75
THERMOMETRY
Thermometry is a science that deals with the study, design and calibration of temperature
measuring device called thermometers.
Each division in the temperature scale is called a degree ().
Requirements in the design of thermometers:
1. Thermometric property
This is the property of the material that varies with temperature such as
expansion of liquid, resistance of the substance, colors and radiation emitted, etc.
2. Standard Temperature
a. Lower Fixed Point it refers to the temperature at which the solid and the liquid
phase coexists.
b. Upper Fixed Point it refers to the temperature at which the liquid and the vapor
phase coexists.
Temperature Scales
1. Celsius Scale
2. Fahrenheit Scale
3. Absolute Temperature Scale
a. Kelvin Scale
b. Rankine Scale
Comparison of the different Temperature Scales
Note: The ratio and proportion method is used to shift from one unit to the next.
Relationship between Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale
If we consider two specific temperatures (i.e., the ice point and the steam point), the numerical
readings are obviously different but the distance between the two points is the same for the two
temperature scales.
F C
t t A = A = temperature difference
C t t
C C
= A 0
F t t
F F
= A 32
By ratio and proportion,
( )
( )
( )
( ) F F
F t
C C
C t
F C
=
32 212
32
0 100
0
steam point
ice point
100C
0C
212F
32F
373 K
273 K
672 R
492 R
steam
point
ice
point
100
C
0C
212F
32
F
C
t
F
t
Celsius Scale Fahrenheit Scale
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180
32
100
=
F C
t t
The link between the Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale is given by the equation below,
( ) 32
9
5
=
F C
t t
ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE SCALES
The absolute zero of temperature represents the lowest possible temperature at which motions
of the particles cease. Zero degree Celsius, which is the ice point of water, may give a wrong
impression of the absolute zero of temperature. Therefore, there is a need to establish the
absolute temperature scale.
a. Kelvin Scale, 273 + =
C K
t T
b. Rankine Scale , 460 + =
F R
t T
Comparison of the four Temperature Scales
THERMAL EXPANSION/CONTRACTION
A phenomenon where in the dimensions of the body change whenever there is a change in
temperature.
The change in temperature acts as a driving force.
The change in dimension of the body depends on the following:
1. original dimension ( length, area or volume)
2. change in temperature, t A
3. coefficient of expansion
The coefficient of expansion of the material reflects the rate at which a material changes its
dimension when there is a temperature change. The unit of coefficient of expansion is C / 1
(per Celsiusdegree).
Expansion of Solids
A. Linear Expansion
The linear expansion or contraction of the body refers to the change in length due to the
change in temperature.
Consider a rod whose initial length is
o
L at initial temperature
o
t . After heating the rod to
final temperature
f
t , the final length is
f
L . The change in the length is
o f
L L L = A .
steam point
ice point
100C
0C
212F
32
F
Celsius Scale Fahrenheit Scale
373 K
273 K
672 R
492 R
Kelvin Scale Rankine Scale
absolute zero
 273C  460F 0 K 0 R
o
L
at
o
t
at
f
t
f
L
L A
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77
The change in length can also be expressed in terms of the coefficient of linear expansion
( ) o of the material,
t L L
o
A = A o
B. Area Expansion
The area expansion or contraction of the body refers to the change in area due to the
change in temperature.
For derivation of formula purposes, consider a rectangular sheet whose initial area is
o o o
W L A = at initial temperature
o
t . After heating the rectangular sheet to final
temperature
f
t , the final area is
f f f
W L A = . The change in the area is
o f
A A A = A .
As an alternate formula to solve for the change in the area of the material, the coefficient of
area expansion ( ) is used,
t A A
o
A = A
C. Volume Expansion
The volume expansion or contraction of the body refers to the change in volume due to the
change in temperature.
For derivation of formula purposes, consider a cube whose initial volime is
o o o o
H W L V = at initial temperature
o
t . After heating the cube to final temperature
f
t , the final volume is
f f f f
H W L V = . The change in the volume is
o f
V V V = A .
In terms of the coefficient of volume expansion ( )  is used, the change in the volume of the
material is given by the equation,
t V V
o
A = A 
Summary of Equations:
Parameters Linear Area Volume
initial dimension
o
L
o
A
o
V
coefficient of
expansion
o

change in
dimension
t L L
o
A = A o t A A
o
A = A t V V
o
A = A 
final dimension
( ) t L L
o f
A + = o 1 ( ) t A A
o f
A + = 1 ( ) t V V
o f
A + =  1
heating
o
A
at
o
t
f
A
at
f
t
heating
at
o
t
at
f
t
f
V
o
V
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HEAT
The term heat refers to the transfer of thermal energy from a body of high temperature to a
body of low temperature.
units of heat:
SI CGS English System
Joule calorie BTU (British Thermal Unit)
note: 4.186 J = 1 cal
If the transfer of energy is by virtue of the temperature difference, the heat involved is called
sensible heat.
Sensible Heat
t c m Q A =
where: m is the mass of the substance
c is the specific heat capacity of the body. Specific heat capacity refers to the
amount of heat necessary to change the temperature of a unit mass of a substance
by one degree.
t A is the change in temperature
units of specific heat capacity
SI CGS
C kg
J
C g
cal
The specific heat capacity is an intrinsic property of the substance. Each substance has a unique
value of specific heat capacity.
substance specific heat capacity
water
C g
cal
00 . 1
ice
C g
cal
50 . 0
steam
C g
cal
48 . 0
If the substance undergoes a change of phase without changing its temperature ( 0 = At ), the
heat needed is called latent heat.
Latent Heat
L m Q =
where: m is the mass of the substance
L is the heat needed to change the phase of a unit mass of the substance with no
remarkable change in its temperature.
units of latent heat
SI CGS
kg
J
g
cal
The latent heat of fusion of ice is 80 cal/g and the latent heat of vaporization of water is 540
cal/g.
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L
A
H
For a steady flow,
( )
L
T T
A k
t
Q
H
1 2
= =
where:
H = rate of heat transfer or heat current
A = crosssectional area
L = thickness of the slab
2
T = higher temperature
1
T = lower temperature
k = thermal conductivity
at
2
T at
1
T
LAW of HEAT EXCHANGE
At thermal equilibrium,
0 = +
gained loss
Q Q
The equation above is a manifestation of the Conservation of Energy.
HEAT TRANSFER
Modes of Heat Transfer:
CONDUCTION is a method of heat transfer from molecule to molecule with negligible
movement.
CONVECTION is a transfer of heat by actual motion of a fluid from one region of space to
another.
If the fluid is circulated by a blower or pump, the process is called forced convection; if the flow
is caused by difference in density due to thermal expansion, the process is called natural or free
convection.
RADIATION is a type of heat transfer that depends on electromagnetic waves with no need for
matter to be present in the space between bodies.
CONDUCTION
Consider a slab,
The thermal conductivity of a substance is a measure of its ability to conduct heat.
Combination of Materials:
Series Parallel
1 2
H
2 1
H H H = =
2 1
H H H
total
+ =
2
H
1
2
1
H
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CONVECTION
Convective heat transfer is a very complex process and there is no simple equation to describe it.
RADIATION
Note: black body has emissivity equal to unity.
Radiant power emitted by an object of temperature
1
T located in an environment of temperature
2
T is
=
net
P ( )
4
2
4
1
T T e A o
where:
P
net
= the net rate of loss ( or gain ) of energy by radiation
T
1
= absolute temperature of radiating body
T
2
= absolute temperature of surroundings
WAVE MOTION
Wave is any vibrating disturbance. It can transfer energy and information.
Types of Waves
1. Mechanical Waves
These are waves that require a medium in order to propagate. Sound, vibrating
wires and water waves are typical examples of mechanical waves.
2. Electromagnetic Waves
These are waves that do not require a medium. They can travel in an empty
space. Light is a very good example of electromagnetic waves.
( )
4
5
T A h
t
Q
H A = =
where:
surface the of n orientatio
and shape the and fluid the of properties the on
depends that eriment by ed er t cons a is h
area surface A
fluid of body main the and
surface the between difference e temperatur T
transfer heat convective of rate H
exp min det tan =
=
= A
=
4
T e A
t
Q
H o = =
where:
4 2
8
10 67 . 5
tan
) (
K m
W
x
t cons Boltzman Stefan
surface of nature on depends emissivity e
area surface A
surface radiating of e temperatur absolute T
surface particular a from radiation of rate H
=
=
=
=
=
=
o
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General Wave Equation
f v =
where: v = velocity of propagation
f = frequency
= wavelength
note: The higher the frequency, the shorter is the wavelength.
Period of oscillation is the inverse of frequecy.
f
T
1
=
MECHANICAL WAVES
1. Transverse Wave
 the direction of propagation is perpendicular to the disturbance.
2. Longitudinal Wave
 the direction of propagation is along the disturbance.
Velocity of Transverse Wave
T
v =
where: v = velocity of the wave
T = tension in the vibrating string or wire
= linear mass density of the medium
L
m
= =mass per unit length of the medium
Frequency of Vibration
T
L
n
f
2
= where: n is the number of segments formed
Modes of Vibration
modes of vibration
number of
segments
frquency of
vibration
Harmonic
Series
Overtone
1
T
L
f
2
1
=
First Harmonic Fundamental
2
T
L
f
1
=
Second
Harmonic
First Overtone
3
T
L
f
2
3
=
Third Harmonic
Second
Overtone
1
f n f
n
= frequency of vibration at the nth harmonic or (n1)th overtone
Velocity of Longitudinal Wave
c
= v
where: v = velocity of the wave
c = elastic modulus of elasticity of the medium
= mass density of the medium
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Fod solids,
Y
v = Y is the Youngs modulus of elasticity
For liquids,
B
v = B is the Bulk modulus of elasticity
For gases,
P
v = is the adiabatic constant of gas and P is the absolute
pressure
SOUND
Sound is any vibrating disturbance propagated in an elastic medium capable of producing
auditory sensation.
The velocity of sound depends on the temperature of the surrounding.
( ) t s m v
air
6 . 0 / 332 + =
Audible Wave Frquency: 20Hz to 20000Hz
Infrasonic Wave: less than 20 Hz
Ultrasonic Wave: more than 20000 Hz
Vibration of Air Columns
1. Closed Type
 one end of the pipe is closed
modes of vibration
wavelength,
frquency of
vibration
Harmonic
Series
Overtone
L 4 =
L
v
f
air
4
=
First Harmonic Fundamental
L
3
4
=
L
v
f
air
4
3
=
Third Harmonic First Overtone
L
5
4
=
L
v
f
air
4
5
=
Fifth Harmonic
Second
Overtone
L
v H
f
air
4
= H =1, 3, 5, 7 . . .
2. Open Type
 Boths ends of the pipe are either open or closed
modes of vibration
wavelength,
frquency of
vibration
Harmonic
Series
Overtone
L 2 =
L
v
f
air
2
=
First Harmonic Fundamental
L =
L
v
f
air
=
Second
Harmonic
First Overtone
L
3
2
=
L
v
f
air
2
3
=
Third Harmonic
Second
Overtone
L
v H
f
air
2
= H = 1, 2, 3, 4,
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Vibration of Rods
a. rod clamped at the center
b. rod clamped at one end
c. rod clamped at onefourth from one end
DOPPLER EFFECT
Doppler effect refers to the apparaent change in the heard frequency due to the relative
motion of the source and the listener.
(
+
=
S air
L air
S L
v v
v v
f f
where:
L
f = observed frequency
S
f = frquency of the source of sound
air
v = velocity of sound in air = 332 m/s + 0.6 ( t )
L
v = velocity of the listener
S
v = velocity of the source of sound
sign convention for
L
v and
S
v :
+ v for velcoity of approach
 v for velocity of separation
R
L
For solids, velocity of sound is
Y
v
R
= .
Also, f v
R
= . The length of the rod is
2
1
= L . Therefore, the frequency of vibration of
the rod is
Y
L
f
2
1
=
R
L
For a rod that is clamped at one end, the length is
4
1
= L . Therefore, the frequency of vibration
of the rod is
Y
L
f
4
1
=
R
L
For a rod that is clamped at onefourth from one
end, the length is = L . Therefore, the
frequency of vibration of the rod is
Y
L
f
1
=
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ELECTROSTATICS
Electrostatics deals with the study of electric charges that are at rest.
Subatomic particles Rest mass charge
NUCLEONS  particles found
in the nucleus
NEUTRONS
PROTONS
1.675 x 10
27
kg
1.673 x 10
27
kg
No charge
+ 1.6 x 10
19
C
ELECTRONS particles
revolving around the nucleus
9.11 x 10
31
kg
 1.6 x 10
19
C
Law of Charges
COULOMBS LAW
The force of attraction or repulsion between charges is proportional to the product of
their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
k = electrostatics constant
= 9 x 10
9
Nm
2
/C
2
= 1 dyncm
2
/statC
2
note:
1 C = 3 x 10
9
statC
ELECTRIC FIELD
( unit: N/C )
The electric field lines are directed radially outward for a positive charge and radially inward for a
negatively charged body.
A conductor is a material that allows the flow of charge. Some examples of
conductors are silver , copper, iron, nickel, etc.
An insulator is a material that does not allow the flow of charge. Some insulators
are wood, ceramic, rubber and glass.
Like charges repel, unlike charges attract.
2
2 1
r
q q k
F =
q
F
E =
2
r
Q k
E =
q
+
E
Electric Field Strengths Direction
due to a Positive Charge
q
E
Electric Field Strengths Direction
due to a Negative Charge
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Electric Lines of Force between a Positive and a Negative Charge
SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE
WORK
POTENTIAL ENERGY work against the electric forces in moving the charge from infinity to a
point.
POTENTIAL DUE POTENTIAL DUE TO MANY
TO A CHARGE CHARGES
( unit : J/C = Volt )
r
kQ
V =
=
=
+ + + =
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
n
r
Q
k
r
kQ
r
kQ
r
kQ
V
r
kQq
r
kQq W
r
=
(
(
=
1 1
(
A B
B A
r r
kQq W
1 1
+ + + =
3 2 1
E E E ENET
+ +
Electric Lines of Force between Two
Positive Charges
Electric Lines of Force between Two
Negative Charges
+
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ELECTRICITY
Electric Current may be described as the rate of flow of charge from one point to the next.
dt
dQ
I =
Unit of current: 1 C/s = 1 ampere = 1 A
Ohms Law
When the temperature and other properties are held constant, the potential difference across an
electric circuit component is directly proportional to the current passing through it. The ratio
between the voltage and the electric current is called the RESISTANCE of the circuit component.
I
V
R =
Unit of resistance: 1 V/A = 1 ohm = 1 O
Rearranging the equation:
R I V =
For ohmic materials, this equation is referred to as Ohms Law.
Resistance is a measure of the opposition to the flow of charge. Also, it is a property of an
electric circuit element that depends upon the elements material as well as its geometry. For a
circuit element of length L and crosssection area A, its resistance is given by the equation,
A
L
R =
where:
L = length of electric circuit element
A = crosssection area of electric circuit element
= resistivity of the material of the element.
Resistivity is a property of the material that comprises the material of the electric circuit
element. Its unit is Om.
The resistivity of metallic materials varies with temperature.
( )  
o o
T T + = o 1
where:
= resistivity at temperature T
o
= resistivity at reference temperature T
0
,
o = temperature coefficient of resistivity
The inverse of resistivity is referred to as the conductivity of the material.
1
= ty conductivi
Unit: (Om)
1
= 1/(Om)
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Combination of Resistors
Series Connection
Resistors are said to be connected in series between the two points a and b when they form only
one current path between the two points.
Parallel Connection
Resistors are said to be connected in parallel between points a and b when each resistor
provides an alternative path between the two points as shown in following figure.
POWER
The power associated with emf sources and circuit elements is given by the following relationship:
R
V
R I VI P
2
2
= = =
Unit of power: 1 Watt = VA 1 = O
2
1A =
O
2
1
V
KIRCHHOFFS RULES
A junction is a point in a circuit where three or more electrical components are connected.
Junctions are also called Nodes and Branch Points.
A branch is a conducting path from one junction to the next.
A loop is any closed conducting or current path.
Kirchoffs Rules:
1. Junction Rule (Kirchhoffs Current Law)
The algebraic sum of the currents about any junction is zero.
= = = 0
out in
I I I
a.
3 2 1
V V V V = = =
b.
3 2 1
I I I I + + =
c.
2 2 1
1 1 1 1
R R R R
T
+ + =
1
R
2
R
3
R
V
a b
a.
3 2 1
V V V V + + =
b.
3 2 1
I I I I = = =
c.
3 2 1
R R R R
T
+ + =
1
R
2
R
3
R
V
a b
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 Currents entering the junction are considered positive while those leaving the junction
are considered negative.
2. Loop Rule (Kirchhoffs Voltage Law)
The algebraic sum of the potential differences in any loop is zero.
= 0 V
 If the loop enters the positive side of an emf source, the potential difference across the
emf source is considered positive. If not, the potential difference across the emf is
negative.
 If the loop has the same direction as the current passing through a resistor, the potential
difference across the resistor is considered positive. Otherwise, the potential difference
is negative.