substitution of Eq.(3.39) in Eq.(3.36) gives

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

kl

kl

kl

kl th

kl

kl

ikl tg

ikl

ikl

f

n

sinh

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2 2

3.40

In the same way, we can obtain equation to calculate angle of

rotation in end B.

Setting x=l in Eq.(3.34) gives

( ) ( ) klctgkl

Nl

M

kl kl

Nl

M

B A

B

+ 1 csc 1

from which

( ) ( ) klctgkl

EIl k

l M

kl kl

EIl k

M

B Al

B

+ 1 csc 1

2 2 2 2

or

( )

f A n B B

M M

EI

l

3.41

Solving Eqs.(3.35)and(3.41) for and , one

obtains

B

M

A

M

,

_

2 2

f n

f B n A

A

l

EI

M

3.42

3.43

,

_

2 2

f n

A n B

B

l

EI

M

3.44

2 2

2 2

f n

f

f

f n

n

n

a

a

Letting

3.45

2 2

f n

f n

f n

a a

+

+

then

Eq.(3.44) can be put into Eqs.(3.42) and (3.43) that is

( )

B f A n A

a a

l

EI

M + 3.46

3.47

( )

A f B n B

a a

l

EI

M +

Eqs.(3.46) and (3.47) give the relation between end

moment M

A

and M

B

and end rotations

A

and

B

for a member

subject to both bending and axial compression.

Let us now consider for the same type of member the

relation between the end moments and a relative joint

displacement.

2 the effect on C

3

3.45

2 2

f n

f n

f n

a a

+

+

-M

A

-M

B

N

N

l

y

M

i

(-2M-N)/l

N

y

x

x

(-M

A

-M

B

-N)/l

(-M

A

-M

B

-N)/l

-M

N

(-2M-N)/l

y

0

2

) (

' '

+ + x

l

N M

Ny M EIy

Balance equation

l

Nx

l

x

M Ny y EI

+

,

_

+

1

2

l

x k

l

x

EI

M

y k

dx

y d

+

,

_

+

2

2

2

2

1

2

or

3.48

where

EI

N

k

2

The solution of Eq.(3.48) is

l

x

l

x

N

M

kx B kx A y

+

,

_

+ + 1

2

cos sin 3.49

and y= at x=l

So we can get constant

N

M

B

kl

kl

N

M

A

sin

cos 1+

Substitution of A and B in Eq.(3.49) gives

( )

l l

x

kx kl

kl

kx

N

M

y

+

1

]

1

+ + + 1

2

cos cos 1

sin

sin

3.50

and

( )

l l

kx k

kl

kl kx k

N

M

y

+

1

]

1

+

+

2

sin

sin

cos 1 cos

3.51

Furthermore, the condition at x= leads to

l 0

y

( )

l l

kl k

kl

kl kl k

N

M

+

1

]

1

+

+

2

sin

sin

cos 1 cos

0

or

( ) 2 csc +

klctgkl kl kl

Nl

M

l

3.52

Substitution of Eq.(3.37) in Eq.(3.34) gives

( )

f n

EI

Ml

l

3.53

If numerator and denominator are now multiplied by ,

one gets

f n

+

( )

f n

a a

l

EI

M +

2

3.54

3 slope-deflection equation

1

]

1

+ +

1

]

1

+ +

l l

EI

M

l l

EI

M

f n A f B n B

f n B f A n A

) (

) (

3.55

4 Discussion

This is the slope-deflection equation adjusted to include the

effect of axial compression.

1 the relation between

n

and kl

From Eqs.(3.36) and (3.44)

( )

( )

( )

( )

1 csc

1

1

1

2

2

kl kl

kl

klctgkl

kl

f

n

3.36

3.44

2 2

2 2

f n

f

f

f n

n

n

a

a

one obtains

( )

,

_

kl

kl

tg

klctgkl kl

n

2

2

1

3.56

and sketch

n

-kl curve

kl

n

1 2

3

5 6

1

0

-1

-2

2

3

4

5

4.49

Fig3-8

We can find three characteristics shown in Fig3-8

when kl=0

n

=4. general beam

Between kl=0 and kl= 4.49,

n

decreases as kl

increases. The bending stiffness is thus reduced by an

increase in the magnitude of the axial load. This conclusion

is similar with the general conclusion of beam column

applied by lateral distributed force in section 3.2.

2 Setting

B

and in Eq.(3.55) equal to zero, one

obtains

A n A

l

EI

M

1

A

when

l

EI

M

n A

And

n

is measure of bending rigidity and named rigidity factor.

At kl=4.49

n

=0. Its the reason the bending stiffness

vanishes at this load. According to the definition of buckling

load , this load is buckling load.

e

N

N

EI

Nl

EI

N

l kl

2

2

e

cr

N

N

49 . 4

e cr

N N 04 . 2

Because

B

==0 was set in analysis the member was in

effect hinged at end A and fixed at end B. According to the

section 1.3 the critical load of central compressed bar that is

hinged at one surport and fixed at the other is

( )

e

e

cr

N

N

l

EI

N 04 . 2

7 . 0 7 . 0

2 2

2

3.5 Inelastic deformation of beam column

1 object

study failure load of beam column

Failure load inelastic buckling load of beam column

2 Derivation

l

N

M M

N

x

y

T

b

h

Idealized beam column of Jezek

a Basic assumptions

(1)The cross section of member is rectangular.

(2)The material id an ideal elastic-plastic material.

(3)The bending deflection of the member takes the form of a

half-sinewave.

Assumptions 1 and 2 greatly simplify the manner in which

stress and strain vary at that one section. Assumption 3 makes it

possible to predict the behavior of the entire member from a

consideration of the stresses at only a single cross section.

In addition to these major idealizations, the follow

assumptions are made:

(4)Deformations are finite but still small enough so that the

curvature can be approximated by the second derivative.

(5)The member is initially straight.

(6)Bending takes place about the major principal axis.

1 elastic load-deflection relation

Ny M M

x

+ 3.58

M

M

x

N

y

y EI M

x

3.59

3.60

y EI Ny M +

If the deflection is now assumed to be the form

l

x

y

sin

3.61

3.62

l

x

l

y

sin

2

2

N

b Derivation of equation

Substitution of Eq.(3.62) into Eq.(3.60) gives

l

x

l

EI Ny M

sin

2

2

+

which reduces to the following form at midspan.

2

2

l

EI

N M

+

3.63

We introduce the notation

3.64

N

M

e

where e is eccentricity, and M is the moment introduced by

eccentricity of N to centroid axis. We can rewrite Eq.(3.63) in

the form

3.65

( )

2

2

l

EI

e N

+

3.66

( )

e

N e N +

If both side of Eq.(3.66) are divided by the depth h and the

terms rearranged one obtains

1

1

N

N

h

e

h

e

1

1

0

e

h

e

h

3.67

where

e

Euler stress

0

average axial stress

2 inelastic load deflection relationship

EIy=M becomes invalid. One must consider the maximum

stress in the member.

6

2

bh

N M

bh

N

mnx

+

+

3.68

Substitution and , gives

Ne M

bh

N

0

( )

1

]

1

+

+

h

e

6

1

0 max

3.69

When is equal to yield stress, elastic load-deflection

relationship given by Eq.(3.67) becomes invalid.

max

h

b

1

d

c

f

M

N

T

Fig 3-10 stress distribution for

beam column in inelastic range

Calculation of moment

Because of condition of balance we can get

,

_

+

2 2

1

d c

f b N

T T

( )( )

1

]

1

+ +

T T

d c h b N

1

2

1

3.70

which, after dividing both side by bh can be written as

3.71

( )( )

1

]

1

+ +

T T

d c h

h

1 0

2

1 1

f

where the definitions of c d and h illustrated by

Fig.3-10

the yield stress acting at the extreme fiber on

concave side of the member

the tensile stress acting at the extreme fiber on the

convex side

average axial stress

T

all the forces about the centroidal axis. thus

3.72 ( )( )

,

_

+

+ +

3 2 2

1

1 int

d c h

d c b M

T

moment-deflection relationship

x

c

d

dx

Centroidal

axis

c

x

x d

c

T

3.73

3.74

T T

E

b d h

d

c

f h c f h f M

T

T

)] 3 / 2 / (

2

) 3 /

2 / (

2

) 2 / 2 / ( [

1

int

+

+

Ec

y

T

3.76

From Fig.3-10 it is evident that

c

d

T

1

c

d

T

1

3.77

Using Eqs.(3.70) (3.72) (3.77), we can get

3

0

0

2

int

0

1 2

1

2

9

,

_

1

]

1

,

_

T

T

T

h

N

M h

c

3.81

Ec

T

1

3.75

Finally, substitution of expression of c into Eq.(3.76)

gives

2

int

0

3

0

0

1

2

9

1 2

1

]

1

,

_

,

_

N

M h

E

h

y

T

T

3.82

This is the inelastic moment-curvature relation

load-deflection relationship

At midspan

2

2

2

l

y

l

3.83

( ) ( ) + e N M

l

2

int

3.84

Substitution of Eqs.(3.83) and (3.84) into Eq.(3.82) gives

,

_

1

]

1

,

_

1

9

2

1

2

1

0

2 2

0

2

0

T T

h E

l

h h

e

h

3.85

Since the Euler stress cab be expressed as

2

2 2

2

2

12l

Eh

Al

EI

e

Eq.(3.85) can also be written as

8

0

0

2

0

1

54

1

1

2

1

,

_

1

]

1

,

_

T

e

T

h h

e

h

3.86

Eq.(3.86) gives the load-deflection relation in the inelastic

range. It can be used from the onset of yielding up to failure,

provided failure occurs before yielding commences on the

convex side of the member.

3 concept of failure load

To the members defined in the beginning of this section,

we can get their entire load-deflection curve from the

beginning of loading to failure by using elastic and inelastic

load-deflection equation. The curve is plotted in the following

Fig.

0

/h

The failure load is the maximum load in inelastic state.

Its also a ultimate load and a buckling load.

3.6 Design of beam column using interaction

equation

Disadvantages

1. too complex;

2. too many tables for different sections;

3. Too big deflection.

So most codes use empirical N-M interaction equation based

on theory and test data.

Let us introduce the ratios and

cr

N

N

u

M

M

where

N axial load acting on the member at failure when both

axial compression and bending are present

M maximum primary bending moment acting on the

member at failure when both bending and axial

compression exist; this excludes the amplification in

the moment due to presence of the axial load.

M N are unknown failure loads

ultimate load of the member when only axial

compression is present, that is , the buckling load

of member

ultimate bending moment when only bending exist,

that is, the plastic moment of the section

cr

N

u

M

The form of interaction equation

1 +

n cr

M

M

N

N

3.87

0 . 1

1

,

_

+

e

u

cr

N

N

M

M

N

N

3.88

Whether the failure load obtained from theory research or

model test is below the imaginal line as shown in Fig .

The reason for the discrepancy is that M in Eq.(3.87) does

not include the secondary moment produced by the

product of the axial load and the lateral deflection.

For same boundary bending moments:

For different boundary bending moments:

0 . 1

1

1

,

_

+

e

u

m

cr

N

N

M

M C

N

N

3.89

where

maximum boundary bending moment;

equal moment coefficient;

equal bending moment when comparing with same

boundary moments.

1

M

m

C

1

M C

m

2

sin 2

cos 2 1

2

kl

kl

C

m

+

Approximately:

3 . 0 4 . 0 3 . 0

2

+ +

m

C

or

1 . 0 , 4 . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 +

m

C

Chinese code:

f

N

N

W

M

A

N

e

x x

x m

x

,

_

+

8 . 0 1

1

) (

2 1

1

2

M M

M

M

>

where

considering partial plasticity.

X

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