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Departemen Teknik Industri

SISTEM PRODUKSI BERBASIS


PROYEK
Department of Industrial Engineering
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132
TI3122 PERENCANAAN & PENGENDALIAN PRODUKSI
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 2
Definition
Project can usually be defined as a series of related tasks
directed toward a major output
The characteristics of a project:
It has a specific goal and deadline
It is unique or somewhat unfamiliar to the existing
work
It contains complex interrelated tasks requiring
specialized skills
It is temporary but critical to the company
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 3
A hierarchical view of the project environment
.
Program 1 Program x Program n
... ...
Project x1 Project x2
Project
xm-1
...
Project xm
Task x21 Task x22 Task x23
...
Activity
x221
Activity
x222
Activity
x223
...
Activity
x22q
Task x2p
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 4
A hierarchical view of the project environment
Program: the term commonly used to denote
very large and prolonged undertakings.
Project: the term generally applied to time-
phased efforts of much smaller scope and
duration than programs. Programs are some
time viewed as consisting of a set of project
Task: an elemental content of a project. A
project is normally composed of contiguous
arrays of tasks that all contribute to the
overall project goal
Activity: the atom of a project. Activities are
smaller than tasks
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 5
Project management (PM)
Project management (PM) is the process of
managing, allocating, and timing resources in
order to achieve a given objective in an
expedient manner
The objective may be in terms of time, monetary,
or technical results
PM is the process of achieving objectives by
utilizing the combined capabilities of available
resources
PM represents a systematic execution of tasks
needed to achieve project objectives
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 6
Project
management
Planning
Organizing
Training
Risk management
Scheduling
Optimization
Contract
management
Resource
management
Software tools
Performance
control
Project design
Cost control
Multidimensionality of project management
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 7
Project management (PM)
PM covers the following basic functions: Planning,
Organizing, Scheduling and Control
Project planning provides the basis for the initiation,
implementation, and termination of a project. It sets
guidelines for specific project objectives, project
structure, tasks, milestones, personnel, cost, equipment,
performance, and problem resolutions
Project organization specifies how to integrate the
functions of the personnel involved in a project. Directing
(which involves guiding and supervising the project
personnel) is an important aspect of project organization
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 8
Project management (PM)
Project scheduling is the time phased arrangement of
project activities subject to precedence, time, and resource
constraints in order to accomplish project objectives. It is
often the core of project management efforts because it
involves the assignment of time periods to specific tasks
within the work schedule
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 9
Project Planning
1. Setting goals
2. Defining the project
3. Tying needs into timed
project activities
4. Orginizing the team
Project scheduling
1. Tying resources (people, money,
supplies) to specific activities
2. Relating activities to each other
3. Updating and revising on regular
basis
Project controlling
1. Monitoring resource, costs,
quality, budgets
2. Revising and changing plans
3. Shifting resources to meet time,
cost, and quality demands
Before project
Start of the project
During project
Tools
Time and cost estimates
Budget, Cash flow
Personnel
Material ability
Engineering diagram
Tools
Gantt Chart, CPM,
PERT
Cash flow schedules
Tools
PERT charts
Reports describing
1. budget by department
2. delayed activities
3. slack activities
4.quality of work
completed
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 10
The project of manufacturing
In a large organization, the manufacturing system may be
configured as a multi-project endeavor
The following figure shows the typical components of a
manufacturing enterprise organized as a project
The project starts with a conceptualization of a product and
needs some of distinct tasks for getting the product to the
market
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 11
Idea
Feasibility
study
Market
survey
Cost
Technology
assessment
Process
planning
Financing
Systems
integration
Quality
specs
Training
Operations
planning
Facilities
Production
Schedule
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 12
Project Management Technique:
1. Critical path method (CPM)
was developed in 1957 by J.E. Kelly of Remington
Rand
and M.R. Walker of duPont
2. Program Evaluation and review technique (PERT)
was developed in 1958 by the Navy with Booz, Allen
and Hamilton
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 13
The framework of CPM and PERT
Basic steps:
Define the project and all its significant tasks or
activities
Develop the relationship among the activities. Decide
which activities must precede and which must follow
others
Draw the network connecting all of the activities
Assign time and cost estimates and required resources
to each activity
Compute the longest time path through the network.
This is called the critical path
Use the network to help plan, schedule, monitor and
control the project
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 14
The questions answered by CPM or PERT
When will the entire project be completed?
What are the critical activities in the project, that
is, the ones that will delay the entire project if
they are late?
Which are the noncritical activities, that is, the
ones that can run late without delaying the whole
projects completion?
What is the probability that the project will be
completed by a specific date?
At any particular date, is the project on schedule,
behind schedule, or ahead of schedule?
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 15
The questions answered by CPM or PERT
On any given date, is the money spent equal to, less than,
or greater than the budgeted amount?
Are there enough resources available to finish the project
on time?
If the project is to be finished in a shorter amount of time,
what is the best way to accomplish this at the least cost?
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 16
Conventions
Activities: a task that occurs between 2 events
Event arrows and nodes
Activity-on-Arrow (AOA)
Arrows are used to represent activities, while
nodes represent starting and ending points of
activities
Activity-on-Node (AON)
Nodes represent activities, while arrows
represent precedence relationships
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 17
Convention
.
Event
Name and Symbol Description
A point in time, usually
a completion date or a
starting date
(node)
Activity
(arrow)
An activity or a certain
amount of work required in
the project
Event 1 Event 2 Event 3
Activity A Activity B
(network)
A sequence of activities
with beginning and
ending events
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 18
Example 1
Activity Immediate predecessor
A -
B -
C A
D B
1
3
2
4
A
B
C
D
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 19
Example 2
Beginning event Ending event Activity
1 2 1-2
1 3 1-3
2 4 2-4
3 4 3-4
3 5 3-5
4 6 4-6
5 6 5-6
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 20
Example 2
.
1
3
2 4
5
6
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 21
Example 3
Activity Immediate Predecessor(s)
A -
B -
C A
D B
E C, D
F D
G E
H F
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 22
Example 3
.
1
3
2
4
5
6
7
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
1
2
3
Dummy
4
5
6
7
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
C
Dummy activity
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 23
Critical Path Method (CPM)
CPM is to determine the following quantities for each
activity
ES: Earliest start time. All predecessor activities must be
completed before an activity can be started. The ending
time of the predecessor activities is the earliest time an
activity can be started
LS: Latest start time. All successor activities must be
completed without delaying the entire project This is the
latest time an activity can be started without delaying
the entire project
EF: Earliest finish. EF=ES+t
LF: Latest finish. LF=LS+t
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 24
Critical Path Method (CPM)
TS: Total slack time. TS is the amount of time an
activity may be delayed from its ES without
delaying the latest completion of the project.
TS=LS-ES or TS=LF-EF
FS: Free slack time. FS is the amount of time an
activity may be delayed from its ES without
delaying the starting time of any of its immediate
successors
S(j): immediate successors of activity j
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
j EF i ES Min j FS
j S i

)
`

=
e
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 25
Critical Path Method (CPM)
The critical path is the group of activities in the project that
have a total slack time of zero. This path is critical because
a delay in any activity along this path would delay the
entire project
The total project completion time is calculated by adding
the time values of those activities on the critical path
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 26
Example 4
Activity Duration
1-2 2
1-3 7
2-3 4
2-4 3
3-4 2
1
3
2
4
2
7
3
2
4
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 27
Example 4
.
0
0
1
2
6
2
7
9
3
9
9
4
2
2
3
7
4
0
2
0
7
2
6
2
5
7
9
ES, EF
9
7
9
6
LS, LF
7
3
3
1
7
0
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 28
Example 4
Activity Duration ES EF LS LF TS
1-2 2 0 2 1 3 1
1-3 7 0 7 0 7 0
2-3 4 2 6 3 7 1
2-4 3 2 5 6 9 4
3-4 2 7 9 7 9 0
Determine free slack times for the respective activities.
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 29
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
One distinguishing PERT and CPM is the use of 3 activities
time estimates for each activity in the PERT technique. Only
one time factor is given for each activity in CPM. The time
estimates are:
a=optimistic time
b=pessimistic time
m=most likely time
t
e
=expected time
v=variance of activity completion time
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 30
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
The expected time of completion time for activity i
The variance of completion time for activity i
The variance of project completion time
6
4 b m a
t
e
+ +
=
2
6
|
.
|

\
|

=
a b
v
i

e
=
path critical i
i
v V
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 31
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Activity a m b
1-2 3 4 5
1-3 1 3 5
2-4 5 6 7
3-4 6 7 8
If the expected project completion time is 20
weeks and the project variance is 100 weeks,
what is the probability that the project will be
finished on or before Week 25?
t v
4 1/9
3 4/9
6 1/9
7 1/9
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 32
Gantt chart
When the results of a CPM/PERT analysis are fitted to a
calendar time, the project plan becomes a schedule
The Gantt chart showing planned (or actual) progress of
activities is one of the most widely used tools for presenting
the schedule
The horizontal axis indicates the time scale
The horizontal bars/lines represent activities
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 33
Gantt chart
.
Activity
1-3
2-3
2-4
3-4
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 Duration
1-2 2 weeks
7 weeks
4 weeks
3 weeks
2 weeks
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 34
Gantt chart
The basic Gantt chart does not show the precedence
relationships among activities but it can be modified by
linking appropriate lines
Activity
B
C
D
E
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 Duration
A 2 weeks
7 weeks
4 weeks
3 weeks
2 weeks
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 35
Crashing
Additional resources can reduce activity time for
certain activity within the project
Although it can be expensive to shorten activity
times, doing so might be worthwhile
The questions are:
What activities should be shortened?
How much will this action cost?
Will a reduction in the activity time in turn reduce the
time needed to complete the entire project?
The least expensive method of shortening the
entire project should be determined
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 36
Cost-time Curves
Time Cost
8 weeks $300
7 weeks $400
6 weeks $600
Y
-
A
x
i
s
X-Axis
$300
6 days
$500
$600
7 days 8 days
$400
Time (weeks)
Cost
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 37
Cost of reducing activity time
The objective is to reduce the entire project completion
time by a certain amount at the least cost
If M
i
= maximum reduction of time for activity i
C
i
= additional cost associated with reducing activity
time for activity i
K
i
= cost of reducing activity time by one time unit
for activity i
i
i
i
M
C
K =
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 38
Determining the least cost
Activity Duration M C K Critical
1-2 2 1 $300
1-3 7 4 $2000
2-3 4 2 $2000
2-4 3 2 $4000
3-4 2 1 $2000
1
3
2
4
2
7
3
2
4
$300
$500
$1000
$2000
$2000
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Min
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 39
Determining the least cost
Activity 1-3 is to be shortened by 1 week in order to reduce
the project completion time to 8 weeks
Note that any further reduction in activity time along the
critical path would cause the critical path to include
activities 1-2, 2-3 and 3-4.
Departemen Teknik Industri
TI-3131 Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi 40
Further Readings
Badiru, A.B., 1996, Project management in manufacturing
and high technology operations, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
New York
Heizer, J. and Render, B., 1996, Production and operations
management, Prentice Hall International Editions, New
Jersey