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CHAPTER 2 AGGREGATES INTRODUCTION Aggregates may be defined as the solid materials contained in concrete which play no part in the

e chemical reactions that cause the concrete set. Aggregates include gravel, crushed stone, sand etc. Form 75% of total volume of concreteselection of suitable material is important, aggregate should contain no constituent material (might adversely affect the hardening of cement/durability of hardened mass). The function of aggregates: As a mass particles suitable for resisting action applied load, abrasion & percolation of moisture and the action of weather. As to reduce volume changes resulting from setting & hardening of concrete

General classification of aggregates

Normal Aggregates Bulk density between 1450 1750 kg/m3. MS 29 : 1995 classified aggregate according to size: o course aggregates > 5 mm o fine aggregates < 5 mm o all in aggregates Course Aggregates Course aggregates is defined as containing a high proportion of particles retained by a 5 mm (0.197in.)sieve. Course aggregates; o Uncrushed gravel @ uncrushed stone-natural disintegration rock. o Crushed stone @ crushe gravel-crushing hard stone & gravel respectively o Partially crushed gravel @ stone-blending crushed and uncrushed gravel @ blending stone. Fine Aggregates Fine aggregates is defined as containing a high proportion of particles passing a 5 mm 0.197 in) sieve. Sand Natural sand- natural disintegration of rock. Crushed stone sand @ crushed gravel sand-crushing hard stone @ natural gravel respectively BS sieve size:o 10 mm o 5 mm o 2.36 mm o 1.18 mm o 600 m

o 300 m o 150 m All-in Aggregates These are materials composed of a mixture of coarse & fine aggregate. Normally not graded & used in unimportant works as they are taken from the pit or river bed. Also referred to as pit run aggregate.

Lightweight Aggregates Any aggregate with particle density <2000kg/m3 @ dry loose bulk density <1200kg/m3. Are generally manufactured (for example expanded clay or expanded shale) but can be natural rock (for example pumice). May be grouped into:o Naturally occurring materials- pumice, foamed lava, volcanic tuff, porous limestone o Naturally occurring materials which require further processing- expanded clay, shale and slate & other expanded minerals such as perlite and vermiculite o Materials which occur as industrial by productsintered pulverised fuel ash (fly ash), sintered shale and colliery waste, foamed or expanded blast furnace slag Low density High water absorption --> workable concrete mixes become stiff within a few minutes mixing require wetting before mixing The cover to reinforcement using this aggregates in concrete should increased due to increased permeability and rapid carbonation of concrete. Coarse surface texture due to reduce workability, lower tensile strength, lower modulus elasticity and higher creep & shrinkage Used of this aggregate in concrete tendency to segregate

High-Density Aggregates High specific gravity ranging 2.8-2.9 & unit weight 28002900kg/m3 use to make high density concrete. Compressive strength of these concretes is of the order of 20-21 N/mm2 Cement-aggregate ratio varies from 1:5 to 1:9 with watercement ratio between 0.5-0.65 produce dense & crack free concrete. Not suitably graded difficult to have adequate workability without segregation. CHARACTERISTIC OF AGGREGATES Properties and performance of concrete depend on: 1) Characteristic 2) Properties of Aggregates Characteristics of Aggregate Having chemical stability Abrasion resistance Resistance to freezing and thawing Compressive strength Good particle shape Good surface texture Properties of Aggregates Clean Hard Strong Properly shaped Well graded

Physical Properties of Aggregate Strength Hardness Toughness Durability Porosity Water absorption STRENGTH Strength of aggregate > strength of concrete Strength of aggregate between 70 350 N/mm2 Strength of concrete between 20 50 N/ mm2 A good average value of crushing strength of aggregate is 200 N/mm2 In general, strength of igneous rock > sedimentary & metamorphic rock Test to determine strength of aggregate:- Aggregate Crushing Value (more popular) - Aggregate Impact Value - Ten Percent Fine Value HARDNESS Is the ability to withstand wear @ load @ applied pressure The hardness depend on the type of parent rock Can be determined using the abrasion test (descibed in BS 812 : Part 3 : 1990) Satisfactory aggregate should have an abrasion value: <30% for aggregates used for wearing surfaces <50% for aggregates used for non wearing surfaces

TOUGHNESS Is the resistance of aggregate to failure by impact. Can be determined by Aggregate Impact Test according to MS 30: Part 10 : 1995. Aggregate impact value must be < 45% by weight for aggregate used for concrete other than those used for wearing surfaces < 30% for concrete for wearing surfaces DURABILITY Is the ability of aggregate to withstand external @ internal damaging attack (soundness of aggregate) Can be obtained by Soudness Test according to BS 812:Part 121:1989. The aggregate of moderate @ low strength and modulus of elasticity can be vulnerable in preserving the durability of concrete. POROSITY Aggregate normally have pores of various sizes. Aggregate will absorb water when is dry & release water in the concrete mix when is wet. Porosity of an aggrregate materially contributes to overall porosity of concrete.

WATER ABSORPTION Is the weight of water absorbed by an oven dry aggregate in reaching saturated & surface dry condition. Water absorption is express as % of dry aggregate weight. Determined by measuring the increase in weight of an oven dry sample immersed in water for 24hrs & weighed at a saturated & surface dry condition. Particle Shape & Surface Texture of Aggregate Influence the property of concrete, influence the mobility of fresh concrete & bond between aggregate and mortar paste. Agg particles having sharp edges / rough surface (crushed stone) used more water than smooth / rounded agg reduce water content by 5-10% and sand content by 35% Interlocking between agg particles and stronger aggregate mortar bond have higher by 10-20% in crushed agg concrete than smooth / rounded agg concrete. Particle Shape of Aggregate Rounded Full water-worn / completely shaped by attrition/abrasion E.g river or sea shore gravel Irregular Naturally / partially shaped by attrition and having rounded edges E.g other gravel land / dug flint Angular

Flaky

Processing well defined edges formed at the intersection / roughly planes faces E.g crushed rocks of all types

A material of which the thickness is small relative to other 2 dimensions E.g laminated rock Elongated The agg usually angular, is shape and the length is considerably larger than the other 2 dimensions Flaky and Elongated Material having the length whhich is considerably larger than the width and the width is considerably larger than the thickness.

Surface Texture of Aggregate Is a measure of smoothness or roughness of agg. The strength of the bond (development of mechanical anchorage) between agg and cement paste depend on surface roughness & surface porosity of the agg. Aggregate with rough and pores texture increase the aggcement bond by 1.75 times and increase in compression & flexural strength by 20% than using smooth surface aggregate.

Grading of aggregate Grading of aggregate obtained using sieve analysis test in order to get grading within the limits. Quantity of material representing the bulk sample is carried out by: - Quartering by hand - Riffle box - Sample splitter Grading of aggregate have effect on; workability and stability of concrete mix. Agg of uniform size - compacted mass will contain more voids. Agg of various size - compacted mass will contain lesser voids. Proper grading produces dense concrete & need less quantity of fine agg & cement paste. It also produce less segregation. Bulk density Is mass of aggregate in a given volume. Between 1450 1750 kg/m3 Depends on how densely aggregate is packed Factor effecting bulk density are: o Particle shape o Size o Grading of aggregate o Moisture content Higher bulk density indicates that they are fewer voids to be filled by sand and cement. Bulking of Fine Aggregate

Defined as the increase in volume of a given weight of fine agg (sand) caused by films of water pushing the sand particles apart. Extent of bulking depends on: o % moisture content in sand o sand fineness Durability of Aggregate Durability of aggregate (soundness) is an ability of aggregate to withstand external or internal attack.

Soundness of aggregates Ability of aggregates to resist excessive changes in volume due to changes in environment conditions such as: i. Freezing & thawing ii. Alternating wetting and drying Unsound aggregates is when volume changes result in deterioration of concrete in the form of local scaling to extensive surface cracking. Alkali-Aggregates reaction Is the reaction between the reactive silica constituents of aggregate and alkalis in cement. Reaction causing expansion resulting cracking & disruption of cement paste. The expansion due to alkali-aggregate reaction can be reduced by adding reactive silica in a finely powdered formincreases surface area, calcium hydroxide/alkali ratio of the solution at the boundaries of agg.

Thermal properties of aggregates Principal thermal properties are: Coefficient of thermal expansion Specific heat Thermal conductivity If coefficient of thermal expansion of course agg differs too much, large change in temperature may break bond between the agg & cement paste especially if coefficient > 5.4 x 10-6/C. Deleterious materials adversely affect the strength, workability and long term performance of concrete. Total amount deleterious material < 5%.They are:

II.

unsound particles

Salt contamination salt cause efflorescence unsightly white deposits on concrete surface. salt in concrete absorbed water from air & flow out of concrete. Salt is deposited on concrete surface cause corrosion of reinforcement. Remove by washing with fresh water before use.

a) Impurities i. In the form of organic matter which interfere with hydration of cement. ii. Consists of decay vegetable matter in the form of humus & organic loam. iii. Easily wash b) Coating Prevent the development of good bond between agg & cement paste. Coating include clay, silt and crusher dust. Good bond ensure strength and durability of concrete. Removed by washing. c) Unsound Particles 2 types: I. salt contamination

Unsound Particles 2 types of unsound particles: 1. those fail to maintain their integrity. 2. those that lead to disruptive expansion on freezing/exposure to water. unsound particles that lead to pitting & scaling are shale, clay lumps, wood & coal. If > 2-5% of mass of aggregate adversely affect strength of concrete.