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ArcGIS Desktop 10 Tutorial 2011 NASA Research Experience for Undergraduates

Volker Mell
GIS Coordinator Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde

ArcGIS Desktop 10.x training

Introduction to ARCGIS
ArcGIS 10.x is a desktop Geographic Information System from ESRI (Environmental System Research Institute). There are three licensing levels offered for ARCGIS, each with increasing capabilities: ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo. ArcMap is the major mapping component in ARCGIS. The other components of ARCGIS are ArcCatalog, ArcScene and ArcGlobe. During this introduction you will be familiarizing yourself with ArcMap and ArcCatalog (ArcScene and ArcGlobe are 3D visualization components which will not be covered here). ArcMap this component allows you to display, analyze and edit spatial data and data tables. ArcMap is most often used to make maps. ArcMap is the component we will mainly work with, during this introduction to GIS ArcCatalog this component allows you to browse and manage spatial data files. It works in a way similar to Windows Explorer but specialized for GIS data. ArcCatalog can be run as a standalone application or as ArcCatalog window in ArcMap

Table of Contents ARCGIS DESKTOP 10.X TRAINING ............................................................................. 1 INTRODUCTION TO ARCGIS ........................................................................................ 1 WHAT IS GIS .................................................................................................................. 6 1 GETTING TO KNOW ARC MAP ................................................................................. 7 Exercise 1.1: Open and Save a map document........................................................................... 7 Launch ArcMap .......................................................................................................................... 7 Open an existing map document ................................................................................................. 8 Save the map document to a new location .................................................................................. 9 Exercise 1.2: Working with map layers .................................................................................... 10 Turn a layer on and off.............................................................................................................. 10 Add and remove map layers ..................................................................................................... 11 Change a layers display order.................................................................................................. 13 Change a layers color .............................................................................................................. 14 Exercise 1.3: navigate in a map document................................................................................ 16 Zoom to full, previous and next extent. .................................................................................... 16 Zoom In ..................................................................................................................................... 17 Pan and zoom in/out with scroll wheel ..................................................................................... 17 Use Bookmarks ......................................................................................................................... 18 Exercise 1.4: The measuring Tool ............................................................................................. 19 Change measurement units ....................................................................................................... 19 Measure the width and length of you home reservation ........................................................... 19 Exercise 1.5: Work with feature attributes .............................................................................. 21 Use the Identify tool.................................................................................................................. 21 Use advanced Identify tool capabilities .................................................................................... 22 The Attribute table .................................................................................................................... 23 Select features on the map and see selected records ................................................................. 24 Labeling features in the map with attribute values ................................................................... 25 Viewing statistics for an attribute field ..................................................................................... 27 Create Layer from selected features ......................................................................................... 27 Find features.............................................................................................................................. 28 Select by attribute / Select by location ...................................................................................... 29 2 MAP DESIGN ............................................................................................................ 33 Tutorial 2.1: Create choropleth maps ....................................................................................... 33 2

Start a new map document ........................................................................................................ 33 Add a layer ................................................................................................................................ 34 Setting extent used by the full extent ........................................................................................ 34 Create a layer for reservations in Minnesota. ........................................................................... 35 Create unique symbols for Minnesota reservations. ................................................................. 36 Using the Layout View ............................................................................................................. 38 Inserting Map Elements ............................................................................................................ 39 Using the draw toolbar .............................................................................................................. 41 Creating an Inset map ............................................................................................................... 42 Export map to pdf and jpg format ............................................................................................. 44 Change page and print setup ..................................................................................................... 46 3 CREATING A PROJECT GEO-DATABASE ............................................................. 48 3.1 Online Sources for GIS / Remote sensing data ............................................................ 48

3.2 Importing GIS data from other formats....................................................................... 48 Creating a file based Geo-database ........................................................................................... 49 Importing shape-files and feature classes from other Geo-databases ....................................... 51 3.3 Map Projections .............................................................................................................. 53 Changing data frame coordinate system / projection on the fly ............................................... 54 Choosing the coordinate system for your project. .................................................................... 57 Projecting GIS data into the coordinate system of your choice ................................................ 59 3.4 4. 4.1 Converting xy data from excel tables to a feature class ............................................. 61 EDITING DATA...................................................................................................... 64 Georeference Raster data ............................................................................................... 64

4.2 Digitizing .......................................................................................................................... 69 Create feature classes ................................................................................................................ 69 Digitize tree locations on Haskell campus ................................................................................ 70 Digitize roads and pathways on the Haskell campus. ............................................................... 73 Create coded value domain in geo-database for land-cover classes ......................................... 76 Digitize land cover changes from 1966 to 2008 around Lawrence .......................................... 80 4.3 Edit the attribute table ................................................................................................... 83

....................................................................................................................................................... 84 5 5.1 5.2 GEO-PROCESSING TOOLS ................................................................................. 85 Raster to vector conversion ............................................................................................ 85 Buffer ............................................................................................................................... 87 3

Create a buffer polygon feature class........................................................................................ 87 Use Select by location buffer function...................................................................................... 89 Use Select by attribute to create further filter ........................................................................... 91 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6. Table Join ........................................................................................................................ 94 Merge ............................................................................................................................... 97 Union ................................................................................................................................ 98 Clip ................................................................................................................................. 102 Spatial join ..................................................................................................................... 103 IMAGE PROCESSING / REMOTE SENSING ..................................................... 105

6.1 Introduction to Remote Sensing .................................................................................. 105 Remote Sensing: Observing the Earth (NASA)...................................................................... 105 NASA / USGS | Landsat: A Space Age Water Gauge ........................................................... 105 Remote Sensing: What is Multispectral Mapping? ................................................................ 105 Remote sensing tutorial from Canada Centre for Remote Sensing .......................... 105 Downloading Land-Sat Imagery from USGS GLOVIS ......................................................... 105 6.2 Working with multi spectral image data in ARCGIS ............................................... 106 Loading TM data into ArcMap ............................................................................................... 106 Create color composites .......................................................................................................... 107 True color composite: ......................................................................................................... 107 False color composites: ....................................................................................................... 107 Create a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image in ArcMap ...................... 109 Create a vegetation layer from NDVI image. ......................................................................... 112 Digital image classifications in ArcGIS....................................................................... 116 6.3 Unsupervised image classification .......................................................................................... 117 Supervised image classification .............................................................................................. 120 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 124 Skyplot ....................................................................................................................................... 125 DATA LOGGING ........................................................................................................ 126 Importing data into the Computer .......................................................................................... 128 Importing the data into ArcGIS Desktop 10 (ArcMap 10) ................................................... 131 Differentially Correcting Data by Post-Processing ................................................................ 134 4

DATA DICTIONARY ................................................................................................... 138 This is the end of the Tutorial. ................................................................................................. 143

What is GIS
GIS stands for Geographic Information System. The following links are to documents that shine a light on what GIS is and what it can do. The ESRI approach: Introduction to GIS presentation by Angela Lee. ESRI Education Program http://www.adec.edu/admin/meeting/2008/alladec/docs/lee.ppt Introduction to GIS ESRI video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEaMzPo1Q7Q Introduction to Geography and GIS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkY4Omuoho0 The more scientific approach: Introduction to GIS. Longley et al. (2001), GI Systems and Science http://www.udel.edu/Geography/DeLiberty/.../geog471-671_introGIS.ppt What is GIS part 1 - Geography Northwest state community college http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TIFkphx0avU

1 GETTING TO KNOW ARC MAP


ArcMap is a tool for creating, viewing, querying, editing, composing, and publishing maps. ArcMap works with map documents. A map document is a collection of links to different spatial data layers and tables, along with instructions for how the layers will be displayed.

Exercise 1.1: Open and Save a map document


Launch ArcMap
1. From the windows taskbar, click Start, All Programs, ARCGIS, ArcMap 10. 2. In the resulting ArcMap getting started window, click existing Maps and Browse for more.

Open an existing map document


1. Browse to C:\reu_2011\map_documents 2. Click the Introduction to ArcMap.mxd icon and click Open.

The Introduction to ArcMap.mxd opens in ArcMap, showing a map of eastern Kansas including Kansas City, Lawrence, Topeka and two Indian reservations in Kansas. The map also shows larger water bodies, County boundaries and state boundaries. The left panel of the ArcMap window is the table of contents (TOC). It serves as a legend for the map (it also has other uses which we will discover later).The TOC also shows the order in which the layers are drawn. Here the order in which the map layers are drawn is: Background, State County Outlines, Water. Map layers which are not checked (checkboxes to the right of the layer name in the TOC) are not shown in the map. You also see the menu bar and the standard toolbar in the upper part of the ArcMap window. The tools toolbar should be floating on the right side of the screen and can be docked somewhere on the interface (many people dock it next to the standard toolbar).

Menu Bar TOC Tools Toolbar

Layer s Map window Redraw tool

Save the map document to a new location


You will save all files you modify or create while working through the tutorial in the C:\reu_2011\student folder. 1. In the menu bar click file, save As. 2. Navigate to the C:\reu_2011\student folder and save the map as Introduction to ArcMap.mxd. 3. Click save.

Exercise 1.2: Working with map layers


Map layers are references to data sources such as point, line, and polygon shapefiles, geodatabase feature classes, raster images, and so forth representing spatial features that can be displayed on a map (ESRI, GIS Tutorial). Map documents do not store the features and tables of the data sets within the map document. Instead, the map stores the name and disk location of the spatial data. Changes to the map document do affect the source data except for specific actions such as adding fields or editing shapes. Because the source data are stored outside the map document, changes to source data made in one map document affect all map documents using the same data set. The storage of the map document and the source data in separate locations also has implications for sharing map documents. Giving a colleague a copy of a map document only works if he or she has access to exactly the same data in the same disk location as the original user. The best way to share a document is to place the map document in the same folder as the data, and share the entire folder.

Turn a layer on and off


This is a crucial function of a GIS. Before GIS existed, mapmakers would create maps by overlaying clear plastic sheets which had single map layers like contour lines, roads, or waterbodies drawn on them (ESRI, GIS Tutorial). 1. Click the small check box to the left of the Native American lands layer in the TOC to turn that layer on. If the TOC accidentally closes, click windows, Table of Contents to reopen it.

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2. Click the check box again to turn the layer off.

Add and remove map layers


You can add more layers to the map in different ways. 1. Click the Add data button 2. In the data browser, click the connect to folder button OK. This will create a permanent shortcut to the REU_2011 folder. 4. In the Add Data window, navigate to the GIS_data\usa folder 5. Double-click the US_populated_places.shp file. . 3. Under computer find the c drive, navigate to the REU_2011 folder and click

ArcMap adds the US populated Places shape-file to the Map and the TOC and assigns a random symbol for the features.

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6. Right-click US_populated_places in the TOC and click Remove. This removes the map layer from the map document but does not delete it from its storage location. 7. Click the Catalog window button in the standard toolbar. This will open the ArcCatalog window on the right side of the screen. ArcCatalog allows you to explore, maintain, and create GIS data files with its many ArcCatalog utility functions. From the ArcCatalog window you will drag and drop a map layer into the TOC as an alternative method of adding data. 8. In the Catalog window, click on folder connections and navigate to c:\REU2011 \GIS_data\USA and click the US_populated_places.shp layer.

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9. Drag and drop the US_populated_places into the top of the TOC window. 10. Use the Auto Hide button in the catalog window to auto hide the window. The Auto-Hide button lets you keep application windows (such as TOC, toolbox or the Search window) available for immediate use, but hides them in between uses so that you have more room for the map.

Change a layers di play order s


Changing the order of the map layers in the TOC will change the order in which the map layers are drawn in the map. 1. Make sure the List by drawing order button is selected in the TOC.

2. Check the Native American Lands layer in the TOC to make it visible. 3. Drag the Native American Lands layer under the background layer in the USA Base map.

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The Indian Reservations are not visible anymore since they are covered up by the USA Base Map. 4. Drag and drop the Native American lands back to the top of the TOC.

Change a layers c olor


The ability to change the color of a map layer is an important part of the map creation process. 1. Click the Native American lands layers l gend symbol in the TOC. e The legend symbol is the rectangle below the layer name in the TOC 2. Click the Fill Color button in the Current symbol selection of the Symbol Selector window.

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3. Click the Ultramarine tile in the Color Palette (or any other color you like). 4. Click OK. The layers color changes to Ultramarine. 5. Click the Native American lands layers l gend symbol in the TOC again. e 6. From the Styles Panel choose the Hollow style from the ESRI styles. 7. Under Outline Color choose red 8. Change the outline width to 3. 9. Click OK. The Indian Reservations in the map are now displayed with a red outline instead of a solid color.

Now it is your turn: Use the Symbol selector and its Search function to Display the US_populated_places layer with checkered flags and the Native American Lands layer with the ESRI grassland style.

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Exercise 1.3: navigate in a map document


Another essential function of GIS is to be able to view map data in different scales and to be able to move the extent of the map. The tools toolbar lets you zoom in, zoom out, pan, go to full extends of the map, go to last extend.

Zoom to full, previous and next extent.


1. Click the Full extent button in the tools toolbar The map will zoom to the full extent of the data sets. .

2. Click the previous Extent button 3. Click the Next Extent button .

The map will be zoomed back to extent of Kansas. The map will be zoomed to the full extent again. The previous and next extent buttons work similar to the back and forward buttons in MS Internet explorer. 16

Zoom In
1. Click the Zoom in button your home state. 3. Drag the mouse down to the bottom and to the right of your home state and release. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 to zoom into the extent of your home reservation. on the Tools toolbar.

2. Click and hold down the mouse button on a point above and to the left of

5. Zoom back to the full extent with the full extent button

Pan and zoom in/out with scroll wheel


Besides the zoom tools of tools toolbar you can zoom with the scroll wheel of your mouse. Combined with the pan tool you can direct the focus of the zoom. 17

1. Click the Pan Button

2. Pan your Home State into the middle of the map. 3. Use the scroll wheel of you mouse to zoom in (scroll backwards). 4. Use the Pan Button and the scroll wheel alternating to zoom to your home reservation or home town.

Use Bookmarks
Bookmarks let you save extents of map documents which you want to visit again. 1. Click Bookmarks from the menu bar. 2. Click manage. Make sure you are zoomed into extent of your home reservation or home town. 3. In the Bookmarks manager window click create

4. Enter the name for the bookmark in the Bookmark Name field. 5. Click Ok and close. You just created a Bookmark for the extent the map has right now.

Now it is your turn: Use the zoom tools and the Bookmarks manager to create bookmarks for your tribal College, Haskell and your house. Use the scale field in the tools toolbar to set the scale for these three bookmarks to 1:24000.

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Exercise 1.4: The measuring Tool


You will use the measuring tool to measure the size of your home reservation.

Change measurement units


Maps use coordinate systems to display the earth surface into 2 Dimensions on a piece of paper or a monitor screen. Frequently the map units used by these coordinate systems are feet or meters. Regardless of the map coordinate system, you can set the measurement tool to reflect measures in any units (like miles or kilometers). 1. Zoom to the extent that shows your home reservation. 2. On the tolls toolbar, click the Measure button The Measure window opens. You will now set the measure units to miles and acres. 3. In the Measure window, click the Units drop-down button. .

4. Click Distance and Miles. 5. Click the Units drop-down button again. 6. Click Area and acres.

Measure the width and length of you home reservation


1. Click the Measure Line button . 2. Measure the width of your home reservation.

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The Measure window will show the length of the line. 3. Double click to stop the measuring process 4. Measure the length of your home reservation, double click to end the measure. 5. Click the Measure area tool .

6. Measure the area of your home reservation, by following the outline of the reservation with single mouse clicks. 7. Double click to end the measurement. The measurement window shows the Areas measured in acres as well as Perimeter. 8. Click the measure feature tool .

9. Click the feature you want to measure.

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Exercise 1.5: Work with feature attributes


To work with feature attributes is one of the most important capabilities of GIS and what makes it so different from a Database system or simple drawing Software like CAD. GIS brings (geo)graphic features together with database tables. You will use tools to view database tables connected to the features on your map, query them and label the map with the values in the database tables.

Use the Identify tool


To display data attributes of a map feature you can use the Identify tool. This tool is the easiest way to learn something about a location on a map (ESRI, GIS Tutorial). 1. Click Bookmarks in the menu bar 2. Click the lower 48 states bookmark. The map will be zoomed out to the lower 48 states of the USA. 3. Click the Identify button toolbar. 4. Click on any of the Native American lands. The identify window will show the attribute data of the feature that you clicked on. 5. Click the identify from drop-down list and click Visible layers 6. Click on any of the American lands again The identify window should now show all the map layers visible at the location you clicked. 7. Click any of the layers listed in the Identify window. The identify window should now show all attributes of the layer you. in the tools

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Use advanced Identify tool capabilities


You can use the identify tool to navigate and create spatial bookmarks 1. Right click the Native American lands in the list of layers in the identify window. 2. Choose select from the drop down menu. The feature you identified earlier is now shown with a bright blue outline, indicating that the feature is selected.

3. Right click the Native American lands in the list of layers in the identify window. 4. From the list select zoom to. The map will be zoomed to the extent of the feature you identified before.

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The Attribute table


The Attribute table shows you all the data records stored for all the features in a feature class (or layer). It appears much like a spreadsheet( in MS Excel for example). Each row in the table is linked to one feature in the layer. Selecting rows (called records) in the table will select a feature in the layer, deleting a complete row in the table will delete the connected feature in the layer. 1. Click on Bookmarks, lower 48 states. 2. Click the clear selected features button this step. 3. Right click the Native American lands feature class in the TOC. 4. Click Open Attribute table from the drop down options. The Attribute Table for the feature class will open up. 5. Right click the header of the Name field. 6. Click Sort Ascending in the tools toolbar. If the button is greyed out (inactive) there are no features selected and you do not need to do

Next you will highlight the record (or row) in the table that contains the information for your home reservation. 7. Scroll down the attribute table and click the record selector (gray cells on the left side of the table) for your home Reservation. 23

If a feature is selected in the attribute table, it also is selected on the map. 8. Close the attribute table. 9. In the table click the Clear Selected Features button .

Select features on the map and see selected records


1. Right click the Native American Lands feature class in the TOC. 2. From the drop down menu choose selection make this the only selectable layer. This step makes sure that only features from the Native American Lands layer will be selected.

3. Click the select feature button

in the tools toolbar.

4. With the selection tool active draw a selection box around Montana. All Native American Lands in Montana should now be selected.

5. Right click native American Lands in the TOC and open the attribute table. 24

The attributes of the features you selected on the map are now selected in the Attribute table. The selected records are dispersed over the table. 6. Click the show selected records button at the bottom of the table.

The table will now show just the selected records. The indicator field next to the selected records button should show that you selected 14 out of 760 records.

Labeling features in the map with attribute values


Since each feature in the map layers is tied to a record in an attribute table you can label the map features with values from these records. 1. Double click the Native American Lands layer in the TOC 2. In the Layer Properties window Click the Labels tab 3. Check the Label features in the layer field 4. Choose the NAME field as label field. 5. Click the Placement Properties button. 6. In the Placement Properties (under the duplicate Labels) choose the Remove duplicate labels option. 7. Click ok in the placement Properties window. 8. Click ok in the Layer Properties window.

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The map should now be labeled with the names of the tribes in Montana.

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Viewing statistics for an attribute field


You can use the statistics function for an attribute field to get statistical values for the values in the field. If records in the table are selected, the statistical calculations will be done on the selected values only. 1. Right click the Header of the ALAND and click Statistics.

The Statistics window shows that the Sum of the land area of the 14 selected Native American Land features is 34300998099 square meters. The conversion factor from square meters to acres is 4,046.85, which brings the acres to 8475974.67.

Create Layer from selected features


You can now create a layer from the selected features. This will not save a new copy of the data on disc but rather just display a subset from the original layer. 1. Right click the Native American lands layer in the TOC. 2. Click Selection from the dropdown menu create Layer from selected features. 3. Rename the new layer Montana tribes. 4. Turn of the Native American Lands layer (uncheck the checkbox). You should now see the Native Lands in Montana. 5. Click the clear selected Features button in the tools toolbar.

6. Remove the Montana tribes layer from the map.

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Find features
The find feature in ArcMap lets you find features in the map by entering search words or phrases. 1. Turn on the US_populated_Places layer in the TOC 2. Click the Find button in the tools toolbar

3. In the Find window enter Shiprock in the find field. 4. Choose US_populated_places from the drop down options for the In field. 5. Click find. 6. In the results field (on the bottom of the Find window) click the Shiprock record.

The location of Shiprock flashes on the map when you click the result in the find window. 7. Right click Shiprock in the result window. 8. Click select from the drop down options. 9. Right click Shiprock again. 10. Click zoom to. 28

In many cases the find function will result in more than one result. In those cases you can use the flash function to find the feature you are looking for from the result list. Assignment 1: 1) Use the find tool to find Lawrence (possibly several Lawrence in the result list) Kansas on the map and zoom to it and create a bookmark. 2) Use the find tool to find your hometown, zoom to it and create a bookmark. 3) Save your map as find map in the student folder.

Select by attribute / Select by location


The select functions let you query features by attributes (Example: Select ll towns with a a population larger then 100000) or by location ( Example: select all Native Lands in Oregon). You will now use the select functions to select all census designated places with a population greater than 10000 on Native American Land. 1. Make sure none of the features in the map are selected. 2. Click Selection from the menu bar. 3. Click select by location. 4. Fill in the fields in the select by Location window as follows: Selection method: select features from Target Layer: US_populated_places Source layer: Native American lands Spatial Selection method: Target Layer feature intersect source layer feature.

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All Census designated places on Native American Lands in the USA are now selected. The Spatial selection you used was the (default) int ersect. Under the Help for this tool you will find all spatial operators available for Select By Location explained ( a glance at these might help you with next Now it is your turn). 5. Click OK. In the following step you will filter out the places that have a population greater than 10000. 6. Click Selection from the menu bar. 7. Click Select by attribute. 30

8. Fill in the fields in the select by Attributes window as follows: Layer: US_populated_places Method: Select from current selection !!!!!!!! (this will create a subset from the already selected features) Select * from places WHERE: POP2000>= 10000

9. Click OK.

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The resulting map should look similar to the map below.

1. Close the Introduction to ARCMAP document without saving it. Assignment 2: 1) How many Hospitals are within 50 miles of your home town? You will find a hospital layer under C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\usa\landmarks\USA Hospitals How far is the closest hospital? 2) How many Acres of Indian Reservation land is located in your home state? Use the Native American lands layer. This layer contains reservations (COMPTYP =R in the attribute table) and trust land. The Attribute ALAND gives you the answer in Square meters.

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2 MAP DESIGN
Tutorial 2.1: Create choropleth maps
A choropleth map is a map in which polygons are colored or shaded to represent attribute values. In this tutorial, you will use the Native American Lands data to produce a choropleth map of Indian Reservations in Minnesota.

Start a new map document


1. On your desktop, click Start, All programs, ArcGIS, ArcMap 10. 2. In the ArcMap Getting Started window, click New Maps, My Templates, Blank Map

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Add a layer
1. Click the Add data button 2. Navigate to C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\usa 3. Highlight Native_american_land_states and the USA Base Map.lyr (you can select both by holding the shift key down when selecting) 4. Click Add. The map document will now show the data you added in its full extend. In this case it will zoom to the worldwide extent of the ocean layer which can be found under the USA Base map layer (background).

Setting extent used by the full extent


You can the limit the extent to which the map document zooms when the full extent function is used. 1. If The USA Base map layer is covering up Native American land layer switch the order of them in the table of Contents. 2. Zoom to the extent of the continental US. 3. Double Click Layers (the data frame ) in the TOC. 4. Click the data frame tab. 5. Under the Extent Used by Full Extent Command section click other. 6. Click Specify Extent. 7. In the full extent window click current Visible extent. 8. Click Ok (to close the Full extent window). 9. Click Ok (to close the data frame properties).

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10. Zoom to a smaller extent (it does not matter where). 11. In the Tools toolbar click the full extent button The map will zoom back to the extent of the continental US. .

Create a layer for reservations in Minnesota.


the So far you used selection and create layer from selected features process to create a subset of a feature class. Now you will use a definition query to do the same thing. The advantage of using definition queries is that query for the subset is going to be stored in the layer properties, so that you can verify it in the future. 1. Double click the Native American Land States layer in the TOC to open the layer properties. 2. Click the General tab and change the layer name to Minnesota Reservations. 3. Click the definition Query tab and click query builder 4. With the help of the Query Builder form the query: STATE_NAME = M innesota (follow steps on graphic) 35

5. Click Verify to verify the syntax of the query.

2 3 5 4

6. Click OK to close the Query Builder 7. Click Apply to apply the definition query.

Create unique symbols for Minnesota reservations.


1. Click the Symbology tab. Right now the Reservations in Minnesota are symbolized with a single symbol. In the next steps you will give each reservation its own color. 2. Click Categories in the show field. 3. Click Unique Values 36

4. In the Value Field choose NAMELSAD from the drop down list. 5. Click the Add all values button. 6. Choose a Color Ramp that lets you distinguish the reservations.

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7. Uncheck the box in front of the <all other values>. 8. You can adjust each symbol separately by double clicking on it and using the symbol selector to define it.

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Using the Layout View


ArcMap lets you create maps which you can print or export as .pdf files or (.jpg) image files (which you can use in word documents or power point presentations or posters). Maps do not only consist of the GIS data but also other map elements. As a minimum each map should have: Title Legend North Arrow Scale Bar

Other map elements include: Logos, reports, graphs, disclaimer, path of the mxd file, person who produced it, date it was produced. 1. Click View in the menu bar 2. From the drop down menu choose .

The main map frame will now show the layout view of your map. The Layout toolbar is automatically activated when you switch to the layout view.

Layout Toolbar

Data Frame

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The zoom and pan tools in this toolbar will change your view of the map document and will not affect the extent of the data frame (the map scale will not change). 3. Use the zoom tools and the pan tool of the Layout toolbar to explore the map closer. 4. Use the zoom to 100% tool 5. Use the zoom to full page tool to see the map in original size. to see the whole map again.

Inserting Map Elements


Now you will add the minimally required map elements to your map. 1. In the menu bar click the insert menu. All the map elements you are going to put on the map are found under this insert menu. 2. From the insert menu choose title. 3. Title the map Minnesota reservations. 4. Place the title in an area above the data frame. 5. From the Insert menu choose North Arrow. 6. From the North Arrow selector dialog select the North Arrow of your choice. 7. Move the North Arrow to an area above the data frame and next to the title. 8. From the Insert menu choose Scale bar. 9. In the Scale bar selector window select the scale bar you like. 10. Click properties in the Scale bar selector window. 11. In the Scale and Units tab enter the following values. 1 When resizing: adjust width 2 Division units: Miles 3 Division value: 100 4 Number of divisions: 2 5 Number of subdivisions: 0

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3
4 5 1 2

12. Click Ok to close the Scale bar properties window. 13. Click Ok to close the Scale bar selector window and place the scale bar. 14. Move the scale bar underneath the title above the data frame. The last map element you will add to the map is a legend. 15. In the Insert menu click Legend. 16. In the Legend wizard highlight the US Background, Canada and Mexico Background and Ocean Background from the Legend Items. 17. Use the items. button to remove the three background layer from the Legend

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18. Click next. 19. Leave the Legend title. 20. Click next. 21. Switch the Background to white. It might look like the background is already set to white initially but it is actually set to transparent by default. 22. Click next two times. 23. Click finish to put the Legend on the map.

Using the draw toolbar


The draw toolbar lets you place texts, callouts and other graphics on the map. Setting the graphic (or text) in a focused map frame - will tie the element to the geographic extent of the map frame (If you move the map extent the graphic will move as well). 1. Click customize in the menu bar. 2. Click toolbars. 3. From the toolbar list click the draw toolbar. 4. Right click on the main map (data) frame. 5. From the drop down menu choose Focus data frame

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The data frame will show a hashed line focused. 6. Choose the new text tool side and enter USA .

, which indicates the data frame is

7. With the new text tool active, click close to the Canadian Border on the US 8. Choose the new text tool again and enter Canada on the Canadian side of the border. 9. You can move the text elements by clicking and dragging

The draw tool can also be used to put other graphics in you map like lines, points or rectangles.

Creating an Inset map


An inset map shows the extent of the main map in a larger regional context (like the USA or States). You will now create an inset map for the Minnesota reservation map. 1. From the Insert menu click data frame. 2. Drag the new data frame to the lower left corner of the map. 3. Resize it with the blue handles on its corner to an approximated 3x4 inch area. 4. Right click on the new data and click add data. 42

5. Load the USA Basemap layer from the C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\usa folder. 6. Zoom to the continental USA in the new data frame. In the next steps you will create a polygon on the overview map showing the extent of the main map. 7. Double click the new data frame in the table of contents. 8. In the data frame Properties click the Extent Indicators tab. 9. Highlight layers under the other data frame field. 10. Use the button to move the layers data frame into the Show extent

indicator for the data frames: field.

11. Click ok to close the data frame properties window. 43

Your map should look something like this now.

12. Click on the main map to make it active. Grey hashed line around the map frame indicates that it is active. 13. Use the pan tool to pan around the main map The red indication polygon on the inset map will adjust each time you change the extent in the main map.

Export map to pdf and jpg format


To be able to use your maps in presentation, word document or to share the maps with people who do not have access to ArcMap, you will have to export the map as image (jpg or tif file format) or as .pdf (which can be viewed with Adobes acrobat reader). 1. From the menu bar click file. 2. Click export map. 44

3. For the save in section navigate to c:\reu_2011\student. 4. For the file name type Minnesota reservations. 5. In the save as type field choose JPEG. 6. Set the Resolution to 300 dpi (dots per inch).

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Change page and print setup


You can change the size of the map and its general orientation with the page and print setup window. 1. From the menu bar click file 2. Click Page and print setup. 3. From the Orientation section click the Landscape radio button 4. Put a check at the Scale Map Elements proportionally to changes in page Size. 5. Click OK

The map should now be in landscape format. 46

6. Use the select elements tool

to select the different map elements.

7. Redistribute the map elements and adjust their size to fill the map. 8. Use the right mouse click on a map element to graphical adjustments like align center.

9. Save the map with the title Minnesota reservations landscape Assignment 3: 1) Create a map of your home reservation, including reservation outline, counties, towns, highways and rivers. (The map should include a title, scale bar, north arrow and a legend. 2) Indicate the location of your house with a callout. 3) Create an inset map showing the extent of the main map frame in relations to your

home state. Do you need an inset map showing where in the USA the state is?
4) Save the map and export it in jpg and ..............................................................pdf file Close ArcMap once you have finished the Assignment. 47

3 Creating a project Geo-database


An important step during your projects will be to put together a project geo-database which will hold all project related GIS and remote sensing data. You can think of a Geo-database as a container for all the map layers you need for the project. Geo-databases store map layers as feature classes or raster datasets. Feature classes are map layers that represent real world features as points, (poly) lines or polygons (areas). You worked with feature classes in the previous part of this tutorial. Each of the graphical features in the feature class is tied to a record (or row of data) in an attribute table for the feature class. Raster datasets are image files (like aerial-photos, Satellite images and scanned maps) or surface data like digital elevation models or hill-shades. These files consist of raster-pixels (square cells) with values that can represent the color of objects or elevation in the case of digital elevation models.

3.1

Online Sources for GIS / Remote sensing data

USDA-NRCS Geospatial data gateway: http://datagateway.nrcs.usda.gov/ USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GLOVIS) for selected satellite and aerial data http://glovis.usgs.gov/ Geospatial one stop http://gos2.geodata.gov/wps/portal/gos Resources from your states: http://libraries.mit.edu/GIS/data/datalinks/statedataweb.html

3.2

Importing GIS data from other formats

In many cases when you get data for your project from GIS data gateways or from other experts, the data will be in an exchange format like shape-files, ARCINFO coverage or geo-databases. 48

We recommend that you create a (file based) geo-database for your projects. If you work on your project in a group it is advisable to create this project database on a shared drive (like a file server) so that the whole group can use it.

Creating a file based Geo-database


The ArcCatalog window in ArcMap lets you organize your GIS related data. ArcCatalog is also available as a standalone application. In this exercise you will use both options. 1. To open the ArcCatalog program, click start all programs ArcGIS group ArcCatalog 10. ArcCatalog has a look and feel much like Windows explorer. The difference is that ArcCatalog will only show you GIS related files. Word documents, PDf files, Power point presentations will not be visible in ArcCatalog. 2. If you do not see the reu_2011 folder under folder connections follow steps 3 through 5. 3. With ArcCatalog open right click Folder Connections. 4. Click Connect to folder. 5. In the connect to folder window navigate to the reu_2011 folder under Computer\ c drive.

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6. Click Ok 7. Expand the c:\reu_2011 folder connection folder 8. Right click the c:\reu_2011\student folder. 9. Click new. 10. Click File Geodatabase.

c 50

The new geo-database should now be showing in ArcCtalogs right panel. 12. Rename the new geo-database Project. 13. Close ArcCatalog.

Importing shape-files and feature classes from other Geo-databases


In the following steps you will import data from a shapefile and another Geodatabase into your project database. 1. On your desktop, click Start, All programs, ArcGIS, ArcMap 10. 2. In the ArcMap Getting Started window, click New Maps, My Templates, Blank Map. 3. Click the ArcCatalog window button 5. Right click the project Geo-database. 6. Click import. 7. Click Feature Class Multiple. from the standard toolbar. 4. In the ArcCatalog window navigate to the c:\reu_2011\student folder.

8. In the Import feature class window click the Input features brows button . 9. Navigate to the c:\reu_2011\GIS_data\usa folder and load the tl_2009_US_aiannh.shp file. 51

10. Navigate to the c:\reu_2011\GIS_data\world.gdb and load the latlong and continent_ln feature classes. 11. Make sure your Feature class import window looks like the picture below.

12. Click OK. While the import is running, the process will be indicated in the geo-processing task window in the lower section of your screen.

Once the process is done it will be indicated by a message window.

13. Click the project database in the ArcCatalog to expand the view to its content. 14. Leave the map document open.

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3.3
map.

Map Projections

A map projection is a way to represent the curved surface of the Earth on the flat surface of a Map projections allow us to represent some or all of the Earth's surface, at a wide variety of scales, on a flat, easily transportable surface, such as a sheet of paper. Map projections also apply to GIS data. There are hundreds of different map projections. The process of transferring information from the Earth to a map causes every projection to distort at least one aspect of the real world either shape, area, distance, or direction (National Atlas http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_projections.html). ArcGIS classifies different map projections into two types of coordinate systems geographic and projected. Geographic coordinate systems use latitude and longitude coordinates for location on the surface of a sphere while projected coordinates systems use a mathematical conversion to transform latitude and longitude coordinates to a flat surface (ESRI- GIS Tutorial Basic workbook / Page 154). Projections and datum presentation www.fws.gov/.../GIS/.../coordinates_datums_projections_APR_04.ppt The ESRI approach: Map Projections http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LcyMemJ3dE What is GIS pt.2 - Projection and Purpose http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EPbQQNrBIgo All About Map Projections + AP Human Geography http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBMs_LpwYpU

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USGS - Map Projections http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/MapProjections/projections.html

Changing data frame coordinate system / projection on the fly


Although it is important for you to know about coordinate systems, ArcMap is capable of changing map projections of GIS layers on the fly. That means it is possible to overlay GIS layers with different projections. 1. Highlight the continent_ln and the latlong feature classes of the project.gdb in the catalog window. 2. Drag and drop the feature classes into the TOC of the map document. The map frame should look like the image below.

Next you will establish what coordinate system the data is in. 3. Double click the continent_ln layer in the TOC to bring up the layer properties window. 4. In the layer properties window click the source tab. In the data source section you should now see location of the map layer as well as information about its coordinate system.

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The continent_ln layer is in the GCS_WGS_1984 coordinate system, which stands for Geographic Coordinate System (Latitude and Longitude in decimal degrees) in the World Geodetic system 1984. All GPS units operate in the same system. 5. Click ok to close the layer properties window. 6. Right click Layers (the data frame) in the TOC 7. From the drop down menu choose Properties 8. Click the coordinate Systems tab 9. In the select a coordinate System field click predefined 10. Choose Projected coordinate systems / world / aitoff. 11. Click apply Your map should look like the image below

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Now its your turn: Try out some of the other projections and see how the map changes.

1. Click ok to close the data frame properties window. 2. From the catalog window select the tl_2009_us_aiannh feature class. 3. Drag and drop the feature class into the TOC. 4. Right click the tl_2009_us_aiannh layer. 5. Choose zoom to layer. 6. Right click the layers data frame in the TOC. 7. Select the Coordinate Systems tab. 8. In the Select a coordinate system tab click layers. 9. Choose the tl_2009_us_aiannh layer. 10. Click OK.

The map is now projected in the coordinate system of the tl_2009_us_aiannh feature class which is in the North_american_albers_equal_area_conic projection.

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11. Leave the map document open.

Choosing the coordinate system for your project.


The two major coordinate systems used in the US are UTM (Universal Transvers Mercator) based coordinate systems and State Plane Coordinate System. Depending on the location of your project area and more importantly the coordinate system used by your main data source you should choose one coordinate system for your entire vector based data. The Image below shows the different state plane zones in the continental US.

(From http://geology.isu.edu/geostac/Field_Exercise/topomaps/state_plane.htm) The following projection types are used in the system:

Lambert Conformal Conic... for states that are longer eastwest, such as Tennessee and Kentucky. Transverse Mercator projection... for states that are longer northsouth, such as Illinois and Vermont. The Oblique Mercator projection... for the panhandle of Alaska, because it lays at an angle.

The units of state plane system can be in feet or meters.

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From USGS factsheet about The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid:

The National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) (formerly the Defense Mapping Agency) adopted a special grid for military use throughout the world called the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid. In this grid, the world is divided into 60 north-south zones, each covering a strip 6 wide in longitude. These zones are numbered consecutively beginning with Zone 1, between 180 and 174 west longitude, and progressing eastward to Zone 60, between 174 and 180 east longitude. Thus, the conterminous 48 States are covered by 10 zones, from Zone 10 on the west coast through Zone 19 in New England (fig. 1). In each zone, coordinates are measured north and east in meters. (One meter equals 39.37 inches, or slightly more than 1 yard.) The northing values are measured continuously from zero at the Equator, in a northerly direction. To avoid negative numbers for locations south of the Equator, NIMA's cartographers assigned the Equator an arbitrary false northing value of 10,000,000 meters. A central meridian through the middle of each 6 zone is assigned an easting value of 500,000 meters. Grid values to the west of this central meridian are less than 500,000; to the east, more than 500,000. Virtually all NIMA-produced topographic maps and many aeronautical charts show the UTM grid lines.

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Projecting GIS data into the coordinate system of your choice


ArcGIS does project data on the fly. If you are just using data for visualization purposes like map making you do not necessarily need to re-project the data. If you are using your data in geoprocessing scenarios or to digitize, you should make sure that your vector based data is in the same projection. Re-projecting raster data is very processor intensive and might take considerable time. 1. Click the Search window button 2. In the search window click tools 3. Enter projection in the search field. 4. Click projections and transformations. in the standard toolbar.

5. Click Feature. 6. Click Project (data management). 7. Set the following parameters for the Project window: Input dataset: C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\usa\Native_american_land_states.shp Output dataset: C:\reu_2011\student\project.gdb\reservations_projected 8. For the output coordinate system click the projection button 9. In the spatial reference window click select. 10. Choose projected coordinate system / state plane / NAD 1983 (US Feet) 11. Select a state plane zone for your area of interest.

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12. Click Add. 13. Click OK to close the Spatial Reference Properties window. 14. Click OK to run the projection tool 15. When the re-projection process is done use your knowledge from the earlier exercise to switch the data frame projection to that of the new feature class. In some cases the projection process will involve a datum (geographic) transformation. This will be indicated in the Project window with a green dot in front of the Geographic Transformation field. The tool will give you a list of appropriate options for the datum conversion. The two most often used transformations in the USA are:

And

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3.4

Converting xy data from excel tables to a feature class

Your project might require you to import GPS point data into your Geo-database and your maps. We strongly recommend that you save the GPS coordinates as waypoints (or features) on your GPS units and import them with programs like DNR-Garmin (if you work with Garmin units), Pathfinder office (for Trimble units), or ArcPad. The process is covered by chapter 3 of this document. In some cases where it is not avoidable you might have to process GPS coordinates which are given to you in a spread-sheet (or table). You will now import an (Microsoft excel) spreadsheet into ArcMap and display their x/y coordinate columns in the map as points. 1. Open C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas\KS_features.xlsx in Microsoft Excel. The table contains data for all Named geographic features in Kansas. Part of the data is the location of the feature. The Location information in this table is given in two forms. The fields Primary_lat_DMS and Prim_long_DMS show the locations in a degrees-minutes-seconds format, while the fields Prim_lat_dec and Prim_long_DEC show the same data in decimal degrees. ArcMap cant process degrees-minutes-seconds data, so the decimal degrees data is here the only choice. If you are getting data from the field in a table like this make sure you know in what coordinate system it was recorded. 2. Close Microsoft Excel 3. Open the map document C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\Introduction to ArcMap.mxd 4. Click add data add the table. When you add a standalone table to ArcMap the TOC will switch to the list by source view, since standalone tables do not show in the by drawing Order view. list . 5. Navigate to C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas\KS_Features.xlsx and

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6. Right click the KS_Features table in the TOC. 7. Click display XY Data. 8. In the Display XY Data window choose PRIM_LONG_DEC for the x field. 9. Choose PRIM_LAT_DEC for the Y field. 10. Click Edit for the Coordinate System. 11. In the XY Coordinate System window click select 12. Navigate to and choose Geographic Coordinate Systems\World\WGS 1984.prj 13. Click Add to close the Browse for Coordinate System window. 14. Click OK to close the Spatial Reference window. 15. Click OK to close the XY Data window and run the process.

8 7

9 11

10

12

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16. A message will show that the table does not have Object-ID field Click OK. After processing the map should now show the locations from the table as points.

So far the new layer exists just as an event layer in the map document. In the next steps you will make this layer permanent by converting it to a feature class in your geo-database. 17. Right click the KS_features event layer in the TOC. 18. From the drop down list click DATA Export Data. 19. For the output feature class navigate to the test.gdb you created earlier in the exercise. 20. Name the feature class Kansas_geo_features.

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21. Click Save. 22. Click OK. 23. When asked if you want to add the exported data as a map layer click yes. The TOC in the list by source view should now show the Kansas_geo_features. 24. Close the map document.

4. Editing data
In some cases you might want to make an old map fit some of the GIS data you are working with (geo-referencing) or you might want to create (digitize) a point, line or polygon layer from features you see on an old map or aerial photo. The following exercise will introduce you to both activities.

4.1

Georeference Raster data

Geo-referencing old maps or aerial-photos to existing data is common in many GIS processes. 1. Open the C:\reu_2011\map_documents\Landcover_change.mxd 2. Add C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas_data\aerial_imagery\dg1966.jpg 3. When asked if you would like to build pyramids click Yes. From ArcGIS help: Pyramids are used to improve performance. They are a down-sampled version of the original raster dataset and can contain many down-sampled layers. Each successive layer of the pyramid 64

is down-sampled at a scale of 2:1. Below is an example of two levels of pyramids created for a raster dataset:

4. Add C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas_data\aerial_imagery\ ortho_2008.jp2 5. Zoom to the bookmark Lawrence. 6. Click Customize from the menu bar. 7. Click toolbars and switch on the geo-referencing toolbar.

8. Make sure the dg1966.jpg is on top of the 2008 ortho-photo in the TOC. 9. In the geo-referencing toolbar make sure the layer is set to the 1966 image. 10. Switch of the USA Base map. 11. Move your mouse over the Lawrence area in the map and observe the coordinates for the area in the lower right corner of your screen

12. Zoom to the extent of the dg1966 image. 13. Move your mouse to the upper left corner of the image and observe the coordinates for the area in the lower right hand corner of your screen.

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The 1966 image does not have any coordinates assigned to it (it is not geo-referenced yet) . By default the upper left corner of any unreferenced image loaded into ArcMap is set to 0,0. The following process will create a world file for the image which will reference the upper left corner to coordinate somewhere around Lawrence Kansas.

(From ARCGIS 10 Help) 14. Click Georeferencing. 15. Click fit to display The 1966 image should now be roughly moved over the 2008 image and into the coordinate space. 16. Zoom in to Interstate 70 which is shown in the northern part of both images. 17. Search for a feature you can identify on both images (switching on and off the 1966 image). 18. With the 1966 image visible click the add control points tool geo-referencing toolbar. 19. Click the feature (you identified to be visible in both images) on the 1966 image first. 66 from the

20. Switch of the 1966 image. 21. Click (and set the second of the control point pair) on the 2008 image.

This image shows a set of control points set at the intersection I70 and Hwy 59 on the east side of the Kansas River (use the USA Base map if you want to find the same intersection). The 1966 will adjust a little better to the map with each control point you set. 22. Repeat steps 21-25 for at least 4 more points which should be evenly spread on the 1966 image. If you set all control points in one line (along I 70 for example) you will get the following message.

Once you click ok you might see an unwanted warp in the 1966 image. Regardless if you get this message or you distributed your control points well throughout the image and do not get the above message, the following steps let you adjust your already set control points. 23. Click the view link table button in the Geo-referencing toolbar. 24. If the last of the control points you set was creating the above error message, Highlight the last entry in the control points table and hit the delete button . 67

The Table shows the X/Y source coordinates and the x/y map coordinates for each point. The residual is the amount by which each source point is adjusted to reach the Map point. Low Residuals show that the adjustment is going well. High Residuals show possible problems. By deleting control points with higher residuals the total RMS error might be adjusted. The transformation can be set to an affine, second order polynomial or third order polynomial.

The higher order the transformation the more well distributed control points have to be set. 25. Set at least 10 control points. 26. Once you are satisfied with the results click Georeferencing. 68

27. Click update Georeferencing. A dg1966.jgw world file is now written to the folder where the image resides. This world file will reference the image to the coordinate system. 28. Leave the map document open

4.2

Digitizing

You will now digitize the land-cover in 1966 and 2008 around Lawrence. The land cover will be digitized as polygon feature classes. For training purposes you will also create a point and polyline feature class for features on the Haskell campus.

Create feature classes


First you will create the feature classes needed for the exercise. 1. In the ArcCatalog window of the map navigate to the project.gdb under c:reu_2011\student folder. 2. Click new feature class

3. In the new feature class window type landcover_1966 for the name. 4. Make sure the feature type is set to polygon features.

5. Click the next button. 69

6. In the choose coordinate system window click import. 7. Navigate to C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas_data\aerial_imagery\ortho_2008.jp2 8. Click Add The coordinate system should now be set to NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_15N.

9. Click next. 10. Leave default value in the XY tolerance field 11. Click next 12. Leave the default settings in the configuration keyword field. 13. Click next. 14. In the Defining fields window enter landcover under the field name column as a new entry. 15. For the data type, choose text. 16. Click finish. 17. Repeat steps 2-16 to create a landcover_2008 polygon feature class, trees point feature class (name the text field comment) and a transport line feature class (name the text field type). All four feature classes should be automatically added to the TOC.

Digitize tree locations on Haskell campus


1. Zoom to the map bookmark Haskell. 2. Make sure the 2008 image is visible. 70

3. Use the auto-hide option for the ArcCatalog window 4. Open the editor toolbar (customize toolbars). 5. Click editor start editing.

6. In the start editing window you can either highlight one of the four feature classes that were added or you can highlight the c:\reu_2011\student\project.gdb

The editable feature classes will be marked as 7. Click ok.

8. The create features window should now show the templates for all four feature classes from the project.gdb workspace. 71

You will digitize points for the trees on the Haskell campus 9. Highlight the trees template in the create features window. 10. You can now use your mouse pointer to set a point on-top of trees you can identify on the 2008 image. 11. To make the points you digitized more visible use the symbol selector and choose a tree symbol

12. To move or delete a tree-point, use the edit tool

from the editor toolbar.

13. Once you have digitized most trees on campus click editor save edits. 72

Digitize roads and pathways on the Haskell campus.


In this exercise you will digitize roads and pathways on the Haskell campus. 1. Select the transportation layer from the create features window. 2. Start digitizing the roads and pathways from the north side of the campus. 3. Set one point at the beginning of the road. 4. Only set further points when the direction of the road changes. 5. Finish each road feature when you come to an intersection. 6. When starting a new feature use the automatic snapping to snap the new starting point to an existing endpoint.

7. When digitizing a curve use the endpoint arc tool from the feature construction toolbar to set the first and last point of the curve and adjust the curve arc.

8. After digitizing a segment click the attributes button. 9. In the attributes window type road or pathway for each of the digitized segments.

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10. To adjust lines use the edit tool

and the edit vertices tool

11. After you have digitized a couple of roads and pathways change the symbology for the transport layer to.

12. Right click the transport layer in the create new features window and click delete. 13. Click the organize templates button window. 15. Click new template 16. Make sure you have transport selected in the create new template wizard window. in the create features window.

14. Highlight transport from the layers list in the Organize Feature Templates

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17. Click next. 18. Click Finish. 19. Click Close. The template for transportation should now show a road symbol and a pathway symbol. 20. Use the road template to digitize roads and the pathway symbols for pathways. 21. If you need to split a road segment use the split tool toolbar. 22. To switch of the snapping click editor snapping snapping toolbar 23. Click snapping and uncheck the Use snapping option. from the editor

24. To merge segments, highlight the segments, click editor click merge. 25. When you are satisfied with the features you digitized save your edits and stop the editing process.

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Create coded value domain in geo-database for land-cover classes


When digitizing in for your project you should define what you are digitizing first. In this case it is advisable to create a list of land cover classes to be digitized and save them as a coded value feature domain in the geo-database that can be used for the 1966 and the 2008 land cover feature class. The coded value domain will limit the possible values that can be entered in the land cover field to the predefined set of values. The classes you are going to digitize are: Forest, Water, Agriculture, Build-up (roads, neighborhoods, industrial areas, campuses). 1. In the ArcCatalog window of the map navigate to the project.gdb under c:reu_2011\student folder. 2. Right click the project.gdb. 3. Click the domain tab. 4. Enter land cover under domain name 5. Under the domain properties section set field type to text and domain type to coded value. 6. Under the coded Values section enter: water, agriculture, forest and build up as seen in the image below.

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7. Click OK. 8. Open the properties window for the landcover_1966 feature class. 9. Click the fields tab. 10. Click the landcover field under field names. 11. Under the field properties section click the cell next to domain. 12. Choose the land cover domain from the drop down menu.

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13. Click OK. 14. Repeat steps 8-13 for the landcover_2008 feature class. 15. Change the symbology of the landcover_1966 to the settings shown in the image below.

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16. Set the transparency of the layer to 50 % 17. Start an editing process for the landcover-1966. 18. Use your knowledge from the digitize roads and pathway section to change the template for the landcover_1966 layer to the new symbology.

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Digitize land cover changes from 1966 to 2008 around Lawrence


1. Add C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas_data\dig_sections.shp. 2. Zoom to the dig_sections layer. 3. Label the sections with their ID numbers (feature properties labels) 4. Split up into four groups, each group should work on one of the four sections. This exercise will use section 1 for an example. 5. Use a definition query or selection create layer from selected features process to just show the section you are working on. 6. Zoom to the northwest corner of your section. 7. Select the landcover class you want to use for the NW corner of your section from the landcover_1966 template in the create features window. 8. Use the automatic snapping and the feature and the half transparent feature construction toolbar to create the first land cover polygon.

9. Make sure to snap to the section outline polygon where needed. 10. Set points with a left mouse click to create a polygon for the land cover. 11. You can use the ctrl + Z key combination to delete the last set point. 12. Once you have finished lining out the polygon double click to close the sketch. The Image below shows a agriculture polygon bounded by Interstate 70 to the south, a smaller forested area to the east and the outline of the section to the north and west.

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13. Choose the next land cover class to be digitized from the template. 14. For all the following polygons use the auto complete polygon tool from the construction tools section of the create features window.

The auto complete Polygon tool makes sure that you dont create any overlaps or gaps between the polygons. The auto Complete Polygon is the most used construction tool when digitizing land-cover, land parcels or vegetation types. 15. Start digitizing by snapping to a corner point of an existing polygon 16. Digitize around the next land-cover area. 17. Snap again to a corner point of an existing polygon. 18. Finish the sketch with a double click

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19. Use the four template options for the 1966 land cover layer and the autocomplete polygons to cover the area of your section with a continuous land-cover layer ( dont forget to pick the right landcover class first and then the auto complete polygon tool). Below is a screen shot of a rough classification for section 1.

20. When You are done digitizing the land cover for your section save your edits. 82

Now its your turn: Digitize the 2008 land cover for your section.

4.3

Edit the attribute table

To calculate the area for each land-cover class for your section in acres you will have to create a new field in the table and calculate it to acres. 1. If your edit session is still open save your changes and close the edit session. 2. Open the attribute table for the 1966 land cover layer. The Shape_area field records the area for each polygon in the units defined in the Projection information; it is also automatically updated whenever the polygon shape is updated. The units recorded here are square meters (the layer is in a UTM projection). 3. Click the table options button window. 4. Click add field. 5. Name the field acres 6. Set the type to float. in the upper left corner of the table

7. Click OK. 8. Right Click the header of the new acres field. 9. Click Field calculator. The conversion factor from square meters to acres is 4046.86. 83

10. In the field calculator double click shape_area 11. Type / 4046.85642 (see image below)

12. Click OK. 13. Repeat steps 2-12 for the 2008 land cover class.

Now its your turn: Use the Summary Statistics tool to compare the acres by land-cover class of the year 1966 and 2008 for your section.

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Geo-processing tools

Geo-Processing tools let you extract data from base maps for your study areas, buffer geographic features to see which other features are within a certain distance, create overlays to combine their attribute information and many more processes which can only be done with a GIS. In this Chapter you will use several different geo-processing tools in a real world scenario. This is the situation: The Confederate tribes of Grand Ronde are working to increase the habitat of the western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata). The Tribal Biologists asked you to produce a map of possible turtle habitats on private land in the south Yamhill watershed. Turtle habitat: Should be with in a distance of 300 feet to rivers and streams (so it does not isolate). Should have at least 2 or more of the following characteristics: wetland, Riparian

vegetation, hydric soils. All the data you need is already loaded into a Map document. 1. Open the C:\reu_2011\map_documents\geoprocessing.mxd in ARCMAP. The map shows streams and wetlands in the South-Yamhill area.

5.1

Raster to vector conversion

There are still some pre-processing steps for you to do before you can get started with the analysis. Make the Vegetation (raster data) from GAP Analysis layer visible and explore its symbology. This layer is a result of an Image processing and analysis procedure (you will do a similar procedure in chapter 8 of this tutorial) based on satellite image data. The layer consists of raster cells (with a 30m resolution) each of the cells are classified with a different color representing different vegetation types. Spatial analysis like the overlays you will be doing can only be done on either all vector layers or all raster layers. Therefor the vegetation layer needs to be converted to a vector (polygon) layer. The conversion from raster to polygon makes only sense on classified rasters, it does not make sense to convert raw imagery like aerial photos or satellite images. 2. In the standard toolbar click the search window button . 85

Another option is to use the toolbox 3. Click on tools.

and browse for the raster to polygon tool.

4. Enter raster to polygon in the search field 5. From the results click the raster to polygon tool link.

6. With the Conversion tool open close the search window. 7. In the Raster to polygon window use the drop down for the Input Raster and choose Vegetation (raster data) from GAP Analysis. 8. For the field choose OR_names 9. For the output polygon features browse to C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\oregon.gdb 10. Type veg_poly for the name.

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11. Click OK

While the conversion is running in the background (indicated by

in the

lower section of your screen) you can go ahead to the next topic. Once the veg_poly layer is added to the map turn it to non-visible and remove the Vegetation (raster data) from GAP Analysis from the map document.

5.2

Buffer

There is two ways to do a buffer analysis in ARCGIS. The first one option lets you create the buffer as a polygon feature class, which can then be used for further geo-processing like clip functions. The second lets you select Target layer(s) features which are in a certain distance around source layer features. You will use both options but ultimately use the second option for this project.

Create a buffer polygon feature class


12. In ArcMap click Geo-processing in the menu bar All Geoprocessing tools are also available through ArcToolbox or the search window .

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13. From the geo-processing tools list choose buffer. 14. In the Buffer tool window click show help. The tool help illustrates how the buffer tool works. 15. Use the drop down arrow for the Input feature to put streams in the input features field. 16. In the Output Feature Class field navigate to C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\oregon.gdb. 17. Enter streams_buffer for the name 18. In the linear unit field enter 300 . 19. Switch the Unit field to feet. 20. Switch the dissolve type to All. This will create one contiguous polygon rather than one buffer polygon for each stream section.

21. Click OK. The geo-processing indicator window will be visible during the processing, after which the new buffer layer will be added to the map document. As you can see from the screen shot below there are some wetlands which are not covered by the buffer layer.

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22. Remove the Stream buffer from the map.

Use Select by location buffer function


23. Click selection in the menu bar. 24. Click select by location. Reading through the text in the selection tool window will give you a better understanding of what is going to be selected. 25. In the Select by location tool window for the target layers(s) check veg_poly, wetlands, soilmu_a_or679 and soilmu_a_or053. 26. Source layer: Streams 27. Spatial selection method: Target layer(s) features are within a distance of the source layer feature. 28. Check the apply a search distance 29. Enter 300 feet for the search distance 30. Click OK

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Features within a distance of 300 feet around streams are now selected in the veg_poly, wetlands, soilmu_a_or679 and soilmu_a_or053 layers. 31. In the TOC select the view by selection view by clicking .

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You will now create layers from these selected features. 32. Switch the TOC back the view by drawing order 33. Right Click the veg_poly layer in the TOC. 34. Click selection 35. Click Create layer from selected features. 36. Rename the new layer to veg_poly in buffer 37. Remove veg_poly from the map. 38. Repeat steps 33-37 for the other 3 layers with selected features: Soilmu_a_or 53 Soil_53 in buffer Soilmu_a_or679 soil_679 in buffer Wetlands wetlands in buffer .

Use Select by attribute to create further filter


Next you will need to extract the riparian vegetation types from the veg_poly layer 1. Right click the Veg_poly in buffer layer in the Toc 2. Click Open Attribute Table. 3. In the attribute table click the drop down next to the table options button

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4. Select by Attributes You will now create a query which will select a list of vegetation types (riparian) from the layer. 5. In the Select by Attributes window double click the OR_names field to start the query. 6. Click the get Unique values button 7. Type in ( after the OR_Names entry in the query text box. 8. Enter the following vegetation types by double clicking them in the list and enter a comma between them; 'Freshwater Aquatic Bed', 'Water', 'Westside Forested Swamp or Wetland', 'Westside Lowland Riparian', 'Westside Montane Riparian', 'Westside Valley Wet Prairie 9. Close the list with a ). Your query should now read like this: "OR_NAMES" in ( 'Freshwater Aquatic Bed', 'Water', 'Westside Forested Swamp or Wetland', 'Westside Lowland Riparian', 'Westside Montane Riparian', 'Westside Valley Wet Prairie') 10. Click verify to see if you entered everything correct. 11. Click Apply

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5 8 6 7 9 10 11

9135 features should now be selected 12. Close the table. 13. Right click the Veg_poly in buffer layer in the Toc. 14. Click data export data 15. Export the selected features as C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon.gdb\riparian_veg_in_buffer

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16. Click Yes to add the exported data as layer to the map. 17. Remove the veg_poly in buffer layer from the map.

5.3

Table Join

The next step in the Analysis is to find out which of the soils in the buffer are actually hydric soils. The attribute tables of the soils layer do not contain that information but a key field MUKE which can be joined to soil data tables that contain hydric information. Y Each of the two soil layers has a soil database assigned to it. 1. Add data: C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\soil_or053\soildb_OR_2003.mdb component table 2. Right click soil_053 in buffer in the TOC 3. Click Joins and Relates Join

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4. In the Join window choose Join attributes from a table to be joined to this layer. 5. For Field under 1. choose MUKEY 6. For table und 2. choose component. 7. For field from component to base the join on (6.) choose mukey. 8. For Join Options: keep all records. 9. Click OK

10. Open the attribute table of the soil_053 in buffer layer The attribute table should now be extended with the data from the component table. 95

11. Open the select by attributes window (upper left corner). 12. Find and double click the component.hydricrating field from the field list. 13. Click the = button 14. Click the get Unique values button 15. Double click Yes rom the values list. f The text in the query text field should now read component.hydricrating = 'Yes'.

16. Click apply 322 records should now be selected. 17. With the hydric soils selected right click the soil_053 in buffer layer in the TOC. 18. Click Joins and Relates Remove join component. This step is done to limit the size of the attribute table to be exported.

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19. Using your knowledge acquired on page 61-62 save the selected features as hydric_soils_053 in the Oregon.gdb. 20. Remove the soil_053 in buffer and the component table from the map. 21. Repeat Steps 1-20 for the soil_679 in buffer layer using the soil-database under C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\soil_or679. The TOC in your map should now look like this

5.4

Merge

Now you will merge the two hydric soil layers into one to make further analysis steps simpler. 5. Open the search window 6. Search for merge under tools 7. Open the merge (data management) tool. 8. Add the hydric_soils_0679 and hydric_soils_53 for the Input Datasets. 9. For output Dataset: C:\reu_2011\test\test.gdb\hydric_soils 10. Click OK

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After the process the hydric_soils layer will be added to the map. 11. Remove hydric_soils_0679 and hydric_soils_53 from the map.

5.5

Union

Now you will create an overlay of hydric soils, wetlands and riparian vegetation areas. The idea is to create a ranking of 1-3 1 for areas which are covered with only one of the above mentioned layers, 2 where two of the above mentioned layers overlay and 3 where all of the layers overlay. To make this ranking easier you will create a new column in each of the 3 layers attribute table with the all values set to 1. 1. Open the Attribute table for the Hydric_soils layer. 2. From the table options menu choose Add field.

3. Name the new field hydric soils 4. Make sure the type is set to short integer. 98

5. Click Ok to create the field 6. Right click the header of the new field. 7. From the drop down choose Field calculator.

8. In the field calculator set the hydricsoils = 1 9. Click ok.

10. Once you verified that the new field is set to 1, close the table. 11. Repeat steps 1-10 for layers riparian_veg_in_buffer and wetlands in buffer name the new fields riparian and wetland respectively. Now its your turn: Use the help for the intersect and the union geo-processing tool to decide

which one to use for the overlay.

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12. Find and run the union tool. You can find the tool under geo-processing in the menu bar, in Arc-Toolbox under Analysis/Overlay and through the search window.

13. Input features: hydric_soils and riparian_veg_in_buffer If you are running an ArcInfo version of ArcGIS you could run the UNION on more than 2 layers. 14. Output feature class: C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\oregon.gdb\hydric_riparian 15. Make sure the Join Attributes is set to ALL 16. Run the Union tool again with Input: hydric_riparian, wetlands in buffer Output: C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\oregon.gdb\ turtle_habitat. 17. Once the turtle habitat layer is created you can remove the hydric_soils, riparian_veg_in_buffer and the wetlands in buffer layers from the map. Now you will have to classify turtle habitat areas by ranking schema discussed above. 18. Open the Attribute table for turtle_habitat layer. 19. Add a new field Name: Ranking 100

Type: Short Integer 20. Open the field calculator for the new Ranking field. 21. Use the fields list box and the + operator button to create the following formula: [hydricsoils] + [riparian] + [wetland] 22. Click OK to run the tool.

23. Use the definition query from the layers Properties window to just show only the polygons with a ranking value of 3. 101

The map should now show the habitat polygons with a highest ranking value. After you created the turtle habitat map, the tribal BioloGISts field surveyed (with GPS) the habitat areas and brought back GPS locations of turtle sightings. Your job is it now to find out on which parcels of land (taxlots) these points fall and supply the BioloGISts with a tax lot number for each point.

5.6

Clip

Use this tool to cut out a piece of one feature class using one or more of the features in another feature class as a "cookie cutter". This is particularly useful for creating a new feature class also referred to as study area or area of interest (AOI)that contains a geographic subset of the features in another, larger feature class. The AOI here are two watersheds around Grand Ronde. The data that needs to be clipped is the Tax lot data for Yamhill and Polk county. 12. Add data C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\oregon.gdb\taxlots and watersheds. 13. Open the clip tool from the Geoprocessing menu on the menu bar. 14. Run the clip tool with the following parameters: Input Features: taxlots Clip Features: watersheds Output Feature Class: C:\reu_2011\test\test.gdb\taxlots_clipped 102

15. Click ok to run the tool 16. Once the taxlots_clipped layer is added to the map remove the watersheds and the taxlots layer.

5.7

Spatial join

With the tax-lot data clipped you can now do the spatial join to assign the tax-lot ids to the GPS point layer. The GPS data is already converted (see conversion methods in the GPS section of this class) to a feature class. 1. Add data C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\oregon.gdb\ turtle_GPS_points 2. Right click the turtle_GPS_points layer in the TOC 3. Choose Joins and Relates Join 4. Set the following parameters in the join tool: What do you want to join to this layer: Join data from another layer based on spatial location 1.: taxlots_clip 103

2.: it falls inside 3. Output layer: C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\oregon_data\oregon.gdb gps_points_taxlotinfo 5. Click OK to run the tool.

17. Once the gps_points_taxlotinfo layer is added open its attribute table. All the GPS points should have tax lot information assigned to them now.

Now its your turn: 1) Do all the GPS points fall in a 3 ranking habitat polygon? 2) What percentage of each of the identified taxlots are covered by turtle habitat (all rankings)? 104

6. Image processing / remote sensing


The following section will introduce you to digital remote sensing especially to the processing of multispectral satellite data. This tutorial is just an introduction to the wide field of remote sensing (RS). You should be aware that there are advanced RS data sources like Light Detection And Ranging ( LIDAR) (http://www.oregongeology.org/sub/projects/olc/olc.ppt) and advanced RS processes like Object-Based-Image-Analysis (OBIA) (http://www.GIS.unbc.ca/courses/geog499/projects/2005/fremmers/index.htm) which cannot be covered here.

6.1

Introduction to Remote Sensing

Remote Sensing: Observing the Earth (NASA)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oei4yOwjIyQ

NASA / USGS | Landsat: A Space Age Water Gauge


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Go45F1QviZA

Remote Sensing: What is Multispectral Mapping?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bK0IO0icG-8

Remote sensing tutorial from Canada Centre for Remote Sensing


http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/resource/tutor/fundam/chapter1/01_e.php Please read the introduction chapter.

Downloading Land-Sat Imagery from USGS GLOVIS


http://youtu.be/o401hk-09RE

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6.2

Working with multi spectral image data in ARCGIS

Although there is a multitude of multispectral image data available today as discussed in the Sources above, you will be working here with data taken by the Thematic Mapper (TM) mounted on NASAs Landsat satellite. TM data is widely used since the mid 1980s to map Vegetation health and land use change (on a regional level) worldwide. TM data (from 1985 to now) is available through the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (http://glovis.usgs.gov/). After you download the data you will need to unzip it before you can use it in ARCGIS. The files unzip into seven .tif files and two metadata files. Each TIF contains one spectral band of data from the TM instrument.

Use the Spectral Characteristics Viewer (http:/landsat.usgs.gov/tools_spectralViewer.php) to see which TM bands to use best for your project.

Loading TM data into ArcMap


1. Open C:\reu_2011\map_documents\TM_lawrence.mxd in ArcMap. The map shows the area around Lawrence Kansas 2. Add the 7 L5027033_03320100823 .tif files from C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\tm_kansas to the map as data. 3. Switch of the USA base map layer 4. Click windows in the menu bar. 106

5. Click Image analysis. The Image Analysis tool is new in ARCGIS 10 and not available in earlier versions of the software.

Create color composites


Color composites are made by assigning the three primary colors to three bands of the TM sensor. True color composite: Red band displayed as red, green as green, blue as blue. This is how we see the world. False color composites: These images are not color photographs, they are"false color" images (green fields won't necessarily look green in the image). One common way that primary colors are assigned to bands can be easily remembered using the mnemonic RGB = NRG (Red, Green, Blue = Near Infrared, Red, Green, or "energy") Red = Near IR (TM+ band 4) Green = Red (TM+ band 3) Blue = Green (TM+ band 2) (http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/education/compositor/pdfs/Landsat_7_Compositor.pdf) You will now create a composite of all 7 bands of the TM data. You can then choose which bands you want to display with what gun (Red, Green, Blue). 1. In the Image Analysis window highlight all 7 .tif files 2. Under processing click the Composite Bands button .

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3. In the TOC open the Properties window for the newly created composite. 4. In the general tab rename the layer to TM Composite Lawrence 08_23_2010 (4,3,2). 5. In the Symbology tab set: Red channel Green channel Blue channel Display Background Stretch Type Statistics = Band 4 = Band 3 = Band 2 = 0 0 0 as transparent = Standard Deviation (2) = From currently displayed extent

6. Click ok to close the layer properties. 7. Save the Composite as a layer file to C:\reu_2011\student folder 8. Remove the 7 original .tif files from the map.

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9. Follow steps 1-8 to create a false color composite (4,3,2) for the LT5027033008422850 TM layers (acquisition date: 08.15.1984) from the tm_kansas folder. 10. Change the band combination of the two composites to true color (3,2,1) to see the difference between an false color composite and a true color composite.

Create a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image in ArcMap


The principle behind NDVI is that Band 3 is in the red-light region of the electromagnetic spectrum where chlorophyll causes considerable absorption of incoming sunlight, whereas Band 4 is in the near-infrared region of the spectrum where a plant's spongy mesophyll leaf structure 109

creates considerable reflectance (Tucker 1979, Jackson et al.1983, Tucker et al. 1991). As a result, vigorously growing healthy vegetation has low red-light reflectance and high nearinfrared reflectance, and hence, high NDVI values. NDVI values near zero and decreasing negative values indicate non-vegetated features. (USGS what is NDVI).

1http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/MeasuringVegetation/measuring_vegetation_2.php

1. In the Image Analysis window highlight the Lawrence 08_23_2010 (4,3,2) composite. Before running the NDVI you have to make sure that the right bands of the composite are used in the function. 2. In the Image Analysis window click the options button 3. Click the NDVI tab and make sure that band 3 of the composite is used for the red band and band 4 as infrared. 110

4. Close the options window. 5. With the composite still highlighted click the NDVI button .

6. With the NDVI created zoom into the area around Lawrence. 7. Use the Swipe and flicker tools color infrared composite. to compare the NDVI with the false

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8. Repeat steps 5-6 for the 1984 composite. 9. Compare the NDVI layers from 1984 AND 2010 10. Keep the map document open.

Create a vegetation layer from NDVI image.


One way to quantify vegetation coverage from a TM scene is to use the NDVI image and apply a threshold value above which pixels are classified as vegetation. In this exercise you will again create a NDVI, but this time from an aerial image from the NATIONAL AGRICULTURE IMAGERY PROGRAM (NAIP). The default spectral resolution for NAIP data is natural color (Red, Green and Blue, or RGB) but beginning in 2007, some states have been delivered with four bands of data: RGB and Near Infrared. The order of bands in the NAIP data is 1=red,2=green,3=blue,4=infrared. The NDVI will therefore have to be run on bands 1 and 4. 1. Add the C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas_data\aerial_imagery\ ortho_2008.jp2. 112

2. Use the layer properties symbology tab to display the image as false color composite (4,3,2). 3. Open the image analysis window (windows in menu bar). 4. Highlight the ortho_2008.jp2 5. Click the options button 6. Click the NDVI tab 7. In the NDVI tab switch the red band to 1 and the infrared band to 4. 8. Click OK. 9. Use the NDVI tool on the 2008 NAIP image. 10. Zoom in to the bookmark Lawrence. 11. Open the layer properties of the new NDVI layer. 12. Click the Functions tab. The function tab shows you that the NDVI layer is put together on the fly from the ortho_2008.jp2 layer. In order for us to reclass the NDVI in to a layer showing just areas with green vegetation we will have to save an image file with the values of the NDVI function layer. .

13. Right click the Colormap Function. 14. Click remove. 15. Close the Layer properties window. 16. Right click the NDVI layer in the TOC. 17. Choose Data Export data. 18. In the export data window set the following parameters: Extent: Data frame (current) Cell Size: 2 / 2 Location: C:\reu_2011\student 113

Name: NDVI_Lawrence Format: TIFF Compression: LZW

19. If the Uncompressed Size of the file is much larger then shown above you are not zoomed in to the Lawrence bookmarked extent. 20. Click Save. 21. When asked if you want to add the exported dataset to the map click yes. 22. Open the layer properties for the NDVI_lawrence layer. 23. Rename the layer Vegetation 24. In the display tab set the transparency to 50% 25. In the Symbology set Show: Classified 26. Set Classes to 1. 27. Click Classify. 28. In the Classification window click Exclusion. 114

29. Exclude Values: 1-108 30. Click ok. 31. Click ok to close the classification window. 32. Click apply in the Layer Properties.

Explore the map to see if the new vegetation layer covers the areas with green vegetation as seen on the ortho-photo. Adjust the exclusion value (as discussed in step 27-29) if needed.

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Now its your turn: By now you should have access to some multispectral remote sensing data for your Study area. 1) Load the data in ArcMap into a new map and create infrared composites. 2) Create NDVIs with your data (or you could look up and run a Snow and Ice Index).

6.3

Digital image classifications in ArcGIS

Image classification and analysis operations are used to digitally identify and classify pixels in the data. Classification is usually performed on multi-channel data sets (A) and this process assigns each pixel in an image to a particular class or theme (B) based on statistical characteristics of the pixel brightness values. There are a variety of approaches taken to perform 116

digital classification. You will use the two generic approaches which are used most often, namely supervised and unsupervised classification (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing). Digital image classification uses the spectral information represented by the digital numbers in one or more spectral bands, and attempts to classify each individual pixel based on this spectral information. This type of classification is termed spectral pattern recognition. In either case, the objective is to assign all pixels in the image to particular classes or themes (e.g. water, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, corn, wheat, etc.). The resulting classified image is comprised of a mosaic of pixels, each of which belong to a particular theme, and is essentially a thematic "map" of the original image (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing).
We assume that preprocessing steps like de-striping, geometric correction and image enhancement are already done

Unsupervised image classification


Spectral classes are grouped first, based solely on the numerical information in the data, and are then matched by the analyst to information classes (if possible). Programs, called clustering algorithms, are used to determine the natural (statistical) groupings or structures in the data. Usually, the analyst specifies how many groups or clusters are to be looked for in the data (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing). The final result of this iterative clustering process may result in some clusters that the analyst will want to subsequently combine, or clusters that should be broken down further - each of these requiring a further application of the clustering algorithm. Thus, unsupervised classification is not completely without human intervention. However, it does not start with a pre-determined set of classes as in a supervised classification.

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1. Open ArcMap if not already open and start a new map. 2. Load the clip_tm composite from C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas_data\tm_kansas. 3. Load C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas_data\aerial_imagery\ ortho_2008.jp2. 4. In the menu bar click customize toolbars 5. Check the Image classification toolbar 6. Click classification. 7. Open the Iso cluster Unsupervised Classification tool 8. Set parameters to: Input raster: clip_tm Number of classes: 10 Output classified raster: c:\reu_2011\student\iso_10

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9. Add the ortho photo from C:\reu_2011\GIS_data\tutorial\kansas_data\aerial_imagery. 10. Use the swipe layer tool from the image analysis window and the Layer properties (Symbology tab) for the Iso-layer to identify 4-5 land-cover classes.

11. Leave the map open for the next exercise.

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Supervised image classification


In a supervised classification, the analyst identifies in the imagery homogeneous representative samples of the different surface cover types (information classes) of interest. These samples are referred to as training areas. The selection of appropriate training areas is based on the analyst's familiarity with the geographical area and their knowledge of the actual surface cover types present in the image. Thus, the analyst is "supervising" the categorization of a set of specific classes. The numerical information in all spectral bands for the pixels comprising these areas are used to "train" the computer to recognize spectrally similar areas for each class. The computer uses a special program or algorithm (of which there are several variations), to determine the numerical "signatures" for each training class. Once the computer has determined the signatures for each class, each pixel in the image is compared to these signatures and labeled as the class it most closely "resembles" digitally. Thus, in a supervised classification we are first identifying the information classes which are then used to determine the spectral classes which represent them (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing). 1. Make sure that the following steps are done within the extent of the clip_tm layer. 2. In the image classification toolbar click the sample Manager window. 3. Click the polygon sample polygon. 4. With the clip-tm switched of and the ortho-photo visible draw several training sample polygons for water-bodies (river and lake). button in the classification toolbar to draw a training button to open the Training

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5. In the Training sample manager highlight all water training samples. 6. Click the merge button.

7. Change the class name to water. 8. Repeat steps 3-7 for the following land-cover classes: Buildings/roads, Agriculture green, Agriculture harvested (use the false color infrared composite of the clip-tm layer to differentiate between the two), Forest. 9. After you have created all classes click the scatter plot button Training sample manager. in the

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The point clouds in the scatter plots show how well defined the training sample classes are. In the scatter plots above you can see that the clouds for the water, Forest and Agriculture green are dense clouds which do not much overlap. The buildings and roads class is less well defined. You can adjust your classes by redefining them (maybe Buildings in one class and roads in another) or redoing some of the training areas. 10. Click Classification in the image classification toolbar. 11. Click interactive supervised classification. 12. After the classification is done compare the outcome to the ortho-photo.

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Now its your turn: By now you should have access to some multispectral remote sensing data for your Study area. Use the satellite data of your study area and other datasets (like ortho-photos) or your knowledge of the area to create classified images.

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Introduction

On the GPS Receiver, you will have to start the GPS program. The program is called TerraSync. 1. Click or Press Start and click TerraSync.

Figure 3 - Starting TerraSync

Figure 2 TerraSync Boot Screen

TerraSync is split into sections for 5 different sections. Below is a listing of all sections.

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Skyplot
Normally the Skyplot is the first screen that you will see once TerraSync has booted. If you do not see the Skyplot screen, you can access it by clicking first drop-down menu and choosing . Click the second drop-down menu and choose . Below is a picture of what the Skyplot screen will look like.

Figure 5 - Skyplot before satellite acquisition

Figure 4 - Skyploy after satellite acquisition

There are a few things to note on the Skyplot screen.

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The Skyplot is very useful in that it will show the accuracy of the GPS data before actually logging the data. Objects shown: a. Satellites acquiring and being used to calculate position. In the picture above, 7 satellites have been acquired. b. Satellites not being used to compute position but that are visible to the GPS receiver. c. Current position. This will depend on your GPS datum settings, but it will usually be in (World Geodetic System of 1984) WGS84. It will show your longitude, latitude, and elevation. d. PDOP (Position Dilution of Precision) A measure of GPS Precision. DOP Rating Description Value This is the highest possible confidence level to be used for applications 1 Ideal demanding the highest possible precision at all times. At this confidence level, positional measurements are considered 1-2 Excellent accurate enough to meet all but the most sensitive applications. Represents a level that marks the minimum appropriate for making 2-5 Good business decisions. Positional measurements could be used to make reliable in-route navigation suggestions to the user. Positional measurements could be used for calculations, but the fix 5-10 Moderate quality could still be improved. A more open view of the sky is recommended. Represents a low confidence level. Positional measurements should be 10-20 Fair discarded or used only to indicate a very rough estimate of the current location. At this level, measurements are inaccurate by as much as 300 meters >20 Poor with a 6 meter accurate device (50 DOP 6 meters) and should be discarded. e. Horizon This is the view of the sky that you can see. f. Minimum elevation This is the minimum elevation that a GPS satellite can be used to compute your position. g. Estimate accuracy Your estimated accuracy. This can be set to vertical accuracy or horizontal accuracy. h. Real-time correction source This is whether you are performing differential GPS (DGPS), Real Time Kinematic (RTK), or utilizing the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS).

Data Logging

1. To start logging data, click the Data section. 2. By default the New file creation window will appear.

Here we can choose a different Data Dictionary if you have set one up. The Fi Name will by default be named le in the following manner: RMMDDTTX 126

R Rover (GPS term for a GPS receiver) MM the month (March in the picture) DD the day of the month (01) TT the hour in military time X the file

3. When you are ready to create a new Data File, click

Create. 4. You will then see the option to set the Antenna Height. Normally it is best to set this at 3 feet, because you will normally be holding the GPS receiver about chest-high. 5. Click OK.

6. Choose a feature type: Point, Line, Area 7. Click Create.

The GPS receiver will begin logging the data. you set up a Data Dictionary you will be able to add more data than just a Comment. Also, the number in the upper-righthand corner will show that you are logging data. 9. Once you have logged your data, use can store it by clicking OK. You will be returned back to choosing another feature type.

8. Add a comment to remind yourself of what you logged. If

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Importing data into the Computer


close out the by clicking the Close button. 2. Connect your GPS receiver to your computer. Some models require a cradle and older models will require a serial port connector. The first time your plug your GPS unit into your computer, windows will need to install the drivers. So if you dont see Figure 1 pop up, it will in a few minutes depending on your internet connection speed.

1. Before you start you need to make sure that you

3. Click Start 4. Click All Programs 5. Scroll to TrimbleGPS Pathfinder OfficeGPS


Pathfinder Office

6. Once Trimble Pathfinder Office


boots, you will need to create a Project. Click New.

7. Type a Name into the Project

Name field. You can also choose a specific folder to store your data inside you computer.

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8. To transfer the GPS data, click


Utilities Data Transfer

9. Click 10. Click Data File 11. Pathfinder will automatically hightlight ALL GPS data
that HAS NOT been imported into a computer. Make sure that the file you are interested in is highlighted. 12. Click Open 13. Click Transfer All

14. Click Close after the transfer has completed.

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15. Click FileOpen

16. Click your file and click Open.

17. The GPS data will now appear within the Map of Pathfinder Office.

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Importing the data into ArcGIS Desktop 10 (ArcMap 10)


In this portion of the tutorial, you will be learning how to import your GPS data files (.ssf or .cor files) into ArcGIS.

1. Before you begin, make sure that all the files you want to
export into ArcGIS are open in Pathfinder Office. You can have as many .ssf or .cor (more on .cor files later) open in Pathfinder Office. Click Utilities Export. The Export window will then appear. Make sure that all you files appear in the Selected Files box. If they do not, you can search your computer for them, by clicking the Browse button. STEPS 5-15 ONLY NEED TO BE PERFORMED ONCE AND IT IS ADVISABLE TO NOT MAKE ANY CHANGES TO THIS AFTERWARDS. Next, you will setup your files to be exported into ArcGIS. Click Properties Include Positions That Are Uncorrected box in the section.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Click on the Position Filter tab and check the

7. Click the Coordinate System tab. 8. Click the Use Current Display Coordinate System

radio button. 9. Click the XYZ radio button in the Export Coordinates As section. 10. Click the Browse button next to the Projection File field.

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11. Browse to the location shown to the right:

C:\ProgramFiles(x86)\ArcGIS\Desktop10.0\C oordinateSystems\Geographic Coordinate Systems\World.

12. Click WGS1984.prj 13. Click Open. 14. Click OK.

15. In the Choose an Export Setup section, click the drop


down and choose Sample ESRI Shapefile Setup.

16. Click OK. 17. Click Close.


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to the folder you created to store your GPS data. Connect to that specific folder. Click File Connect to Folder 21. Browse for the folder where you GPS data is stored and click OK.

18. At this point you are finished with GPS Pathfinder Office. 19. Open ArcCatalog. 20. You may need to use the Connect to Folder tool, to connect

22. The data will be stored in the Export folder.

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23. The first thing that you must do is rename your Shapefile. Right-click on the Shapefile and
click Rename and rename it to whatever you want.

24. Now use the Add Data tool in AcrMap to add your newly created shapefile. Differentially Correcting Data by Post-Processing
Depending on the reference station, you may have to wait at least a day before differentially correcting your data.

1. With your data still open click

UtilitiesDifferential Correction

2. Make sure that all the files you want

corrected are in the Select SSF files to correct box. 3. Click Next >

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4. It is recommended to you the Automatic


Carrier and Code Processing (Recommended) Processing Type. 5. Click Next > twice.

6. Click the Base Provider Search radio button. 7. Click Select...

8. Click Update List

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9. After the list has finished downloading,


highlight the first Provider and click OK.

10. Check the Confirm base data and


position before processing box. 11. Click Next> 12. Click Start

13. Click Confirm.

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14. This particular data has been 100%

corrected within 2-5 meters (6.56216.404 feetof accuracy. This means that when I publish my data, I can confidently say that the data is within 5 meters or 16.4 feet or accuracy. Click Close. 15. You can open the file again, and export it again. Below you can see both the corrected and uncorrected data. There is a difference of 9.290 feet between the two points.

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Data Dictionary
A data dictionary contains a description of the features and attributes relevant to a particular project or job. It allows you to log both features (Points, Lines, and Areas) and their attributes (name, height, date, picture, etc) while taking GPS data in the field.

1. Click Utilites Data Dictionary

Editor 2. In the Name: field , enter a name for the data dictionary. Entering a comment is optional. 3. Click New Feature F3.

capturing in the Feature Name: field. 5. Choose a Feature Classification (Point, Line, Area). 6. Click OK.

4. Enter a name for the type of feature that you are going to

7. Highlight the Tree in the Features: box


section. 8. Click New Attribute F7

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9. Choose an Attribute Type. I am going to choose Menu, because I


believe that it is a the least intuitive. 10. Click Add

Use a

Menu

Numeric

Text

Date Time

File Name

Separator

Attribute type when the value to be stored in the attribute can be selected from a predefined list. For example, the possible values for an attribute called Surface Type for a Road feature may be Asphalt, Concrete, Gravel, and Dirt. The range of possible values is stored in the data dictionary. In the field, you choose the correct value from the list. the value to be stored in the attribute is a decimal or whole number. For example, these values could represent the girth or height of a tree, or the concentration of a pollutant at a particular location. For numeric attributes you specify: 1. Precision (number of decimal places) 2. Minimum and maximum allowable values 3. Default value (optional) the value to be stored in the attribute is a string of characters, such as the name of a street. For text attributes, you specify: 1. Length (the maximum number of characters in the string) 2. Default value (optional) By default, the Default value is 30. the value to be stored in the attribute is a date. For example, the date of installation of a power pole or the date you collected a feature. the value to be stored in the attribute is a time value. For example, the time you read a meter or the time you collected a feature. the value to be stored in the attribute is the name of a file on the field computer. For example, use a file name attribute to associate a digital picture of the feature or a sound file (for example a .wav file) with the feature being collected. you want to group related attributes or provide a break in a long list of attributes. A separator attribute cannot be edited and does not store a value.

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11. Type a name for the Attribute Name: 12. Click New

13. Type a tree type in the Attribute Value: field. 14. Click Add 15. Repeat Step 13 and 14 until you have all the different
types of trees.

of tree type in the Menu Attribute Values box. 17. (Optional) Click Required in the On Creation and On Update sections to make the GPS user choose a type of tree for the Type Attribute. 18. Click OK.

16. Click Cancel. You should now see your list

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19. You have now created a simple

data dictionary. For the Tree Data Dictionary, you may want to create other Attributes, like Height, Age, Condition, etc. 20. Click FileSave As 21. Click Save 22. Click FileExit

23. Now in GPS Pahtfinder Office click

UtilitiesData Transfer 24. In the Data Transfer Window, click the Send tab. 25. Click the Add drop down menu 26. Click Data Dictionary

27. Select your data dictionary. Click


Open. 28. Click Transfer All 29. Click Close 30. Click Close

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your GPS receiver in the Dictionary Name: Option, you should see your newly created data dictionary. 32. Select your Data Dictionary. 33. Click Create. 34. Set the Antennae height and click OK.

31. On your GPS receiver in the Data section of

35. Now you should be able to select the Tree


Feature Type. 36. Click Create.

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37. You should now be able to select a type of


tree from the drop down menu.

This is the end of the Tutorial.

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