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LTE Demystified What is LTE and how does it work? All material is Copyright ©

LTE Demystified

LTE Demystified What is LTE and how does it work? All material is Copyright © Informa

What is LTE and how does it work?

What is LTE and how does it work? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms &
What is LTE and how does it work? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms &
What is LTE and how does it work? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms &

All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media

What is LTE and how does it work? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms &
What is LTE and how does it work? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms &

3

Agenda

Intro to Broadband Concepts

– Defining Broadband and Broadband Services

LTE Technology

LTE Features and Performance

– LTE Architecture

LTE Radio Interface

– MIMO

LTE Services and Voice

– Evolution Option to LTE

Spectrum for LTE

– Deployment Benefits of LTE

Q&A

– LTE Services and Voice – Evolution Option to LTE – Spectrum for LTE – Deployment
Introduction to Broadband Why is Wireless Broadband so important? All material is Copyright © Informa

Introduction to Broadband

Why is Wireless Broadband so important?

Why is Wireless Broadband so important? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media
Why is Wireless Broadband so important? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media
Why is Wireless Broadband so important? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media

All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media

Why is Wireless Broadband so important? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media
Why is Wireless Broadband so important? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media

5

Wireless Broadband Requirements

5 Wireless Broadband Requirements  Increasin g Smartphone and “don g le” usa ge  More

Increasing Smartphone and “dongle” usage

More data applications available

Broadband Requirements  Increasin g Smartphone and “don g le” usa ge  More data applications

6

Data is booming, but…

Global data revenue and traffic growth, 20082013

1700% 1500% 1300% Revenue 1100% Traffic 900% 700% 500% 300% 100% 2008 2009 2010 2011
1700%
1500%
1300%
Revenue
1100%
Traffic
900%
700%
500%
300%
100%
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Re b ased gro w th (200 8 = 100% )

More efficient technologies required to reduce the cost per bit

Candidate technologies are HSPA+ and LTE (or WiMAX?)

More efficient technologies required to reduce the cost per bit  Candidate technologies are HSPA+ and

7

Typical Broadband Services

Messa in g g
Messa in
g
g
7 Typical Broadband Services Messa in g g telemetry and remote control and Social Networkin TV,

telemetry and remote control

and Social Networkin

TV, VoD, Radio

Internet Connection

Voice (VoIP)

Application Stores

g

Cloud Computing

remote control and Social Networkin TV, VoD, Radio Internet Connection Voice (VoIP) Application Stores g Cloud

8

Wireless Technology Evolution

8 Wireless Technology Evolution TACS, NMT, AMPS Voice only G S M , C D M
8 Wireless Technology Evolution TACS, NMT, AMPS Voice only G S M , C D M

TACS, NMT, AMPS Voice only

8 Wireless Technology Evolution TACS, NMT, AMPS Voice only G S M , C D M

GSM, CDMA, TDMA Voice, Data, Text

only G S M , C D M A , TDMA Voice, Data, Text LTE Super
only G S M , C D M A , TDMA Voice, Data, Text LTE Super
only G S M , C D M A , TDMA Voice, Data, Text LTE Super

LTE Super Fast Data

4G?

M A , TDMA Voice, Data, Text LTE Super Fast Data 4G? LTE Advanced ? Ultra

LTE Advanced ? Ultra Fast Data

UMTS cdma2000 Packet data, Multimedia

,

GPRS, EDGE Packet data

HSDPA, HSUPA Faster Data

LTE Advanced ? Ultra Fast Data UMTS cdma2000 Packet data, Multimedia , GPRS, EDGE Packet data
LTE Technology So what is Long Term Evolution? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms

LTE Technology

So what is Long Term Evolution?

So what is Long Term Evolution? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media
So what is Long Term Evolution? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media
So what is Long Term Evolution? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media

All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media

So what is Long Term Evolution? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media
So what is Long Term Evolution? All material is Copyright © Informa Telecoms & Media

10

Long Term Evolution LTE

10 Long Term Evolution LTE LTE: - a new cellular radio standard allowing faster, more efficient

LTE: - a new cellular radio standard allowing faster, more efficient transfer of data, enabling the next generation of mobile data services

All new All IP, Mobile Wireless Broadband Network

LTE is part of 3GPP evolution

Can we call LTE 4G? Do people care?

IP, Mobile Wireless Broadband Network  LTE i s par t o f 3GPP evolution 

11

Mobile Technology Evolution

• LTE has evolved from early GSM technology

• Development was started by the European Telecom Standards Institute (ETSI)

• Development is now managed by 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)

• LTE is part of Release 8 of the Specifications

GSM Phase 1

Basic Voice

1991

GSM Phase 2+

New Voice Codec Further Optimizations

1995

GSM Phase 2+

R97/98

More GPRS

EDGE

1997

R4

Core Network

Soft switch

2000

R6

HSUPA

ALL IP

2004

R8

LTE

2008

R10

LTE Advanced?

2012

ALL IP 2004 R8 LTE 2 0 0 8 R10 LTE Advanced? 2012 1993 GSM Phase

1993

GSM Phase 2

Txt Messages

Basic Data

1996

GSM Phase 2+

Release 96

GPRS

1999

R99

UMTS Radio Network

2002

R5

HSDPA

IMS

2006 2010

R7

HSPA+

R9

LTE Enhancements

1996 GSM Phase 2+ Release 96 GPRS 1999 R99 UMTS Radio Network 2002 R5 HSDPA IMS

12

LTE Performance

Data Rates & Bandwidth

3 – 4 times more capacity than HSxPA Release 6

100 300Mbps

Less time spent downloading content, LTE is a lot faster

Greater number of mobiles connected to the network, Higher Capacity

Delay (Latency)

3 – 4 times less delay than HSxPA Release 6

100mS Connection Setup

5 – 20mS roundtrip delay

Much more responsive web browsing

Better voice over IP performance

Other LTE Benefits

Advanced Antenna technologies increase capacity

Advanced Antenna technologies increase cell size

All IP (packet data) network for faster, more efficient services

LTE can Interwork with existing GSM/UMTS networks

LTE supports multimedia broadcasting

services  LTE can Int erwor k with existi ng GSM/UMTS net wor ks  LTE

13

LTE Data Performance, Downloading

13 LTE Data Performance, Downloading Typical 3 – 5 minute YouTube clip 5 Megabytes of information

Typical 3 – 5 minute YouTube clip 5 Megabytes of information

GPRS @ 40Kbps 125s

clip 5 Megabytes of information GPRS @ 40Kb ps 125 s EDGE GPRS @100Kbps 50s UMTS

EDGE GPRS @100Kbps 50s

information GPRS @ 40Kb ps 125 s EDGE GPRS @100Kbps 50s UMTS @ 384Kbps 13s HSPA

UMTS @ 384Kbps 13s

@ 40Kb ps 125 s EDGE GPRS @100Kbps 50s UMTS @ 384Kbps 13s HSPA @1Mbps 5s

HSPA @1Mbps 5s average user data rate

s EDGE GPRS @100Kbps 50s UMTS @ 384Kbps 13s HSPA @1Mbps 5s average user data rate

LTE @ 5Mbps 1s average user data rate

s EDGE GPRS @100Kbps 50s UMTS @ 384Kbps 13s HSPA @1Mbps 5s average user data rate
s EDGE GPRS @100Kbps 50s UMTS @ 384Kbps 13s HSPA @1Mbps 5s average user data rate

14

LTE Architecture (high level)

New Access Network

Base Station - Evolved Node B X2 interface for improved Handover and Interference Management Backhaul Connections are Critical, Capacity

Downlink Radio Interface

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) Improved Performance in Urban Areas Multiple In Multiple Out (MIMO)

Uplink Radio Interface

Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) Good Urban Area Performance Designed for Good Battery Life

eNB X2 eNB eUTRAN
eNB
X2
eNB
eUTRAN

UE

eNB Evolved Node B;MME Mobility Management Entity; SGW Serving Gateway P-GW Packet Data Gateway UE – User Equipment

MME – Mobility Management Entity ; SGW – Serving Gateway P-GW – Packet Data Gateway UE

15

LTE Architecture (high level)

New Core Network

Evolved Packet Core All IP for efficiency New Network Elements Desi ned to be Flexible and

g

Scalable Self Organising Network (SON)

MME and SGW

Mobility Management Entity Overall control of the UE and Data Sessions Handle Handovers and Location Management Serving Gateway Handles User Data Controlled by the MME

PGW

Packet Gateway provides connection to external networks

, Manages the IP session for the User Equipment

internet IMS WAP MMS

,

,

eNB X2 eNB eUTRAN
eNB
X2
eNB
eUTRAN

UE

PGW SGW S5 S1-U S11 MME EPC S1-MME All IP All New
PGW
SGW
S5
S1-U
S11
MME
EPC
S1-MME
All IP
All New

eNB Evolved Node B;MME Mobility Management Entity; SGW Serving Gateway

P-GW Packet Data Gateway UE – User Equipment

; MME – Mobility Management Entity ; SGW – Serving Gateway P-GW – Packet Data Gateway

16

LTE Architecture (high level)

Interworking Defined interfaces for interworking UMTS/GPRS interworking WiFi/WiMAX Interworking Interworking with Trusted/non-Trusted

WLAN UMTS S2 S3 , S4 , S12 PGW SGW S5 S1-U S11 MME EPC
WLAN
UMTS
S2
S3 , S4 , S12
PGW
SGW
S5
S1-U
S11
MME
EPC
S1-MME
All IP
All New
eNB X2 eNB eUTRAN
eNB
X2
eNB
eUTRAN

UE

eNB Evolved Node B;MME Mobility Management Entity; SGW Serving Gateway P-GW Packet Data Gateway UE – User Equipment

MME – Mobility Management Entity ; SGW – Serving Gateway P-GW – Packet Data Gateway UE

17

LTE Architecture (high level)

Connection to External Networks

IMS, MMS, WAP, Media Centers

IMS SGi WLAN UMTS
IMS
SGi
WLAN
UMTS
Networks IMS, MMS, WAP, Media Centers IMS SGi WLAN UMTS S2 S3 , S4 , S12
S2 S3 , S4 , S12 PGW SGW S5 S1-U S11 MME EPC S1-MME All
S2
S3 , S4 , S12
PGW
SGW
S5
S1-U
S11
MME
EPC
S1-MME
All IP
All New
eNB X2 eNB eUTRAN
eNB
X2
eNB
eUTRAN

UE

eNB Evolved Node B;MME Mobility Management Entity; SGW Serving Gateway P-GW Packet Data Gateway UE – User Equipment

MME – Mobility Management Entity ; SGW – Serving Gateway P-GW – Packet Data Gateway UE

19

LTE Radio Interface Overview

eNBeNBeNB UE
eNBeNBeNB
UE
19 LTE Radio Interface Overview eNBeNBeNB UE Key Features  Flexible Bandwidth Options  1.4 –

Key Features

Flexible Bandwidth Options

1.4 – 20 MHz

High Order Modulation and Coding

QPSK, 16 QAM and 64 QAM

Adaptive modulation and coding

Robust OFDMA in the Downlink

Multi-Carrier Transmission

Good Multipath Performance

Suited to Advanced Antenna Techniques

Efficient SC-FDMA in the Uplink

Still good Multipath Performance

Decoding complexity in the eNB

More power efficient than OFDMA

Advanced Antenna Support

MIMO, 2x2, 4x4

Beamforming

Frequency

20

LTE Radio Interface Overview

OFDMA and SC-FDMA

Time Frequency Frequency
Time
Frequency
Frequency

• 12 Sub-Carriers/RB

• Good Multipath Performance

• Simplified UE Receiver

• Scalable OFDMA

• Supports MIMO

Simplified UE Receiver • Scalable OFDMA • Supports MIMO eNBeNBeNB Time Frequenc y U E •

eNBeNBeNB

Time Frequenc y
Time
Frequenc y
Scalable OFDMA • Supports MIMO eNBeNBeNB Time Frequenc y U E • Single Carrier /RB •

UE

• Single Carrier /RB

• Simplified UE Design

• Lower power Consumption

• No MIMO

eNBeNBeNB Time Frequenc y U E • Single Carrier /RB • Simplified UE Design • Lower

21

LTE Radio Interface Overview

MIMO eNBeNBeNB UE
MIMO
eNBeNBeNB
UE

• Downlink only

• 2 or 4 Transmit antennas at the base station

• 2 or 4 Receive antennas at the UE

• Spatial Multiplexing increases data rate

• Up to 4x increase in Capacity*

• Requires an Urban Environment

• Won’t work every where

increases data rate • Up to 4x increase in Capacity* • Requires an Urban Environment •

22

Services for LTE

• • • LTE Network • • • Content Management • IMS • Service Delivery
LTE Network
Content Management
• IMS
• Service Delivery Platform

LTE Services

3 rd Party Content

Operator Managed Content

Video, Social Networking, WWW

Is a transport/delivery network Can manage content QoS High capacity means many customers
Is a transport/delivery network
Can manage content QoS
High capacity means many customers

• LTE compatible with existing solutions

network Can manage content QoS High capacity means many customers • LTE compatible with existing solutions

23

Voice and LTE

IMS Network

Call Session Control Function (CSCF)

• Register VoIP Users • Processes VoIP Call • Manages VoIP Services Signalling (SIP) IMS
• Register VoIP Users
• Processes VoIP Call
• Manages VoIP Services
Signalling (SIP)
IMS VoIP
App
EPC
LTE Network
IMS
IMS
Signalling (SIP) IMS VoIP App EPC LTE Network IMS Media (RTP) • Establishes Initial Bearer •

Media (RTP)

• Establishes Initial Bearer

• Must maintain an “always on” connection

Transfers SIP Si nallin

to IMS

g

g

• Routes the VoIP Media

Bearer • Must maintain an “always on” connection • Transfers SIP Si nallin to IMS g

24

Evolution Paths to LTE

24 Evolution Paths to LTE Source; Informa Telecoms and Media

Source; Informa Telecoms and Media

24 Evolution Paths to LTE Source; Informa Telecoms and Media

25

LTE Deployment Timelines

25 LTE Deployment Timelines LTSI – LTE/SAE Trial Initiative SAE – Service Architecture Evolution Source: Informa

LTSI LTE/SAE Trial Initiative SAE – Service Architecture Evolution

Source: Informa Telecoms & Media

LTSI – LTE/SAE Trial Initiative SAE – Service Architecture Evolution Source: Informa Telecoms & Media

26

Spectrum for LTE

LTE uses Wideband Channels 5 MHz, 10 MHz

Large spectral allocations are required

Can use any IMT designated Spectrum

Spectrum re-farming?

Replace your existing 2G/3G with LTE?

Not an options for many operators

UE hardware Issues

Mobile equipment becomes hard (expensive!) to build when so many bands are used

Roaming issues

No harmonised spectrum

Some Countries have not yet assigned any spectrum

This may delay the launch of LTE in some markets

 Some Countries have not y et assi g ned an y s p ectrum 

27

The Radio Spectrum

VLF
VLF
LF
LF
MF
MF
HF
HF
VHF
VHF

UHF

SHF
SHF
Very Low Medium High Very Ultra Super Low Freq Freq Freq High High High Freq
Very
Low
Medium
High
Very
Ultra
Super
Low
Freq
Freq
Freq
High
High
High
Freq
Freq
Freq
Freq
3KHz
30KHz
300KHz
3MHz
30MHz
300MHz
3GHz
300GHz
TV
DECT
TV
UMTS
WiMAX
GSM
GSM
WiFi

IMT Bands Shown in White

300

MHz

500

900

1500

1800

2500

UHF Band is very busy

Most mobile radio services operate in this band

Many frequencies in UHF are designated IMT bands

LTE can be deployed in any IMT Band

3000

4000

MHz

in this band  Many frequencies in UHF are designated IMT bands  LTE can be

28

Possible LTE Frequency Bands for MEA

880-960

MHz

GSM

Foreseeable

2110-2200

MHz Remains UMTS HSPA

2500-2690

MHz Most Likely Deployments

450 – 470 MHz Limited Availability

Future TV DECT WiMAX TV UMTS GSM GSM WiFi 500 900 1500 1800 2500 3000
Future
TV
DECT
WiMAX
TV
UMTS
GSM
GSM
WiFi
500
900
1500
1800
2500
3000
4000
MHz

300

MHz

790 - 862 MHz Available 2 -3 Years

1710-2025

MHz Good Potential Equipment ?

2300 – 2400 MHz Limited va a

A

il bilit

y

3400 – 3600 MHz

Not Suitable for LTE

These bands identified in addition to the existing GSM and UMTS bands

Local/Regional Regulation will manage the migration of technologies

These are IMT bands therefore LTE could be deployed

Re g ulation will mana g e the mi g ration of technolo g ies 

29

Pros and Cons of the Frequency bands

Frequency

Advantage

Disadvantage

Comment

Lower Frequencies 400 – 900MHz

-Good propagation -Good in-building coverage -large cells possible -may be cheaper to deploy

-Problems with interference, -possible lower capacity -Antennas are large

Sometimes called the Digital Dividend, many TV services are still using this band

Higher Frequencies 1Ghz – 4GHz

-Higher capacity designs possible -Smaller Antennas

-worse propagation -building penetration very high -may result in high cost networks

2.5GHz may still be used to build mobile systems, but more difficult, 3.5GHz the problems increase

systems, but more difficult, 3.5GHz the problems increase Lower frequency Bigger Radio Cell Lower Capacity 400MHz

Lower frequency Bigger Radio Cell Lower Capacity

400MHz – 900MHz 1GHz – 4GHz Hi g er requency h f
400MHz – 900MHz
1GHz – 4GHz
Hi
g er requency
h
f

Smaller Radio Cell Higher Capacity

Radio Cell Lower Capacity 400MHz – 900MHz 1GHz – 4GHz Hi g er requency h f

30

Example – London LTE Cell at 2.6 Ghz

30 Example – London LTE Cell at 2.6 Ghz
30 Example – London LTE Cell at 2.6 Ghz

31

Example – London LTE Cell at 900 MHz

31 Example – London LTE Cell at 900 MHz
31 Example – London LTE Cell at 900 MHz

32

Deployment Benefits of LTE

Cost Saving and Capacity Improvements

– Cost per Megabit

– 3% of the cost of EDGE, 20% of the cost of 3G (Ali Amer, STC)

– Cost savings from lower OPEX, Self Configuring Network, Reuse of Assets

– Urban Area payback 4-5 years for existing cellular operators

– Urban Area payback 6-7 years for greenfield operators

“Cost reduction more important than performance increases, initially(Adrian Scrase, 3GPP)

LTE Self Organising Network

50% less CAPEX, 30% less OPEX (Ihab Ghattas, Huawei ME)

HSPA/HSPA+ may have some short term benefits

– HSPA+ with MIMO will require considerable CAPEX (Ayman Elnashar, Du)

Race for LTE less urgent

– WiMAX market position is clearer

will require considerable CAPEX (Ayman Elnashar, Du)  Race for LTE less urgent – WiMAX market

33

What are the alternatives to LTE?

HSPA/HSPA+

Might be closer for some than LTE

Use existing Spectrum

More “natural” roadmap in the short term

Solid Evolution Path (R6, R7, R8….)

Good Performance (20-40 Mbps +)

WiMAX

Perhaps more “fixed” than mobile

Good performance

It’s here! – increasing number of user devices

May not be the most natural roadmap for cellular operators

Remember 802 16m is a 4G candidate

.

 Ma y not be the most natu ral roadmap for cell u lar operators 

34

Factors Affecting the Cost of LTE

Use of Ethernet over Fibre Technology in the Backhaul

E1/T1 is expensive

Backhaul still a major issue

Fewer system Components

No RNC

Flatter Network Architecture

Smaller Base Station Components

Less power required

Remote Radio Head utilisation

More Spectrally Efficient

Use of advanced antenna techniques

High order modulation

Cost of License?

 More Spectrally Efficient  Use of advanced antenna techniques  High order modulation  Cost

35

So where are we with LTE?

LTE Status Report Q4 2010
LTE Status Report
Q4 2010
35 So where are we with LTE? LTE Status Report Q4 2010

36

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http://www schooloflte com/

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training@telecomsacademy.com

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