Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 96

Collection

of
Spoken English
Expressions
Abu Ula Muhd. Hasinul Islam
M.A. in English (R.U.)
ELT Professional Course (Marjons, England)
Language Trainer
Foreign Language Training Centre (FLTC)
Rajshahi College, Rajshai

Eureka Book Agency


Rajshahi
1

Collection
of
Spoken English
Expressions
First Print: January 2010 Publisher: Mohammad
Hossain, Eureka Book Agency, No. 9, New Market,
Rajshahi 6100, Phone: (0721) 772416 Copyright:
Abu Ula Muhd. Hasinul Islam Computer Graphics:
Macron Computers, Sheikhpara, Rajshahi. Printing:
Ahmed Offset Printers, Hawkers Market, Rajshahi.
Price Taka 52 ISBN 984 8214 27 5
2

Dedicated to
those people working behind
the GOOD WORLD of INTERNET

To be published:

Complete Grammar Practice (for all competitive


exams)
A Handbook on Communicative Language Teaching
(for teachers of secondary level)
Most Frequent 3000 Spoken Words
Idioms in Stories: M M BwWqg
mgM BsiwR mvwnZ: cvPxb hyM - DivaywbK hyM (mswmvi I
ge)
4

Contents
Topic / Language Function

Page

Greetings : mvlY|
Introducing Yourself : wbRi cwiPq Dcvcb Kiv|
Introducing Other People : AbK cwiPq Kwiq
`qv|
Starting a Conversation : Kbfvmkb i KiZ
cqvRbxq Gckb|
Closing a Conversation : Kbfvmkb wKfve kl
KiZ nq|
Questions and Expressions with Time : mgq
RvbZ PvIqv I mgq Rvbvbv|
Welcoming and Bidding Farewell : mv`i
Af_bv Rvbvbv Ges we`vq Rvbvbv|
Expressing Thanks : abev` Rvbvbv|
Apologizing : gv PvIqv|
Describing People : ewi eYbv|
Descriptions of Place/Thing : e ev vbi eYbv|
Informal Contractions : ki msw ic|
Making Suggestions : civgk `qv|
Requesting : Abyiva Kiv|
Inviting : AvgY Rvbvbv|

13
14
15

17
19
21
22
23
24
24
26
26
27
28
29

Offering : wKQz `qvi cve Kiv|


Asking for Favors : Kviv AbyMn PvIqv|
Encouraging Words : Drmvn c`vb Kiv|
Telling Someone Bad News : Lvivc msev`
kvbvbv|
Talking about Abilities : mvg_ cKvk Kiv|
Expressing Possibility : mvebv cKvk Kiv|
Expressing Likes and Dislikes : cQ` - AcQ`
cKk Kiv|
Agreeing : Kviv K_vi m GKgZ nIqv evSvbv|
Disagreeing : Kviv m GKgZ bv nIqv|
Asking for and Giving Permission : AbygwZ
PvIqv Ges AbygwZ `Iqv|
Asking for and Giving Advice : Dc`k PvIqv
Ges Dc`k `Iqv|
Asking for Directions : Kvb c_ hZ ne Zv
RvbZ PvIqv|
Giving Directions : Kvb c_ hZ ne Zv evZj
`qv
Talking about Travel : hvZvqvZ ev gb welq K_v
ejv|
Talking about Life Events : Rxebi UzKiv K_v|
Talking about Health : ^v m^ K_v ejv|
6

31
32
33
34
35
36
36
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

Buying and Selling : q weq|


Making Plans with Someone for the Holiday :
QzwUi mgqi Rb ezi m mgq KvUvbvi cwiKbv|
Asking for Repetition:cybivq ejZ ej Abyiva Kiv|
Using Rejoinders : cZzi Ki gbvhvM AvKlYKvix
K_vUzKzi evcvi AvMn cKvk Kiv|
Giving Warnings : mZKevYx Rvbvbv|
Sequencing : NUbvi cvih eYbv|
Asking for and Giving Opinions : gZvgZ PvIqv
Ges gZvgZ `Iqv|
Stating a Negative Subject : bwZevPK Kvb K_v
wKfve ejZ ne|
Accepting and Refusing : Kviv Advi ev cve Mnb
A_ev cZvLvb Kiv|
Classifying : ew ev ei kYxwebvm Kiv|
Elaborating : wek`fve wKQz Lyj ejvi Pv|
Clarifying : wbRi ev Abi K_v cwivi Ki
evSvbv|
Interrupting : Abi K_vi gvS Kkj K_v ejv|
Giving Instructions : wKfve wb`k PvBeb Ges
`eb|
Discussing Sensitive Topics : kKvZi welq wbq
K_v ejv
7

48
50
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

Indirect Requests and Information Exchange :


civ Abyiva Rvbvbv ev civ gvag Z_ `qv-bqv|
Supporting Your Opinions : wbR gZvgZi c
K_v ejv|
Exploring Options : Abi gZvgZ LuvRv Ges k
cve ev cwiKbvi mveZvi Rb gZvgZ bIqv|
Contrasting Ideas : wKfve BsiwRZ wecixZ ee
Zzj aieb|
Discussion Techniques:AvjvPbv cwiPvjbv Kkj|
Discussions in a Meeting : wgwUsq AvjvPbv Kiv|
Paraphrasing : Abi eei mvivsk Zzj aiv|
Guessing : Abygvb cKvk Ki K_v ejv|
Stating a Preference : Kvb wekl AbyivM ev AwfiwP
cKvk Kiv|
Saying 'No' Nicely t f`fve bv ejZ wkwL|
Demanding Explanations : Kvb evcvi KwdqZ
PvIqvi wbqg|
Giving Explanations : evLv `qv|
Making Complaints : Kviv KvR m^ ev Kvb
welq Kviv KvQ Amvl cKvk|
Commenting : K_vi gvS ge Kiv ev wbR^ gZvgZ
hvM Kivi Pv|
Being Imprecise : Ah_v_ ev AwbwZfve K_v ejv|
8

64
65
66
67
68
69
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
79
79

Speaking Conditionally : Dccgqg~jK ev eve I


Aeve kZvaxb K_v ejv|
Simple Presentations : ee Dcvcb Kkj|
Checking for Understanding : ee evSv MQ
wKbv Zv ciL Kiv|
Showing Understanding : kvZv wnme Avcwb h
AbRbi K_v eySZ cviQb Zv evSvbv|
Expressing Lack of Understanding : kvZv
wnme evi K_v eySZ bv cvivwU cKvk Kiv|
Conceding to Make a Point : Abi Z_wU ^xKvi
Ki wbqI wbR ge cKvk Kiv|
Analyzing Problems : Kvb mgmv wbq AvjvPbv|
Making Appointments : Kviv m mvvZi w`bY
wVK Kiv|
Describing Your Company : hLvb KvR Kib m
m^ K_v ejv|
Describing Projects : cK cwiKbv eYbv|
Talking about the Future of Company/Project :
Kvvwb ev cRi fwelr welq K_v ejv|
Describing Jobs : PvKzix m^ mvaviY K_vevZv|
Asking for Details : wevwiZ Rvbvi Rb ck Kiv|
Telephone Language : dvbi fvlv|
Helpful Websites
9

81
82
84
84
85
85
86
87
89
90
91
91
93
94
96

f~wgKv
GB eBwU h language material Zzj aiQ Zv Kvb
gwjKZ `vex Ki bv| fvlv wkvq communicative
language teaching aviv cPwjZ nIqvi c~e h
functional-notional avibvi eenvi wQjv mLvb fvlv
eenvii wekl wekl cwiwwZ mswk fvKvejvwi ev
Gckbi evcK eenvi nZv| h Kvb KviYB nvK
ew`b _KB G aibi material fve Avgv`i mvgb
AvmQ bv| BsiwRZ K_v ejvi PPv Kivi mgq Gme
Gckb ev fvKvejvwi AbK wkv_xKB ek confident
nZ mvnvh Ki| GB Qv eBwUZ Zgb 75wU wewfb
cwiwwZi ev function Gi Rb cqvRbxq Gckb `qv
nqQ| Ze GB Qv eBwUi Dk Gi `ni gZB z`,
wfb: A GKUz mvnvh Kiv| GZ Qv AvKvii GKwU eB
AvcbvK KZUzKzB ev mvnvh KiZ cvie?
Ggb GKwU eBqi wPv Avm BsiwR fvlv wkLb wkK
ev cwkK wnme Avgvi ewMZ AZweva Ges Avkvi
Pq Kg mvdj cvw _K| fvlv wkv_xi ga hviv
commited Ges fvlv wbq experiment Kivi AvMn ivLb,
fvlvwUK wbR experience KiZ mP nb, GB eBwU g~jZ
Zv`i Rb, Zv`iK wKQzUv mvnvh Kivi Rb| BsiwR
10

fvlvq 500000 GiI ekx k _vKjI GKRb mvaviY


BsiwRfvlx ew cvZwnK Rxeb 5000 k eenvi Ki
_vKb| mme mvaviY fvKvejvwi ewi cvkvcvwk wewfb
cwiwwZZ K_v Pvwjq hvIqvi Rb g~j Z_i m hme
UzKiv K_v ev fvKvejvwi ev Gckb cqvRb nq mme
hw` Avcbvi Rvbv _vK Ges Zvi PPv KiZ cvib, Ze
Avcwb nqZ Aviv ekx confident nq DVeb| G evcvi
GB msKjbwU GKRb wkv_xK wKQzUv mvnvh KiZ cvi
ej Avkv KiwQ|
fvlv wkv_xi mvdji Rb BsiwRZ fveyb I gyL dzU
Zv ej djyb| fveZ K jvM? gv_v wSg wSg Ki? ZeyI
BsiwR ejvi Rb BsiwRZB fveyb| ejZ fq nq?
jvKjvq fvMb h fyj ne? ZeyI ejyb| Avcbvi
cwZw`bi mewKQz BsiwRZ Kbv Kib| Avi Give your
hundred percent GB hw` nq g~jg, Zvnj mvdj
Awbevh|
Ggb GKwU cKvkbv mwZ mwZ Kviv Zgb Kvb
DcKvi AvmZ cvi wKbv G wbq Avgvi wav KvUvZ mvnvh
KiQb ivRkvnx KjRi mvwbZ mnKvix MvMvwiK Rbve
gvnv` gwnDwb| KZZv...| cKvkK gnv`qK abev`|
Avey Djv gynv: nvwmbyj Bmjvg
hasinul_islam@yahoo.com
11

Learn a new language


and get a new soul.
- Czech proverb

12

Greetings : mvlY|

AvbyvwbKZvi cqvRb bv _vKj Avgiv mPivPi `ywU


BsiwR wMwUsm meP ekx eenvi Kwi: Hi. A_ev Hello.
Gi DiI GKB: Hi. A_ev Hello.
Avi cwiwwZ hw` nq formal, Ze mvaviYZ Avgiv ewj:
Good morning. (gvS`ycyi ch) ev Good afternoon.
(gvS`ycyi Gi ci _K m~h WyeZ i Kivi mgq ch)
ev Good evening. (m~h Wvevi i _K ivZ ch)|
Gme wMwUsm Gi Di GKB K_v ejZ nq| Ze Good
kwU ev` w`q Kej Morning ev Afternoon ev
Evening-I ejv hvq|
GQvov cwiwPZRbi m ej cwiwPZ wMwUsm Gckb
njv: How are you? Gi Di mPivPi nq: Fine,
thanks. How about you? ev Okay. Thanks.
GQvovI AwZ cwiwPZRbi m eenvi Kiv nq: How
are things? ev How's life? A_wU AbKUv Ggb:
w`bKvj Kgb hvQ? wK, fvj Zv? Ges Ggb wMwUsm Gi
Di AbKmgq nq Ggb: Not bad. ev Can't
complain. A_vr - GB Zv, PjQ Avi wK|
13

Gevi BsiwRi GKwU peculiar wMwUsm `wL| c_g


cwiwPZ nZ hvQb Ggb `yRb gvbyl wKQzUv formal
cwiek ej: How do you do? Ges Gi DiI e
GKB: How do you do? GB wMwUsm Gi Avmj A_
njv: Avcbvi m cwiwPZ nq fvj jvMQ| How do
you do? Gi Di KLbvB ejeb bv: Fine. How
about you? mwU ejv fyj ne|
kl K_vwU njv: greetings exchange (mvlY wewbgq)
Gi mgq gyL nvwm ivLZ fyjeb bv hb|
Introducing Yourself : wbRi cwiPq Dcvcb Kiv|

GLb Informal cwiek wbRK wKfve Dcvcb Kiv


hZ cvi c_g Zvi D`vniY `Lev | c_g ew
wKfve cwiPq w`Q Ges Zvi Di AbRb wK ejQ? 1g
ewi cwiPq`vb: "Hello, I'm Maria." ev "Hello, my
name's Maria." 2q ewi cwiPq`vb: "Hi, I'm
Sarah." ev "Hello Maria, I'm Sarah." ev "Nice to
meet you, I'm Sarah." 1g ewi Di: (It's) nice to
meet you./(It's) nice meeting you./(It's) good to
meet you. A_ev Nice to meet you too.
14

cwiwwZ hw` wKQzUv formal nq Ze Gfve wbRK


Dcvcb Kiv hZ cvi: 1g ewi cwiPq`vb: "I'd like
to introduce myself. I'm Maria, from the office
of the Civil Surgeon, Bogra." ev "Let me
introduce myself. I'm Maria from the office of
the Civil Surgeon, Bogra." ev "May I introduce
myself? I'm Maria from the office of the Civil
Surgeon, Bogra." 2q ewi cwiPq`vb: "Nice to
meet you. I'm Hasan Ali, from Magura College."
ev "Pleased to meet you. I'm Hasan Ali, from
Magura College." ev "How do you do? I'm
Hasan Ali, from Magura College." 1g ewi Di:
(It's) nice to meet you./(It's) nice meeting
you./(It's) good to meet you. A_ev Nice to meet
you too. A_ev How do you do?
Introducing Other People : AbK cwiPq Kwiq
`qv|

eyvbxq ewK Abi m informally cwiPq Kwiq


`qvi Rb wKQz Gckb eenvi Kiv nq: These are
my friends: ... and ... ev This is my friend: ... ev
15

Introducing my friends:... and ... ev Introducing


my friend: ... ev I don't think you've met ....

GQvovI Aviv Ab wKQz Dcvq AbK introduce Kiv


hZ cvi: Avcwb: Rafiq, this is Naveed. Naveed,
this is Rafiq. iwdK: Nice to meet you, Naveed.
(Shakes hands with Naveed.) bvwf`: Nice to meet
you too, Rafiq. (Shakes hands with Rafiq.)
Avcwb nqZ Avcbvi ezK Avcbvi colleague Gi m
cwiPq Kwiq w`Z hvQb, mmgq NUbvwU Ggb nZ
cvi: Avcwb ejQb: "Sarah, have you met my
colleague John?" ev "Sarah, I'd like you to meet
my colleague John." ez ejjb: "Pleased to meet
you, John." ev "Nice to meet you, John." KwjM
ejjb: "Nice to meet you too, Sarah." ev "Hello,
Sarah."
Avevi Avcwb Avcbvi cwiwPZ KvDK superior Kviv m
cwiPq Kwiq w`Z hvQb, mmgq hv NUZ cvi: Avcwb:
"Mr Morris, I'd like to introduce you to my
manager, Mr. Shamsul Mazumder." A_ev "I'd
16

like you to meet (name of your boss). Avcbvi


cwiwPZRb: "How do you do?" A_ev "Pleased to
meet you." ev "Good to meet you." Avcbvi
mywcwiqi: "How do you do?" A_ev "Pleased to
meet you too." ev "Good to meet you too."

cwiPq Gi c_g ce kl nj mvaviY `yGKwU K_v ejv


hZ cvi| hgb, ejv hvq: How was your journey?
ev Is this the first time youre in this city? ev
Hope youll enjoy the time here. BZvw`| GKwU
welq gb ivLeb: Kviv m c_g cwiPq nIqvi mgq
Zvi RbZvwiL, eZb, eqm BZvw` RvbZ PvIqv wVK
kvfbxq bv|
Starting a Conversation: Kbfvmkb i KiZ
cqvRbxq Gckb|

AcwiwPZ wewUk`i ga Kbfvmkb ii mgq AvenvIqv


welqK K_v PvjvPvwj ekx NU| hgb: 1g Rb: Nice
day, isnt it? ev Its an awful day, isnt it? 2q Rb:
Yes, lovely. ev Ive never seen such an awful
day. Gici Zviv wbR`i bvg-cwiPq wewbgq Ki| Ze
17

AcwiwPZ AvgwiKvb`i ga Kbfvmkb i nq Zviv K


Kvb vb _K AvmQ Zv Rvbvi gvag|
Avevi, wekl Ki mvaviYfve cwiwPZ ewi m wMwUsm
ev fQv wewbgq A_ev fQv wRvm w`q Kbfvmkb
i Kiv hZ cvi| hgb: How's it going? (Gi A_
"How are you?" Gi gZB) ev How's everything?
ev How's life? Di ejv hZ cvi: OK. ev Not
bad. ev Cant complain. ev So-so. BZvw`|
eZgvb Pjv KvR-Kvievi wbq K_v ejv hZ cvi|
hgb: What's up? (A_vr Zzwg GLb ev AvRKvj wK
KiQ?) ev What's happening?
GQvov Avcbvi AbycwwZZ bZzb wK NUQ Zv RvbZ
Pq Kbfvmkb i Kiv hZ cvi: What's new?
(Zvgvi m kl `Lv nIqvi ci Zgb wKQz NUQ
wK?)| Avevi AbRbK bZzb Kvb NUbv Rvbvbvi BQv
cKvk Ki Kbfvmkb i Kiv hZ cvi: Guess
what? (Avwg ZvgvK wKQz bZzb Lei w`Z PvwQ, Zzwg
RvbZ PvI wK? Gi Di ejZ nq: "What?") GKwU
D`vniY `Lv hvK: 1g Rb: Guess what? 2q Rb:
18

What? 1g Rb: I just got a new job. 2q Rb:


Congratulations!

wmwiqvm Kvb welq Kbfvmkb i KiZ PvBj ejv


hZ cvi: Can I talk to you for a minute? ev Do
you have a minute? ev Got a minute?
Closing a Conversation : Kbfvmkb wKfve kl
KiZ nq|

Kbfvmkb kl nIqvi w`K Gj Ges Zv kl KiZ


PvBj c_g Rb ejZ cvi: It's been nice talking to
you. ev It's been great talking with you. A_ev I
really enjoyed meeting you. ev It was nice
meeting you, Mr. Hasinul. A_ev I'm sorry, but I
have to go now. ev I'm afraid I have to leave
now. (GLvb Im afraid Gi A_ fq cvIqvi m
mswk bv| GwU GKwU Gckb hv evSvq: Im sorry to
say that...) A_ev Thanks for the information/ the
tour/your time. ev Thanks for taking the time to
talk with me/us.
Dcii K_vi cwZ GLb AbRb eje: I'll give you
19

a call. ev I'll send you an e-mail. A_ev We'll send


out that information right away. ev I'll have my
secretary schedule an appointment. A_ev Could
you send me a brochure or some more
information? ev Could I contact you by e-mail/at
your office? A_ev How do I get in touch with
you? ev How can I reach/contact you?

Pjgvb Kbfvmkb Gfve kli w`K Pj Avmj K_v


ejv GKevi kl Kivi Rb ek wKQz Gckb eenvi
Kiv hZ cvi: Good-bye ev Bye. ev See you later.
ev See ya. (informal) ev Catch you later
(informal) A_ev I look forward to seeing you
again. ev We'll see you on Friday. ev See you
next week. A_ev Let me give you my business
card. ev Here's my e-mail/office number. A_ev
Let's keep in touch by e-mail. ev We'll be in
touch. A_ev Call me if you have any questions. ev
E-mail me. BZvw`|
Kbfvmkb kl Kivi GKwU D`vniY: 1g Rb: Well, it's
been nice talking to you. 2q Rb: Nice talking to
20

you too. 1g Rb: (I'll) see you later. 2q Rb: Bye.


Questions and Expressions with Time : mgq
RvbZ PvIqv I mgq Rvbvbv|

mgq RvbZ PvBj ck Kiv hZ cvi: What time is


it? ev Whats the time? ev Could you tell me the
time, please?|
mgq Rvbvbvi Rb hme cwiwwZ nZ cvi m Abyhvqx
Gckbjv `qv njv: Its five oclock. (c~Y NUvi
mgq NUv + oclock eenvi nq) ev Its half past
five. (mvo A_ half past + NUv eenvi nq) ev Its
quarter past five. (mvqv A_ quarter past + NUv
eenvi nq) ev Its quarter to five. (cb A_
quarter to + NUv eenvi nq) ev Its seventeen past
five. (eR A_ wgwbU + past + NUv eenvi nq) ev
Its seventeen to five. (evRZ A_ wgwbU + to +
NUv eenvi nq) BZvw`|
1g D`vniY: 1g ew: Can you tell me the time
please? 2q ew: Its seventeen past five. 1g ew:
Thanks. 2q D`vniY: 1g ew: Can you tell me the
21

time please? 2q ew: Sorry, I dont have a


watch./Sorry, my watch isnt working. 1g ew:
Thats OK.
Welcoming and Bidding Farewell : mv`i
Af_bv Rvbvbv Ges we`vq Rvbvbv|

KD hLb Kv_vI cuQb, ZLb m vbi host ew


ZvK mv`i Mnb Kib| mmgq hme Drmvn c`vbKvix
Gckb eenvi Kiv nq Zv njv: Welcome. ev
Welcome back! ev Welcome to Xenon
Enterprises. ev Welcome to Dhaka. I'm Ruby
Dheera. ev Come in. ev It's good to meet you.
(c_g `Lvi mgq) ev It's good to see you again.
(c_gevi `Lv nIqvi ci Avevi `Lv nj) ev I hope
you had a nice flight. ev Thanks for coming. ev
I'm glad you came. BZvw`| Gmgq Guest ejZ
cvib: It's good to be here. ev Thanks for inviting
me.
Awdm wmPyqkb AvM `Lv nqwb Ggb KvDK
welcome Kivi `ywU D`vniY `wL| 1g D`vniY: nv:
22

Are you Ms Shaila? M: Yes, I am. nv: I'm


Paula Ray. We talked by telephone. Welcome to
Rajshahi. It's nice to meet you in person. M:
Nice meeting you too. nv: How was your
flight? M: Okay, but very long. 2q D`vniY:
You must be Ms. Shaila. M: That's right. nv:
It's a pleasure to meet you. I'm Naveed Hasan.
Welcome to RajTech. M: Thank you. nv:
Did you have any problem finding this place?
M: No, your directions were very clear.

KD hLb Kvb vb ZvM KiQb mmgq m vbi nv


ew wnme Avcwb ejZ cvib: It's been nice
talking with you. ev Have a good/nice day. ev
Have a nice weekend. ev Have a nice trip. ev
Have fun. ev Keep in touch. BZvw`| Gmgq Guest
ejZ cvib: Nice talking to you too. ev Same to
you. ev I really had a good time. BZvw`|
Expressing Thanks : abev` Rvbvbv|

wK K_v ej abev` RvbvZ nq? abev` Rvbvbvi Rb


cPwjZ Gckbjv njv: Thanks ev Thank you ev
23

Thank you very much ev I appreciate it. Avi Gi


Di ejv nq: Welcome ev Youre welcome ev Not
at all. ev Dont mention it. ev Thats OK. BZvw`|

abev` Rvbvbvi KqKwU D`vniY `qv njv: Thanks


for the tour. ev Thanks for your time. ev Thank
you for the nice gift. ev I appreciate your
kindness. ev I appreciate your hospitality. ev I
appreciate your lending me the car.
Apologizing : gv PvIqv|

Kvb KviY gv PvBZ nj Riix wKQz Gckb njv:


I'm sorry. ev I made a mistake. ev Please accept
my apologies. ev I'm sorry. I didn't mean to ... ev
(I'm) sorry. I didn't realize that ... BZvw`| Ggb
Gckbi Di f`fve ejv nq: That's okay. ev No
problem.
Describing People : ewi eYbv|

ewi kvixwiK eYbvi Rb look like eenvi nq Ges


ewZi eYbvi Rb be like eenvi nq| KqKwU
24

D`vniY `Lyb| kvixwiK eYbv: 1) ck: What does


your father look like? Di: He's young, short and
handsome. He has straight black hair and black
eyes. He has a moustache. 2) ck:What does your
mother look like? Di: She's tall, thin and
beautiful. She has blonde (mvbvjx Pzj) hair and
wears glasses. ewZi eYbv: ck: What is Naveed
like? Di: He's funny, cute and really rich. He
reminds me of that guy on the regular Midnight
Talk Show of Channel RajBangla.
GQvovI Aviv wewfbfve ewi eYbv PvIqv nZ cvi
Ges m Abyhvqx DiI wewfb iKg nZ cvi| hgb: 1.
ck: Tell me about your father. What kind of
person is he? Di: Well, he's very friendly,
smart and intelligent. 2. ck: How about your
little sister? Di: Shes a pretty little creature.
Everybody adores her.
ewi eYbvi mgq Zvi cvlvK, Mnbv, Pkgv BZvw`i
eYbvI iZc~Y: 1. ck: What is your brother
wearing? Di: He's wearing light brown pants
25

and an orange t-shirt. 2. ck: What kind of shoes


does he have (on)? Di: Sneakers, and he's
wearing white socks.
Description of Place/Thing : e ev vbi eYbv|

e ev vbi eYbvi Rb Tell me about ... ev What


did you think of ... cvUvb eenvi KiZ cvwi| `ywU
D`vniY: 1. ck: Tell me about your new
apartment. Di: Well, it's pretty small. It only
has two rooms and a bathroom. But it's
comfortable enough for me. 2. ck: What did you
think of the Himalayas? Di: Well, the view was
gorgeous. Of course, it took two days to get
there, and the weather was freezing!
Informal Contractions : ki msw ic|

GLvb Kej informal contraction-jv Zzj aiwQ


hjv mPivPi eBq cvIqv hvq bv| Ze Gme
contraction Kvb formal cwiek eenvi Kiv wVK bv|
1. (whatcha = what are you) Whatcha going to
do? (whatcha = what have you) Whatcha got
26

there? 2. (ya = you) Who saw ya? 3. (ain't = am


not/are not/is not) I ain't sure. You ain't my boss.
4. (ain't = has not/have not) I ain't done it. She
ain't finished yet. 5. (gimme = give me) Gimme
your money. Can you gimme a hand? 6. (gonna
= going to) Nothing's gonna change my love for
you. What are you gonna do? 7. (gotta = (have)
got a) I've gotta gun. I gotta gun. Have you gotta
car? 8. (gotta = (have) got to) I've gotta go now.
I gotta go now. 9. (kinda = kind of) She's kinda
cute. 10. (lemme = let me) Lemme go! 11.
(wanna = want to) I wanna go home. 12.
(wanna = want a) I wanna coffee.
Making Suggestions : civgk `qv|

Kvb ew ev `ji mvgb Kvb cve Kiv ev civgk


`qvi mgq hme Gckb eenvi Kiv nq mjv njv:
I think you should... ev I don't think you should...
ev Maybe you should... ev Why don't you... ev
Why don't we... ev Let's... ev Let's not... BZvw`|
cve ev civgk Mnb Kiv nj hme Gckb eenvi Kiv
27

nq mjv njv: That's a good idea. ev Thanks for


the advice. ev Good suggestion. ev Sounds like a
good idea.
KqKwU D`vniY `wL: 1. 1g Rb: I think you should
buy the blue one. 2q Rb: That's a good idea. 2.
1g Rb: I don't think you should sell this piece of
land. 2q Rb: Thanks for the advice, but I really
need the money. 3. 1g Rb: Let's go to the cinema
tonight. 2q Rb: Sorry, I can't. I'm meeting
relatives for dinner at home. 4. 1g Rb: Why don't
we go cycling on Friday? 2q Rb: Sounds like a
good idea. Where do you want to go? 5. 1g Rb:
Why don't you come with me to Dinazpur
Kantazi Temple? 2q Rb: Thanks, but I've
already been there.
Requesting : Abyiva Kiv|

Abyiva Rvbvbvi Rb BsiwRi meRbxb k njvPlease| GQvovI wKQz cvUvb ev Gckb eenvi Kiv
nq| GLvb D`vniY mbUjvZ mme GckbK
28

BUvwj `Lvbv njv: Help me. ev Please help me.


ev Will you help me? ev Could you help me? ev
Would you please help me? ev Would you mind
helping me? ev Could you possibly help me out
here? ev Would you mind if I asked you to ... ev
Would you be so kind as to help me (with this)?
ev Could you do me a favor? ev Do you have a
minute? ev Can you spare a few minutes? ev
Could I ask you a favor? ev (If you're not busy) I
could use your help. BZvw`|
Kviv mvnvh PvIqvi Di nuv-evaK Di nZ cvi:
Okay, no problem. ev Sure, I'd be glad to. A_ev
bv-evaK DiI nZ cvi: Sorry, I'm (kind of) busy
now. ev I'm sorry. I don't have time right now.
BZvw`|
Inviting : AvgY Rvbvbv|

KvDK Kvb KvR AvgY Rvbvbvi informal


Gckbjv njv: Would you like to... ev We're
going to... Would you like to come along? ev
29

There's a... (time). Would you like to go? ev


How about (V+ing)...? ev Do you want to...? ev I
wonder if you would like to... ev I was
wondering if you would like to... BZvw`| KvDK
Kvb KvR AvgY Rvbvbvi formal Gckbjv njv:
I'd like to invite you to... ev If you have time, I'd
like to invite you... ev Would you like to join us
for (NUbv) at (mgq) ? ev We'd be glad to have you
accompany us...ev We'd be honored to have you
as our guest at... BZvw`|

GKwU welq Aek gb ivLv hZ cvi| mwU njvGKevi U Ki AvgYwU bv Rvwbq bxPi 1 bs
D`vniYi gZ c_g AcicK cZ Ki wbq AvgY
Rvbvbv fvj| Gevi KqKwU D`vniY `wL: 1) 1g Rb:
Do you have time on Friday? 2q Rb: Yes, I do.
Why do you ask? 1g Rb: There's a concert at the
Tennis Complex. Would you like to go with me?
2q Rb: Sure! I'd love to. 2) 1g Rb: Do you want
to go for a walk? 2q Rb: No thanks. I'm kind of
tired right now. 3) 1g Rb: Would you like to go
30

cycling this weekend? 2q Rb: Sure, I'd love to.


What time should we meet? 4) 1g Rb: How
would you like to play badminton tomorrow? 2q
Rb: Sounds like a great idea. Where do you want
to go?
Offering : wKQz `qvi cve Kiv|

KvDK wKQz `qvi cve Rvbvbvi Rb eeZ wKQz


informal Gckb Gi Pnviv I eenvi `wL: 1) 1g
Rb: Cigarette? 2q Rb: No, thank you. 2) 1g Rb:
Would you like some coffee? 2q Rb: Yes,
please. 3) 1g Rb: How about a glass of water? 2q
Rb: Sure. Thanks. 4) 1g Rb: Here. Have
a/some... 2q Rb: Okay. Thanks. 5) 1g Rb: Would
you like one of these? 2q Rb: I really shouldn't.
6) 1g Rb: Can I get you something? 2q Rb: No.
Thanks anyway. 7) 1g Rb: Can I get you
something to drink? 2q Rb: Juice would be fine.
8) 1g Rb: Can I get you some milk or
something? 2q Rb: Thanks. Well, a glass of
31

water would be okay. 9) 1g Rb: Would you like


some beer? 2q Rb: No thanks. I don't drink. 1g
Rb: How about a cup of coffee? 2q Rb: I'd rather
not have coffee. 1g Rb: Orange juice? 2q Rb:
That would be fine. Thanks.

Kvb cve Kivi mgq formal wKQz Gckb eenvi Kiv


nq: Would you care for some... ev Would you
like to try... ev Let me offer you... ev Let me get
you a/some...BZvw`|
Asking for Favors : Kviv AbyMn PvIqv|

c_gB `iKvi nq Ab ci gbvhvM AvKlYi| Abi


gbvhvM AvKlYi Rb Riix Gckb njv: Excuse
me! ev Pardon me! ev Sorry to bother you, but ...
BZvw`|
Kviv AbyMn ev Kvb KvR mvnvh PvIqvi Rb eeZ
cvUvb I mbU Gi D`vniY `wL: Could you do me
a favor? ev Can you open the door for me? ev
Will you hand me a pencil? ev Would you turn
on the air conditioner? ev Could you help me
32

with these boxes? ev Would you please turn


down the music? ev Could you possibly give me
a ride home? ev Would you mind taking a picture
for us? ev Would you be so kind as to lend me
your cell phone?

AbyMn cvwZ ejZ ne: Thanks for your help. ev


Thank you so much. ev Thanks, I really
appreciate it.
GKwU D`vniY: 1g Rb: Excuse me, could you do a
favor? 2q Rb: Sure, what is it? 1g Rb: Could you
help me move these chairs? 2q Rb: No
problem./I'd be glad to. 1g Rb: Thanks a lot.
Encouraging Words : Drmvn c`vb Kiv|

Drmvn c`vb Kivi Rb wewfb Gckb eenvi Kiv hvq|


KD Kvb KvR KiZ hvQb mmgq ejZ cvib: Good
luck! ev Good luck on your test/job interview. ev
You can do it! ev Do your best. ev Do the best
you can. ev Work hard. Avevi Kviv fvj KvR Drmvn
w`q ejv hvq: Keep up the good work. BZvw`|
33

Kviv Lvivc mgq ev KD Kvb fyj KvR Ki djj


cieZxZ h fvj wKQz ne Zv evSvbvi Rb ZvK Avk
KiZ ejv hve: Take it easy. ev Don't worry. ev
That's okay. ev It's going to be all right. ev
Everything will be fine. ev No problem. BZvw`|
mymsev` kvbvi ci Drmvn c`vbi Rb eenvi KiZ
cvib: Wow! ev That's great! ev That's wonderful.
ev That's really good news. ev I'm glad/happy to
hear that. ev Congratulations! ev Good for you! ev
Good job! BZvw`|
`y:msev` kvbvi ci mngwgZv cKvk Ki Drmvn c`vbi
Rb eenvi KiZ cvib: That's too bad. ev That's
really sad. ev That's terrible! (Lye Lvivc msev`i
Rb) ev I'm sorry to hear that. (h Kvb K`vqK
msev`i Rb) BZvw`|
Telling Someone Bad News : Lvivc msev`
kvbvbv|

KvDK Lvivc msev` Rvbvbvi mgq Ggb Kvb K_v ej


i KiZ nq hvZ Ki Aci ew gvbwmKfve cZ
34

nZ cvi| GKBm m ewi Rb mge`bvI Rvbvbv


nq| Ggb wKQz Gckb njv: I'm sorry (I have) to
tell you this, but ... ev I hate to tell you this, but
... ev I don't know how to tell you this, but ... ev I
have some bad news. BZvw`|
Talking about Abilities : mvg_ cKvk Kiv|

Kviv mvg_ m^ K_v ejvi Rb g~jZ can, be able to,


be good at Ges know how to ekx eenvi nq| Ze
do fvei eenvii cvUvbI AbKmgq eeZ nq|
Gevi KqKwU D`vniY `wL: 1) I can swim 100
meters. 2) Do you cook? Yes I do. 3) He is good
at ping pong. 4) You really know how to throw a
party. 5) They are able to walk ten miles in two
hours. Aviv KqKwU D`vniY: 6) Can you play the
piano? Yes, but not very well. 7) How about the
guitar? (I can play) a little. 8) Can Naveed ride a
bike? No, he can't. He's too young. 9) Does Jules
speak Mandarin? Yes, she speaks very well. 10)
Do you sing? Not really. I have no talent in that
area. 11) Is Natasha good at dancing? Yes, she's
35

a great dancer. 12) Can you play a musical


instrument? Yes, I play the flute. How well do
you play? So-so.
Expressing Possibility : mvebv cKvk Kiv|

mvebvi K_v ejvi Rb Avgiv mvaviYZ KqKwU k


eenvi Ki _vwK| mjv njv: may, might, can,
could, maybe, perhaps ev probably BZvw`|
KqKwU D`vniY: 1) 1g Rb: We could go (and) see
a movie. 2q Rb: That would be fun. Or we could
go out for a walk by the river. 2) 1g Rb: My 80
years old grandma might not make it this winter.
2q Rb: That's too bad. I hope she feels better
soon. 3) 1g Rb: I may be in next Monday. 2q Rb:
Well, let me know what you decide.
Expressing Likes and Dislikes : cQ` - AcQ`
cKvk Kiv|

cQ`i K_v ejZ wMq like kwUi eenvi Lye cqvRb


njI like/would like GB `ywU fvKvejvwi AbKmgq
Mvjgj nq hvq| ZvB G`i eenvi `Lvbv njv|
36

Would like A_ AvcbvK cQ` Kivi myhvM `qv nj


Avcwb KvbwU eQ beb Ges like A_ mivmwi Avcwb
wK cQ` Kib|
Liking Ges disliking evSvbvi Rb like kwUi
eenvi meP ekx nq|
Like kwUi eenvii D`vniY: ck: What kind of
friend(s) do you like? Di: I like someone who
is easygoing./I like a person who has talent./I
like people who are kind.
Would like Gi eenvii D`vniY: ck: What kind
of person would you like to marry? Di: I would
like someone who has a lot of money./I like a
man/woman/person who is friendly.

Gevi cQ`-AcQ` RvbZ PvIqvi ck I Di `qvi


aibi Aviv KqKwU D`vniY `Lev| 1) ck: Does
Naveed like swimming? nuv-evaK Di: Yes, he
does. 2) ck: Does Hasinul like soft drinks? bvevaK Di: No, he doesn't. 3) ck: Do you like
Chinese food? Di: A little.
37

Gevi Avgiv ck Qvov mvaviYfve Kviv cQ`-AcQ`


welq K_v ejv i Ki wKfve K_v GMvq Zv `wL: 1g
D`vniY: 1g Rb: Ms. Yeasmin doesn't like coffee.
2q Rb: Really? Does she like tea? 2q D`vniY: 1g
Rb: Naveed does not like action movies. 2q Rb:
Oh. What kind does he like?
Agreeing : Kviv K_vi m GKgZ nIqv evSvbv|

Kviv K_vi m GKgZ nIqv evSvbvi KqKwU


Gckb eenvi nq| Aek nuv-evaK K_vi m GKgZ
nj GKiKg, Avevi bv-evaK K_vi m GKgZ nj
AviKiKg cwiwwZ nq|
c_g postive agreement Gi eenvi `wL| Avcwb
Kviv nuv-evaK K_vi m GKgZ nj mvRvmywR ejZ
cvib: I agree. ev You're right. ev That's right. ev
Good idea. ev I think that's a good idea.
GQvov Aek so Ges too k`ywU cvqB positive
agreement Gi m eenvi Kiv nq| G gb ivLyb,
too mvaviYZ mbU Gi kl Ges so iZ
eenvi nq| So eenvi Kij question order ev
38

ckevaK cvUvb eenvi KiZ nq| GKwU D`vniY `Lyb:


1g Rb: I'm in a hurry. 2q Rb: So am I./I am
too./Me too. AviKwU D`vniY: 1g Rb: I need to go
to the bathroom. 2q Rb: So do I./I do too./Me
too.
Gevi Avgiv negative agreement Gi eenvi `wL|
Avcwb Kviv bv-evaK K_vi m GKgZ nj Dcii gZ
so Gi e`j neither Ges too Gi e`j either
eenvi KiZ ne| gb ivLeb, neither eenvi ne
positive verbs Gi m Ges either eenvi ne
negative verbs Gi m| GKwU D`vniY `wL: 1g
Rb: I'm not hungry. 2q Rb: Neither am I./I'm not
either. AviKwU D`vniY: 1g Rb: Tamanna doesn't
like the rainy season. 2q Rb: Neither does
Lisa./Lisa doesn't either.
Disagreeing : Kviv m GKgZ bv nIqv|

Avcwb Kviv m GKgZ bv nj mvRvmywR ejZ cvib:


I disagree. ev I don't think so. ev (No.) That's not
right. ev Yes, but... ev (I'm sorry, but) I don't
39

agree. GKwU D`vniY `wL: 1g Rb: I think Barak


Obama would make a great President. 2q Rb: I
disagree./I don't think so.

Abi gZi m wgZ cvlY Kivi mgq wecixZ gZwUI


DjL KiZ cvwi| G Awwjqvix fve Gi eenvi
Kiv nq| GKwU D`vniY `wL: 1g Rb: I don't like
chocolate ice cream. 2q Rb: Well, I do.
Abi m wgZ cKvk Kivi Aviv KqKwU D`vniY
`wL: I'm afraid I have to disagree with you. ev
Don't get me wrong, I just think we should look
at some other options before making a decision.
ev Even so, if we change courses this late, we
might not get a good grade. ev Very true, but we
still need to get the garden in shape before
arranging the function.
Asking for and Giving Permission : AbygwZ
PvIqv Ges AbygwZ `Iqv|

AbygwZ PvIqvi Rb Avgv`iK Mvgvii mvnvh wbZ nq|


G can, may ev could Gi eenvi nq ekx| hgb:
40

Can I ask you a question? ev May I have a piece


of cake? ev Could I get your permission to go to
the new site?

GQvov KqKwU wekl Gckb eenvi KiI AbygwZ


PvIqv nq| GLvb Gckbjv BUvwj `Lvbv njv:
1) Do you mind if I smoke? 2) Would you mind if
I asked you something? 3) Is it okay if I sit here?
4) Would it be all right if I borrowed your lawn
mower?
AbygwZ `qvi mgq Avgiv Lye mvaviY wZbwU k ev dR
eenvi KiZ cvwi: Sure. ev Go ahead. ev No
problem.
Asking for and Giving Advice : Dc`k PvIqv
Ges Dc`k `Iqv|

Dc`k PvIqvi Rb wKQz cvZwnK ck njv: What do


you think I should do? ev What do you suggest?
ev What would you do (in this situation)? BZvw`|
Dc`k `qvi Rb wKQz cqvRbxq mbU cvUvbi
eenvi GLvb `Lvbv nQ| Gme cvUvb should ev
41

ought to ev had better ev conditional Gi eenvi


Kiv nq| hgb: I think you should get a lawyer. ev
Maybe you should try some other place. ev Why
don't you call the police? ev If I were you, I
would tell her. ev I don't think you should work
so hard. ev You ought to work less. ev You ought
not to work so hard. ev If I were you, I'd work
less. ev If I were in your position, I'd work less.
ev If I were in your shoes, I'd work less. ev You
had better work less. ev You shouldn't work so
hard. ev Whatever you do, don't work so hard.
Asking for Directions : Kvb c_ hZ ne Zv
RvbZ PvIqv|

APbv RvqMvq wbw` Kvb RvqMvq hvIqvi Rb Avgiv


memgq KvDK bv KvDK wRm Kwi| Kvb c_ hZ
ne Zv RvbZ PvIqvi Rb wewfb ck Kiv hvq: Where
is (the)...? ev How do you get to (the)...(from
here)? ev How do I get to (the)...? ev Can you tell
me how to get to (the)...? ev Can you give me
42

directions to (the)...? ev What's the best way to


get to (the)...?

KqKwU D`vniY `wL: 1. ck: Excuse me. Is there a


grocery store around here? Di: Yeah. There's
one right across the street. 2. ck: Can you tell
me how to get to Natashas Herbal? Di: Sorry.
I don't live around here. 3. ck: Where's Eureka
Book Store? Di: It's on the corner of
Sonadighir Morh. Next to the mosque. 4. ck:
How do you get to the bank? Di: Go straight
down this street for two blocks. Turn left when
you get to Freedom Street. Stay on Freedom for
half a block. It's on the left hand side.
Giving Directions : Kvb c_ hZ ne Zv evZj
`qv|

hLb KD Avgv`iK wRm Ki: Can you tell me


how to get to (the)...? ev fvB/Avcy, AgyK RvqMvq
hZ nj Kvb c_ hvev?| ZLb Avgiv Zv`iK c_Uv
evZj w`B| w`K evZj `qvi mgq eeZ wKQz iZc~Y
43

fvKvejvwi njv: opposite, near, next to, between,


at the end (of), on/at the corner, behind, in front
of, (just) around the corner, traffic lights,
crossroads, junction, signpost, Go straight on
(until you come to...), Turn back./Go back., Turn
left/right, Go along..., Cross..., Take the
first/second road on the left/right, It's on the
left/right., straight on BZvw`|
GLvb c_ wPwbq `qvi GKwU D`vniY `wL: (First,) go
down this street (for... blocks). (Then,) turn
left/right at the traffic light. (After that,) go
straight on... Street until you get to the... (When
you get to the...,) turn left/right again. (Then,)
stay on... Street for about... yards/meters. It's on
your left, next to the.... You can't miss it!
Talking about Travel : hvZvqvZ ev gb welq K_v
ejv|

hvZvqvZ welq K_v ejvi Rb cqvRbxq wKQz Gckb


njv: How do you (usually) get to work/school?
ev How long does it take (to get there)? ev It
44

takes about ... minutes/hours. ev What's the best


way to get to ...? ev By train/bus. ev Do you take
public transportation? ev I walk or ride my bike.
ev I usually take the subway. BZvw`|

Avgiv KqKwU D`vniY `wL| 1. ck: How do you get


to work? Di: I usually drive my car./I usually
go by rickshaw. 2. ck: How long does it take?
Di: It takes half an hour. 3. ck: How often do
you ride the bus? Di: Once in a while. 4. ck:
Do you ever walk to work? Di: No, that would
take forever. 5. ck: How are you going to get
there? Di: By bus./On foot. 6. ck: Why don't
you fly? Di: Airplane tickets are too expensive.
Talking about Life Events : Rxebi UzKiv K_v|

Avgv`iK cvqB wbR`i RbZvwiL, Rbvb, jLvcov,


weq-_v ev evev-gv m^ K_v ejZ nq| Gmei Rb h
wbw` Gckb AvQ Zv bq| Ze ek wKQz cPwjZ ck
eenvi nq _vK| hgb: 1. ck: When is your
birthday? Di: December 20(th). ck: What
45

year? Di: That's personal. 2. ck: Were you


born and raised here? Di: No. I wasn't. 3. ck:
Did Natasha grow up here? Di: Yes, she did. 4.
ck: Where did Lisa go to school? Di: In
Mymensing Girls Cadet College. 5. ck: Which
university did Rita go to? Di: Dream
University of Bangladesh. 6. ck: When will she
graduate? Di: Next April. 7. ck: When did they
get married? Di: They got married in June. 8.
ck: When was your son born? Di: Two months
ago. 9. ck: What day is your wedding
anniversary? Di: It's July 17th. 10. ck: When
did they move to Pittsburgh? Di: Last
September. 11. ck: When did his grandfather
pass away/die? Di: Five years ago.
Talking about Health : Avgv`i ^v m^ K_v
ejv|

c_g Avgiv kvixwiK Amyweav cKvki wKQz BsiwR k ev


fvKvejvwi `wL: Ive got diarrhoea / flu / food
poisoning / a fever / a cold / a sore throat etc. My
46

nose is runny. / Ive got a runny nose (mw` jvMj


runny nose kQ eenvi nq) / I cant stop
sneezing. / I keep going to the toilet.

Gevi cvZwnK Rxeb ^v welq wKQz K_vi D`vniY `Lv


hvK: 1) 1g Rb: How do you feel? 2q Rb: I'm fine.
1g Rb: That's good. 2) 1g Rb: How are you
feeling? 2q Rb: Not too good. 1g Rb: Sorry to
hear that. 3) 1g Rb: Is everything okay? 2q Rb: I
feel sick. 4) 1g Rb: That's too bad. 5) 1g Rb:
What's wrong? 2q Rb: I have a headache. 1g Rb:
Here's some aspirin. 6) 1g Rb: What's the
matter? 2q Rb: My leg hurts. 1g Rb: Let me help
you. 7) 1g Rb: Are you all right? 2q Rb: I cut my
hand. 1g Rb: That looks serious. 8) 1g Rb: What
happened? 2q Rb: He broke his arm. 1g Rb: Call
the ambulance! 10) 1g Rb: How are you feeling
today? 2q Rb: Not very good. I have a headache.
1g Rb: That's too bad. 11) 1g Rb: How do you
feel today? 2q Rb: Great. How about you? 1g
Rb: Pretty good.
47

Buying and Selling : q weq|

Kvb wKQz Kbv ePvi KqKwU NUbv NU| Zv


wKQz RvbZ Pvq, weZvI wKQz RvbZ Pvq Ges DfqB m
Abyhvqx respond Ki| Avevi `vKvb XvKvi mgq hv
NU, ei nIqvi mgq wfb wKQz NU| GiKg wKQz
cwiwwZZ mPivPi eeZ Gckb Zzj aiv nQ|
Zv `vKvb XvKvi ci ZvK `L weZv ev mjm
GwmmUvU hv ejeb: May I help you? ev Can I help
you? ev Can I help you find something? ev What
can I do for you? Gmgq weZv ev mjm GwmmUvU
Gi cki Di Zv ejZ cvib: Yes. I'm looking
for... ev Do you have any...(s)? ev Can you tell
me where the... is/are?
Avevi Zv `vKvb XvKvi ci hw` mB ZvB c_g
weZv ev mjm GwmmUvU Gi m K_v ej Zvnj
ejZ cvib: Excuse me. Do you work here? ev
Can you help me? ev Can I ask you something?
GQvov `vg Rvbv I Zv cwikva Kivi Rb Zv weZv
hfve K_v ejZ cvib Zv njv: Zv: How much is
48

this sweater?/are these sandals? weZv: It's ... tk


only./They're... taka. Zv: Heres a five hundred
taka note. weZv: Heres your change. Zv:
Thanks. weZv: Youre welcome.

Zv hLb `vKvb _K ei nq hvQ mmgq weZv ev


mjm GwmmUvU ejZ cvib: Did you find
everything you needed? ev Did you find what
you were looking for? ev Did you find
everything okay? ev Will that be all (for today)?
ev Is that everything? ev (Will there be) anything
else?
Zv hLb `vKvb _K ei nq hvQ mmgq weZv ev
mjm GwmmUvU Gi cki Di Zv ejZ cvib:
That's all for today. ev That's it. Thanks.
mekl GKwU D`vniY `wL| GLvb Zv Avmj wKQz
wKbe bv, Kej N~iwdi `LQ| mjm GwmmUvU: Is
there something I can help you with? ev Can I
help you find something? Zv: No, I'm just
browsing./No, thanks. Ill try another day. mjm
GwmmUvU: Thanks anyway. Ok.
49

Making Plans with Someone for the Holiday :


QzwUi mgqi Rb ezi m mgq KvUvbvi cwiKbv|

Ab KvDK m wbq hw` mgq KvUvbvi cwiKbv KiZ


Pvb Zvnj m ew AvcbvK mgq w`Z cvie wKbv Zv
c_g Rb wbZ ne| GRb c_g hme ck Kiv hZ
cvi Zv njv: Are you free this Friday? ev What
are you doing this weekend? ev Are you busy
tonight? ev Do you have time after class?
Avevi Ab KD hw` AvcbvK Agb ck Ki Ges Avcwb
hw` mgq w`Z cvib Ges mB ewK Avcwb mgq w`Z
AvMnx nb Zvnj ejeb: Sure! Do you want to do
something? ev I'm free all weekend. ev I'm open
this evening. ev I don't have anything scheduled.
Abew hw` wd _vKb Ges AvcbvK mgq w`Z Pvb,
Ze GLb GKwU NUbv NUe| Abc nuv-evaK Di
w`j Avcwb cveKvix nj GLb wbw` Kvb GwwfwUi
cve w`Z ne: Do you want to (wanna) go to a
movie? ev How about having dinner together? ev
There's a concert at the Medical College
50

Auditorium. Want to go? ev Why don't we go


walking by the riverside? G cvweZ KvRi
evcvi Ab ewi Kvb AgZ bv _vKj AbRb ejZ
cvib: Sounds good. ev Good idea. ev That would
be fun/great. ev When/where should we meet?

KD hw` AvcbvK ck Ki h Avcwb wd AvQb wKbv;


wK Avcwb hw` ZvK mgq w`Z bv cvib ev ZvK mgq
w`Z bv Pvb Zvnj ejeb: Sorry, I have plans this
weekend. ev I'm going to... with (my friends). ev
Unfortunately not. I have something else
scheduled. ev Not really. (I'm kind of busy
tonight.)
Avevi GgbI nZ cvi h Avcbvi BQ nQ ZvK mgq
`qvi wK Kvb KviY cviQb bv, m weK cve
ev mgq `qvi Rb Ggb K_v ejv hZ cvi: I'm not
free on Friday, but I do have time Saturday. ev
I'm going to be out of town, but I'll be back next
weekend. ev I have something planned. How
about tomorrow? ev I'm busy today. How about
some other time?
51

Asking for Repetition : cybivq ejZ ej Abyiva


Kiv|

eve Rxeb cvqB Ggb NU h Ab ci K_vwU Kvb


KviY GKevi cwivi evSv hvqwb| mmgq Avgiv
AbRbK K_vwU Avevi ejZ ewj| G BsiwRZ
KqKwU Gckb eenvi nq: Excuse me? (cki gZ
^i ejZ ne) ev Pardon? (GLvb pardon Gi A_: I
couldnt understand. Please say it again.) ev
What did you say (your name was)? ev Did you
say... ? ev Can you repeat that? ev Could you say
that again please? ev What was that again? ev
Sorry, I didn't catch that. ev Could you speak up
please? ev Could you speak a little louder?
GKwU D`vniY: 1g Rb: What did you say your
name was? 2q Rb: Runa Islam. 1g Rb: Did you
say Rina or Runa? 2q Rb: Runa, like the famous
singer. AviKwU D`vniY: 1g Rb: Can you give me
a camera film? 2q Rb: How many exposures? 1g
Rb: Pardon? 2q Rb: How many photographs? 1g
Rb: I see. 36, please.
52

Using Rejoinders : cZyi Ki gbvhvM AvKlYKvix


K_vUzKzi evcvi AvMn cKvk Kiv|

K_v ejvi mgq Abi K_vi h K_vwU AvcbvK AvKlY


KiQ ev gbvhvMx KiQ m welq `Z cZyi w`Z nq|
Zvnj fvei Av`vbc`vb fvj nq| Gme Gckb KLbv
AWfve ev Kvb dR ev Kvqb UvM Gi gZ wKQz nq|
AvMn cKvki Rb eenvi nIqv mvaviY Gckbjv
njv: (Oh) Really? ev That's interesting. ev Is that
right?
KqKwU D`vniY `Lyb: 1g D`vniY: 1g Rb: I just got
a new job. 2q Rb: Oh really? That's great! 2q
D`vniY: 1g Rb: I lost my wallet yesterday. 2q Rb:
Oh really? That's too bad.
GQvov auxiliary verb Gi mvnvh wbq reinforcement
tag K cki cvUvb eenvi Ki wbR AveM cKvk Kiv
hvq| Gfve wKfve cZzi w`q Abi K_vi m Zvj
ivLv nq Zvi D`vniY `Lyb: 1g Rb: I just bought a
new car. 2q Rb: You did? AviKwU D`vniY: 1g Rb:
I'm going to Dhaka. 2q Rb: You are?
53

Giving Warnings : mZKevYx Rvbvbv|

KvDK mZK Kivi Rb wKsev GUv Kij IUv ne ev GUv


bv Kij IUv ne, Ggb me mZKevYx Rvbvbvi Rb
KqK aibi mbU cvUvb eenvi Kiv nq| Ggb
KqKwU cvUvb GLvb Zzj aiv njv: 1) Don't (GUv
Kiv bv), or you might / will (Kij IUv NUe|) 2)
Watch out! Be Careful (mvaviY mveavb evYx| `yNUbv
NUZ cvi ZvB gyZi ga mveavb nZ ejvi Rb
eenvi Kiv nq|) 3) Work hard (GUv Kiv),
otherwise you'll (bqZ IUv NUe|)
KqKwU D`vniY: Don't push so hard on that toy, or
you might/will break it! A_ev Watch out!/Be
careful! The truck is heading towards us! A_ev
Work hard, otherwise you'll fail your exam.
Sequencing : NUbvi cvih eYbv|

NUbvi avivevwnKZv eYbvi Rb Lye mvaviY wKQz ki


eenvi cqvRb nq: First, Second, Third, First of
all, To begin with, Then, Later, Next, Finally,
54

Last, Lastly, In the end, BZvw` k ev dR| GB me


k ev dR Lye mvaviY njI Lye iZc~Y|
Asking for and Giving Opinions : gZvgZ PvIqv
Ges gZvgZ `qv|

Abi gZvgZ RvbZ PvIqvi mgq mPivPi wKQz ck Kiv


nq| mivmwi gZvgZ RvbZ ck Kiv hZ cvi: What
do you think? ev What's your opinion? ev What
are your ideas? ev Do you have any thoughts on
that? ev How do you feel about that? ev Why do
you think that?
Avevi, Abi gZvgZwUi c hyw bZ PvBj ev mwUi
wek` eYbv bZ PvBj Avgiv wKQz ck KiZ cvwi|
Zgb KqKwU ck njv: Could you elaborate? ev
Could you give (me) an example? ev Can you
illustrate that? ev What evidence do you have? ev
Could you explain it in more detail? ev Could
you provide some details? ev I don't quite follow
you. ev I didn't get what you meant by... ev
Could you clarify that? BZvw`|
55

Avcwb hLb Avcbvi gZvgZwU RvbvZ PvQb mmgq


hme Gckb eenvi Kiv nq Zv GLb D`vniY
mbUjvZ BUvwj `Lvbv njv: I think we
should get a new car. ev I don't think we need
one. ev I believe (that) smoking should be
outlawed. ev I don't believe (that) it should be
illegal. ev In my opinion, Gone with the Breeze is
the best movie ever made. ev I feel that it's the
right thing to do. ev I don't feel that it's such a
good idea.
Stating a Negative Subject : bwZevPK Kvb K_v
wKfve ejZ ne|

bwZevPK Kvb K_v ejv wKfve i KiZ ne? KvDK


Kvb gbvK`vqK K_v ejv ev Zvi gb:cyZ bvI nZ cvi
Ggb Kvb K_v ejvi iZB wKQz Gckb eenvi Kiv
hvq| hgb: Im afraid... (GLvb Gi A_ Avwg fq
cvwQ, Zv bv| eis Gi A_ AbKUv Ggb: Avgvi ejZ
K nQ h...) ev I don't mean to be rude, but... ev I
hate to tell you this, but... ev I don't know how to
tell you this, but... ev You might not like what I
56

have to say, but... ev I wish I didn't have to tell


you this, but... ev This may be unpleasant, but...
ev This may seem blunt, but... BZvw`|
Accepting and Refusing : Kviv Advi ev cve
Mnb A_ev cZvLvb Kiv|

Kviv Advi ev cve wKfve Mnb KiZ ne A_ev


cZvLvb Kiv hZ cvi Zv wewfb cwiwwZZ wewfb iKg
nZ cvi| Ze gwjK welqjv GKB| GLvb KqKwU
D`vniY `qv njv:
1g D`vniY: Advi ev cve: Would you like some
cake? cve Mnbi Di: Yes, please. ev Sure.
Thanks. ev Okay. Thank you. cve cZvLvbi
Di: No, thank you. ev I'd better not. ev No, but
thanks for offering.
2q D`vniY: Advi ev cve: Would you like to go
see a movie? cve Mnbi Di: Okay. Sounds
good. ev Sure. I'd love to. ev Yeah. Good idea.
cve cZvLvbi Di: No, I'd rather not. ev I'm
57

sorry, but I can't. ev No, but thanks for inviting


me.

3q D`vniY: Advi ev cve: How about visiting


Zaflong this weekend? cve Mnbi Di: Great.
What time? ev Sounds like fun. ev All right.
When and where? cve cZvLvbi Di: Sorry.
I'm busy this weekend. ev I don't think I can. ev
How about some other time?
Classifying : ew ev ei kYxwebvm Kiv|

BsiwRZ ew ev eK kYxweb Kivi Rb kinds,


types, categories kjv eenvi Kiv nq| G`i
D`vniY `qv njv: 1) There are three kinds of
reading sub-skills. 2) There are two types of
loaves in that shop. 3) There are three categories
of students in this class.
GQvov divide into, be broken down into dRjvI
eenvi Kiv nq| hgb: 1) We can divide this into
four parts: elementary, pre-intermediate,
intermediate and advanced. 2) Reading skill can
58

be broken down into three categories. They are:


skimming, scanning and guessing.
Elaborating : wek`fve wKQz Lyj ejvi Pv|

`ywU cwiwwZ nZ cvi| wbR Kvb welq wek` Lyj ejZ


cvwi A_ev AbRbK Zv KiZ Abyiva KiZ cvwi| Kvb
welq Ab Kviv KvQ wek` eYbv bZ PvBj Avgiv wKQz
ck KiZ cvwi| hgb: Could you elaborate (on
that)? ev Could you tell me a little more about it?
ev Could you give (me) some details? ev Could
you fill me in on that? ev Could you expound on
that? ev What else can you tell us (about that)? ev
Is there anything else you can tell us? ev Is there
more to it? BZvw`|
Avevi wbR hw` Kvb wKQz wek`fve ejZ PvB Zvnj
wKQz Gckb eenvi Ki eYbvwU i KiZ cvwi|
hgb: To elaborate, ... ev To give you more
information, ... ev Let me explain. ev Let me
elaborate. ev Let me tell you a little more (about
it). ev Let me give you some details. ev What's
more, ... BZvw`|
59

Clarifying : ee cwivi Ki evSvbv|

wbRi K_v cwivi Ki eywSq `qvi Rb Avgiv cvqB


wKQz Gckb ev mbU cvUvb eenvi Kwi| hgb: In
other words,... ev What I mean is... ev What I'm
trying to say is... ev What I wanted to say was...
ev To clarify,... BZvw`|
KLbv KLbv Kvb welq fvjfve eySZ bv cvij K_vwU
AviKUz cwivi Ki eywSq `qvi Rb Abyiva Kwi|
m wKQz ck Kiv hZ cvi: What do you mean
(by...)? ev What are you trying to say? ev What
was that again? ev Could you clarify that?
Avgiv AbKmgq Abi K_vK wbR ej eywSq w`B
wKsev K_vwU Avwg wVK eySwQ wKbv Zv ciL Ki wbB|
m Abi K_v cwivi eySwQ wKbv Zv ciLi RbI
wKQz Gckb eenvi Kiv nq| hgb: You mean ... ev
What you mean is ... ev What you're saying is ...
ev (I think) what she means is ... ev What he's
trying to say is ... ev If I understand you, (you're
saying that ... ) ev If I'm hearing you correctly, ev
60

So, you think (that) ... ev So, your idea is ...


BZvw`|
Interrupting : Abi K_vi gvS Kkj K_v ejv|

AvjvPbv wKsev mvaviY Kbfvmkbi mgq AbKmgq


Avgv`iK cqvRb whwb K_v ejQb ZvK _vwgq w`q
wbR^ Kvb K_v ejZ nq| Gme cwiwwZZ ^fveZB
Abi K_vi gvS K_v ejZ Mj AekB Zv nZ nq
f`vwPZ A_P `p| G BsiwRZ ek wKQz Gckb
eenvi Kiv nq| hgb: Excuse me,... ev Pardon
me,... ev Sorry to interrupt,... ev May I interrupt
(for a minute)? ev Can I add something here? ev I
don't mean to intrude, but ... ev Do you mind if I
jump in here? BZvw`|
K_vi gvS evav cvIqvi ci Avevi c~ei K_vq wdi
hvIqvi Rb Gevi wKQz Kkjx K_v ejZ nq| g~j K_vZ
gbvhvM AvKlYi Rb ejZ nq: Anyway,... ev
Now, where was I? ev Where were we? ev What
were you saying? ev You were saying... ev To get
back to... BZvw`|
61

Giving Instructions : wKfve wb`k PvBeb Ges


`eb|

BsiwRZ wKfve wb`k PvBeb? Kvb welq Abi KvQ


_K wb`k PvBZ nj Avgiv ek wKQz ck Ki _vwK|
hgb: How do you (do this)? ev How do I... ? ev
What is the best way to...? ev How do I go about
it? ev What do you suggest? ev How do you
suggest I proceed? ev What is the first step?
AbK wKfve wb`k `eb? avivevwnKfve GKwUi ci
AviKwU KvR KiZ ejj Avcwb wKQz k eenvi KiZ
cvib: First, (you) ... ev Then, (you) ... ev Next,
(you) ... ev Lastly, (you) ... BZvw`|
wKfve KvRwU i KiZ ne m welq ejZ wMq hme
Gckb eenvi KiZ cvib mjv njv: Before
you begin, (you should ...) ev The first thing you
do is ... ev I would start by ... ev The best place to
begin is ... ev To begin with, ... BZvw`|
Gici KvRwU wKfve GwMq wbq hve Zv evSvbvi Rb
wb`k `qvi mgq eenvi KiZ cvib: After that, ev
62

The next step is to ... ev The next thing you do is


... ev Once you've done that, then ... ev When you
finish that, then ... BZvw`|

KvRwU wKfve kl Kie ev kl cv Kgb ne Zvi


wb`k `qvi Rb eenvi KiZ cvib: The last step is
... ev The last thing you do is ... ev In the end, ev
When you've finished,... ev When you've
completed all the steps, ... BZvw`|
Discussing Sensitive Topics : kKvZi welq wbq
K_v ejv

Kviv m wekl Kvb welq ev Kvb kKvZi welq wbq


K_v ejZ PvBj Avgiv wKQz mbU eenvi KiZ cvwi|
Gme AbygwZm~PK ev mvaviY mbU bjB Abc
gvbwmKfve cZ nq hvq| Ggb wKQz mbU njv:
Can I talk to you for a minute? ev Can I ask you
something? ev Do you mind if I ask you
something? ev I need to talk to you for a minute.
ev I have to tell you something. ev There's
something I need to tell you. ev There's
63

something I think you should know. ev We need


to talk.
Indirect Requests and Information Exchange
: civ Abyiva Rvbvbv ev civ gvag Z_ `qvbqv|

ZZxq ci gvag KvDK Abyiva RvbvZ PvBj


Avgv`iK `yGKwU cvUvb gb ivLZ ne| GLvb Zgb
wZbwU mbU Gi D`vniY `qv njv: 1) Please tell
Natasha to clean the toilet. 2) Could you tell
Naveed to call me? 3) Tell him not to do that
again.
ZZxq ci gvag Ab KvDK Kvb Z_ Rvbvbvi
RbI Avgv`iK `yGKwU cvUvb gb ivLZ ne| Ggb
wZbwU mbU Gi D`vniY `qv njv: 1) Can you tell
them (that) the meeting starts at nine? 2) Please
tell Ms Yeasmin (that) I will be late.
ZZxq ci gvag Abi KvQ _K Z_ PvIqvi mgq
Yes or No cvUvbi cki cqvRb nj Kgb NUbv NU
Zv `Lyb| Gme GKwU iZc~Y Mvgvi KvR Ki|
64

mwU njv: Avwg Avmj h ckwU KiZ PvB mwU


if/whether w`q i ne| 1) Ask Paula if she is
coming to the picnic. 2) Could you ask them if
they did the homework? 3) Please ask her
whether she finished the assignment.
ZZxq ci gvag Abi KvQ _K Z_ PvIqvi mgq
Dy ck Kivi cqvRb nj Kgb NUbv NU Zv `Lyb:
1) Ask Rifat what he is doing. 2) Please ask her
when she will be here. 3) Would you ask him
what he wants? 4) Will you ask the shopkeeper
how much it costs? Gme GKwU iZc~Y Mvgvi
KvR Ki| mwU njv- Avwg Avmj h g~j ckwU KiZ
PvB mwU interrogative cvUvb _vKe bv|
Supporting Your Opinions : wbR gZvgZi c
K_v ejv|

wbR gZvgZi c K_v ejZ wMq gZvgZ `qvi iZ


wKQz Gckb eenvi Kiv hvq| wbRi K_vi eYbv,
cvmwK D`vniY, weeiY ev mviK_vi c~e Gme Gckb
eenvi KiZ nq| cwZwU Gckbi ci GKUz weiwZ
(wjwLZ BsiwRZ Kgv) wbZ nq| Gici g~j K_vwU
65

ejZ nq| Gckbjv njv: Let me illustrate,


ev For example, ev For instance, ev To give
you an example, ev Let me give you an
example, ev To elaborate, First, (second), etc.
BZvw`|
GKwU D`vniY `wL: For example, Raz Shahi Bank
uses the type of ATM card Im proposing. Their
clients have been using these cards with
satisfaction.
Exploring Options : Abi gZvgZ LuvRv Ges k
cve ev cwiKbvi mveZvi Rb gZvgZ bIqv|

Kvb welq Abi gZvgZ wK Zv Rvbvi Rb wKQz ck Quyo


`qv hvq: What do you think (about )? ev How
do you feel (about )? ev Any ideas? ev What
are the alternatives?
k cvei ev cwiKbvi mveZv evSvi Rb gZvgZ
hvPvB KiZ wMq wKQz cveg~jK K_v ejv nq: Let's
look at Option 1. ev What (do you think) about
Plan B? ev How about the third alternative? ev
66

Let's consider Ms Ismat's proposal. BZvw`|

gZvgZ hvPvB KiZ wMq AvjvPbvK Aviv GwMq bqvi


Rb Aveviv cveg~jK K_v ejv hvq: Let's move on to
Option 2. ev What about Plan C? ev Let's look at
the fourth choice. ev How about Masud's idea? ev
Should we move on to the next point? ev Before
we move on, we need to consider... BZvw`|
Contrasting Ideas : wKfve BsiwRZ wecixZ ee
Zzj aieb|

GKwU eei cvkvcvwk Zvi wecixZ ee Zzj aivi


Rb g~jZ KqKwU k ev dR eenvi Kiv nq: but, in
spite of, despite, though/although, however
BZvw`|
GLvb D`vniY sentence Gi ci evKU evsjvq
sentence Gi MobwU Zzj aiv njv| 1) I'd really like
to come to the film, but I have to study tonight.
(g~j ee, but wecixZ ee) 2) They continued on
their journey, in spite of the pouring rain. (g~j
ee, in spite of wecixZ ee A_ev in spite of
67

wecixZ ee, g~j ee) 3) They continued on their


journey, despite the pouring rain. (g~j ee,
despite wecixZ ee A_ev Despite wecixZ ee, g~j
ee) 4) We wanted to drive the motor bike fast,
although we knew that driving fast can be
dangerous. (g~j ee, although wecixZ ee A_ev
Although wecixZ ee, g~j ee) 5) Getting a
good job is hard work; however, most people
eventually find one with patience. (g~j ee;
however, wecixZ ee)
Discussion Techniques : AvjvPbv cwiPvjbv
Kkj|

wKfve AvjvPbvi m~cvZ Kieb? BsiwRZ fve m^wjZ


ek wKQy Gckb AvQ hvi gvag AvjvPbvi m~cvZ
NUvbv nq| hgb: To begin with, ev We need to
discuss ... ev We need to determine ... ev We
need to find out ... ev Let's start by (+V ing) ev
We'll start by (+V ing) ev The problem here is ....
BZvw`|
68

g~j welqwU wKfve Zzj aieb? g~j welqwU Zzj aivi


Rb wKQz mbU cvUvb eenvi Kiv nq: The
important thing (here) is ... ev The main thing
we need to discuss is ... ev Let's look at ... ev It
looks like ... ev It appears that ... BZvw`|
AvjvwPZ welq m^ wKfve gZvgZ RvbZ PvBeb?
AvjvwPZ welq m^ gZvgZ PvIqvi Rb ck Kiv hZ
cvi: What do you think? ev How about you? ev
How do you feel about that? ev Any ideas on
that? BZvw`|
gZvgZ `Iqvi mgq wKfve Zv Rvbveb? hLb gZvgZ
PvIqv nQ mmgq gZvgZ `Iqvi Rb wKQz Gckb ev
cvUvb Avgv`iK mvnvh KiZ cvi: (That sounds
like a) good idea. ev Sounds good. ev The
problem with that is ... ev That raises the issue of
... ev That brings up the issue of ... BZvw`|
Discussions in a Meeting : wgwUsq AvjvPbv Kiv|
wgwUs i Kivi mgq ejv hZ cvi: Let's get started.
69

ev We need to discuss ... ev We need to talk


about ... BZvw`|
wgwUsqi GRv welq K_v ejvi Rb wKQz Gckb
eenvi KiZ cvib: The first thing we need to
discuss is ... ev The first item on the agenda is ...
ev The first thing on the list is ... ev First, we
need to talk about ... BZvw`|
gZvgZ PvIqv I `qvi Rb wK ejv hZ cvi Ges
AvjvPbvK wKfve GwMq wbq hvIqv hvq m evcvi
hme Gckb Avgv`iK mvnvh Ki Zv cveb
Exploring Options Ask|
AvjvPbvK cqvRb _vgvbvi Rb ejZ cvib:
Before we move on, I think we should... ev Wait
a minute. We haven't discussed... ev Don't you
think we need to... ev Not so fast. We haven't
(yet)... BZvw`|
Kviv gZvgZwU Ki evLv Kivi Rb hme K_v ejv
hZ cvi Zv Asking for and Giving Opinions
70

Ask cvIqv hve| GQvov cve ev civgk wKfve RvbvZ


nq Zv `Lv hve Making Suggestions Ask|
Kvb welq HKgZ hvPvBqi Rb ck Kiv hZ cvi:
Do we all agree (on that)? ev Does everyone
agree?
mekl ck Avm wgwUs kl Kivi| wgwUs cwiPvjbvKvix
ev mfvcwZ Gmgq wgwUs Gi mgvw NvlYv Kivi Rb
ejZ cvib: That's all for today. ev That's it then.
(informal Gckb) ev The meeting is adjourned.
(very formal Gckb) BZvw`|
Paraphrasing : Abi eei mvivsk Zzj aiv|

Avmj AbKmgq Avgiv Abi K_vi g~j K_vUzKz Zzj


awi Ges Zvi mvgbB wbwZ nq wbB h wZwb hv ejZ
PvQb Zv Avgiv eySwQ| G mgq Avgiv wewfb Gckb
eenvi KiZ cvwi| hgb: 1) So... 2) So, what you
mean is... 3) Let me see if I understand you
correctly... 4) What I think you're saying is... 5)
If I'm hearing you correctly... 6) In other words
... BZvw`|
71

Guessing : Abygvb cKvk Ki K_v ejv|


eveRxeb Avgv`iK AbKmgq Abygvb Ki K_v ejZ
nq| Avgiv evsjvq ewj- Avgvi gb nQ... ev Ggb nZ
cvi h... ev evanq... ev wVK wbwZ bv, Ze gb
nq... BZvw` Gckb| GiKg wKQz BsiwR Gckb
njv: I'd say... ev It might... ev ...could be... ev It
looks like...ev Perhaps ev Maybe ev It's difficult to
say, but I'd guess that ev I'm not really sure, but
I think... BZvw`|
GLb Avgiv KqKwU D`vniY `wL| D`vniY BUvwj
`Lvbv AskUzKz Abygvb fvewU cKvk KiQ: I'd say
he's about ready to quite his job. ev It might need
some maintenance. ev He could be in the next
room. ev It looks like a miniature palace. ev
Perhaps he needs some time for his family. ev
Maybe the grandsons want to come and visit this
summer. ev It's difficult to say, but I'd guess that
it's used for cleaning clothes. ev I'm not really
sure, but I think they enjoy playing cricket in the
school field.
72

Stating a Preference : Kvb wekl AbyivM ev


AwfiwP cKvk Kiv|

KD hLb Kvb cve Ki ev Kvb wKQz Advi Ki wKsev


Kvb wbw` welq gZvgZ RvbZ Pvq, ZLb Avgv`i DwPr
f`fve wbR AwfiwP Rvbvbv| Aek mivmwi gZvgZ
RvbZ PvBj Zv mivmwi Rvbvbv hZ cvi| Ze
AbKmgq hv cve Kiv nqQ ev hv Advi Kiv nqQ
Avcwb nqZ Zv Zgb cQ` KiQb bv| m AekB
Kkj wbR cQ` RvbvZ ne| Zgb wKQz Kkjx
Gckb njv: I'd rather... How does that sound?
ev Well, I'd prefer ... What do you think? ev If it
were up to me, I'd ... ev I think we should ... ev
Why don't we ... ev Let's ... ev How about ...
BZvw`|
KqKwU D`vniY `wL: 1g D`vniY: cve: Would you
like to see a film this evening? Di: I'd rather go
shopping. How does that sound?2q D`vniY: cve:
Why don't we have some Chinese food? Di:
Well, I'd prefer eating Italian. What do you
think? 3q D`vniY: gZvgZ RvbZ ck: What do you
73

think we should do? Di: If it were up to me, I'd


go out for a walk by the river. 4_ D`vniY: gZvgZ
RvbZ ck: What are we going to do today? The
weather is awful! Di: I think we should play
Ludo. ev Why don't we play Ludo? ev Let's play
Ludo. ev How about playing Ludo.
Saying 'No' Nicely t f`fve bv ejZ wkwL|

AbK mgq Avgv`iK bv ejZ nq| KD Kvb mvRkb


w`j, wKQz Advi Kij ev wKQz KiZ ejj, wK Avcwb
nqZ PvQb Ab wKQz| Ggb me `p wK f`fve
bv ejvi PPv Kiv GKv cqvRb, bvnj Abyiva XuwK
wMjZ nq| GRb Avgiv wKQz Gckb eenvi Kwi|
hgb: 1) I'm afraid I can't (+verb) (GLvb I'm
afraid Gi A_ fq cvIqv bv| Gi A_: Avwg GUv ejvi
Rb `y:wLZ h...) 2) I don't particularly like
(+verb-ing) 3) I'd rather not (+verb) 4) It's not
my idea of (+verb-ing) 5) I'm not (really) fond
of (+verb-ing) 6) Thank you (thank you for
asking, thank you very much BZvw`) but, I have
to (+verb) BZvw`|
74

KqKwU D`vniY `wL: 1g D`vniY: cve: Would you


like to see a film tonight? Di: I'm afraid I can't
go out tonight. I've got an exam tomorrow. 2q
D`vniY: cve: Why don't we have some Chinese
food at the Chilies? Di: Sorry, but I don't
particularly like Chinese food. 3q D`vniY: cve:
How about taking a nice walk? Di: I'd really
rather not take a walk this afternoon. ev Thank
you, but it's not my idea of taking a walk this
afternoon. 4_ D`vniY: cve: Why don't you stay
the night here in the village? Di: That's very
kind of you, but I really have to get back to the
city.
Demanding Explanations : Kvb evcvi KwdqZ
ev evLv PvIqvi wbqg|

AbKmgq Ggb wKQz NU h Avgiv Abi KvQ m


evcvi evLv ev KwdqZ PvB| m ek wKQz
Gckb eenvi Kiv hvq| hgb: Can you tell me
why... ev I don't understand why... ev Can you
explain why... ev Why is it that... ev How come...
75

ev Does this mean... ev Do you really expect me


to believe... BZvw`| Gme Aski ciB mB mbUB
h NUbvwUi Rb evLv PvwQ m NUbvwUi DjL KiZ
nq|
Gevi KqKwU D`vniY `wL: nqZ Ggb NUQ h,
Avcbvi em Kvb Riix KviY AbKevi Avcbvi gvevBj
dvb Kj KiQb Ges AvcbvK cvbwb| wK h Kvb
KviYB nvK Avcwb AbK ci dvb Ki LuvR wbqQb|
mmgq Avcbvi em hv ejZ cvib, Zv njv: Can you
tell me why it has taken you so long to call back?
ev I don't understand why it has taken you so
long to call back. ev Can you explain why it has
taken you so long to call back? ev Why is it that
it has taken you so long to call back? ev How
come it has taken you so long to call back? ev Do
you expect me to believe (that) you didnt notice
that I called so many times?
Giving Explanations : evLv `qv|

KD hLb Kvb KvRi evcvi evLv Pvq ZLb Zv cwivi


76

Ki eywSq w`Z nq Ges GKB m f`ZvI eRvq ivLZ


nq| mivmwi evLv `qvi Rb wKQz Gckb eenvi Ki
Zvici evLvwU `Iqv nq| Gckbjv njv:
Well, ... ev Let me explain. ev Let me tell you
why ... ev Here's what happened: ... ev There's a
(good) reason for this: ... ev The reason is ...
BZvw`|
Avevi GgbI nZ cvi h, Avcwb ZvrwbKfve evLv
w`Z PvQb bv, Ze ci evLv w`eb Ggb K_v evSvZ
Pvb| m Avcwb Ab wKQy Gckb eenvi KiZ
cvib: I'm sorry. I can't tell you that (right now).
ev Can I get back to you on that? ev I'll explain (a
little) later. ev We'll come to that later. ev We'll
get to that in a few minutes. ev Can we save that
until later?
Making Complaints : Kviv KvR m^ ev Kvb
welq Kviv KvQ Amvl cKvk|

mivmwi Amvl cKvk Kiv kvfbxq bv| ZvB memgq Zv


GKUz Nyic_ ejv nq| BsiwRZ Gfve Amvl cKvk ev
77

AwfhvMi K_v Rvbvbvi Rb ek wKQz Riix Gckb


AvQ| GiKg wKQz BsiwR Gckb njv: I'm sorry to
have to say this but ..., ev I'm sorry to bother you,
but ..., ev Maybe you forgot to ..., ev Excuse me if
I'm out of line, but ..., ev There may have been a
misunderstanding about ..., ev Don't get me
wrong, but I think we should ... BZvw`|
Gevi wewfb cwiwwZZ Amvl cKvk Kivi KqKwU
D`vniY `wL: I'm sorry to have to say this but I
think we need to take another approach. ev I'm
sorry to bother you, but I think you need to rewrite this report. ev Maybe you forgot to include
his name and number. ev I think you might have
forgotten to finish the report on time. ev Excuse
me if I'm out of line, but your work has not been
satisfactory lately. ev There may have been a
misunderstanding about what I expected from
you. ev Don't get me wrong, but I think we
should concentrate on the monthly report for the
moment.
78

Commenting : K_vi gvS ge Kiv ev wbR^ gZvgZ


hvM Kivi Pv|

Pjgvb AvjvPbvi gvS ge Kivi cqvRb nj c_g


AbRb GKUz AvMB hv ejjb m welq ge KiZ
ne| Gici wbRi gZUv RvbvZ ne| cqvRbxq
Gckbjv Ggb: That's interesting. I think
that... ev Interesting point. I would add... ev
Hmmm. I hadn't thought of that before. BZvw`|
wKQz ckevaK Gckb eenvi KiI wbRi K_vwUK
mvgb wbq Avmv hvq| hgb: What do you think
about ... ev Have you considered ... ev What
about ... ev Can I add something here? ev (Do
you) mind if I add something here?
Being Imprecise : Ah_v_ ev AwbwZfve K_v ejv|

Avgv`iK cvZwnK Rxeb cvqB Ah_v_fve Z_ Zzj


aiZ nq| hgb, Avgiv evsjvq cvqB wKQz Gckb
eenvi Kwi- cvq, AvbygvwbK, gb nq, Avwg wVK
ejZ cviwQ bv, Ze evanq... BZvw`| GKBfve
BsiwRZI Ggb eenvi AvQ| hgb: about,
79

approximately, up to, kind of, type of ... or so,


sort of, It's difficult to say, but I'd guess, I'm not
really sure, but I think BZvw` k ev dR eenvi
Ki Ah_v_Zv cKvk Kiv nq| msLv, AvqZb, cwigvb,
cwigvc, aib BZvw` welq wbw` Z_ bv w`q AvbygvwbK
Z_ `qvi mgq G aibi k eenvi cqvRb nq|

Gevi Avgiv wewfb cwiwwZZ eenvi nIqv KqKwU


D`vniY mbU `wL: There are about 257 teachers
working in Rajshahi College. ev There are
approximately 257 teachers working in Rajshahi
College. ev There are a large number of students
interested in taking this course. ev Economists
predict up to 50% growth for the coming year. ev
It's kind of a bottle opener which can also be
used to peel vegetables. ev It's the type of place
you can go to relax for a week or so. ev They're
the sort of people that like criticising people for
nothing. ev It's difficult to say, but I'd guess that
it's used for cleaning clothes. ev I'm not really
sure, but I think they enjoy reading this small
book.
80

Speaking Conditionally : Dccgqg~jK ev eve I


Aeve kZvaxb K_v ejv|

mvaviYZ hLb Avgiv ejZ PvB, aib,... ev gb


Kib... ev hw` Ggb nq... ev hw` Ggb nZv.. BZvw`
kZvaxb K_v, ZLb BsiwRZ K_vjv i Kivi Rb
eenvi Kiv hZ cvi: What would you do if ... ev
Suppose ... ev Imagine ... BZvw` k ev Gckb|
GQvov hw` GUv nZv Zvnj IUv nZv Ggb mve
kZvaxb K_vjvi gvag Avgiv Avgv`i AveM cKvk
Kwi| hgb: 1) If I were rich, I would buy a big
piece of land. 2) If I had a big piece of land, I
would grow a mixed forest there.
GKBfve Avgiv AbKmgq AZxZ bv NUv kZ m^ K_v
ewj| hw` GUv nZv (hv Avmj nqwb, wK hw` nZv)
Zvnj GUv nZv Ggb K_v cvqB Avgiv ej _vwK|
hgb: 1) If Mr. Rahman had been there, he could
have prevented the quarrel. 2) If you had seen
that movie, you would have cried.
GQvov wKQ~ AvbyvwbK cwiekI Ggb avivi mbU
cvUvb eenvi nq| hgb: 1) Should any visitor have
81

any questions, feel free to contact me. 2) Had I


been there, I might have been able to help.

Dcii mbUjvZ GKwU wekl Mvgvi eenvi nq|


mwU njv conditional sentence Gi eenvi| G
K Ki Avcbvi Mvgvi eBwU `L wbj fvj nq|
Simple Presentations : ee Dcvcb Kkj|

h Kvb ee Dcvcbi mgq msw GKUz f~wgKv Lye


KvhKix| ee Dcvcb i nq f~wgKv w`q| f~wgKvi
mgq Kgb k ev Gckb eenvi Kieb? wKQz D`vniY
`qv njv: (Good morning, afternoon, evening) ev
I'm happy to be here. ev I'm glad to have this
opportunity to ... ev Today, I'd like to talk (to
you) about ... ev My topic today is ... ev The
focus of my remarks is ... ev I'd like to share
some thoughts on (topic) ev I'm here to talk
about ... ev Today, I'd like to say a few words
about ... BZvw`|
g~j ee i Kivi mgq ek wKQz Gckb AvcbvK
mvnvh KiZ cvi: Let me start by ... ev First, let
82

me tell you about ... ev I've divided my topic into


(three) parts: (They are ...) BZvw` mbU|

ee KZY mgq wbZ cvi m welq mPZb KiZ


PvBj ejv hZ cvi: I will probably take about ...
minutes. ev This should last only a few minutes.
ev I hope to be finished by ... BZvw` mbU|
ee Kivi Rb D`vniY `qv ev evLv Kivi mgq
hme Gckb eenvi Kiv hZ cvi: For instance,
... ev Let me illustrate, ... ev To illustrate, ...
BZvw`| Avevi Kvb gei c hyw Dcvcbi mgq
ejZ cvib: This is why ... ev The main reason is
... ev Therefore, ... ev So, ... BZvw`|
Kvb welqK meRbxbKiYi Rb wKQz Gckb eenvi
Kiv hZ cvi: Generally, ... ev Usually, ... ev As
a rule, ... ev Most of the time, ... ev In most cases,
... BZvw`|
Kvb welqK nvBjvBU KiZ PvBj welqwU Gfve i
Kiv hZ cvi: Actually,... ev In fact,... ev As a
83

matter of fact,... ev In particular... ev Particularly


... ev Especially BZvw`|

ee kl Kivi mgq Avcwb eenvi KiZ cvib: In


conclusion,... ev To conclude,... ev To
summarize,... ev To sum up, ... BZvw`|
Checking for Understanding : ee evSv MQ
wKbv Zv ciL Kiv|

hvi m Avcwb K_v ejQb wZwb Avcbvi K_v eySZ


ciQb wKbv ev Avcbvi K_vi m Zvj iL PjQb
wKbv Zv ciL Kivi Rb wKQz ej eeZ Gckb njv:
(Do you) know what I mean? ev Do you know
what I'm saying? ev Do you understand? ev Are
you following me? ev Are you with me? ev Have
you got it? ev Got it? ev Any questions? BZvw`|
Showing Understanding : kvZv wnme Avcwb h
AbRbi K_v eySZ cviQb Zv evSvbv|

`yRbi ga Avjvci mgq Avcwb h AbRbi K_v


eySZ cviQb Zv evSvbvi Rb K_vi gvS gvS wKQz
84

Gckb eenvi KiZ cvib| GiKg KqKwU ej


eeZ Gckb njv: I see. ev I understand. ev I
get it./I got it.
Expressing Lack of Understanding : kvZv
wnme evi K_v eySZ bv cvivwU cKvk Kiv|

Avcwb hw` kvZv nb Ges hvi m K_v ejQb Zvi ee


hw` eySZ bv ci _vKb Ze Avcwb GB bv eyS _vKvi
AevwU cKvk Kivi Rb wKQz Gckb eenvi KiZ
cvib| G `ycK mvgbvmvgwb _vKZ nq| Aek
dvbvjvcI Ggb NUZ cvi| KqKwU Gckb njv: I
don't get it. ev (I'm sorry.) I don't understand. ev
What do you mean? ev I'm not following you. ev
I don't quite follow you. ev I'm not sure I get
what you mean. ev What was that again?
Conceding to Make a Point : Abi Z_wU ^xKvi
Ki wbqI wbR ge cKvk Kiv|

AbK mgq Ggb NU h, Abi DcvwcZ Z_ mZ ej


gb wbZ nq| wK ZviciI wKQz ejvi _vK| mmgq
wKQz wekl Gckb eenvi Kiv nq| hgb: That may
85

be true, but ... ev I may be wrong, but ... ev You


might be right, but ... ev You have a good point,
but ... ev You could say that, but ... ev Correct me
if I'm wrong, but ... ev I don't mean to be rude,
but ... ev I hate to bring this up, but ... ev I don't
mean to be negative, but ... ev This may sound
strange, but ... BZvw`|
Analyzing Problems : Kvb mgmv wbq AvjvPbv|

Kvb mgmv wbq AvjvPbvi mgq c_g iZc~Y welqwU


njv g~j K_vwU AvuKo _vKv, Gw`K Iw`K wePzZ bv
nIqv| mgmvi g~j AvjvPbvwUK wbq hvIqvi Rb hme
Gckb eenvi Kiv nq Zv njv: What is the main
problem? ev What is the real issue (here)? ev (I
think) the major problem is... ev Our primary
concern is... ev The crux of the matter is... ev (As
I see it), the most important thing is... ev The
main problem we need to solve is... ev We really
need to take care of... ev It all comes down to
this... BZvw`|
86

AvjvPbvwU i nq Mj wewfb Rbi gZvgZ, civgk


BZvw` msMni cqvRb nq| m`m`i KvQ _K gZgZ
msMni Rb ek wKQz ck Kiv hvq| hgb: What
should we do about it? ev What needs to be
done? ev What do you think we should do? ev
What are we going to do about it? ev Do you
have any suggestions? ev Any ideas?
m`m`i gZvgZ AvmZ _vKj klgl civgk ev
mycvwikI Avm| AvjvPbvi GK chvq hLb m`miv wKQz
civgk `q ev mycvwik Ki, mmgq mme civgk ev
mycvwikwU Rvbvbvi mgq wKQz Gckb eenvi Kiv hZ
cvi: I recommend that ... ev I suggest that ... ev I
would like to propose that ... ev Why don't we ...
BZvw`|
Making Appointments : Kviv m mvvZi
w`bY wVK Kiv|

Kviv m mvvZi w`bY wVK Kivi Rb AbK B


Ggb NU h Avgiv m ewi ewMZ mnKvwii mvnvh
wbB| m KbfvmkbwUZ Kgb Gckb eenvi
87

nZ cvi Zvi wKQz bgybv GLvb `Iqv njv|


whwb GcqUgU Pvb wZwb ejZ cvib: I'd like to
make an appointment with Mr. Ali Ahsan
Mazumder. ev I'd like to schedule a meeting with
Ms. Yeasmin. ev Could I schedule a time to meet
with Mr. Rahman? Abc ejZ cvib: What
time is best for you? ev When would be a good
time for you? ev Would 9:00 on Thursday be
okay? ev He'll be in on Tuesday. ev His schedule
is open all day Monday. ev She's free any day
but Wednesday. ev Dr. Belal Uddin will be away
until Friday. Gici Avevi c_gRb ejZ cvib: Will
Mr. Mazumder be in tomorrow? ev Is he
available next Wednesday? ev Does he have any
openings on Tuesday? ev Does she have any
time on Thursday? Di AbRb ejZ cvib:
Sorry, her calendar is full on Monday. ev She
will be out on Wednesday. ev He doesn't have
time on Tuesday. ev How about Friday at 4:00?
Gici c_gRb Avevi ejZ cvib: Thursday at 10:00
88

will be fine. ev Friday at 11:00 sounds good. ev


Okay. Tuesday morning at 9. ev Monday at 8:00
is not good for me. ev Wednesday is not
possible. Gfve K_v GMvZ cvi|
Describing Your Company : hLvb KvR Kib m
cwZvb m^ K_v ejv|

Avcwb Kv_vq KvR Kib Zv Rvbvi Rb KD ck KiZ


cvi: What company do you work for? ev Which
company are you with? ev Who do you
represent? Di ejv hZ cvi: I work for ABC
Company. ev I'm with ABC. ev I represent (the)
XYZ (company).
Avevi ck KiZ cvi: What is the name of your
company? ev Where are you located? Di: The
name of our company is ... ev Our company is
located in ... ev Our headquarters is in ... BZvw`|
Gici RvbZ PvIqv nZ cvi h, Avcbvi Kvvwbi
Kvb welq RwoZ: What (type of business) do you
do? ev What business are you in? Di ejv hZ
89

cvi: We are in the computer business. ev We're


in computers. ev We sell ... ev We produce ... ev
We manufacture .... ev Our major products are ...
BZvw`|
Describing Projects : cK cwiKbv eYbv|

Avcwb h Kvvwb ev Awdm KvR Kib mLvb Avcwb


h cRi/KvRi m hy Zvi mvaviY eYbv `qvi
cqvRb nq| Avevi Avcwb KvDK G evcvi ckI KiZ
cvib| ck Kiv nZ cvi: What are your current
projects? ev What are you working on (at
present)? ev What are your major initiatives in
this area?
Di ne GKeviB Avcbvi cRi KvR ev cwiKbv
mswk| hgb, Ggb ejv hZ cvi: We are currently
working on ... ev We are in the process of ... ev
We are developing ... ev We are designing ... ev
We are building ... ev We are marketing ...
BZvw`| Avcbvi cwiKbvi wfwZ eeZ fvewU
cwieZb njI eeZ mbU cvUvbjv KvR Avme|
90

Talking about the Future of Company/


Project : Kvvwb ev cRi fwelr welq K_v ejv|

Avcbvi Kvvwb ev cR Gi fwelr m^ Z_ ev


cwiKbv ev Avkv RvbZ PvIqvi Rb wewfb ck Kiv hZ
cvi| hgb: What are your plans for the future? ev
What are your projections for the next quarter?
ev What do you expect to achieve (in the near
future)? ev What are your (sales) projections for
next three months? ev What are your goals for
the coming year?
Ggb Di nZ cvi: We expect ... ev We plan
to ... ev We project ... ev We hope to ... ev We
should ... ev We will be (V+ing) ... ev If all goes
as planned, ... ev Our projections are ... ev
According to our projections, ... BZvw`|
Describing Jobs : PvKzix m^ mvaviY K_vevZv|

K wK PvKzix ev Kvb ckvi KvR Kib ev RxweKvi Rb


wK Kib Zv Rvbvi Rb wewfb ck KiZ cvwi: What do
you do? ev What do you do for a living? ev What
91

is your occupation? ev What type of work do you


do? ev Where do you work? BZvw`|

Avi Di Zv ne e iKgi| KqKwU D`vniY `wL:


I'm a salesman. ev I'm in sales. ev I'm in the real
estate business. ev I'm a contractor at .... ev I'm a
consultant for .... ev I'm a specialist doctor for ....
ev I'm in the civil service. BZvw`|
Avevi ck hw` wbw` Kv_vq KvR Kwi m m^ RvbZ
PvIqv nq Zvnj Kbfvmkb Kgb nZ cvi Zv `wL:
ck: What company do you work for? Di: I
work for Raj Ceramic. ev I work at Raj Ceramic.
ev I'm with Raj Ceramic.
Kvi PvKzixZ wK `vwqZ cvjb KiZ nq Zv AbKmgq
Avgiv RvbZ Pvq| m cki I Dii aib wK nZ
cvi Zvi KqKwU bgybv `qv njv|
ck Kiv hZ cvi: What do you do (in your job)?
ev What do you do there? ev What do you do at
Darmasoft? ev What is your main job? ev What
are you in charge of? BZvw`|
92

Gme Di Ggb nZ cvi: I am in charge of


training employees. ev I am responsible for
catering snacks and lunch. ev I take care of
corporate accounts. ev I usually answer
telephones. ev I mainly write reports. ev I'm a
software engineer. ev I work in the sales
department. ev I'm in customer service. ev I work
as an instructor. ev I build houses. ev I teach
English at tertiary level. BZvw`|
Asking for Details : wevwiZ Rvbvi Rb ck Kiv|

mvaviYZ Kvb welq wevwiZ RvbZ nj WH question


cvUvb eenvi Kiv nq| ^vfvweKfveB Avgv`i wRvm
_vK: KLb, Kv_vq, Ke, wK, K, wKfve, Kgb, KZ,
Kvi, Kb BZvw`| Gevi Avgiv Zgb KqKwU D`vniY
`wL: What did you do over the weekend? ev
How was your trip? ev When did you get back?
ev What kind of things did you see in Nepal? ev
Who did you go with? ev How many people
were there? ev Whose car did you borrow?
93

Avevi wekl Ki KbvKvUvi mgq Avgiv hv wKbZ Pvq


mwU m^ wevwiZ RvbZ Pvq| m wKQz ck Kiv
nq| hgb: Could you give me some information
about this laptop? ev Can you give me more
details about that room heater? ev What can you
tell me about these blenders? ev Could you tell
me about this camera? G GLvb GKwU MvgviMZ
NUbv NU| Avgiv mvaviYfve Rvwb h, can ev could
w`q Zix nIqv ck Yes or No cvUvbi nq| wK
GLvb `qv wekl Avmj Kej nuv ev bv Di
Avkv Kiv nq bv| eis wevwiZ Di Avkv Kiv nq|
Telephone Language : dvbi fvlv|

evsjv`k GLb Avgiv cwZwbqZB dvbvjvc KiwQ| G


cm `yGKwU Gckb `Lv hvK| dvb Kviv m
K_v ejZ PvBj c_gB wMwUsm wewbgq nq| Gici Kvi
m K_v ejZ PvwQ Zv RvbvZ nq| hgb, ejZ nq:
Hello. Can I speak to ...., please? aib|
hvK PvIqv nQ wZwb wbRB dvbwU wiwmf Kij ejZ
cvib: This is Hasinul. ev Hasinul, speaking. ev
94

Speaking. G Im Hasinul ev Im Hasinul


speaking ejv appropriate ne bv|

GQvov whwb dvb wiwmf KiQb wZwb hw` KjviK bv


Pbb Zvnj wRm KiZ cvib: May I ask who's
calling? Ges Gi Di Kjvi Gfve wbRi cwiPq w`Z
cvib: This is Hasinul. ev This is Mainuls friend.
Avevi Kjvi hw` Acicvi K^i b Abygvb Kib h
wZwb hvK PvPQb wZwbB dvbwU aiQb, Zvnj ejZ
cvib (AekB informal): Is this Hasinul? Gi A_
nvwmbyj bvwK?|
hvK PvIqv nQ wZwb bv _vKj dvbwU whwb wiwmf
KiQb Zvi `vwqZ Kjvii KvQ _K gvmR bqvi
Advi Kiv| ZLb ejZ nq: Can I take a message?
Kjvi gvmR w`Z PvBj ejZ cvib: Yes, please.
Could you tell him ...bvg... called? Gici hv ejZ
PvQb Zv ejZ ne| Avevi gvmR w`Z bv PvBj Kjvi
Di ejZ cvib: No, thanks. Ill call him later.
BZvw`|
Dear user, your comments can make this publication a better one.
Th ank yo u.
95

Helpful Websites

Avgv`i evsjv`k cyw, mvwbUkb, ^viZv, G_jwUK


mgZv BZvw`Z cw_exi e `ki Pq AbK ekx
wcwQq _vKjI AvawybK chywi mjyjvi dvb eenvii
geagvb gvvq AbK ekx GwMq AvQ| Avi ZvB Aviv
AbK AbK ekx iZc~Y chyw BUvibUi mI Avgiv
wbq cwiwPZ nwQ, bvwK fyj ejjvg?
h chyw Avgv`i mvgb cvq web cqmvq vb I `Zvi
mvgvRi `yqvi Lyj em AvQ Zvi menvii Rb GLvb
gv KqKwU IqemvBUi wVKvbv `qv njv| Avcbvi hvv
i Kwiq `qvi Rb| GB eBwU Gme IqemvBUi KvQ
AbK AbK FYx ...| Best of luck !
1. http://www.bbcjanala.com
2. http://www.esl.about.com
3. http://www.britishcouncil.org/learningenglish-gateway
4. http://www.daveseslcafe.com
5. http://www.eslgold.com
6. http://www.freeenglishnow.com
7. http://www.go4english.com
96