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You are on page 1of 140

of Locally Compact Groups

By

F. Bruhat

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay

1958

(Reissued 1968)

Lectures on

Lie Groups and Representations

of Locally Compact Groups

By

F. Bruhat

Notes by

S. Ramanan

No part of this book may be reproduced in any

form by print, microlm or any other means with-

out written permission from the Tata Institute of

Fundamental Research, Colaba, Bombay 5

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay

1958

(Reissued 1968)

Introduction

We shall consider some heterogeneous topics relating to Lie groups and

the general theory of representations of locally compact groups. The

rst part exclusively deals with some elementary facts about Lie groups

and the last two parts are entirely independent of the material contained

in the rst. We have rigidly adhered to the analytic approach in estab-

lishing the relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras. Thus we do

not need the theory of distributions on a manifold or the existence of

integral manifolds for an involutory distribution.

The second part concerns itself only with the general theory of mea-

sures on a locally compact group and representations in general. Only a

passing reference is made to distributions (in the sense of L. Schwartz),

and induced representations are not treated in detail.

In the third part, we rst construct the continuous sum (the direct

integral) of Hilbert spaces and then decompose a unitary representa-

tions into a continuous sum of irreducible representations. We derive

the Plancherel formula for a separable unimodular group in terms of

factorial representations and derive the classical formula in the abelian

case.

iii

Contents

Introduction iii

I Lie Groups 1

1 Topological groups 3

2 Local study of Lie groups 9

3 Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I 19

4 Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II 31

II General Theory of Representations 47

5 Measures on locally compact spaces 47

6 Convolution of measures 53

7 Invariant measures 61

8 Regular Representations 73

9 General theory of representations 83

v

vi Contents

III Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces 89

10 Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I 91

11 Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II 103

12 The Plancherel formula 115

Bibliography 127

Part I

Lie Groups

1

Chapter 1

Topological groups

1.1

We here assemble some results on topological groups which we need in 1

the sequel.

Denition. A topological group G is a topological space with a compo-

sition law G G G, (x, y) xy which is

(a) a group law, and

(b) such that the map G G G dened by (x, y) x

1

y is contin-

uous.

The condition (b) is clearly equivalent to the requirement that the

maps G G G dened by (x, y) xy and G G dened by

x x

1

be continuous.

It is obvious that the translations to the right: x xy are homeo-

morphisms of G. A similar statement is true for left translations also.

We denote by A

1

, AB the subsets a

1

: a A, ab : a A, b B re-

spectively. It is immediate from the denition that the neighbourhoods

of the identity element e satisfy the following conditions:

(V

1

) For every neighbourhood V of e, there exists a neighbourhood

W of e such that W

1

W V. (This follows from the fact that

(x, y) x

1

y is continuous).

3

4 1. Topological groups

(V

2

) For every neighbourhood V of e and for every y G, there exists

a neighbourhood W of e such that yWy

1

V. (This is because

x yxy

1

is continuous).

These conditions are also sucient to determine the topology of the

group. More precisely,

Proposition 1. Let V be a family of subsets of a groups G, such that 2

(a) For every V V , e V.

(b) Any nite intersection of elements of V is still in V .

(c) For every V V , there exists W V such that W

1

W V.

(d) For every V V , and for every y G there exists W V such

that yWy

1

V.

Then G can be provided with a unique topology compatible with

the group structure such that the family V is a fundamental system of

neighbourhoods at e.

Supposing that such a topology exists, a fundamental system of

neighbourhoods at y is given by either V y or yV . It is, therefore, a

natural requirement that these two families generate the same lter. It is

this that necessitates the condition (d).

We may now take the lter generated by yV and V y as the neigh-

bourhood system at y. This can be veried to satisfy the neighbourhood

axioms for a topology. It remains to show that (xy) x

1

y is continu-

ous.

Let Vx

1

0

y

0

be any neighbourhood of x

1

0

y

0

. By (c), (d), there exist

W, W

1

V such that W

1

W V and x

1

0

y

0

W

1

y

1

0

x

0

W. If we take

x x

0

W, y y

0

W

1

, we have x

1

y W

1

x

1

0

y

0

W

1

W

1

Wx

1

0

y

0

Vx

1

0

y

0

. This shows that (x, y) x

1

y is continuous.

Examples of topological groups.

(1) Any group G with the discrete topology.

Topological groups 5

(2) The additive group of real numbers R or the multiplicative group

of non-zero real numbers R

(3) The direct product of two topological groups with the product 3

topology.

(4) The general linear group GL(n, R) with the topology induced by

that of R

n

2

.

(5) Let X be a locally compact topological space, and G a group of

homeomorphisms of X onto itself. This group G is a topologi-

cal group with the compact open topology. (The compact-open

topology is one in which the fundamental system of neighbour-

hoods of the identity is given by nite intersections of the sets

u(K, U) = f G : f (x) U, f

1

(x) U for every x K, K

being compact and U an open set containing K).

1.2 Topological subgroups.

Let G be a topological group and g a subgroup in the algebraic sense.

g with the induced topology is a topological group which we shall call

a topological subgroup of G. We see immediately that the closure g is

again a subgroup.

If g is a normal subgroup, so is g. Moreover, an open subgroup is

also closed. In fact, if g is open, G g =

_

xg

xg, which is open as left

translations are homeomorphisms. Hence g is closed.

Let now V be a neighbourhood of e and g the subgroup generated

by the elements of V. g is open containing as it does a neighbourhood

of every element belonging to it. Consequently it is also closed. So that

we have

Proposition 2. If G is a connected topological group, any neighbour-

hood of e generates G.

On the contrary, if G is not connected, the connected component G

0

4

of e is a closed normal subgroup of G. Since G

0

xG

0

G

1

0

G

0

is contin-

uous and G

0

xG

0

connected, G

1

0

G

0

is also connected, and hence G

0

.

6 1. Topological groups

This shows that G

0

is a subgroup. As x yxy

1

is continuous, yG

0

y

1

is a connected set containing e and consequently G

0

. Therefore, G

0

is

a normal subgroup.

Proposition 3. Every locally compact topological group is paracom-

pact.

In fact, let V be a relatively compact open symmetric neighbourhood

of e. G

_

n=1

V

n

is an open and hence closed subgroup of G. G

is

countable at and therefore paracompact. Since G is the topological

union of left cosets modulo G

, G is also paracompact.

1.3 Factor groups.

Let g be a subgroup of a topological group G. We shall denote by x

the right coset gx containing x. On this set, we already have the quotient

topology. Then the canonical map : G G/g is open and continuous.

For, if (U) is the image of an open set U in G, it is also the image of

gU which is an open saturated set. Hence (U) is also open. But this

canonical map is not, in general, closed. The space G/g is called a

homogeneous space. If g is a normal subgroup, G/g is a group and is a

topological group with the above topology. This is the factor group of

G by g.

1.4 Separation axiom.

Theorem 1. The homogeneous space G/g is Hausdor if and only if the

subgroup g is closed.

If G/g is Hausdor, g =

1

((e)) is closed, since (e) is closed. 5

Conversely, let g be closed. Let x, y G/g and x y. Since xy

1

g

and g is closed, there exists a symmetric neighbourhood V of the identity

such that xy

1

V g = . Hence xy

1

gV. Now choose a neighbour-

hood W of e such that WW

1

y

1

Vy. We assert that gxW and gyW

are disjoint. For, if they were not,

1

,

2

g, w

1

, w

2

W exist such that

1

xw

1

=

2

yw

2

; i.e.

1

2

1

x = yw

2

w

1

1

yWW

1

Vy.

Topological groups 7

Hence

1

2

1

xy

1

V, or xy

1

1

1

2

V gV.

This being contradictory to the choice of V, gxW, gyW are disjoint

or (gxW) (gyW) = . Hence G/g is Hausdor.

In particular, if g = e, G is Hausdor if and only if e is closed. On

the other hand, if e is not closed, e is a normal subgroup and G/e is

a Hausdor topological group. We shall hereafter restrict ourselves to

the consideration of groups which satisfy Hausdors axiom.

1.5 Representations and homomorphisms.

Denition . A representation h of a topological group G into a topo-

logical group H is a continuous map : G H which is an algebraic

representation. In other words, h(xy) = h(x) h(y) for every x, y G.

Obviously the image of G by h is a subgroup of H and the kernel N

of h is a closed normal subgroup of G. The canonical map

h : G/N

H is a representation and is one-one.

Denition. A representation h is said to be a homomorphism if the in-

duced map

h is a homeomorphism.

Proposition 4. Let G and H be two locally compact groups, the former 6

being countable at . Then every representation h of G onto H is a

homomorphism.

It is enough to show that for every neighbourhood V of e in G/N,

neighbourhood W of e such that

W

W

1

V. G is a countable union

of compact sets and

_

xG

Wx = G. Therefore, one can nd a sequence

x

j

of points such that G =

_

j

Wx

j

. Since h is onto, H =

_

j

h(Wx

j

) =

_

j

h(W)h(x

j

). H is a locally compact space and hence a Baire space

(Bourbaki, Topologie g en erale, Ch. 9). There exists, therefore, an in-

teger j such that h(Wx

j

) has an interior point. h(

W) being compact,

h(

W) = h(W). Consequently, h(

W)h(x

j

) and hence h(W) has an interior

point y. There exists a neighbourhood U of e such that h(

W) Uy.

Now h(V) h(

W

W

1

) = h(

(W) h

(W)

1

Uy(y

1

U

1

) = UU

1

.

h(V) is therefore a neighbourhood of h(e), which completes the proof of

proposition 4.

Chapter 2

Local study of Lie groups

2.1

7

Denition. ALie group G is a real analytic manifold with a composition

law (x, y) xy which is

(a) a group law, and

(b) such that the map (x, y) x

1

y is analytic.

(b) is equivalent to the analyticity of the maps (x, y) xy and x

x

1

.

Remarks. (1) A Lie group is trivially a topological group.

(2) We may replace real by complex and dene the notion of a

complex Lie group. We shall not have occasion to study complex

Lie groups in what follows, though most of the theorems we prove

remain valid for them.

(3) It is natural to inquire whether every topological group with the

structure of a topological manifold is a Lie group. This problem

(Hilberts fth problem) has been recently solved by Gleason [18]

who has proved that a topological group G which is locally com-

pact, locally connected, metrisable and of nite dimension, is a

Lie group.

9

10 2. Local study of Lie groups

Examples of Lie groups.

(1) R - real numbers, C - complex numbers,

T - the one-dimensional torus and R

n

, C

n

and T

n

in the usual

notation are all Lie groups.

(2) Product of Lie groups with the product manifold structure is a Lie 8

group.

(3) GL(n, R) - the general linear group.

2.2 Local study of Lie groups.

We shall assume that V is a suciently small neighbourhood of e in

which a suitably chosen coordinate system, which taken e into the ori-

gin, is dened.

The following notations will be adhered to throughout these lec-

tures:

If a V, (a

1

, . . . , a

n

) will denote the coordinate of a. = (

1

, . . . ,

n

) is a multi-index with

i

, non-negative integers.

=

1

+

2

+ +

n

[i] will stand for with

i

= 1 and

j

= 0 for j i.

! =

1

! . . .

n

!

x

= x

1

1

. . . x

n

n

1

++

n

x

1

1

x

n

n

Let x, y V be such that xy V. (xy)

i

are analytic functions of the

coordinate of x and y.

(1) (xy)

i

=

i

(x

1

, . . . , x

n

, y

1

, . . . , y

n

) where the

i

are analytic func-

tions of the 2n variables x, y in a neighbourhood of 0 in R

2n

.

These

i

cannot be arbitrary functions, as they are connected by

the group relations. These are reected in the following equa-

tions:

(x e)

i

= (e x)

i

= x

i

, or

Local study of Lie groups 11

(2)

i

(x, e) =

i

(e, x) = x

i

. 9

The

i

are analytic functions and so are of the form

i

(x, y) =

, i = 1, 2, . . . , n

By equation (2), this can be written

(3)

i

(x, y) = x

i

+ y

i

+

_

1

1

i

,

x

.

By associativity,

i

(xy, z) =

i

(x, yz), or

i

(

1

(x, y), . . . ,

n

(x, y), z) =

i

(x,

1

(y, z), . . . ,

n

(y, z)).

These may also be written

(4)

i

((x, y), z) =

i

(x, (y, z)).

One is tempted to expect another equation in

i

, due to the exis-

tence of the inverse of every element. However, these two equations are

sucient to characterise locally the Lie group, and the existence of the

inverse is, in a certain sense, a consequence of the associative law and

the existence of the identity. To be more precise,

Proposition 1. Let G be the semigroup with an identity element e. If

it can be provided with the structure of an analytic manifold such that

the map (x, y) xy of GxG G is analytic, then there exists an open

neighbourhood of e which is a Lie group.

In fact, the existence of the inverse element of x depends upon the

existence of the solution for y of

i

(x, y) = 0, 1 = 1, . . . , n. Now

i

x

j

=

i j

+ terms containing positive powers of the y

i

. If we put y = e, the

latter terms vanish and

_

i

(x, y)

x

j

_

y=e

=

i j

.

12 2. Local study of Lie groups

Hence 10

J = det

_

i

(x, y)

x

j

_

y=e

= 1

J being a continuous function of x and y, J 0 in some neighbourhood

V

which has an inverse. Then the neighbourhood W =

_

n=1

(V V

1

)

n

is

a group compatible with the manifold structure.

2.3 Formal Lie groups.

Denition. A formal Lie group over a commutative ring A with unit el-

ements, is a system of n formal series

i

in 2n variables with coecients

in A such that

i

(x

1

, . . . , x

n

, 0, 0, . . .) = x

i

=

i

(0, 0, . . . , x

1

, . . . , x

n

)

and

i

(

1

(x, y), . . . ,

n

(x, y), z) =

i

(x,

1

(y, z), . . . ,

n

(y, z)).

Almost all that we prove in the next few lectures will be valid for

formal Lie groups over a eld of characteristic zero also. For a study of

formal Lie groups over a eld of characteristic p 0, one may see, for

instance, [9], [10].

2.4 Taylors formula.

Let f be a function on an open neighbourhood of e, and let

y

,

z

denote

respectively the right and left translates of f dened by

y

f (x) = f (xy);

z

f (x) = f (z

1

x) for suciently small y and z. These two operators

commute,

i.e.

y

(

z

f ) =

z

(

y

f )

If f is analytic in V,

y

f is (for y W) analytic in W, where W is a

neighbourhood of e such that W

2

V.

Now, 11

Local study of Lie groups 13

i

f (x) = f (

1

(x, y), . . . ,

n

(x, y))

with

i

(x, y) = x

i

+ y

i

+

1

1

i

,

x

.

If we set

u

i

= y

i

+

1

1

i

,

x

y

f (x) = f (x+u) in the usual notation. This can be expanded as a Taylor

series

y

f (x) =

1

!

u

f

x

(x).

We may now substitute for the u

i

in this convergent series.

u

= u

1

u

n

n

=

_

y

1

+

1

1

1

,

x

1

. . .

= y

(x)y

g

= 1, and hence g

0

= 0 for

every . Thus

y

f (x) =

1

!

f

x

(x)(y

(x)y

).

These are uniformly absolutely convergent in a suitable neighbour-

hood of e, on the explicit choice of which we shall not meticulously

insist. Hence the above formula can be written as

y

f (x) =

(

1

!

f

x

(x) +

(x)

1

!

f

x

(x)).

14 2. Local study of Lie groups

This we shall denote by

y

f (x) =

1

!

y

f (x)

where

the generalised Taylors formula we sought establish.

2.5 Study of the operator

.

Now,

+

_

(x)

!

!

with g

(e) = 0. Since at x = e,

, the

is

the identity operator and if 0,

0

= 0.

Let us denote

[i]

by X

i

. Then X

i

=

x

1

+

_

j

a

i j

(x)

x

j

, with a

i j

(e) =

0. These are vector elds in a neighbourhood of e. Now we shall use

the fact that, for every y, z G, the operators

z

and

y

commute. We

have

z

(

y

f ) =

z

(

1

!

y

f ) =

1

!

y

(

z

)( f )

and, on the other hand,

y

(

z

f ) =

1

!

y

(

z

f ).

Therefore, by the uniqueness of the expansion in power-series in y of

z

(

y

f ) =

y

(

z

f ), we have

z

z

, for every z in a suciently

small neighbourhood of e. Otherwise stated,

neighbourhood. This enables us to dene

group by setting

f (z) =

z

1

z

f (z), so that the extended operator

remains left invariant.

Theorem 1. The linear dierential operators

algebra of left invariant dierential operators.

Local study of Lie groups 15

We have already remarked that the

Let D be any left invariant linear dierential operator on G. Then D = 13

_

r

b

(x)

_

r

b

(e)

. Obviously,

z

=

z

. At e, D = , and by the left invariance

of both D and , D = everywhere. This proves our contention that

the

We shall hereafter denote this algebra by 1(G).

2.6 The Lie algebra of a Lie group G.

Let G be the subspace of 1(G) generated by the X

i

. This is the same

as the subspace composed of vector elds which are left invariant. This

is obviously isomorphic as a vector space to the tangent space at e. If

there are two vector elds X, Y, then XY is an operator of order 2, as

also YX. But XY YX is a left invariant vector eld, as can be easily

veried. Lef [X, Y] stand for this composition law. It is not hard to see

that this bracket operation satises

[X, Y] = 0, and [[X, Y], Z] + [[Y, Z], X] + [[Z, X], Y] = 0.

This leads us to the following

Denition. A Lie algebra g over a eld, is a vector space with a compo-

sition law [X, Y] which is a bilinear map gg g satisfying [X, X] = 0,

and the Jacobis identity, viz.

[[X, Y], Z] + [[Y, Z], X] + [[Z, X], Y] = 0.

Example. (1) The left invariant vector elds of a Lie group form a

Lie algebra.

(2) Any vector space 1 with the composition Law [X, Y] = 0 for

every X, Y 1 is a Lie algebra.

Such an algebra is called an abelian Lie algebra. 14

16 2. Local study of Lie groups

(3) Any associative algebra with the bracket operation

[X, Y] = XY YX

is a Lie algebra.

In particular, the matrix algebra M

n

(K) over a eld K and the space

of endomorphisms of a vector space 1 are Lie algebras.

Denition. A subspace J of a Lie algebra g is a subalgebra if for every

x, y J, [x, y] J.

A subspace 1 of a Lie algebra g is an ideal, if for every x 1,

y g, [x, y] 1.

Example. (1) The set of all matrices in M

n

(K) whose traces are zero

is an ideal of M

n

(K).

(2) The set of all elements z g such that [z, x] = 0 for every x g is

an ideal of g, called centre of g.

If 1 is an ideal in g, the quotient space g/

1

can be provided with

the structure of a Lie algebra by dening [(x+1), (y+1)] = [x, y] +1.

This is called the factor algebra of g by 1.

2.7 Representations of a Lie algebra.

Denition. A representation of a Lie algebra g in another Lie algebra

g

is a linear map f such that f ([x, y]) = [ f (x), f (y)] for every x, y g.

It can be veried that the image of g by f and the kernel of f are

subalgebras of g

g/ ker f is isomorphic to f (g).

In particular, g

a vector space V, leading us to the denition of a linear representation

of g.

Denition. A linear representation of a Lie algebra g in a vector space

V is a representation of g into the Lie algebra of endomorphisms of V.

Local study of Lie groups 17

2.8 Adjoint representation.

Let g be a Lie algebra and x g. The map g g dened by y [x, y]

is a linear map of g into itself. This map is denoted adx. Thus, adx

(y) = [x, y].

Remarks. (1) Ad x is a derivation of the Lie algebra. We recall here

the denition of a derivation in an algebra g, associative or not. A

linear map D of g into itself is a derivation if for any two elements

x, y g, we have D(xy) = x(Dy) + (Dx)y. In a Lie algebra

derivations of the type ad x are called inner derivations.

(2) x ad x is a linear map of g into the Lie algebra of endomor-

phisms of the vector space g.

This is, moreover, a linear representation of g in g. The verication

of the relation ad[x, y] = [adx, ady] is an immediate consequence of

Jacobis identity.

This linear representation will henceforth be referred to as the ad-

joint representation of g.

Chapter 3

Relations between Lie groups

and Lie algebras - I

3.1 Dierential of an analytic representation.

16

Denition. An analytic representation of a Lie group G into a Lie group

G

Remark. It is true, as we shall see later (Cor. to Th. 4, Ch. 4.5) that

any representation of the underlying topological group G in G

is itself

a representation in the above sense.

We now seek to establish a correspondence between analytic repre-

sentations of Lie groups and algebraic representations of their Lie alge-

bras. As a rst step, we prove the following

Proposition 1. To every analytic representation h : G G

there

corresponds a map dh : 1(G) 1(G

) which is a representation of

algebras such that ( f h) = (dh() f ) h.

Let y G and y

, we have

y

( f h)(x) = f (h(xy)) = f (h(x)h(y)) = (

y

f ) h(x).

We may now write down the Taylor formula for both sides of the

equation and equate the coecients of powers of y (by the uniqueness

19

20 3. Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I

of development in power series). We have

1

!

y

( f h) = (

!

y

f ) h.

But h being an analytic map, (h(y))

i

=

_

. There is no con-

stant term in this summation since (h(y))

i

= 0 at y = e. Hence y

=

_

, where

equation, we obtain

1

!

y

( f h) =

(

1

f ) h

=

f ) h.

the series being uniformly absolutely convergent. If D

denotes

_

( f h) =

(D

since its

value at e given by D

f (e

) =

( f h)(e). As the

form a basis

for 1(G) in G, we may dene a linear map dh : 1(G) 1(G

) by

setting dh(

) = D

(G). To complete the proof of proposition 1, one has only to show

that dh(

1

2

) = dh(

1

)dh(

2

). But this is obvious since

(dh(

1

2

) f ) h =

1

2

( f h)

=

1

(dh(

2

) f h)

= (dh(

1

dh(

2

) f ) h.

Now, dh(

) =

_

that of

Also, dh preserves constant terms. The image of g is in g

, and by Propo-

sition 1, dh restricted to g is a Lie algebra representation. This is said to

be the dierential of the map h.

Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I 21

Remarks. (1) If we have another representation h

: G

, it is

obvious that d(h

h) = dh

dh.

(2) If h is an analytic map of a manifold V into a manifold W, then 18

we can dene the dierential of h at x, viz., dh

x

: T

x

T

h(x)

where T

x

, T

h(x)

are tangent spaces at the respective points. This

map makes correspond to a tangent vector X at x, the vector X

h(x). However, we cannot, in general, dene the image a vector

eld. As we have seen, in the case of Lie groups, as long as

one is considering only left invariant vector elds, one can talk

of an image vector eld. Thus we now have, corresponding to

an analytic representation of a Lie group G into another Lie group

G

space at a into that at h(e) = e

algebra of G in that of G

same in the following sense. Let ,

space isomorphisms of g, g

with T

e

, T

e

respectively. Then the

diagram

g

dh

//

T

e

dh

e

//

T

e

is commutative.

Proposition 2. Let G and G

representation of G G

is surjective.

Proposition 3. A representation h of a Lie group G in another Lie group

G

h is injective) if and only if dh is injective.

These two propositions are consequences of the corresponding prop- 19

erties of manifolds, the proofs of which we omit.

22 3. Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I

3.2 Subgroups of a Lie group.

Denition. An analytic map f of a manifold U into another manifold

V is said to be regular at a point x in U if the dierential map d f

x

is

injective.

Denition . A submanifold of an analytic manifold U is a pair (V, )

consisting of a manifold V which is countable at and an injective

analytic map of V into U which is everywhere regular.

Remarks. (1) The topology on (V) is not that induced from the

topology of U in general. For instance, if T

2

is the two - di-

mensional torus, V the space of real numbers, and the map

t (t, t) of V into T

2

, where is irrational, it is easy to see that

is an injective, analytic, regular map. But cannot be a home-

omorphism of V into T

2

. For, every neighbourhood of (0, 0) in

T

2

contains points (t, t) with arbitrarily large values of t. Hence,

the inverse image of this neighbourhood in (U) with the induced

topology can never be contained in a given neighbourhood of 0

in R.

(2) Nevertheless, it is true that locally, for every point x of V, there

exist neighbourhoods W in V and W

1

in U which satisfy the fol-

lowing : A coordinate system (x

1

, . . . , x

n

) can be dened in W

1

such that W is dened by the annihilation of certain coordinates.

Denition. A Lie subgroup of a Lie group G is a submanifold (H, ), 20

(H) being a subgroup of G.

We dene on H the group structure obtained by requiring that be

a monomorphism. Since the map of H in G is regular, locally the

analytic structure of H is induced form that of G. Hence the group op-

erations in H are analytic in H, as they are analytic in G. H is therefore

a Lie group.

Proposition 4. The Lie algebra of a Lie subgroup of a Lie group G can

be identied with a subalgebra of the Lie algebra of G.

Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I 23

In fact, if (H, ) is the subgroup, is a representation of H in G and

d is injective since is regular. We identify the Lie algebra S of H

with the subalgebra d(S) or g.

3.3 One-parameter subgroups.

Denition. An analytic representation of R into G is said to be a one-

parameter subgroup of G.

We know that the representation gives rise to a dierential map d

of the Lie algebra of R (spanned by

d

dt

) into the Lie algebra of G. Let

d(

d

dt

) = X =

_

j

X

j

. We now form the dierential equations satised

by the function .

Let (x

1

, x

2

, . . . x

n

) be a coordinate system in a neighbourhood of e in

G and Let

i

denote x

i

. Now

i

(t + t

) =

1

((t), (t

))

(

i

(t + t

)) =

i

y

1

((t), (t

)).

d

k

dt

(t)

Putting t

= 0, we get

d

i

dt

(t) =

k

d

k

dt

(0)

i

y

k

((t), e).

21

If X

i

=

[i]

, we have

X

i

=

x

i

+

j

a

i j

(x)

x

j

with a

i j

(e) = 0.

Since (X f ) =

d

dt

( f ) for every function analytic at e, we get

d

i

dt

= (Xx

i

) by setting f = x

i

.

Hence

d

i

dt

(0) = (Xx

i

) (0)

24 3. Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I

= Xx

i

(e)

=

(

j

X

j

)x

i

(e)

=

i

.

To sum up, satises the system of dierential equations

(A)

d

i

dt

=

_

k

k

i

y

k

((t), e)

with the initial condition

(B)

i

(0) = 0.

(A) implies

d

i

dt

(0) =

i

.

Now, conversely if are given the system of dierential equations (A)

with the initial condition (B), then by Cauchys theorem on the exis-

tence and uniqueness of solutions of dierential equations, there exists

one and only one solution t (t, ) which is analytic in t and in a

neighbourhood of (0, ). We shall now show that (t + u) = (t) (u)

for suciently small values of t and u.

Let 22

i

(t) =

i

((u), (t)). Then

d

i

dt

=

i

y

i

((u), (t))

d

l

dt

(t)

=

k, j

i

y

l

((u), (t))

l

y

k

((t), e)

since the

i

are solutions of (A). On the other hand, we have

i

((u)(t), y) =

i

((u), (t)y)

=

i

((u), ((t), y))

i

y

k

((u)(t), y) =

n

l=1

i

y

l

((u), (t)y)

l

y

k

((t), y).

Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I 25

Hence,

d

i

dt

=

i

y

k

(

(t), e).

i.e.

i

is a solution of (A) with the initial condition (C):

i

(0) =

i

(e, (u)) =

i

(u).

Also, t (t) = (t + u) is a solution of (A) since the dierential

equation (A) is a invariant for translations of it. Also (0) = (u).

Hence

i

and

i

are two sets of solutions of (A) with the same initial

conditions, and therefore

i

(t) = (t + u), i.e.

i

((t), (u)) =

i

(t + u).

or (t)(u) = (t + u) for suciently small values of t and u. Also this

map t (t, X) is analytic. We assume the following

Lemma 1. Let H be a connected, locally connected and simply con- 23

nected topological and f a local homomorphism of H G (i.e. a con-

tinuous map of a neighbourhood of e into H such that f (xy) = f (x) f (y)

for all x, y such that x, y, xy V). Then there exists one and only one

representation

f of H in G which coincides with f on V.

We immediately obtain (since R is simply connected), the

Theorem 1. For every X g, there exists one and only one one - pa-

rameter subgroup (t, X) such that d

(d)

dt

= X. The function (t, X) is

analytic in t and X.

One can assign to any nite dimensional vector space over the real

number eld a manifold structure which is induced by that of the real

numbers. In particular, The Lie algebra of a Lie group also has an ana-

lytic structure. Whenever we talk of an analytic map into of from a Lie

algebra, it is to this analytic structure that we refer.

Proof of the Lemma Consider the Cartesian set product

H = H G.

We provide

H with a topology by dening the neighbourhood system at

each point (x, y) in the following way:

26 3. Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I

Let W be a neighbourhood of e in H V, where V can be assumed

to be connected since H is locally connected. The fundamental sys-

tem of neighbourhoods at (x, y) is given by N(W, x, y) = (x

, y

) : x

xW, y

= y f (x

1

x

bourhood axioms for a topology, and that

H with the usual projection

: H G H is a covering space of H. Let H

1

be the connected

component of (e, e) in

H. Then H

1

is a connected, covering space of H

and since H is simply connected, is a homeomorphism of H

1

onto H.

Let be its inverse. Dene

f (x) =

2

(x) for every x in H where 24

2

: H G G is the second projection. N(W, x, y) is mapped home-

omorphically by onto xW. Hence N(W, x, y) H

1

if W is connected

and (x, y) H

1

. It follows that

f is a representation which extends f .

3.4 The exponential map.

We shall denote (t, X) by exp(tX).

But such a notation involves the tacit assumption that (t, X) de-

pends only on tX. In other words, one has to make sure that (1, sX) =

(s, X) before such a notation becomes permissible. But this is obvious

in as much as t (st, X) is a one -parameter subgroup with d

(d)

d(st)

=

X or d

(d)

dt

= sX. The one-parameter subgroup such that d

(d)

dt

= sX

is, by denition, t (t, sX). By uniqueness of the one-parameter sub-

groups, (st, X) = (t, sX), or in particular, (s, X) = (1, sX). It is easy

to see that exp(tX) exp(t

X) = exp(t + t

1

.

But, in general, exp Y exp Y

exp(Y + Y

).

Theorem 2. The map h : X exp X of g into G is an analytic iso-

morphism of a neighbourhood of 0 in g onto a neighbourhood of e in

G.

In fact, since h is an analytic map, it is enough to show that the

Jacobian of the map h 0 in a neighbourhood of the origin. (X

1

, . . . , X

n

)

form a basis for g, where X

i

=

[i]

.

h

_

i

y

i

X

i

_

_

= exp(

i

y

i

X

i

)

Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I 27

h

j

y

k

(0) =

d

dt

(exp tX

k

)

j

(t = 0) = (X

k

x

j

)

x=e

=

jk

.

i.e. the jacobian = 1 at e. By continuity, the Jacobian does not vanish in 25

a neighbourhood of e.

Now, let X

1

, . . . , X

n

be an arbitrary basis of g. This can be trans-

ported into a system of coordinates in G by means of the above map.

For every x G suciently near e, there exists one and only one system

(x

1

, . . . , x

n

) near 0 such that x = exp(

_

i

x

i

X

i

).

This system of coordinates is called the canonical system of coordi-

nates with respect to any given basis. Hereafter, we will almost always

operate only with a canonical system of coordinates.

Remark. Let x V, V being a neighbourhood of e in which a canonical

coordinate system exists and x is suciently near e. Now, if

x = exp(

i

x

i

X

i

),

x

p

= exp(

i

(px

i

)X

i

),

i.e. the coordinates of x

p

are (px

1

, . . . , px

n

).

Proposition 5. Let h be a representation of G in H, and dh : g / its

dierential. Then the diagram

g

exp

dh

//

S

exp

G

h

//

H

is commutative.

Consider t

h(exp tX).

This is obviously a one-parameter subgroup, and d

= dh d.

Therefore

h(exp X) = exp(d

(

d

dt

))

28 3. Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I

= exp(dh(X)).

It follows, therefore, that if h(G) = (e), dh is the map g (0).

Conversely, if dh = C, and G connected, h(exp X) = e for every 26

element in a neighbourhood of e, and h = e. Again, if G is connected

and two representations h

1

, h

2

of G in H are such that dh

1

= dh

2

, then

h

1

= h

2

.

Proposition 6. For every analytic function f on a neighbourhood of e,

we have

f (exp tX) =

n=0

t

n

n!

(X

n

f )(e).

In fact,

d

dt

f (exp tX) = (X f )(exp tX).

By induction on n, we have

d

n

dt

n

f (exp tX) = (X

n

f )(exp tX)

or

_

d

n

dt

n

f (exp tX)

_

t=0

= X

n

f (e).

Now, f (exp tX) is an analytic function of t and by Taylors formula,

we have

f (exp tX) =

n=0

t

n

n!

(X

n

f )(e)

Theorem 3. In canonical coordinates, we have

=

!

!

S

where S

is the coecient of t

in the expansion of (

_

n

i=1

t

i

X

i

)

and S

1(G).

In fact, it is enough to prove the equality of

and

!

!

S

at e since

both

and S

f (y) =

y

f (e) =

1

!

y

f (e) with

f (e) =

_

f (y)

_

y=e

Relations between Lie groups and Lie algebras - I 29

y = exp(

_

y

i

X

i

) where y

i

are the canonical coordinates of y.

Therefore 27

f (y) = f (exp(

y

i

X

i

))

=

p=0

1

p!

_

(

y

i

X

i

)p

f

_

(e)

by Prop. 6, chapter 3, 5.

Taking partial derivatives at y = e, we have

f (y) at y = e is

!

!

(S

f )(e).

Hence, Delta

f (e) =

!

!

S

Chapter 4

Relation between Lie groups

and Lie algebras - II

4.1 The enveloping algebras.

28

Let g be a Lie algebra, and T the tensor algebra of the underlying vector

space of g. Consider the two-sided ideal I generated in T By the ele-

ments of the form x y y x [x, y]. Then the associative algebra T/I

is said to be the universal enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra g.

Denition. Alinear map h of al Lie algebra g into as associative algebra

A is said to be a linearisation if h([x, y]) = h(x)h(y) h(y)h(x) for every

x, y g.

We have obviously a canonical map of g in to T/I, which we shall

denote by j.

Proposition 1. To any linearisation f of g in an associative algebra A,

there corresponds one and only one representation

f of T/I in such that

f j = f .

In fact, f being a linear map, it can be lifted uniquely into a rep-

resentation

f of the tensor algebra T in A. Obviously, the kernel of

f

contains elements of the form x y y x [x, y] and hence contains I.

Hence this gives rise to a map

f with the required property.

31

32 4. Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II

4.2 The Birkho-Witt theorem.

With reference to the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra of a

Lie group, we have the following

Theorem 1. The algebra of left invariant dierential operators 1 is 29

canonically isomorphic to the universal enveloping algebra of the Lie

algebra.

In fact, the inclusion map of the Lie algebra g into 1 can be lifted

to a representation of the enveloping algebra 1

of g in 1 by propo-

sition 1. It only remains to show that this map h : 1

1 is an

isomorphic. If S

is the coecient of t

in the expansion of (

n

_

i=1

t

i

X

i

)

,

it has been proved (Th. 3, Ch. 3.4) that S

is an

operators of the form

_

(. . .)X

i

1

X

i

, where X

i

1

X

i

are obtained

by certain permutations of x

i

1

X

n

n

. Let S

form

_

(. . .)X

i

1

. . . X

i

, where S

=

_

(. . .)X

i

1

. . . x

i

. By denition

of h, we have h(S

) = S

therefore sucient to show that the S

generate 1

. We shall do this

showing that the S

r

of tensors of order

r modulo I. The statement being trivially true for r = 0, we shall

assume it veried for (r 1) and prove it for r. Again, it is enough to

prove that S

r

of tensors of order = r,

modulo I + T

r1

. Let X

i

1

X

i

r

be an element T

r

. Then

X

i

1

X

i

2

. . . X

i

r

X

i

2

X

i

1

X

i

3

. . . +

_

X

i

1

, X

i

2

_

X

i

3

. . . mod I.

Hence, if is a permutation of (1, 2, . . . , r),

X

i

1

X

i

2

. . . X

i

r

X

i

(1)

. . . X

i

(r)

mod (T

r1

+ I)

by successive transpositions. Now, S

=

_

X

i

(1)

. . . x

i

(r)

, where 30

1

(

)X

i

1

. . . X

i

r

S

mod (T

r1

+ I).

Since

(

) 0, X

i

1

. . . X

i

r

kS

mod (T

r1

+ I),

Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II 33

and hence the theorem is completely proved.

Incidentally we have proved that the Lie algebra g can be embedded

in its universal enveloping algebra by the natural map h. This is known

as the Birkho-Witt theorem, and it true in the more general case when

the Lie algebra is over a principal ideal ring.

4.3 Group law in terms of structural constants.

We now show that the Lie algebra of a Lie group completely charac-

terises the group locally. In other words, the group laws of the Lie group

can be expressed in terms of the structural constants of its Lie algebra.

(If (X)

A

be a basis of the Lie algebra, and [X

i

, X

j

] =

_

k

C

k

i, j

X

k

, C

k

i, j

are called the structural constants of the Lie algebra).

Theorem 2. Lie groups having isomorphic Lie algebras are locally iso-

morphic. If they are connected and simply connected, they are isomor-

phic.

Choose a basis X

1

, . . . , X

n

of the Lie algebra g. If

i

(x) be the i

th

coordinates of x in the canonical of coordinates with respect to the above

basis we have.

i

(x, y) =

i

(xy) =

y

i

(x) =

1

!

y

i

(x)

But

i

(x) =

x

(

i

)(e)

=

1

!

x

i

)(e).

Hence 31

i

(x, y) =

,

1

!

1

!

y

i

)(e).

If

= d

,

are completely known, once the Lie algebra g is given, because

=

!

!

S

. Since

i

(e) = (

r

x

r

xi

)

x=e

=

1 if r=[i]

0 if r[i]

34 4. Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II

we have

i

(x, y) =

,

d

[i]

,

!!

x

.

Thus the group law is completely determined by the constants d

[i]

,

.

If two Lie groups have isomorphic Lie algebras, the constants d

[i]

,

are

the same for both, and the group operation is given locally by the above

formula, which is to say the groups are locally isomorphic. By Lemma

1, Ch. 3.3, if the groups are connected and simply connected, they are

isomorphic.

We can compute the constants d

[i]

,

in terms of the structural con-

stants of the Lie algebra and obtain a universal formula (i.e. a for-

mula which is the same for all Lie groups - the CampbellHausdor

formula). For instance, if is a multi-index of order 2 with 1 in the j

th

and k

th

indices and 0 elsewhere, it can easily be seen that

=

1

2

S

=

1

2

(X

j

X

k

+ X

k

X

j

) and if C

i

j,k

are the structural constant of the Lie algebra,

X

j

X

k

=

1

2

_

X

j

, X

k

_

+

1

2

(X

j

X

k

+ X

k

X

j

)

=

1

2

i

C

i

j,k

X

i

+

1

2

(X

j

X

k

+ X

k

X

j

)

and hence d

[i]

[ j],[k]

=

1

2

C

i

j,k

.

We have therefore

i

(x, y) = x

i

+ y

i

+

1

2

C

i

j,k

x

j

x

k

+ terms of order 3.

Again, if x = exp X, y = exp Y (x

i

, y

i

begin canonical coordinates) 32

and xy = exp Z, we have

Z = X + Y +

1

2

[X, Y] + terms of order 3.

4.4

We have proved (Prop. 4, Ch. 3.2) that the Lie algebra of a Lie subgroup

can be identied with a subalgebra of the Lie algebra. We now establish

the converse by proving the following

Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II 35

Theorem 3. To every subalgebra J of a Lie algebra g of a Lie group G,

there corresponds one and only one connected Lie subgroup H, having

it for its Lie algebra.

Let X

1

, . . . , X

n

be a basis of the Lie algebra g such that X

1

, . . . , X

r

is a basis of J. Let be the subalgebra generated by X

i

with i r in

U (G). We assert that the subspace of U (G) generated by S

with =

(

1

, . . .,

n

) is the same as . By denition of S

, it is evident that

V

i

1

X

i

s

U

if 1 i

k

r. We prove this by induction on the length of the product.

Now,

X

i

1

X

i

2

. . . = X

i

2

X

i

1

. . . +

_

X

i

1

, X

i

2

_

X

i

3

. . .

and since

_

X

i

1

, X

i

2

_

, J being a subalgebra, we have, by induction

assumption

X

i

1

X

i

2

. . . X

i

2

X

i

1

. . . mod

.

If is any permutation of (1, 2, . . . , s), we have

X

i

1

. . . X

i

s

X

i

(1)

. . . x

i

(s)

( mod

).

It follows (as in Th. 1), that =

.

Now, let U be a symmetric neighbourhood of e in which the system 33

of canonical coordinates with respect to X

1

, . . . , X

n

is valid. Let N de-

note the subset of U consisting of points for which x

r+1

= = x

n

= 0.

N is obviously a closed submanifold of U. Let x, y N suciently near

e.

(xy)

i

=

,

1

!

1

!

x

d

[i]

,

We now show that (xy)

i

= 0 for i > r. In the summation, unless

both and are o the form (

1

, . . . ,

r

, 0 . . .)x

= 0. If both and

are of the above form,

, of

the same form d

[i]

,

= 0 for i > r. Hence (xy)

i

= 0 for i > r. Thus,

x, y N xy N and x x

1

N for x, y suciently near e.

Finally, let H be the subgroup algebraically generated by the con-

nected component N

1

of e in N. Then H can be provided with an an-

alytic structure such that the map H G is everywhere regular. We

36 4. Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II

dene neighbourhoods of e in H by intersecting neighbourhood of e in

G with N

1

. This system can easily be seen to satisfy the neighbourhood

axioms for a topological group (Prop 1, Ch. 1.1). For every x H,

the neighbourhood xN

1

of x can be provided with an analytic structure

induced by that of G, since xN is a closed submanifold of xU. For

x, y H, these analytic structure agree an xN

1

yN

1

because those of

xU and yU agree on xU yU. H of course has J as its Lie algebra.

We now prove the uniqueness of such a group. Let H

1

be another

connected Lie subgroup having J for its Lie algebra. Exp J is open

in H

1

, as the map h exp h is open (Th. 2, Ch. 3.4). But exp J H. 34

Hence H is open in H

1

. As H is open, it is also closed (Ch. 1.2) and

therefore =H

1

. This completes the demonstration of Theorem 3.

Remark. We have incidentally proved that if a Lie subgroup has J for

its Lie algebra, it contains H as an open subgroup.

It has already been proved (Prop. 1, Ch. 3.1) that if f : G H is a

representation of Lie groups, there exists a representation d f : g J

of Lie algebras. Now, we establish the converse in the form of a

Corollary. Let G and H be two Lie groups having g and J as their Lie

algebras. If G is connected and simply connected, to every representa-

tion of g in J, there corresponds one and only one representation f

of G H such that d f = .

If there exists one such representation, by Prop. 5, Ch. 3.4, it is

unique. We shall now prove the existence of such an f .

We rst remark that if f is a representation of G in H, K the graph

of f in GxHviz. the set (x, f (x)), x G, and the restriction to K of

the projection of GxH G, then is an analytic isomorphism. Con-

versely, to every subgroup of GxH the rst projection from which is an

isomorphism to G, there corresponds one and only one representation

of G in H. gxJ is evidently the Lie algebra of GxH.

Now, Let be a representation of g in J. Let 7 be the subset

(x, (x)), x g of g J. It can easily be seen that 7 is a subalgebra.

Then there exists (Th. 3) a connected Lie subgroup K of GxH whose

Lie algebra is isomorphic to 7. Let be the restriction to K of the 35

Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II 37

projection of G H G. Then d is the map 7 g dened by

d(x, (x)) = x. Obviously d is an isomorphism. Hence is a local

isomorphism of K in G. K is therefore a covering space of G and G

being simply connected, is actually an isomorphism. To this there

corresponds (by our remark above) a representation f of G in H,the

graph of whose dierential is 7, i.e. d f = .

4.5

Theorem 4 (E. Cartan). Every closed subgroup of a Lie group is a Lie

subgroup.

For proving this, we require the following

Lemma 1. Let G be a Lie group with Lie algebra g. Let g be the direct

sum of vector subspaces , . Then the map f : (A, B) exp Aexp B of

g G is a local isomorphism.

It is obvious that f is an analytic map. To prove that it is a local

isomorphism, it is enough to show that the Jacobian of the map 0

in a neighbourhood of (0, 0). Let (X

1

, . . . , X

r

) be a basis of 1 and

X

r+1

, . . . , X

n

, a basis of . Let (y

1

, . . . , y

n

) be the canonical coordinate

system with respect to (X

1

. . . , X

n

) and y

i

= f

i

. Then, if X =

n

_

i=1

y

i

X

i

,

f X = exp (

r

i=1

y

i

X

i

) exp (

n

j=r+1

y

j

X

j

)

f

k

y

l

(0) =

d

dt

( exp t X

l

)

k

(t = 0) = (X

l

.x

k

)

x=e

=

k,l

.

Hence Jacobian 0 at (0, 0) and by continuity, 0 in a neighbour-

hood of the origin. This completes the proof of the lemma.

Let H be a closed subgroup of a Lie group G. We rst construct a 36

subgroup J of G and prove that the Lie subgroup H

1

of G with J as

its Lie algebra is relatively open in H. Then H is the topological union

of cosets of H modulo H

1

and is hence a closed submanifold of G.

Let J be the set X g : exp tX H for every t R. We assert

that J is a Lie subalgebra of g. To prove this, we have to verify

38 4. Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II

(i) X J X J for every R

(ii) X, Y J X + Y J

(iii) X, Y J [X, Y] J.

(a) is a trivial consequence of the denition.

(b) Let now X, Y J. We have seen that (Ch. 4.3)

exp X exp Y = exp(X + Y +

1

2

[X, Y] + )

Hence (exp

tX

n

exp

tY

n

)

n

= (expt

X + Y

n

+

1

2

t

2

n

2

[X, Y] + 0(

1

n

2

)

n

= exp

_

t(X + Y) +

t

2

2n

[X, Y] + 0(

1

n

).

_

But exp

tX

n

, exp

tY

n

H and H is a subgroup. Therefore (exp

tX

n

exp

tY

n

)

n

H and since H is closed, lim

n

(exp

tX

n

exp

tY

n

)

n

=

exp t(X + Y) (by the above formula) H. Hence X + Y J.

(iv) As before,

X, Y J lim

n

(exp

tX

n

exp

tY

n

exp

tY

n

exp

tY

n

)

n

2

H.

The right hand side in this case tends to exp t

2

[X, Y] as n .

Hence exp t[X, Y] H for positive values of t, and since exp(t

[X, Y]) = (exp t[X, Y])

1

for all values of t, i.e. [x, y] J.

Let K be the connected Lie subgroup of G having J for its Lie 37

algebra (Th. 3, Ch. 4.4). We now show that K is open in H. It is

obviously sucient to prove that K contains a neighbourhood of e in

H. If 1 is a vector subspace of g supplementary to J, by Lemma 1,

there exists a neighbourhood V of 0 in g such that the map : (X, A)

exp X exp A, X J, A 1 is an isomorphism of V onto (V) = W.

Suppose that K does not contain any neighborhood of e in H. Then,

we can nd a sequence of points a

n

H W which are not in K and

Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II 39

which tend to e. There is no loss of generality in assuming a

n

to be of

the form exp A

n

, A

n

1 V, A

n

0. For, If a

n

= exp X

n

exp A

n

, then

(exp X

n

)

1

a

n

= exp A

n

K. Let V

1

be a compact neighborhood of 0 in

g V/2. For suciently large n, A

n

V

1

. Let r

n

be the largest integer

for which r

n

A

n

V

1

. i.e. (r

n

+ 1)A

n

V

1

.

But

(r

n

+ 1)A

n

= r

n

(A

n

) + A

n

V/2 + V/2 = V a

r

n

n

W

1

= (V

1

)

and a

r

n

+1

n

W

1

but W. Since W

1

is compact, we may assume (by

taking a suitable subsequence) that a

r

n

n

converges to an a W

1

. Now,

we assert that a e. For, if a = e, a

r

n

+1

n

= a

n

r

n

a

n

e. But a

r

n

n

cannot

tend to e. Hence a e W

1

. Therefore a = lima

n

r

n

= exp A with

A 0 and A 1 V

1

.

We shall now show that A J, which will imply that J1 (0)

and hence will give the contradiction we were seeking. It is enough

to show that exp p/qA H for every rational number p/q. Now let

pr

n

/q = s

n

+ t

n

/q, s

n

an integer and 0 t

n

q.

exp

pA

q

= lim

n

exp(

pr

n

q

A

n

)

= lim

n

exp s

n

A

n

exp(

t

n

A

n

q

)

Now, exp

t

n

q

A

n

e as n , and lim

n

exp s

n

A

n

= lim

n

a

n

s

n

H 38

as H is closed. Hence A J, and Theorem 4 is completely proved.

Remark. The theorem is not true in the case of complex Lie groups. For

instance, the space of real numbers is a closed subgroup of the complex

plane, but is not a complex Lie group.

Corollary 1. Every continuous representation f of the underlying topo-

logical group of a Lie group G into that of another Lie group H is an

analytic representation.

In fact, the graph K of f is a closed subgroup of the Lie group GxH,

and hence is a Lie subgroup. Then f is the composite of the maps G

K, and K H, and both of them can be seen to be analytic. As an

immediate consequence, we have the following

40 4. Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II

Corollary 2. Lie groups with isomorphic underlying topological group

structures are analytically isomorphic.

4.6 Some examples.

We have seen that the general linear group GL(n, R) is a Lie group, and

by Theorem 4, every closed subgroup, and in particular, the orthogonal

and symmetric groups are Lie groups. A group matrices dened by

some polynomial identities in the coecients of the matrices is a Lie

group.

We proceed to study GL(n, R) in greater detail. If x GL(n, R) is 39

the matrix (a

i j

), x

i, j

= a

i, j

i, j

is a coordinate system which takes the

unit matrix to origin in the space R

n

2

. Now,

i, j

(x, y) = x

i, j

+ y

i, j

+

k

x

i,k

y

k, j

Setting u

i, j

= y

i, j

+

_

k

x

i,k

y

k, j

, we have

y

f (x) = f (x + u)

= f (x) +

i, j

y

i, j

(

f

x

i, j

+

x

k,i

k

f

x

k, j

)

The left invariant dierential operators of order 1 are therefore gen-

erated by x

i, j

=

n

_

k=1

a

k.i

x

k, j

. The X

i, j

form a basis of the Lie algebra

of GL(n, R).Y =

_

i, j

X

i, j

is a generic element of the Lie algebra. We

associate the matrix

Y = (

i, j

) with this element Y. we now have the

Proposition 2. The map Y

Y of the Lie algebra of GL(n, R) into the

algebra of all n-square matrices M

n

(R) is a Lie algebra isomorphism.

Let Y be an element of the Lie algebra of GL(n, R). We show that

the map t exp tY assigns to t the usual exponential matrix exp tY. It

has been proved (Ch. 3.3) that x = exp tY satises

x

i. j

t

=

k,l

k,l

i, j

y

k,l

(x(t), e)

Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II 41

=

k,l

k.l

j,l

(

i,k

+ x

i,k

)

=

k, j

(

i,k

+ x

i,k

)

i.e. x is a matrix satisfying

d

dt

x(t) = x(t)

conditions can easily be seen to be satised by exp t

Y. By the unique-

ness theorem on dierential equations, exp tY = exp t

exponential is in the sense of the exponential matrix. Let Y, Z g the

Lie algebra of GL(n, R). The map X

X is trivially a vector space

isomorphism of g onto M

n

(R). Now,

exp Y exp Z = exp(Y + Z +

1

2

[Y, Z] + ) by Ch. 4.3.

But exp Y exp Z =

_

Y

n

n!

__

Z

m

m!

_

= 1 +

Y +

Z +

Y

2

2!

+

and

exp(Y + Z +

1

2

[Y, Z] + ) = 1 +

Y +

Z +

1

2

(

Y

2

+ y

Z +

Z

Y +

Z

2

) +

Comparing the coecients, we get

[

Y, Z] = [

Y,

Z].

Remarks. (1) Y =

d

dt

(exp tY)

t=0

.

(2) The Lie algebra of a closed subgroup H of GL(n, R) is simply the

Lie algebra of matrices Y such that exp tY H for every t R (by

Theorem 4, Ch. 4.5).

(3) Let B(a, b) be a bilinear form on R

n

.

Then, the set of all regular matrices x which leave B(a, b) invariant

is a Lie subgroup H of GL(n, R). Then the Lie algebra of this Lie Group

42 4. Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II

consists of matrices Y such that B(Ya, b) +B(a, Yb) = O for every a, b

R

n

. In fact, if Y is in the Lie algebra, exp tY H, B being invariant under

H, B (exp tYa, exp tYb) = B(a, b). But

B(exp tYa, exp tYb) =

p,Q

t

p+q

p!q!

B(Y

p

a, Y

q

b).

Hence

B(Ya, b) + B(a, Yb) = 0.

Conversely, if Y satises this condition, by induction it can be seen 41

that

_

p+q=n

t

p+q

p!q!

B(Y

P

a Y

q

b) = 0, which proves that B(exp tYa, exp

tYb) = B(a, b), i.e. exp tY H for every t R. This proves that Y

is in the Lie algebra of H.

4.7 Group of automorphisms.

Let G be a connected Lie group. Then the set of automorphisms of G

(continuous representations of G onto itself), form a group. We shall

denote this group by Aut G.

Let Aut G. This gives rise to a map d : g g where d is an

automorphism of the Lie algebra. We thus have a map; Aut G Aut g.

This map is one-one, and, if G is simply connected, onto. We have, in

this case, an isomorphism of Aut G Aut g, for d(

1

,

2

) = d

1

d

2

and d

1

= (d)

1

. Now, Aut g GL(g). Aut g is actually a closed

subgroup of GL(g). For, if C

k

i, j

be the structural constants of g, A

Aut g

_

A(x

i

), A(x

j

)

_

=

_

k

C

k

i, j

A(x

k

) for every i, j and A GL(g), x

i

2

equations, it is

a closed subgroup of GL(g). Hence, Aut g is a Lie group.

Proposition 3. Let be the Lie algebra of Aut g. Then X Hom(g, g)

(which is the Lie algebra of GL(g)) is in if and only if exp tX Aut g

for every t in R. This is obvious from the proof of Theorem 4, Ch. 4.5.

Proposition 4. X Hom(g, g) is in if and only if X is a derivation.

Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II 43

By Proposition 3, 42

(exp tX)[Y, Z] = [exp tX Y, exp tX Z]

i.e.,

t

n

X

n

n!

_

[Y, Z]

_

=

p,q

t

p+q

p!q!

[x

p

Y, X

q

Z]

X

n

[Y, Z] =

p+q=n

n!

p!q!

[X

p

Y, X

q

Z]

for every n. In particular

X[Y, Z] = [XY, Z] + [Y, XZ]

X is therefore a derivation. Conversely,

X[Y, Z] = [XY, Z] + [Y, XZ] X

n

[Y, Z] =

p+q=n

n!

p!q!

[X

p

Y, X

q

Z]

by induction on n exp tX[Y, Z] = [exp tX Y, exp tX Z].

Hence X .

In other words, the Lie algebra of Aut g is only the Lie algebra of

derivations of g (it is a trivial verication to see that the derivations of g

form a Lie algebra and the set of inner derivations (Remark 1, Ch. 2.8)

form an ideal in that algebra).

Now, corresponding to every y G, there exists an inner automor-

phism

y

: x yxy

1

of G. Obviously y

y

is an algebraic represen-

tation of G in Aut G.

y

induces an automorphism d

y

of g. We denote

this by ady.

y ady is an algebraic representation of G in Aut g. We now show

that this is an analytic representation. By Corollary to Theorem 4, Chap-

ter 4.5, it is enough to show that this is continuous, i.e. if y e then

adyX X for every X g. Since G and g are locally isomorphic, it

suces to prove that as y e, y exp Xy

1

exp X but this is obvious. 43

This analytic representation of G in Aut G = Aut g is called the ad-

joint representation of G. Let be the dierential of the representation

y ady. We now show that this is actually the adjoint representation

(Ch. 2.8) of the Lie algebra g.

44 4. Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II

Theorem 5. (X) = ad X for every X g.

By Remark 1, Prop. 2, Ch. 4.6,

(X) =

d

dt

(exp t (X))

t=0

=

d

dt

(ad exp t x)

t=0

by denition of exponential. We have now to show that (X)Y = [X, Y]

for every Y g. Let x = exp tX (X)Y =

d

dt

(ad Y)

t=0

. But (adx Y f )

x

= Y( f

x

) where f is any analytic function on G. It follows that

x

1

x

1 adx Y f = Y

x

1

x

1 f

or (adx Y)

x

=

x

x

Y

x

1

=

x

Y

since Y is left invariant

adx Y =

x

Y

x

1 .

But

x

f (e) = f (exp tx) =

n

t

n

X

n

n!

f (e) (Prop. 6, Ch. 3.4)

Hence adx Y =

m,n

t

m

X

m

m!

(t)

n

X

n

n!

=

m,n

(1)

n

t

m+n

m!n!

X

m

YX

n

Therefore

(X)Y =

d

dt

(adx Y)

t=0

= XY YX = [X, Y].

Corollary . Let H be a connected Lie subgroup of G. H is a normal

subgroup if and only if its Lie algebra J is an ideal in g.

Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II 45

In fact, if H is a normal subgroup,

y

(H) H for every y G, i.e. 44

adyJ J for every y G. Let X g. Then ad exp tXJ J.

d

dt

(ad exp tX)

t=0

J = ad XJ J

i.e. J is an ideal.

Reciprocally, let J be an ideal. ad XJ J (

_ t

n

adX

n

n!

)J

J. But exp t ad X = ad exp tX (ad exp tX)H H for every X in a

neighborhood of e. Since G is connected, H is normal.

4.8 Factor groups.

Theorem 6. Let H be a closed subgroup of a Lie group G. The homo-

geneous space G/H is an analytic manifold in a canonical way. The

operations by G on G/H are isomorphisms. If H is a normal subgroup,

is a Lie group, and its Lie algebra is isomorphic to g/J.

Let J be the Lie algebra of H, and let 1 be a vector subspace

of g supplementary to J. We have seen in the proof of Theorem 4,

Ch. 4.5, that there exists a neighborhood V

1

of (0, 0) in J 1 such

that the map : (X, A) exp X exp A is an isomorphism of V

1

onto

a neighborhood W

1

of e in G. Let U and V be neighborhoods of 0 in

J and 1 respectively such that U V V

1

and WW

1

W

1

with

W = (U V). We now show that L = exp V is a cross-section of the

canonical map : G G/H in the neighborhood

W = (W) of (e).

In other words, L Hx contains one and only one element for every

x W. For, we have x = exp X exp A with X U and A V and

exp A L Hx. On the other hand, if exp A

1

and exp A

2

belong to Hx

(with A

1

, A

2

V), then exp A

1

(exp A

2

)

1

H W

1

; hence there exists 45

an X V

1

J such that exp A

1

= exp X exp A

2

and this implies X = 0,

A

1

= A

2

because is an isomorphism from V

1

onto W

1

.

We can, therefore, provide

W with a manifold structure induced

from that of 1. This can be extended globally by translating that on

W. It is easily seen that on the overlaps x

W, y

W, the analytic structures

agree because the analytic structure on

W is induced from that of 1. By

46 4. Relation between Lie groups and Lie algebras - II

the denition of the manifold G/H, it is obvious that the operations by

G on G/H are analytic isomorphisms.

If H is normal subgroup, G/H has also a group structure and is a Lie

group with the above manifold. By Theorem 6, Ch. 4.8, J ia an ideal

of J and if 7 is the Lie algebra of G/H, the map : G/H gives rise

to a representation d : J 7. The kernal of this map is J since

7 is isomorphic as a vector space to the tangent space at e of L which

is 1. Hence H /J is isomorphic to 7 as a Lie algebra also, i.e. G/H

has its Lie algebra isomorphic to g/J.

Corollary. Let f be a representation of a Lie group G which is count-

able at in another Lie group H. Then the image f (G) is a Lie sub-

group. If N is the kernel of f , then f can be factored into G

G/N

f

f an injective regular map.

The proof is an immediate consequence of the isomorphism theorem

on Lie algebras and Theorem 6.

Part II

General Theory of

Representations

47

Chapter 5

Measures on locally compact

spaces

1.1 Denition of a measure.

In this chapter and the following, we shall give a brief summary of cer- 46

tain results on measure theory, a knowledge of which is essential in what

follows.

Let X be a locally compact topological space and C

X

the algebra of

continuous complex-valued functions on X with compact support. Let

K be a compact subset of X and C

K

the subset f : support of f K of

C

X

. Then C

K

is a Banach space under the norm f = sup

xK

f (x).

Denition. A measure on X is a linear form on C

X

such that the restric-

tion to C

K

is continuous for every compact subset K of X. A measure

is said to be positive if ( f ) 0 for every f 0.

Proposition 1. Every positive linear form on C

X

is a measure on X.

In fact, if K is any compact subset of X, there exists a continuous

function f on X which = 1 in K, = 0 outside a compact neighbourhood

of K and 0 f 1. If g is a function belonging to C

K

, obviously

g f g g f and hence

g( f ) (g) g( f ).

47

48 5. Measures on locally compact spaces

i.e.,

(g) g( f ),

which shows that is continuous when restricted to C

K

.

On the other hand, if is any real measure (i.e. a measure such that

( f ) is real whenever f is real) it can be expressed as the dierence of

two positive measures. Moreover, a complex measure can be uniquely 47

decomposed into + i

where and

alternatively be dened as a linear combination of positive linear forms

on C

X

. For a real measure , there exists a unique minimal decompo-

sition

1

2

(

1

,

2

positive) in the sense that if =

2

be any

other decomposition, we have

1

=

1

+ ,

2

=

2

+ with positive.

1.2 Topology on C

X

.

The space C

X

=

_

K

C

K

where K runs through all the compact subsets of

X can be provided with the topology obtained by taking the direct limit

of the topologies on C

K

. This topology makes of C

X

a locally convex

topological vector space. The fundamental property of this space is that

a linear map of C

X

in a locally convex space is continuous if and only

if its restriction to each C

K

is continuous. (Bourbaki, Espaces vectoriels

topologiques, Chapter 6). A measure is, by denition, a continuous

linear form on C

X

with its topology of direct limit. The space M

X

of

measures is none other than the dual of C

X

. One can provide M

X

with

several topologies, as for instance, the weak topology in which 0

for every f C

X

, ( f ) 0.

1.3 Support of a measure.

Denition. The support of a measure is the smallest closed set S such

that for every function f C

X

whose support is contained in X S ,

( f ) = 0.

Let M

c

be the space of measures with compact support. If f is a

continuous function on X, for every M

c

, we can dene ( f ) =

(f ) where is a function 1 on a neighbourhood of the support K of 48

, and 0 outside a compact neighbourhood of K. It is obvious that the

Measures on locally compact spaces 49

value of ( f ) does not depend on . We shall denote by E

X

the space of

continuous function on X. E

X

with the topology of compact convergence

is a locally convex topological vector space. dened on E

X

in the

above manner is continuous with respect to this topology. Conversely,

let be a continuous form on E

X

. The topology on C

X

is ner than

that induced from the topology of E

X

. Hence restricted to C

X

is again

continuous and is consequently a measure. We now show that this has

compact support. Since is a continuous function on E

X

, we can nd

a neighbourhood V of 0 such that ( f ) < 1 for every f V. V may

be taken to be of the form f : f < on K as the topology on E

X

is

the topology of compact convergence. Let g C

X

be a function 0 on

K. Then (g) < 1. If is any complex number, (g) = (g), and

(g) < 1. Hence (g) = 0, i.e. the support of is contained in K.

1.4 Bounded measures.

Let ba a measure M

X

. We dene a positive measure in the

following way:

f = sup

0gf

(g) for every positive function f and extend it by

linearity to all functions C

X

. If is a real measure with the minimal

decomposition (Ch. 1.1) =

1

2

, then =

1

+

2

.

Denition . A measure is bounded if and only if there exists a real

number k such that ( f ) k f with f = sup

xX

f (x).

Obviously is bounded if and only if is bounded, is continuous 49

for this norm and can be extended to the completion C

X

(which is only

the space of continuous functions tending to zero at ). C

X

is actually

the adherence of C

X

in the space of all continuous bounded functions.

The space of bounded measures is a Banach space under the norm =

sup

f C

X

( f )

f

. is the smallest number k such that ( f ) k f . It can

proved that every bounded continuous function is integrable with respect

to a bounded measure, and we have still the inequality ( f ) f

for bounded continuous functions f .

50 5. Measures on locally compact spaces

1.5 Integration of vector valued functions.

We introduce here the notion of integration of a vector valued function

with respect to a scalar measure, a use of which we will have frequent

occasions to resort to in the sequel. Let K be a compact space and E a lo-

cally convex quasi-complete topological vector space (i.e. every closed

bounded subset is complete). We shall provide the space C(K, E) of

continuous functions of K into E with the topology of uniform conver-

gence.

Theorem 1. Corresponding to every measure on K, there exists one

and only one continuous linear map of C(K, E) in E such that ( f a) =

( f ) a for every continuous complex valued function f on K and a E.

can obviously be lifted to a linear map of C E in E by setting

(ce) = (c)e and extending by linearity. Also, C E can be identied

with a subset of the space C(K, E) of continuous functions of K into 50

E. We will now show that is continuous with respect to the induced

topology on C E and that C E is dense in C(K, E). We will in fact

prove more generally that every function f C(K, E) is adherent to a

bounded subset of C E.

Let V be a convex neighbourhood of 0 in E. Then there exists a

neighbourhood A

x

of each point x K such that f (y)f (x) V for every

y A

x

. Now the A

x

cover the compact space K and let A

x

1

, . . . , A

x

n

be

a nite cover extracted from it. Let

i

be positive continuous functions

on K such that

n

_

i=1

i

= 1 and the support of A

x

i

. If g =

_

i

f (x

i

),

then g C E, and we have

g(y) f (y) =

i

(y) f (x

i

)

i

(y) f (y)

=

i

(y)[ f (x

i

) f (y)]

V since V is convex.

By allowing V to describe fundamental system of neighbourhoods

of 0, we see that f is adherent to the set of such functions g. This set is a

bounded subset of C(K, E). For,

_

i

(y) f (x

i

) is in the convex envelope

of f (K) for every y K and the convex envelope of a compact set is

Measures on locally compact spaces 51

bounded. It follows that

_

i

f (x

i

) are uniformly bounded and hence

form a bounded subset of C(K, E). This proves, in particular,that C E

is dense in C(K, E).

Now let g =

_

g

i

a

i

be a function C E tending to zero in the

topology of C(K, E). Then (

_

g

i

a

i

, a

set K and on any equicontinuous subset H of the dual of E.

(g, a

) = (

g

i

a

i

, a

)

= (

g

i

(a

i

, a

)) =

(g

i

)(a

i

, a

)

= (

(g

i

)a

i

, a

) = (g, a

)

51

Since (g, a

) 0 uniformly on K H, (g, a

) 0 and hence

(

g

, a

quently g 0. This shows that is continuous on C E.

Therefore can be extended uniquely to a continuous linear map of

C(K, E) in the completion

E of E. But if f C(K, E), it is adherent to a

bounded set B and (B) is also bounded in E. By the quasi-completeness

of E, the closure of (B) in

E and E are the same. Hence (f) (B)

(B) E. Thus we have extended to a continuous linear map

of C(K, E) E and it is obvious this is unique. Now by Theorem

1, if G be any locally compact space and a measure on G, we can

dene

_

f (x)d = ( f ) for every continuous function f from G to E

with compact support.

Remark. The measure with this extended meaning is factorial in char-

acter in the following sense: Let E and F be two locally convex spaces

and f a continuous map of a compact space K into E. If A is a continuous

map of E in F, we have Af C(K, F) and satises (Af ) = A( f ).

Chapter 6

Convolution of measures

2.1 Image of a measure

52

Denition. Let X, Y be two locally compact topological spaces and a

map X Y. Let be a positive measure on X. Then is said to be

proper if for every function f C

Y

, f is integrable with respect

to . The value ( f ) depends linearly on f and is therefore a linear

form on C

Y

. In other words, ( f ) denes a positive measure on

Y, which we denote by (). We have, by denition,

_

Y

f (y)d()(y) =

_

X

f (x)d(x).

If is not positive, but is equal to (

1

2

) + i(

3

4

),

1

,

2

,

3

,

4

positive, and if is - proper, we can dene the image measure

() = (

1

) (

2

) + i(

3

) i(

4

).

Examples.

(1) A continuous proper map of X Y (i.e. a map such that inverse

image of every compact set is compact) is - proper for every .

In fact, f C

K

f C

1(K)

and

1

(K) is compact.

(2) Let be a continuous map G H and let have compact support

K. Then is -proper; the support of () (K) and is hence

compact.

53

54 6. Convolution of measures

If f is a continuous function on H with compact support K, f

is continuous and hence -integrable (Ch. 1.3). This shows that

is -proper and if f = 0 on (K), then f = 0 on K and therefore

( f ) = 0, i.e. support of () (K).

(3) More generally, when is continuous and bounded, is - 53

proper. Also () is bounded and () .

In fact, f is bounded and in view of the remark in Ch. 1.4, f

is integrable with respect to . Moreover,

() = sup

gC

Y

(g)

g

= sup

gC

Y

(g )

g

2.2 Convolution of two measures.

Let G, H be two locally compact topological spaces and , measures

on G, H respectively. Then there exists one and only measure on GH

such that if f , g be functions with compact support respectively on G,

H we have

_

f (x)g(y)d(x, y) = (

_

f (x)d(x))(

_

g(y)d(y)).

shall be called the product measure of and .

If and are two measures on a locally compact group G, we denote

the product measure by and, if the group operation : GG G

dened by (x, y) xy is - proper, its image in G by . The latter

is said to be the convolution product of and . The most general class

of measures for which convolution product can be dened are those for

which f (xy) is integrable with respect to the product measure for every

function f C

G

. The following cases are the particular interest to us:

(1) If and are bounded, the convolution product exists and is

bounded.

This is almost obvious, being continuous and bounded

(Example 3, Ch. 2.1).

Convolution of measures 55

(2) If and are measures on G with compacts K, K

respectively, 54

exists and has compact support. In fact, has support

K K

KK

.

(3) If either or has compact support, exists. Let f be a

continuous function on G with compact support K and let have

compact support K

. Obviously

f (xy)d(x)d(y) =

_

K

d(x)

_

KK

1

f (xy)d(y)

Hence f (xy) is integrable with respect to . Consequently,

exists.

We denote as usual by M

1

, M

c

, E

0

G

the spaces of bounded mea-

sures, the space of measures with compact support and the space of all

continuous functions on G respectively. Let , , be three measures

on G such that either all three are bounded or two of them have compact

support. In any case the function (x, y, z) f (xyz) is integrable with

respect to and hence Fubinis theorem can be applied.

f (xyz)d(x)d(y)d(z) =

_

d(z)

_ _

f (xyz)d(x)d(y)

=

_

d(z)

_

f (tz)d( )(t)

=

f (tz)d( )(t)d(z)

= ( ) f

= ( ) f

by a similar computation. This shows that m

1

with the convolution prod-

uct is an associative algebra and that M

c

acts on M on both sides and 55

makes it a two-sided module. Moreover, M

1

is actually a Banach alge-

bra under the usual norm, since we have .

Remarks. (1) It is good to point out here that the associativity does

not hold in general. Take,for instance, R to be the locally compact

56 6. Convolution of measures

group and the Lebesgue measure. Let be

1

0

(

a

begin the

Dirac measure at a - see Ch. 2.5 and = (x)dx where is the

Heaviside function viz. = 0 for x < 0 and =1 for x 1. Then

( ) = 0 and ( ) = dx. Again ( ) may exist

without begin well dened. Let R be the locally compact

group, and Lebesgue measures on R and =

1

0

. Then

( ) = 0 but is not dened. However, when f (xyz) is

integrable with respect to then the convolution product

is associative.

(2) The formula for the integration of functions with respect to the

convolution of two measures is valid also for vector-valued func-

tion. Thus we have

_

G

f (x)d( ) =

f (xy)d(x)d(y).

2.3 Continuity of the convolution product.

That the convolution product is continuous in M

1

is trivial in virtue of

our remark that it is a Banach algebra. Regarding the continuity of the

convolution product in the other cases, we have the following

Lemma 1. Let f be a continuous function and a measure on G, one of

them having compact support. Then (i) the function g(x) =

_

f (xy)d(y)

is continuous; (ii) the map f g is a continuous linear map of C

G

in 56

E

0

G

(with the usual topologies); (iii) if has compact support, then the

above map f

_

f (xy)d(y) is also continuous from E

G

E

G

and

from C

G

C

G

.

(1) Let H and K be two compact subsets of G. Then H K is also

compact and f (xy) is uniformly continuous on H K. For every

> 0, and for every x H, there exists a neighbourhood U of x

such that f (x

U H and y K.

If f has compact support S , we choose a compact neighbourhood

H of x and K such that HS

1

K. If y K, then xy, x

y S .

Convolution of measures 57

Hence

_

GK

_

f (x

y) f (xy)

_

d(y) = 0.

So, we have

g(x

) g(x)

_

K

_

f (x

y) f (xy)

_

d(y) (K).

This shows that g is continuous. If however has compact support

C, we take K = C and the same inequality as above results.

(2) Again, as in (i) if we assume that f has compact support S ans

HS

1

K, it is immediate that

g(x)

_

K

f (xy)d(y) for every x H

_

K

f (y)d(x

1

y)

sup f (H

1

K).

Hence we have sup

xH

g(x) sup f (H

1

K).

It follows that whenever f 0 on C

S

, g(x) 0 uniformly on

the compact set H. A similar proof holds when has compact

support.

(3) Let now C be the support of , and f has compact port K; obvi- 57

ously g C

KC

1. Since the map C

G

E

G

is continuous, so also

is the map C

K

C

KC

1 and by the properly of the direct limit

topology, C

G

C

G

is continuous. An analogous proof holds for

the other part.

2.4 Duality and convolution products

Let E be a locally convex topological vector space an E

E

paces vectoriels topologiques, Chapter 8). The following three are of

fundamental importance:

58 6. Convolution of measures

(i) The weak topology, in which x

0 if and only if (x

, x)

0 for every x E.

(ii) The convex compact topology, in which x

0 if and only

if (x

(iii) The strong topology, where x

0 if and only if (x

, x) 0

uniformly on every bounded set.

In general, these topologies are distinct. If E is a Banach space, the

usual dual is the E

pact topology is often the most useful, in as much as it shares the good

properties of both the weak and the strong topologies. To mention but

one such, (E

= E is true for the weak, but not for the strong, topology.

The convex compact topology possesses this property. We shall almost

always restrict ourselves to the consideration of this topology.

In particular, the spaces M, M

c

being duals of C

G

and E

G

respec- 58

tively, they can be provided with the convex compact topology. With

reference to the convolution map we have the

Proposition 1. The convolution map (, v) is continuous in each

variable separately in the following situations:

M

c

M

c

M

c

; M

c

M M; M M

c

M.

In fact, let be xed in M

c

and 0 in M. Then

( f ) =

f (xy)d(x)d(y)

=

_

d(y)

_

f (xy)d(x).

Denoting by f

0

(y) the function

_

f (xy)d(x) the map f f

0

is con-

tinuous from C

G

C

G

(Lemma 1, Ch. 2.3). The image of a convex

compact subset being again a convex compact subset, 0 uni-

formly on a convex compact subset. All other assertions in the proposi-

tion can be demonstrated in an exactly similar manner.

Convolution of measures 59

2.5 Convolution with the Dirac measure

If x is a point of G, the Dirac measure

x

is dened by

x

( f ) = f (x).

This is trivially a measure with compact support. Let be any arbitrary

measure. Then

x

( f ) =

f (yz)d

x

(y)d(z)

=

_

f (xz)d(z)

= (

x

1f ).

In a similar manner,

x

( f ) = (

x

f ). We may dene left and right

translation of a measure by setting d(

x

)(y) = d(yx) and d(

x

)(y) =

d(x

1

y). It requires a trivial verication to establish that

x

( f ) = 59

(

x

1 f ) and

x

( f ) = (

x

1 f ). Hence we have

x

=

x

, and

x

=

1

x

.

In particular,

x

y

=

x

y

=

xy

. In other words, the map x

x

is a representation in the algebraic sense of the group G into the algebra

M

c

or M

1

. As a matter of fact, this can be proved to be a topological

isomorphism (Bourbaki, Int eration, Chapter 7).

Chapter 7

Invariant measures

3.1 Modular function on a group.

60

We assume the fundamental theorem relating to measures on locally

compact groups, namely the existence and uniqueness (upto a positive

constant factor) of a right invariant positive measure. If is such a

measure, we have

(

y

)

x

=

y

(

x

) =

y

.

Hence

y

is also a right invariant positive measure. By our remark

above,

y

= k where, of course, k depends on y. We shall denote k by

(y)

1

where (y) is a positive real number. It is immediate that (yz) =

(y)(z). is therefore a representation of G in the multiplicative group

of R

+

. In fact, the continuity of (y) =

_

f (y

1

x)d(x)

_

f (x)d(x)

follows at once

from that of

_

f (y

1

x)d(x) (Lemma 1, Ch. 2.3). This representation

of a locally compact group is said to be its modular function.

Proposition 1. If a right invariant positive measure on G is denoted by

dx, then the following identity holds: dx

1

= (x

1

)dx

In fact, if d stands for (x

1

)dx, we have

d(yx) = (x

1

y

1

)d(yx) = (x

1

)dx = d.

61

62 7. Invariant measures

Hence d is left invariant. So also is dx

1

for,

_

f (yx)dx

1

=

_

f (x)d(y

1

x)

1

=

_

f (x)d(x

1

).

So kdx

1

= (x

1

)dx where k is a constant. We now prove that

k = 1. When x is near e, (x

1

) is arbitrarily near 1 and if we take g(x) =

f (x) + f (x

1

), f being a positive continuous function with suciently 61

small support, we have

_

g(x)dx =

_

g(x)dx

1

=

1

k

_

g(x)(x

1

)dx

k being a xed number and (x

1

) arbitrarily near 1; it follows that

k = 1.

Denition. A locally compact group G is said to be unimodular if its

modular function is a trivial map which maps G onto the unit element

of R.

The group of triangular matrices of the type

_

a

11

...0

......

...a

nn

_

can be proved

to be non-unimodular.

Examples of unimodular groups.

(1) A trivial example of unimodular groups is that of commutative

groups.

(2) Compact groups are unimodular. This is due to the fact that (G)

is a compact subgroup of R

+

which cannot but be (1).

(3) If in a group the commutator subgroup is everywhere dense, then

the group is unimodular. This again is trivial as maps the com-

mutator subgroup and consequently the whole group onto 1.

(4) A connected semi-simple Lie group is unimodular. (A Lie group

G is said to be semi-simple if its Lie algebra g has no proper

abelian ideals. Consequently, it dose not have proper ideals such

that the quotient is abelian). The kernel N of the representation

Invariant measures 63

d of the Lie algebra into the real number is an ideal in g such that

g/N is abelian and is therefore the whole Lie algebra. It follows

that the map d maps the Lie algebra onto (0). This shows that

group is unimodular.

3.2 Haar measure on a Lie group.

62

Let G be a Lie group with a coordinate system (x

1

, . . . , x

n

) in a neigh-

bourhood of e. We now investigate the form of the right invariant Haar

measure on the Lie group. By invariance of a measure here we mean

that

_

f (xy

1

)d(x) =

_

f (x)d(x) for y which are suciently near

e and for f whose supports are suciently small. We set d(x) =

(x)dx

1

. . .dx

n

and enquire if integration with respect to this measure

is invariant under right translations. For invariance, we require

_

f (x

)(x

y)

det

i

(x

, y)

x

1

. . . dx

n

=

_

f (x)(x)dx

1

. . . dx

n

,

or still (x) = (xy)J(x, y) with J(x, y) =

det

i

x

j

(x, y)

.

For this it is obviously necessary and sucient to take (x) = J

1

(e,

x). This gives an explicit construction of the Haar measure in the case

of Lie groups.

3.3 Measure on homogeneous spaces.

If G/H is the quotient homogeneous space of a locally compact group G

by a closed subgroup H, we denote the elements of G by letters x, y, . . .

those of H by , , . . . the respective Haar measure by dx, dy, . . . d,

d . . . and the respective modular functions by , . Also is the canon-

ical map G G/H. Let f be a continuous function on G with compact

support K. Then f

o

(x) =

_

H

f (x)d is a continuous function on G (as in

lemma 1, Ch. 2.3) and we have f

o

(x) = f

o

(x) for every H. There-

fore f

o

may be considered as a continuous function on G/H. Obviously

it has support (K) which is again compact.

64 7. Invariant measures

Proposition 2. The map f f

0

is a homomorphism (in the sense of N. 63

Bourbaki) of C

G

onto C

G/H

.

We prove this with the help of

Lemma 1. There exists a positive continuous function f on G such that

for every compact subset K of G the intersection of HK and the support

S of f is compact and such that

_

H

f (x)d = 1 for every x G.

A locally compact group is always paracompact (Prop. 3, Ch. 1.2.

part I) and using the fact that the canonical map is open and continu-

ous, we see that G/H is also paracompact. Let U be an open relatively

compact neighbourhood of e in G. (Ux) is a family of open subsets

covering G/H. Let (V

i

), (V

i

) be two locally nite open renements of

this covering such that

V

i

V

i

. Then there exist open relatively compact

subsets (W

i

), (W

i

) such that W

i

W

i

and (W

i

) = V

i

. In other words

these are families of subsets such that each point in G has a saturated

neighbourhood which intersects only a nite number of the subsets. We

can moreover say that for every compact subset K of G, HK intersects

only a nite number of W

i

. Now, let us dene continuous functions g

i

such that g

i

= 1 on W

i

and 0 outside W

i

, and set g =

_

i

g

i

. This last

summation has a sense as the summation is only over a nite indexing

set at each point.This is continuous, as every point in G has a neighbour-

hood in which g is the sum of a nite number of continuous functions.

Let S be the support of g and K any compact subset of G. Then HK S

is the union of a nite number of W

i

and is hence compact.

Now let g

0

=

_

H

g(x)d > 0.

This inequality is strict as at each point x, xH intersects some W

i

. 64

Obviously f = g/g

0

is a continuous function of G with S as its support.

Trivially, f

0

= 1 and the proof of the lemma is complete.

Proof of the Proposition 2: That the map f f

0

is continuous from

C

G

E

0

G

has already been proved (Lemma 1, Ch. 2.3) and it is easy

to see that this implies that the map : f f

0

of C

G

C

G/H

is also

continuous. We now exhibit a continuous map : C

G/H

C

G

such

that = Identity. For this one has only to dene for every g C

GH

,

(g) to be (g)(x) = g((x)) f (x) where f is the function constructed in

Invariant measures 65

the lemma. This has support HK S where K is a compact subset of G

canonical image in G/H is the support of g.

((g))

0

(x) =

_

H

g((x)) f (x)d

= g((x))

_

H

f (x)d

= g((x))

by the construction of f . Hence ((g)) = g is of course continuous.

Every measure on G/H gives rise to a measure

0

on G in the

following way

0

( f ) = V( f

0

) for every continuous function f on G with

compact support.

Corollary to Proposition 2: The image of M

G/H

under the map

0

is precisely the set of all measure on G which vanish on the kernel N

of the map f f

0

of C

G

C

G/H

.

This is an immediate consequence of the proposition.

Proposition 3. A measure on G is zero on N if and only if d(x) =

()d(x) for every H.

By the above corollary is of the form

where is a measure on 65

G/H.

Hence

_

G

f (

1

x)d

0

(x) =

_

G/H

f

0

(

1

x)d(x)

=

_

G/H

_

H

f (

1

x)dd(x)

=

_

G/H

_

H

() f (x)dd(x)

=

_

G/H

() f

0

(x)d(x) =

_

G

() f (x)d

0

(x)

66 7. Invariant measures

It follows that d(x) = ()d(x).

Conversely let d(x) = ()d(x).

Let f , g be any two continuous functions on G with compact sup-

port. Then

(g

0

f ) =

_

G

f (x)d(x)

_

H

g(x)d

=

f (

1

x)g(x)d(

1

x)d

=

f (

1

x)g(x)(

1

)d(x)d

=

f (x)g(x)()d(x)(

1

)d

(by Prop. 1, Ch. 3.1)

= ( f

g).

If f is in N , one can choose g such that g

0

= 1 on the support of f .

Then ( f ) = ( f g

0

) = ( f

0

g) = 0. Hence = 0 on N .

If there exists an invariant measure on G/H, then

0

must be the

Haar measure and conversely if the Haar measure is of the form

0

then

is an invariant measure on G/H. Hence () = () is a necessary

and sucient condition for the existence of a right invariant measure on

G/H.

3.4 Quasi-invariant measures.

66

Denition. Let be a transformation group acting on a locally compact

space E. We say that a positive measure on E is quasi-invariant by

if the transform of by every is equivalent to in the sense that

there exists a positive function (x, ) on E which is bounded on

every compact subset and measurable for each such that d(, x) =

(x, )d(x).

If under the above conditions (x, ) is independent of x, the mea-

sure is said to be relatively invariant.

Invariant measures 67

Proposition 4. There always exists a quasi-invariant measure on the

homogeneous space G/H.

We prove this by making use of

Lemma 2. There exists a strictly positive continuous function on G

such that (x) = ()/()(x) for every x G and H.

Let f be the function on G constructed in Lemma 1, Ch. 3.3. Dene

(x) =

_

H

_

()

()

_

1

f (x)d.

Then it is an immediate verication to see that (x) =

()

()

(x)

and that is positive continuous.

Proof of Proposition 4: Let be the measure (x)dx on G, where is

the function of Lemma 2. Then

d(x) =

()

()

(x)()dx

= ()(x)dx = ()d(x).

By proposition 1, Ch. 2.4, there exists a measure on G/H such

that

d(x) = d

0

(x).

Now 67

d(xy) =

(xy)

(x)

d(x)

and hence we get

d((xy)) =

(xy)

(x)

d((x)),

(xy)

(x)

depending only on the coset of x modulo H. is therefore quasi-

invariant.

This incidentally gives also the following relation between the Haar

measure on G and the quasi-invariant measure on G/H, viz.

_

G

f (x)(x)dx =

_

G/H

d((x))

_

H

f (x)d.

68 7. Invariant measures

If we relax the condition of continuity on , then we can assert that

all the quasi invariant measures on G/H can be obtained this way [6].

So is relatively invariant if and only if there exists a positive function

on G Such that (xy)/(x) = (y)/(e). If we take (e) = 1, we have

(xy) = (x) (y) with () = ()/() for every H. In other

words, the one dimensional representation ()/() of H can be

extended globally to a representation of G.

3.5 Some applications.

Let G be the group product of two closed subgroups A and B such that

the map (a, b) ab of A B G is a homeomorphism. Then the

homogeneous space G/A is homeomorphic to B. We dene a function

on G by setting (ab) = (a)/(a). To this function, there corresponds

a quasi-invariant measure on G/A such that

_

G

f (ab)(a)/(a)dx =

_

B

d(b)

_

A

f (ab)da.

If x = ab

b)/

(ab

)

= 1 by denition. 68

Hence d(b) is right invariant, and d(b) = db.

Let d

r

x, d

l

x denote respectively the right and left Haar measures.

Then

_

G

f (ab)(a)/

(a)

d

r

x =

_

d

r

b

_

f (ab)d

r

a, or again

_

G

f (x)d

r

x =

AxB

f (ab)

(a)

(a)

d

r

ad

r

b

=

AxB

f (ab)(a)d

l

ad

r

b

Thus we have got the right Haar measure on G in terms of the Left

and right Haar measures on A, B respectively and the modular func-

tion on G. This dependence on the modular function can be done away

with if we restrict ourselves to unimodular groups.Thus in the case of a

unimodular group G, we have the simple formula

_

G

f (x)d

r

x =

AxB

f (ab)d

l

ad

r

b

Invariant measures 69

Again when A is a normal subgroup, we have (a) = (a) or A and

hence

_

G

f (x)d

r

x =

AxB

f (ab)d

r

ad

r

b.

3.6 Convolution of functions

Denition. A function f is said to be locally summable with respect to a

measure if for every continuous function with compact support, f

is -integrable.

This has the property that for compact set K, (K) f is -integrable.

If f is locally summable, the map

_

f d is a continuous

linear form on C

G

and hence denes a measure denoted by

f

. Let now

f be locally summable with respect to the Haar measure on G and

another measure on G. We shall assume that

f

exists. Then for 69

every continuous function g with compact Support, we have

f

(g)

=

g(xy) f (x)dxd(y)

=

_

d(y)

_

g(xy) f (x)dx

=

_

d(y)

_

g(x) f (xy

1

)dx

Now the map (x, y) (xy

1

, y) obviously preserves the product

measure dxd(y) on GxG because for continuous functions u with com-

pact support we have

u(xy

1

, y) dxd (y) =

_ _

u(x, y)dxd(y).

Hence

f (xy

1

g(x) dxd (y) exists and the theorem of Lebesgue-

Fubini can be applied. It therefore results that

_

f (xy

1

)d(y) exists for

almost every x and g(x)

_

f (xy

1

)d(y) is integrable, In other words,

_

f (xy

1

)d(y) is locally summable. If we denote by h(x),

_

f (xy

1

)d

70 7. Invariant measures

(y), this can be expressed by

f

=

h

. We can now dene the con-

volution of a measure and a locally summable function f by putting

h(x) = f (x).One can similarly dene a convolution

f

=

k

where

k(x)= f (x)=

_

f (y

1

x)(y

1

)d(y). This is unsatisfactory in as much

as it is necessary to choose between left and right before one can identify

functions with measures. Thus the notion of convolution of a function

and a measure is not very useful in groups are not unimodular.

Let now f , g be two locally summable functions on G. Then we can

dene convolution of f and g such that

f

g

=

f

g

by setting

f g(x) =

_

f (xy

1

)g(y)dy

=

_

f (y)g(y

1

x)(y

1

)dy

But we have in Prop. 1, Ch. 3.1 that (y

1

)dy = dy

1

.

Thus the convolution of f and g can be satisfactorily dened even if 70

the group G is not unimodular.

Note that the convolutions of two measures and of a measure and a

function are uniquely dened, whereas the convolution of two functions

is dened only upto a constant factor, as it depends on the particular

Haar measure we consider.

If f and g are integrable,

f

,

g

are bounded and so is

f

g

. Conse-

quently f g is also integrable. Thus the map f

f

is an imbedding

of L

1

in M

1

as a closed subspace. It is linear and one-one and also

preserves metric, for,

f

1

=

_

f (x)dx =

_

d

f

f

and,

on the other hand,

f

f

1

, trivially. Actually L

1

is a Banach sub-

algebra of M

1

. In M

1

, the Dirac measure at the unit element acts as

the unit element of the algebra but L

1

does not possess any unit element,

unless the group is discrete.

Invariant measures 71

3.7 Convolutions of distributions

We close this chapter with a brief discussion of convolutions of dis-

tributions on a Lie group. A detailed account of distributions may be

found in Schwartzs Th eorie des Distributions and de Rhams Vari et es

di erentiables.

Let G be Lie group and 1

G

the space of indenitely dierentiable

functions on G which have compact support. Let 1

K

be the subset of

1

G

consist ring of functions whose supports are contained in the com-

pact set K. One can provide 1

K

with the topology of uniform conver-

gence of each derivative, and 1

G

with the topology of direct limit of

those on 1

K

. The topology on 1

K

can be characterised by the fact that 71

f 0 on 1

K

if for every dierential operator D on G with continuous

coecients, Df 0 uniformly on K. It is enough to consider only the

left invariant dierential operators, or still the

I). This topology makes of 1

K

a Fr echet space (i.e. a locally convex

topological vector space which is metrisable and complete).

Denition. A distribution on G is a continuous linear form on 1

G

.

As in the case of measures, one can dene the notion of the support

of a distribution, distributions with compact support, etc. Let T, S be

two distributions on G. If one of them has compact support we dene

the convolution product as for measures:TS () =

(xy)dT(x)dS (y).

Let

with convolution as product and the space of distributions is a module

over

G

. We denote by

e

the space of distributions with support = e.

Let (x

1

, . . . x

n

) be a coordinate system at e. Then T

e

implies the

existence of

_

(e),

for a nite number of terms. If f is a locally summable function, we

can identify f with the distribution f (x)dx and we can dene the notion

of convolution f T of f and distribution T under some assumptions

on f and T. But this product even when it is dened, is not in general

a distribution of the form g(x)dx; however, if f is indenitely dieren-

tiable with compact support (or if f is indenitely dierentiable and T

has compact support) f T is a distribution of the form g(x)dx where

72 7. Invariant measures

g(x) is an indenitely dierentiable function. This function is, in virtue

of the above identication, given by g(x) = f T(x) =

_

f (xy

1

)dT(y).

If T =

_

(e), f T(x) =

_

f (xy

1

)

_

y = e. 72

The map f f T is a dierential operator which is left invariant.

We have already seen that

y

=

y

() (Ch. 2.5). Hence

(

y

f ) T =

y

f T

=

y

( f T)

=

y

( f T)

In other words, T commutes with the left translation. At x = e we

have f T(e) =

_

f (y

1

)

_

y=e

i.e. every left invariant dierential

operator is obtained in the above manner. This leads us to the

Proposition 5. The algebra 1(G) is canonically isomorphic to the alge-

bra of distributions with support e with convolution as multiplication.

Chapter 8

Regular Representations

4.1 General notions

73

Let G be a locally compact group and E a locally convex topological

vector space.

Denition. A continuous representation of G in E is a map x U

x

of G

into Hom(E, E) such that this is a representation in the algebraic sense

(i.e. U

xy

= U

x

U

y

and U

e

= identity) and such that the map (a, x) U

x

a

of E G E is continuous.

The latter of these conditions, which we denote by R, is equivalent

to the following:

R

1

: For every compact subset K of G, the set U

x

: x K is

equicontinuous, and R

2

: for every a E, the map x U

x

a of G E

is continuous.

In fact, R R

2

trivially. Let V be a neighbourhood of 0 in E. For

every x K, there exists an neighbourhood A

x

of x in G and W

x

of 0

in E such that for every y A

x

and a W

x

, U

y

a V. Since K is

compact, we can choose A

x

1

, . . . A

x

n

which cover K and let W =

_

W

x

j

.

Now, x K, b W U

x

b V. Hence the set U

x

is equicontinuous.

We proceed to prove the converse; in fact, we show more generally that

R

1

with the following condition R

2

: There exists a dense subset F of E

such that for every a F, the map x U

x

a of G E is continuous,

implies R. It is required to show that the map (x, a) U

x

a is continuous

73

74 8. Regular Representations

at any point (x, a). Let V be any convert neighbourhood of 0 in E. We

seek a neighbourhood W of 0 in E and a neighbourhood A of x in G

such that b a + W, y A U

y

b U

x

a + V. Let K be a compact

neighbourhood of x in G. Then there exists a neighbourhood V

1

of 0

such that y K, b V

1

U

y

b V/4 (by R

1

). Let b (a + V

1

)

_

F.

Then we can nd a neighbourhood A of x in C contained in K such that 74

U

y

b U

x

b V/4 for every y A (by R

2

). Now, if c a +V

1

, y A, we

have

U

y

c U

x

a = U

y

(c a) + (U

y

U

x

)b + (U

y

U

x

)(a b) V.

This completes the proof of the equivalence.

Moreover, if E is a barrelled space (or in particular a Banach space)

then axiom R

2

itself R. For, the map x U

x

is continuous from

G to Hom(E, E) with the topology of simple convergence and hence

the image of a compact subset is again compact and, E being barrelled,

equicontinuous.

4.2 Examples of representations

(i) Unitary representations. Let U be a representation of G in a Hilbert

space H such that U

x

is a unitary operator, i.e. U

x

1 = U

x

for

every x G. Then V is called a unitary representation.

(ii) Bounded representations. A representation U of G in a Banach

space B is said to be bounded if there exists M such that U

x

< M

for every x G. It should be remarked here that in general rep-

resentations in Banach spaces are not bounded as for instance the

representation x e

x

. Id of R in itself. However, such represen-

tations are bounded on every compact subset.

(iii) Regular representations. Left and right translations in G, as we

have seen before, give rise to representations of G in the space

C

G

, L

p

etc. In fact they give rise to representations of G in any

function space connected with G with a reasonably good deni-

tion and a convenient topology.

Regular Representations 75

The space C

G

with the usual topology can easily be seen to be

barrelled. Therefore, in order to verify that is a continuous rep-

resentation, we have only to prove that y

y

f is continuous. 75

It is again sucient to establish continuity at the point y = e.

The function f is uniformly continuous and hence when y e,

y

f f uniformly having its support contained in a xed com-

pact set.

In the case of L

p

(1 p ) with respect to the right Haar

measure,

y

= 1 by the invariance of the measure and hence

the

y

form an equicontinuous set for y G. Also the map

y

y

f is continuous for the topology on C

G

which is ner

than that of L

p

and since C

G

is dense in L

p

is a representation of

G in L

p

. On the other hand, if we consider

y

, we have

y

f =

(

_

f (y

1

x)

p

dx)

1/p

= ((y))

1/p

f

p

and the continuity of y

y

f follows as a consequence of the continuity of (y). Note that

the proof is not valid when p is innite as C

G

is not dense in L

.

In fact the map y

y

f of G L

f is uniformly continuous on G.

(iv) Induced representations. Let H be a closed subgroup of a topo-

logical group G, and L a continuous representation of H in a lo-

cally convex space E. Let C

L

be the space of functions on G with

values in E which are continuous with compact support modulo

H (i.e. their supports are contained in the saturation of a compact

set), and which satisfy the following equality:

f (x) =

_

()

()

_1

2

L

_

()

()

_1

2

, it will be noted, occurs purely for technical reasons and

can without much trouble be done away with. The above equality,

in essence, expresses only the condition of covariance of f with

respect to left translations by . On this space C

L

we can, as

we have more than once done before, introduce the topology of

direct limit of those on C

L

K

, the latter being the space of functions 76

in C

L

whose supports are contained in HK, with the topology of

76 8. Regular Representations

uniform convergence on K. This is again a locally convex space

and right translations by elements of G give rise to a (regular)

representation of G in C

L

. This is called the representation of G

induced by L.

(v) Let us again assume L to be a unitary representation of H in a

Hilbert space E. Let C

L

be the space of continuous functions on

G with values in E having compact support modulo H such that

f (x) =

_

()

()

_1

2

L

product in C

L

in the usual way, but the possibility of f (x) not be-

ing square integrable (which it is not in general) foils the attempt.

However, though f (x) may not be square integrable, we are in a

position to assert that

_

G/H

f (x)

2

((x))

1

dx < ( of course

is the function dened in Lemma 2, Ch. 3.4 and dx the quasiin-

variant measure on G/H). In fact, the function f (x)

2

((x))

1

is

invariant modulo H and consequently can be considered as a con-

tinuous function on G/H with compact support. Hence we can de-

ne f

2

L

=

_

G/H

f (x)

2

(((x)))

1

dx. Let H

L

be the completion

of C

L

under this norm. As usual, H

L

is the space of measurable

functions f which satisfy the condition of covariance and are such

that

_

G/H

f (x)

2

((x))

1

dx < . This is a Hilbert space in which

the scalar product is given by ( f , g) =

_

G/H

( f (x), g(x))((x))

1

dx.

The right regular representation of G in H

L

is unitary. For,

y

f

2

=

_

G/H

f (xy)

2

(((x)))

1

d x

=

_

G/H

f (x)

2

_

((xy

1

))

_

1 (xy

1

)

(x)

dx by quasi invariance

=

_

G/H

f (xy)

2

(((x)))

1

d x

= f

2

L

for every f H

L

The same proof as in (iv) gives the continuity of the representation. 77

Regular Representations 77

Thus one can dene induced representations in many ways, in each

case the representation space being so chosen as to reect the partic-

ular properties of the representation one wishes to study. We shall not

dwell on induced representations any longer, but only give the following

general denition which, it is needles to say, includes the last two cases.

Denition. A representation U of G in F is said to be induced by rep-

resentation L of H in E if there exists a linear continuous map of C

L

into F such that

(i) is injective with its image in F everywhere dense, and

(ii) commutes with the representation in the sense that U

x

=

x

for every x G.

4.3 Contragradient representation

Let U be a continuous representation of G in a locally convex space E.

For every x G consider t

U

x

Hom(E

, E

good topology on E

U the map x

t

U

1

x

. Regarding this map we have the following

Proposition 1. If U is a continuous representation of G in a quasi com-

plete locally convex space E, then

U is also a continuous representation

of G in E

C

(convex compact topology). We need here the following for-

mulation of Ascolis theorem. Let X be a locally compact topological

space, F a uniform Hausdor space and C(X, F) the space of contin-

uous functions from X F. Let be an equicontinuous subset of

C(X, F) such that the set (x) : is relatively compact in F

for every x X. Then (i) is relatively compact in C(X, F) with the

topology of compact convergence, and (ii) on the topology of com- 78

pact convergence coincides with every Hausdor weaker topology (in

particular, with the topology of simple convergence).

Proof of proposition 1. Let K be a compact of G. The set U

x

: x K

is equicontinuous and for every a E, U

x

a : x K is compact as the

map x U

x

a is continuous. Hence by Ascolis theorem, the topology

78 8. Regular Representations

of simple convergence and the topology of compact convergence are

one and the same on this subset of C(E, E) i.e. x e U

x

a a

uniformly for a in a compact subset H of E.

Let a

be an element of E

C

. We wish to prove that x

U

x

a

is

continuous. It is enough to prove the continuity at the unit element e.

Let x e. Then U

x

1 a a uniformly on a compact set H and hence

(U

x

1 a, a

) = (a,

U

x

a

) (a, a

x

U

x

a

. We

have to show moreover that the set

U

x

: x K is equicontinuous. If

H be a convex compact subset of E, we seek to prove the existence of

another convex compact set H

such that a

(H

)

0

U

x

a

H

0

for every x K where A

0

denotes the polar of A. But

U

x

a

H

0

for

every x K if and only if

(U

x

1 a, a

Let H

U

x

1 a. It is obvious that a

1

(H

)

0

(b, a

1 for every b H

(U

x

1 a, a

that H

is compact. But H

set, also complete. This shows that H

is compact.

This representation in E

Remark. It will be noted that we have used the quasi completeness of

the space E only to prove that the closed convex envelope of a compact 79

set is also compact. Hence the proposition is valid for the more general

class of locally convex spaces which satisfy the above condition.

Example. We have seen that the right and left translations give represen-

tations of G in the function spaces C

G

, E

0

,

C

G

, etc. By our proposition

above,we see that is continuous in M, M

C

, M

1

(with the convex

compact topology).

Remark. The regular representation of G in M

1

is not continuous with

respect to the strong topology. For,

x

e

=

x

and

x

e

= 2 if x e.

Hence as x e,

x

does not tend to

e

.

Regular Representations 79

4.4 Extension of a representation to M

C

Let U be a continuous representation of G in a locally convex quasi

complete space E. Let be any measure on G with compact support.

Then we write U

a =

_

G

U

x

ad(x). (The function x U

x

a is a vector-

valued function and

_

U

x

ad(x) has been dened in Ch. 1.5).

Theorem 1. (1) U

(2) U

is an algebraic representation of M

C

in E.

(3) If U is a bounded representation in a Banach space, then this

representation can be extended to a continuous representation of

the Banach algebra M

1

in to the Banach algebra Hom(E, E).

(1) In fact, as a 0, U

x

a 0 uniformly on the compact support of

and hence U

(2) Again the linearity of the map U

is obvious.

U

a =

_

U

x

ad( )(x)

=

U

xy

ad(x)d(y) (see Remark 2, Ch. 2.2)

=

_

d(x)U

x

(U

= U

a.

80

(3) If M

C

, we have

U

a =

_

U

x

ad

(x)

_

U

x

ad

ka

80 8. Regular Representations

This proves that the map (a, ) U

a of E M

C

E is con-

tinuous. Since M

1

is only the completion of M

C

with the topology of

the norm, this map can be extended to a continuous map E M

1

E,

which proves all that was asserted.

4.5 Convolution of measures

We can get, in particular,representations of the space M of measures

on a group G by considering regular representations of G. We dene

=

_

x

()d(x). M is the dual of the barrelled space C

G

and is

hence quasi complete. We therefore have

( f , ()) =

_

( f ,

x

())d(x)

=

_

d(x)

_

f (y)d(x

1

y)

=

f (xy)d(x)d(y)

= ( f , )

In other words,

() = and

() = where d (x) =

d(x

1

). We have not imposed any conditions on , and has been

assumed to have compact support. Thus convolution of two measures

could have been dened as

() =

_

x

()d(x) straightaway.

4.6

81

Proposition 2. Let E be a subspace of M with a ner topology such

that

(a) E is invariant by ;

(b) restricted to E is continuous;

(c) E is quasi complete.

Then for every M

C

and a E, we have a E and a =

a.

If moreover is bonded on E, then this true for M

1

.

Regular Representations 81

The proposition is immediate in view of our remarks in Ch. 4.5.

In particular, if a L

P

(p < ), M

1

, then a L

p

, and

a

p

a

p

. Again, we may take an integrable function f instead

of and get a f L

p

and a f

p

a

p

f

1

. Otherwise stated, L

1

is

represented as an algebra of operators in the Banach space L

p

(p < ).

Another case is that of E = C

G

. If f is a function and a measure both

with compact supports, then f C

G

.

4.7 Process of regularisation.

Let V be any neighbourhood of e in G. Let A

V

be the set

_

f C

v

: f 0

and

_

f (x)dx = 1

_

. As V describes the neighbourhood lter at e, A

V

also describes a lter in the function space C

G

.

Proposition 3. If U is a continuous representation of G in a quasi com-

plete space E, then U

f

a a following for every a E.

In fact U

f

a =

_

U

x

af (x)dx. If W is a closed convex neighbourhood

of 0 in E, then by the continuity of U

f

a one can nd a neighbourhood

V of e such that U

x

a a + W for every x V. Now U

f

a a =

_

(U

x

a a) f (x)dx W whenever f A

V

by convexity of W.

Remark. U

f

a has certain properties of continuity stronger than that of 82

a. For instance if we take for U the regular representation of G in M,

f

E

0

. When e,

f

. This is a process of approxi-

mation of a measure, as it were by continuous functions. If G satises

the rst axiom of countability, we can nd a sequence f

n

of continu-

ous functions generating the lter . In particular, if G is a Lie group,

we have thus an approximation of measures by sequences of continuous

functions. Finally we remark in passing that the same procedure can be

adopted in the case of Lie groups for distributions instead of measures.

Thus a distribution on a Lie group can be approximated by a sequence

of indenitely dierentiable functions.

Chapter 9

General theory of

representations

5.1 Equivalence of representations

83

Denition. A representation U of a topological group G in locally con-

vex space E is said to be equivalent to another representation U

in E

such that TU

x

= U

x

T for

every x G.

This is evidently a very strong requirement which fails to charac-

terise as equivalent certain representations which are equivalent in the

intuitive sense. However, we are interested in the case of unitary rep-

resentations in Hilbert spaces and the denition is good enough for our

purposes.

Denition. Two representations U in H, U

in H

alent if there exists a unitary isomorphism T : H H

such that

TU

x

= U

x

T for every x G.

Proposition 1. Two equivalent unitary representations are unitarily

equivalent. In fact, TT

x

= TU

x

T

= U

x

TT

i.e. U

x

commutes with

the positive Hermitian operator TT

TT

.

It can be easily seen that H

1

T is a unitary operator which transforms

U into U

.

83

84 9. General theory of representations

5.2 Irreducibility of representations

Denition 1 (algebraic irreducibility). A representations U of a group

G in a vector space E is said to be algebraically irreducible if there exists

no proper invariant subspace of E.

Denition 2 (topological irreducibility). A representation U of a topo-

logical group G in a locally convex space E is said to be topologically

irreducible if there exists no proper closed invariant subspace.

Denition 3 (complete irreducibility). A representation U of a topo- 84

logical group G in a locally convex space E is said to be completely

irreducible if any operator in Hom(E, E) (with the topology of simple

convergence) can be approximated by nite linear combinations of the

U

x

.

It is at once obvious that (i) (ii) and that (iii) (ii). It can be

proved that when E is a Banach space, (i) (iii) (Proof can be found in

Annals of Mathematics, 1954, Godement). For unitary representations,

(ii) and (iii) are equivalent (due to von Neumanns density theorem, Th.

2. Ch. 5.6). Finally, all the three denitions are equivalent for nite

dimensional representations ((ii) (iii) due to Burnsides theorem, Th.

1, Ch. 5.5).

5.3 Direct sum of representations

Denition. A representation U of G in E is said to be the direct sum of

representations U

i

of G in E

i

if E

i

are invariant closed subspaces of E

such that the sum

_

E

i

is direct and is everywhere dense in E, and if U

i

is the restriction of U to E

i

. Moreover, if U is a unitary representation

in Hilbert space, U is said to be the Hilbertian direct sum of the U

i

if E

i

is orthogonal to E

j

whenever i j.

Denition . A representation is completely reducible if it can be ex-

pressed as a direct sum of irreducible representations.

General theory of representations 85

5.4 Schurs lemma*

We give here two formulations (Prop. 2 and 3) of Schurs lemma, the

rst being trivial and the second more suited to our purposes.

Proposition 2. Let U and U

sentations in E, E

such

that TU

x

= U

x

T for every x G, then either T = 0 or an algebraic 85

isomorphism.

From this, we immediately deduce the following

Corollary . Let U be an algebraically irreducible nite - dimensional

representation of a group G in E. The only endomorphisms of E which

commute with all the U

x

are scalar multiples of the identity.

In fact, if is an eigenvalue of T, T I is not an isomorphism and

is, by Schurs lemma, = 0.

Proposition 3. Let U, U

resentations in H, H

H H

such that TU

x

= U

x

T for every x G, then either T = 0

or an isomorphism of Hilbert spaces.

In fact, T

= T

. H = T

T is

a Hermitian operator commuting with every U

x

. Hence U

x

commutes

with every E

_

dE

and conse-

quently leaves every spectral subspace invariant. Therefore, the spec-

tral sub-spaces reduce to 0 or E. i.e. H is a scalar = I. Similarly

H

= TT

The proof of Prop. 3 implicitly contains the following

Corollary. Let U be a unitary topologically irreducible representation

of a group G in a Hilbert space E. The only operators of E which

commute with all the U

x

are scalar multiples of the identity. This is

immediate since any operator can be expressed as a sum of Hermitian

operators for which the corollary has been proved in prop. 3.

86 9. General theory of representations

5.5 Burnsides theorem

Theorem 1 (Burnside). Let U be an algebraically irreducible represen-

tation of G into E of nite dimension. Then every operator in E is a 86

linear combination of the U

x

.

Consider the algebra 7 of nite linear combinations of U

x

. Let B

be the subset of Hom(E, E) consisting of elements B such that Tr(AB) =

0 for every A 7. Obviously it is enough to show that B = 0. Now

we dene a representation V of G in B by dening V

x

(B) = U

x

B

for every B B. This is not in general an irreducible representation.

However, if B 0, we can nd a non-zero irreducible subspace C

of B. Now the map

a

: B B

a

of C into E is a linear map which

transforms the representation V into U. For,

a

V

x

(B) =

a

U

x

B = U

x

Ba = U

x

B for every B C.

Hence by Schurs lemma (prop. 2, Ch. 5.4),

a

= 0 or is an isomor-

phism. If

a

= 0 for every a E, B = 0 for every B C and hence

C = 0. But this is contradictory to our assumption that C is non-zero.

Therefore, there exists a

1

E such that

a

1

0. So,

a

1

is an isomor-

phism of C onto E. Let (a

1

, a

2

. . .) be a basis of E. Then

1

a

1

a

2

is an

operator on C. This obviously commutes with every V

x

. Hence by cor.

to prop. 2, Ch. 5.4

1

a

1

a

2

=

2

I where

2

is a scalar. We shall thus

write

a

j

=

j

a

1

with

1

= 1. Now, one can introduce a scalar product

in E such that Tr(U

x

B) =

_

j

(U

x

Ba

j

, a

j

) = 0 for every x E. But

j

(U

x

Ba

j

, a

j

) =

j

(U

x

Ba

1

, a

j

)

= (U

x

Ba

1

,

j

a

j

) = 0

Since the U

x

Ba

1

generate E,

_

j

j

a

j

= 0 or again

j

= 0 for every

j. But

1

= 1. This gives us a contradiction and it follows that B = 0. 87

General theory of representations 87

5.6 Density theorem of von Neumann

Let U be a unitary representation of a topological group G in a Hilbert

space H. We denote by 7.the subset of the set Hom(H, H) of operators

on H consisting of nite linear combinations of the U

x

. This is a self

adjoint subalgebra of Hom(H, H), but is not in general closed in it. Let

7

Obviously 7

is also self-adjoint.

Proposition 4. 7

In fact, if A = lim A

i

(in the weak topology) with A

i

7

, then

(BAx, y) = lim(BA

i

x, y) = lim(A

i

Bx, y)

= (ABx, y) for every B 7.

Hence A 7

.

Let 7

. Then 7

is a weakly

closed self-adjoint subalgebra containing 7 and hence it contains the

weak closure of 7. We can in fact assert

Theorem 2 (von Neumann). 7

= weak closure of 7.

We actually prove a stronger assertion, viz. Let (x

n

) be a sequence

of elements in E such that

_

x

n

2

< and T an operator in 7

. Then

for every > 0, there exists A 7such that

_

T x

n

Ax

n

2

< . (This

in particular implies that 7

closure of 7, in the sense of von Neumann).

We rst show that for every x E, T x is in the closure of Ax : A

7. In fact, F = Ax is a closed invariant subspace of E and let F

be 88

its orthogonal complement. F

algebra 7and hence the orthogonal projection P of E onto F commutes

with every element of 7. P therefore belongs to 7

and T leaves F

invariant. Since x F, T x is also in F.

Now consider the space E

1

= EE (Hilbertian sum). Every

element x E

1

is of the form (x

1

, . . . x

n

) with

_

x

n

2

< . Let

A

be the operator on E

1

dened by Ax = (Ax

1

, . . . Ax

n

, . . .). The map

A

A is an isomorphism of Hom(H, H) into Hom(H

1

, H

1

). Denote the

88 9. General theory of representations

image of 7by

7. If B is any operator on E

1

, it can be expressed in the

form B(x

1

, . . . x

n

. . .) = (y

1

, . . . y

n

. . .) where y

n

=

_

p

b

n, p

x

p

and b

n, p

is

an operator on E. We now show that B (

7)

if and only if b

n, p

7

A(x

1

, . . . x

n

, . . .) =

AB(x

1

, . . . x

n

, . . .) for every

x E

1

implies that b

n, p

A = Ab

n, p

by taking all x

n

, n p to be zero.

Conversely, if this is satised,

AB(x

1

, ..x

n

..)

=

A(. . . ,

p

b

n, p

x

p

, . . .) = (. . . ,

p

b

n, p

Ax

p

, . . .)

= B(Ax

1

, . . . Ax

n

, . . .) = B

A(x

1

, . . . x

n

, . . .)

Again, B (

A)

matrix b

n, p

are equal and in 7

In fact, if C (

A)

, we have (BC)

m,n

= (CB)

m,n

for every B 7

,

or

_

p

b

m, p

c

p,n

=

_

q

c

m,q

b

q,n

for every b

i, j

7

. Putting b

i, j

=

n,i

n, j

,

we get c

i, j

= 0 if i j and c

m,m

= c

n,n

for every m and n. So we have 89

(

A)

= (

_

T x

n

Ax

n

2

< .

Moreover, in theorem 2, if T is Hermitian we can nd a Hermitian

operator A such that

_

T x

n

Ax

n

2

< . As before it is enough to prove

this for one vector x. In other words, we have to show the existence of

Hermitian operator A such that T x Ax < . We know that T is the

strong limit of A 7. Hence T = T

general) limit of A

A + A

2

. Now

A + A

2

is

a Hermitian operator in 7. Hence T is weakly adherent to this convex

set. In this case, weak adherence is the same as the weak adherence in

the sense of topological vector spaces, but weak and strong topologies

are the same in a convex space.

In particular, if we have a unitary topologically irreducible repre-

sentation, by Schurs lemma (Prop. 3, Ch. 5.4) 7

= I and hence

7

This is the analogue of Burnsides theorem (Th. 1, Ch. 5.5) for unitary

representations.

Part III

Continuous sum of Hilbert

Spaces

89

Chapter 10

Continuous sum of Hilbert

Spaces-I

1.1 Introduction

90

In the general theory of unitary representations of a locally compact

group, two main problems are (i) to determine all the irreducible unitary

representations of a group, and (ii) to decompose a given unitary repre-

sentation into irreducible ones. The rst of these has been completely

solved in certain cases (e.g. abelian groups, compact, certain semisim-

ple Lie groups), but it is to the latter that we address ourselves in the

following pages. We start by giving some Examples.

Let U be the regular representation of the one dimensional torus

T

1

in the space L

2

of square summable functions. If f belongs to

L

2

, it can be expressed in Fourier series

_

a

n

e

inz

. If x = e

it

, then

x

f =

_

n

x

a

n

e

inz

=

_

n

(a

n

e

_

)e

inz

and we have decomposed a unitary

representation into a direct sum of irreducible representations.

If we take R instead of T

1

and F L

2

, then

f (y) =

_

f (x)e

ixy

dx also

belongs to L

2

. By the inversion formula, when f is suciently regular

(we do not enter into these details) we have f (x) =

1

2

_

f (y)e

ixy

dy.

Hence

z

f =

1

2

_

f (y)e

i(x+z)y

dy

91

92 10. Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I

=

1

2

_

f (y)e

izy

e

ixy

dy

=

1

2

_

(

f )(y)e

ixy

dy.

Therefore (

z

f )(y) = e

izy

f (y). The regular representation has again

been decomposed into one-dimensional representations but this is not a

discrete sum but a continuous sum - a concept which we shall dene

presently.

Before proceeding with the formal denitions, we give one more

example which is more akin to the theory we are to develop. Let E

be a locally compact space with a positive measure and H a Hilbert 91

space. In the space C(E, H ) of continuous functions f : E H with

compact support, we introduce a semi-norm

f =

__

f (z)

2

d(z)

_ 1

2

< .

Let L

2

(H ) be the completion of the Hausdor space associated

with C(E, H ). We have also a scalar product in this space given by

( f , g) =

_

( f (z), g(z))d(z).

If is discrete (i.e. is a linear combination of Dirac measures at

certain points), L

2

(H ) becomes a discrete sum of Hilbert spaces asso-

ciated to each of those points, all the Hilbert spaces being isomorphic to

H .

These considerations motivate some kind of a continuous sum of

Hilbert spaces indexed by points of a locally compact space. We there-

fore assume the following data to start with:

(1) , a locally compact space (which will be assumed for simplicity

to be countable at ) with a positive measure ;

(2) For every z , a Hilbert space H (z). In other words, we

assume given at each point a tangent space which is a Hilbert

space. For instance, in a Riemannian manifold, the metric assigns

a scalar product to the tangent space at each point of . Of course

in this case the spaces are of nite dimension. Having in mind the

Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I 93

example above, we seek to nd an analogue of the concept of

functions on . This is served by the notion of a vector eld (in

exactly the same sense as in manifolds) which is an assignment

to each point, of an element of the associated Hilbert space. We

would like to have a notion analogous to that of continuous func-

tions in our example. To this end, we introduce a fundamental

family of vector elds with reference to which the continuity of 92

an arbitrary vector eld will dened. Thus we suppose given

(3) A fundamental family of vector elds which satises the follow-

ing conditions:

(a) forms a vector space under the usual operations.

(b) For every vector eld X , the real valued function X(z)

is continuous. This in particular implies that the map z

(X(z), Y(z)) is continuous for every X, Y .

(c) For every z, the vectors X(z) for X are everywhere dense

in H (z). This only ensures that the system is suciently

large. Sometimes the fundamental family will be sup-

posed to satisfy the following stronger condition:

(c

0

= X

n

of such that

for every z , X

n

(z) are dense in H (z). In particular,

this implies that all the Hilbert spaces H (z) are separable.

(We will always assume that the stronger condition (c

) is

valid though some of the results remain true without this

supposition).

1.2 Notion of continuity

We proceed to construct the continuous sum of the spaces H (z). In our

axioms relating to the fundamental family, we have not imposed any

restrictions on its behaviour at . Consequently it cannot be asserted

that the X(z) are square summable. Moreover, the class may be too

small (as they will be if we take them to be constants in our example)

to be dense in L

2

(H ). This necessitates the extension of this family to

the class of continuous vector elds by means of the

94 10. Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I

Denition. A vector eld X is continuous at a point

0

if given an > 0 93

there exists Y and a neighbourhood V of

0

such that X()Y() <

for every V.

Remark. When we take to be constants in the example, this corre-

sponds to the usual continuity of functions.

Proposition 1. A vector eld X is continuous if an only if X is contin-

uous and (X, X

n

) is continuous for every X

n

0

.

If X is continuous, trivially X is continuous. Also if X and X

are

continuous, then (X, X

, there exist a neighbourhood V of and Y, Y

such that

X Y < , X

< in V.

Hence

(X, X

) (Y, Y

) (X Y, X

) + (Y, Y

)

M in V, where M is some constant. As (Y, Y

) is continuous, it

follows that (X, X

enough to show that X() X

n

() is continuous. But X() X

n

()

2

=

X

2

2Rl(X, X

n

) + X

n

2

, all continuous by our assumption.

A continuous vector eld can be multiplied by a scalar continuous

function without aecting its continuity.

Proposition 2. The vector elds

_

i

()Y

i

() with

i

C() and Y

i

are dense in the space of continuous vector elds with the topology of

uniform convergence on compact sets.

At each point x in a compact set K, there exists a neighbourhood A

x

in which X Y

x

< for some Y

x

. We can extract a nite cover

A

x

i

from A

x

and take the partition of unity with respect to this cover. 94

Hence there exist continuous functions

i

such that X

_

i

Y

x

i

<

on k.

1.3 The space L

2

2

elds. We shall say that X belongs to L

2

Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I 95

continuous vector eld Y with compact support such that

_

X() Y()

2

d() < .

(We do not know a priori whether X() Y()

2

is measurable or not

and hence we can only consider the upper integral). In this space, we

can dene

X

2

=

_

X()

2

d() and

(X, X

) =

_

(X(), X

())d().

By passing to the quotient space modulo vector elds of norm 0, we

get a Hilbert space (which again we denote by L

2

). As in the case of

the theory of integration, we have of course to prove the completeness

of L

2

theorem in this case.

L

2

1.4 Measurablility of vector elds

Denition. A vector eld X is said to be measurable if for every compact

K and positive , there exists a set K

1

K such that (k k

1

) < and

X is continuous on K

1

.

Proposition 3. A vector eld X is measurable if and only if (X, X

n

) is

measurable for every X

n

0

.

If X is measurable, (X, X

n

) is continuous on K

1

and hence (X, X

n

) 95

is measurable. Conversely, let (X, X

n

) be measurable. Then X =

sup

(X, X

n

)

X

n

(X, X

n

)

X

n

= 0 if X

n

() =

0). But (X, X

n

) are continuous outside a set K K

n

of measure < /2

n

.

If K

= K

n

, it is obvious that (K K

(X, X

n

) are continuous on K

. Hence X is continuous on K

. By

prop. 1, Ch. 1.2, prop. 3 follows.

In particular, this shows that strong measurablility and weak mea-

surablility are the same in a separable Hilbert space.

96 10. Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I

Proposition 4. A vector eld X belongs to L

2

surable and

_

X()

2

d() < .

The proof is exactly similar to that for ordinary integration of scalar

functions.

1.5 Orthogonal basis

We now nd an orthogonal basis for the space of vector elds by Schmi-

dts orthogonalisation process. We can of course dene

e

1

=

X

1

X

1

, e

2

=

X

2

(X

2

, e

1

)e

1

X

2

(X

2

, e

1

)e

1

, . . .

where we put e

1

= 0 whenever the numerator is zero [20]. However, the

process is defective as the basic elements are not continuous, and the

following orthogonalisation seems preferable:

Put

e

1

= X

1

; e

2

= X

2

(X

2

, e

1

)e

1

,

e

n

= x

n

- orthogonal projection of X

n

on the space generated by

e

1

, . . . e

n1

These are of course continuous vector elds. At each point , the 96

nonzero e() from an orthogonal basic for H ().

1.6 Operator elds

Let X be a square summable vector eld and A() an operator on H ().

Then we may dene (AX)() = A()X() and get another vector eld

AX. The assignment to each of an operator of H () is called an

operator eld. However, in order that A may act as operator on L

2

, we

have to make sure that AX is also square summable. Obviously some

restrictions an A() will be necessary to achieve this. In the particular

case when all the spaces H () are the isomorphic, A() is a map of

into the set of operators of the Hilbert space H . Now, Hom (H , H )

can be provided with uniform, strong or weak topologies and we may

Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I 97

restrict A to be continuous for one of these topologies. However, the

rst topology is too strong and consequently the space good operator

elds will become too restricted to be of any utility. Therefore, in this

particular case, we may require the map A to be continuous in the weak

or strong topology as the case may be. To transport this denition to

the general case, we have to reformulate this in a suitable way. Take

for instance the requirement of strong continuity. This is equivalent to

requiring that (a) A() is locally bounded (i.e. bounded on compact

sets) and (b) for every continuous function f () of with values in H ,

A() f () is continuous.

This motivates the following

Denition. An operator eld A() is said to be strongly continuous 97

if (a) A() is locally bounded and (b) for every continuous vector eld

X(), A()X() is also continuous.

Similar considerations for weak continuity give us the following

Denition. An operator eld A is said to be weakly continuous if (a) it is

locally bounded, and (b) for any two continuous vector elds X(), Y(),

the map (A()X(), Y()) is continuous.

Proposition 5. An operator eld A is strongly continuous if and only if A

is locally bounded and A()X

n

() is continuous for every X

n

0

.

This follows straight from the denition.

The strongly continuous operator elds form an algebra which is

not however self adjoint, while the weakly continuous operator elds

do not even form an algebra. In order to ensure that our denitions are

good enough, we should know if there exist suciently many non-scalar

continuous operator elds. This is answered by the following

Theorem 1. Let K be a compact subset of and Y

1

, . . . Y

n

, Z

1

, . . . Z

n

,

2n continuous vector elds such that Y

i

() are linearly independent for

every K. Then there exists a continuous operator eld A such that

A()Y

j

() = Z

j

() for every K and such that A()

is also continu-

ous.

98 10. Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I

We rst remark that we can as well assume that K = . For, Y

i

()

are linearly independent if and only if = det(Y

i

(), Y

j

()) 0. This

being a continuous function of K, there exists a compact neighborhood

V of K such that > 0 on V. If the theorem were true for a

compact space, there exists an operator A

above. Set A = A

0

where is a continuous function 1 on K, 0 outside 98

V; then A veries all the conditions.

Now let P() be the space spanned by Y

i

(). We can then dene

A() = 0 on the orthogonal complement of P() and A()Y

i

() = Z

i

()

and extend A by linearity. If is the projection of H () onto P(), we

have (X, Y

j

) = (X, Y

j

) and if X =

_

k

Y

k

, then (X, Y

j

) =

_

k

(Y

k

, Y

j

)

with det(Y

j

, Y

k

) = > 0. On solving the linear equations for

k

,

we get

k

=

k

/. Since the functions occurring in the linear equations

are continuous,

k

are continuous functions and we have

k

=

MX where M is a constant. Hence A()X() =

_

k

()Z

k

() is contin-

uous for every continuous vector eld X. A is locally bounded by virtue

of the above remark and hence A is a continuous operator eld.

It is obvious that A

maps the

whole of H () onto P() and hence A

()X() =

_

k

()Y

k

() where

the () are given by

k

()(Y

k

, Y

j

) = (

k

()Y

k

, Y

j

)

= (A

()X(), Y

j

())

= (X(), A()Y

j

())

= (X(), Z

j

())

The Gram determinant in this case also is . Hence by the same

argument as before, A

1.7 Measurablility of operator elds

99

Denition. An operator eld A is said to be measurable if (a) it is almost

everywhere locally bounded, and (b) for every compact K and positive

, there exists K

1

K such that (K K

1

) < and A() is continuous

on K

1

.

Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I 99

If (e

p

) form an orthogonal basis (Ch. 1.5), then any operator can be

expressed by means of a matrix with respect to this base. The matrix

coecients are only (Ae

p

, e

q

). We then have

Proposition 6. A locally bounded operator eld A is measurable if and

only if the matrix coecients of A() are measurable functions on .

That a measurable operator eld satises the above condition is a

trivial consequence of the denition. Conversely, if (Ae

p

, e

q

) is measur-

able for every q, by prop. 3, ch. 1.4, Ae

p

is measurable for every p. As

in Prop. 3, Ch. 1.4, we can nd a compact set K

1

such that the Ae

p

are

continuous on k

1

and (K K

1

) < .

1.8 Decomposed operators

Let A() be a measurable operator eld bounded almost everywhere.

For every X() L

2

A()X() A()

X(). Hence

_

A()X()

2

d exists and we

have AX

L

2

A()

X

L

2

tor on L

2

and A A()

.

If A is an operator in L

2

that it is a decomposed operator and write A

_

A(). In particular if

we take A() = f (). Identity where f L

() we obtain a decomposed

operator M

f

_

f () Id. This is called a scalar decomposed operator 100

on L

2

adjoint subalgebra of Hom(L

2

, L

2

). For,

(M

f

X, Y) =

_

( f ()X(), Y())d()

=

_

(X(), f ()Y())d()

= (X, M

f

Y)

Hence M

f

= M

f

.

We now give a characterisation of decomposed operators in terms of

this algebra M by means of

100 10. Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I

Theorem 2. The set of decomposed operators is precisely the commu-

tator of M. If A

_

A(), then A = A()

.

In fact, if A is a decomposed operator, it commutes with all the ele-

ments of M and hence belongs to M

.

Conversely let A be an operator in L

2

f

for

every f L

K

e

n

()

L

2

, e

n

being the orthogonal basis (Ch. 1.5). Let H be a compact

nighbourhood of K. Then

A(

K

e

n

) = A(

K

H

e

n

)

= AM

K

(

H

e

n

)

= M

K

A(

H

e

n

) by assumption

=

K

A(

H

e

n

) almost everywhere.

It is obvious that at the intersection of any two compact sets K, K

1

,

the vector elds A(

K

e

n

) and A(1

K

e

n

) coincide almost everywhere.

Hence there exists a vector eld A(e

n

) such that

K

(e

n

)A(e

n

)() =

A(

K

e

n

)() almost everywhere. Thus we have a countable family of rela-

tions and hence there exists a set N of measure 0 such that

K

A(e

n

)() =

A(

K

e

n

)() for every N. Since the X

n

in the fundamental sequence 101

0

are nite linear combinations of the e

n

we have

K

A(X

n

)() = A(

K

X

n

)() for every N. Also

_

K

A(X

n

())

2

d() = A(

K

X)

2

A

2

_

K

X

n

2

() for every compact set K. Hence the set of elements

such that A(X

n

)() is strictly greater than A X

n

() is of measure

zero.

We have thus proved that the algebra of all decomposed operators is

M

Theorem 3. M is a weakly closed algebra.

In fact, let (e

n

) be an orthogonal basis of L

2

two integers p, q, a decomposed operator H

p,q

by setting

H

p,q

()e

n

() = 0i f n p or q

H

p,q

()e

p

() = e

p

()

2

e

q

().

Continuous sum of Hilbert Spaces-I 101

and H

p

q

()e

q

() = e

q

()

2

e

p

().

If B commutes with every A M

all the H

p,q

therefore B() commutes with H

p,q

() for every xed p, q

and almost every . Since the H

p,q

are countable, B() commutes with

H

p,q

() for almost every () and for all p, q. Hence outside a set of

measure zero, we have

(B()e

p

, e

p

) =

(Be

p

, H

n,q

, e

n

)

e

n

2

for every p, q.

= (BH

n,q

e

p

,

e

n

e

n

2

) (since the H

n,q

are Hermitian)

= 0 if p q.

On the other hand, 102

(B()e

p

, e

p

) = (BH

n, p

e

p

,

e

n

e

n

2

)

=

e

p

2

e

n

2

(Be

n

, e

n

)

This shows that B() is a scalar operator for almost every (). Hence

B =

_

B()d() is a scalar decomposed operator and hence M. This

shows that M = M

Chapter 11

Continuous sum of Hilbert

spaces - II

2.1

103

In the last chapter, given a family H () of Hilbert spaces indexed by

elements of a locally compact space , we constructed the continuous

sum H = L

2

continuous sum with reference to a given comutative, weakly closed *-

subalgebra m of Hom(H , H ).

M satises Gelfands conditions and is hence isomorphic and iso-

metric to the space C() of continuous complex valued functions on a

compact space which is called the spectrum of M. By this isomor-

phism, every continuous linear form on M is transformed into a contin-

uous liner form on C() or, what is the same, a measure on the space

. In particular, the continuous linear form (Mx, y) where x, y H

gives rise to a measure which we shall denote by d

x,y

i.e. we have

(Mx, y) =

_

M()d

x,y

(). This measure is called the spectral measure

associated to x, y. This depends linearly on x and anti linearly on y.

Let M

an element a H such that the set Aa : A M

is dense in H .

This assumption however is not a real restriction on our theory. For

otherwise, we can decompose H into a discrete sum of Hilbert spaces

103

104 11. Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II

each of which satises the above condition. Let a

1

be any element of

H and H

1

the closed subspace generated by Aa

1

, A M

. H

1

is

invariant under both M and M

. If H

1

is the orthogonal complement 104

of H

1

, we can carry out the same process for H

1

, and so on. Thus

H = H

1

H

2

.. where all the H

i

satisfy the above condition.

Now we show that the spectral measure d

a,a

has as its support.

In fact, if f is a positive continuous function on such that its integral

is 0, then f = 0. We can write f as

M

2

and we have

_

M

2

d

(a,a)

=

(M Ma, a) = Ma

2

. Hence if

_

M

2

d

(a,a)

= 0, Ma = 0 or AMa = 0

for every A M

it follows that M = 0. Moreover, this shows that the measure d

a,a

is

positive.

Proposition 1. Corresponding to any operator A M

and only one continuous function

A

on such that d

(Aa,a)

=

A

d

a,a

and we have

A

A.

In fact, it is enough to prove the proposition when A is a positive

Hermitian operator since any operator is a nite linear combination of

them. Under this assumption we have

_

M

2

d

Aa,a

= (M

MAa, a)

= (AMa, Ma)

= A(Ma, Ma)

= A

_

M

2

d

a

, a

Now d

Aa,a

is positive and d

Aa,a

k d

a,a

. Therefore, by Lebesgue

- Nikodym theorem, there exist a measurable function L

(

a,a

) such

that d

Aa,a

=

A

d

a,a

. We also have

A

A.

The proof is complete if we prove the

Lemma . For every bounded measurable function on there exists 105

one and only one continuous function such that = a.e.

By the denition of

x,y

, we have

x,y

x y. Therefore

_

()d

x,y

()

x y.

Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II 105

Thus

_

()d

x,y

() is a sesquilinear map which is continuous in

each of the variables x, y. As a consequence of Riesz representation the-

orem, there exits a linear operator T such that

_

()d

x,y

() = (T x, y).

We now show that T commutes with every element of M

. For, if

M M

, we have

(MT x, y) = (T x, M

y)

=

_

()d

X,M

y

()

=

_

()d

Mx,y

()( since M M

)

= (T Mx, y)

Since M is weakly closed, T M.

We have

_

()

Md

a,a

=

_

T

Md

a,a

and hence

T = ()a.e - This

proves the lemma.

The function

A

C() thus constructed satises the following

properties:

(a)

A+B

=

A

+

B

.

For,

_

A+B

d

a,a

= ((A + B)a, a) = (Aa, a) + (Ba, a)

=

_

(

A

+

B

)d

a,a

(b)

A

=

A

.

For,

_

A

d

a,a

= (A

a, a) = (Aa, a)

=

_

A

d

a,a

.

(c)

MA

=

M

A

106

106 11. Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II

_

MA

d

a,a

= (MAa, a)

=

_

Md

Aa,a

=

_

M

A

d

a,a

(d)

A

A

0

In fact, if f is a positive function, we can express it as

M

2

.

_

M

2

A

d

a,a

= AMa

2

0.

(e)

A

A

This has been proved in the Prop. 1, Ch. 2.1.

2.2

In order to get a decomposition of H into a continuous sum, we need

the following

Lemma . Let J be any *-subalgebra of Hom(H , H ) which is uni-

formly closed. Let be a positive continuous linear form on J such

that (A

) = (A), (A

correspond a canonical unitary representation of the algebra J.

In fact, because of the conditions we have imposed on , (B

A) is a

positive Hermitian form on B. Hence we have by the Cauchy-Schwarz

inequality (B

A)

2

(B

B)(A

A). Therefore, (B

B) = 0 if and

only if (B

B) =

0 ((AB)

(B

positive denite Hermitian from and consequently gives rise to a scalar

product. The completion of this space under this norm shall be denoted

H

is continuous since (B

B) kB

2

. 107

On the other hand we have also a map f : B Hom(H

, H

) dened

by f (A) = U

A

where U

A

(

B) =

Consider B

A

2

BB

AB = B

(A

2

A

A)B; (A

2

A

A) is positive

Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II 107

Hermitian and hence so is H = B

A

2

B B

AB. H

1

2

is the uniform

limit of polynomials in H and since B is uniformly closed, H

1

2

B.

Therefore we have

H

=

H

1

2 H

1

2

0 by assumption. We have now

proved that (B

AB) A

2

(B

A

is continuous. This can be extended to an operator of H . We have

also shown that U

A

A. It remains to prove that this is a unitary

representation. Let A, B, C B. Then (U

A

B,

C) = ((A

C)

B) =

(

B, U

A

C). Hence U

A

= U

A

which shows that this is unitary.

In fact all the above considerations hold for a Banach algebra with

involution.

2.3

After this lemma in the general set-up, we revert to our decomposition

of H into a continuous sum. For every xed ,

A

() is a pos-

itive continuous linear from on M

of the lemma. Hence we have a unitary representation of M

in the

Hilbert space H

=

M

where N

= A :

A

A

() = 0. In other

words, to each point we have assigned a Hilbert space H

. If

M M, since

MA

=

M

A

, we have U

M

() =

M() identity. For,

(U

M

()

B,

C) =

C

MB

() =

M()

C

B

() =

M()(

B,

C). We have now

all the data necessary for the construction of a continuous sum except 108

the fundamental family of vector elds. We have so far operated with

M

, but, in practice, M

separable in the norm. So we assume given a subalgebra 7of M

such

that

(a) 7is uniformly closed.

(b) There exists a sequence A

n

7 such that 7 is generated by the

A

n

and 7 M.

(c) There exists a H such that Aa : a H is dense in H . It is

actually this algebra 7which is in general given and the problem

108 11. Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II

will then be to nd an M 7

satised.

We have a map 7 Hom(H

, H

there are more functions than would be absolutely necessary. That

is, there may exist elements ,

in such that

A

() =

A

(

) for

every A 7. In this case, we have two points ,

which are in some sense equivalent with respect to 7. Therefore we

introduce an equivalence relation R in by setting

whenever

A

() =

A

(

and /R = is a compact Hausdor space. The same procedure for

and 7 as for and M

at each point

and a continuous representation of the algebra 7in Hom(H

, H

). The

image of the measure d

a,a

by the canonical map is denoted by

. At each point we have a map 7 1

we obtain a vector eld. This family of vector elds is the fundamental

family we sought to construct. In fact,

(a) They constitute a vector space, since 7is an algebra.

(b) X

A

() =

AA

()

1

2

and hence X

A

() is continuous. 109

(c) For each , X

A

() in everywhere dense since H

pletion of the space of X

A

().

(c

) Consider

_

M

i

B

i

where M 7 M and B is a nite product

Ai

1

Ai

2

. . . Ai

p

of the A

n

. Then X

_

M

i

B

i

=

_

U

M

i

X

B

i

with U

M

being

scalars. X

B

i

is only a countable family and the vectors X

_

M

i

B

i

()

are dense in H (). Consequently the countable family X

_

i

B

i

()

where the

i

are complex numbers with real and imaginary parts

rational is also dense in H ().

Thus we have now all the data for the construction of a continuous

sum L

2

2

= H . In fact,

since is compact, every continuous vector eld is square summable.

Therefore, we have

X

A

2

=

_

X

A

()

2

d() =

_

AA

()d

a,a

() = Aa

2

Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II 109

Also Aa = 0 implies X

A

= 0. Therefore, the map Aa X

A

is an

isometry of a dense subspace of H and hence can be extended to an

isometry J : H L

2

tive. We have seen (Prop. 2, Ch. 1.2) that vector elds of the form

_

i

()Y

i

() where

i

() are continuous functions of are dense in L

2

.

Therefore it is enough to prove that J(H ) contains all such elements

(the image of J(H ) being closed in L

2

). Let M

0

be the self adjoint sub-

algebra of M consisting of elements M such that

M is constant on cosets

modulo the equivalence relation R. Consequently,

M may be considered

as a continuous map on . But we have

_

M

i

A

a

i

2

=

_

_

M

i

X

A

j

2

d

and therefore the map J

1

:

_

M

i

A

a

i

_

M

i

X

A

i

is an isometry which

coincides with J on the elements Aa. This shows that

_

M

i

X

A

i

J(H ) 110

and hence L

2

= J(H ).

Hereafter we shall identify L

2

contained in the space of decomposed operators on H . In fact, we

will show that A =

_

U

A

(). We have already proved (Ch. 2.2) that

U

A

() A and U

A

() is hence bounded. Also U

A

()X

B

() = X

AB

()

is again a continuous vector eld and by Prop. 5, Ch. 1.6, U

A

() is a con-

tinuous operator eld. If now

A =

_

U

A

(), then

ABa = U

A

()X

B

() =

X

AB

() = ABa by our identication for every B 7. Since Ba : B

7 is dense in H , we have

A = A. In other words, every operator

A 7. is decomposable into a continuous operator eld.

Now, we have another algebra M of operators on H . It is natural to

expect then M consists of scalar decomposed operators. It is of course

true, but the proof is not obvious. As before, let M

0

be the subalgebra

of M composed of elements M such that

M C(). We rst prove

that M

0

consists of scalar decomposed operators. Let B, C 7. Then

110 11. Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II

(MBa, Ca) = (MC

Ba, a) =

_

M()d

C

Ba,a

()

=

_

M()

C

B

()d

a,a

()

=

_

M()

C

B

()d() (since the continuous

functions are constant

on the equivalence classes)

=

_

M()(X

B

(), X

C

())d() by denition of the norm.

That is to say that M =

_

to every element M M. Since we know that the space of scalar oper-

ators is weakly closed, it suces to prove that M M

0

. Again by the

Hahn-Banach theorem, it is enough to show that any weakly continuous

linear form which is zero on M

0

(and hence on M

0

) is also zero on

M. But any weakly continuous linear form on Hom

S

(H , H

W

) is of

the form U

n

_

i=1

(UX

i

, Y

i

). if

_

(MX

i

, Y

i

) = 0 for every M M

0

,

then

_

_

M()(X

i

(), Y

i

())d() = 0. Hence

_

(X

i

(), Y

i

()) = 0

for almost every in , or again

_

(X

i

(()), Y

i

(())) = 0a.e. on

where is the canonical map . Therefore,

_

(MX

i

, Y

i

) =

_

M(X)

_

(X

i

(x), Y

i

(x))d

a,a

= 0 for every M . This completes the

proof of our assertion.

2.4 Irreducibility of the components - Mautners theorem

Finally it remains to show that the unitary representations of the algebra

7in the H

interested in taking it as large as possible. Thus we assume that M is a

maximal commutative subalgebra of 7

Theorem 1 (Mautner). Let 7 be any uniformly closed *-subalgebra of

Hom(H , H ) such that

Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II 111

(a) there exists a sequence A

n

which generates 7;

(b) there exists an element a H such that the set Aa : a 7 is

dense in H .

Let M be any maximal commutative *-subalgebra of 7

. Then in

the decomposition of H into the continuous sum of the H

with re-

spect to M and 7, almost every representation U

A

() of 7in H () is 112

irreducible.

Let e

n

be the orthogonal basics given in Ch. 1.5 with respect to

the fundamental sequence

0

and let M

0

be the subset M M :

M

C() of M. If B be the algebra generated by 7 and M

0

, then M =

B

0

(Ch. 2.3) and therefore

M

= M

0

. Hence B

= 7

0

= 7

and 7

= M, M

being a maximal subalgebra. We dene for any two integers p, q as in

theorem 3, Ch. 1.8, Hermitian decomposed operators H

p,q

on H such

that

H

p,q

()e

n

() = 0 if n p or q;

H

p,q

()e

p

() = e

p

()

2

e

q

(), and

H

p,q

()e

q

() = e

q

()

2

e

p

().

We have already seen (Ch. 1.8) that any operator which commutes

with all the H

p,q

() is a scalar operator. Now, H

p,q

is bounded since we

have H

p,q

() e

p

() e

q

() e

p

e

q

. H

p,q

is continuous since

it transforms every vector led of type e

j

() into another continuous

vector eld (Prop. 5, Ch. 1.6). Now H

p,q

=

_

H

p,q

()d() and this

commutes with every element of M. Therefore

H

p,q

=

_

H

p,q

()d() M

= B

.

Let Y

n

= e

n

/e

n

1/n

. Then we have

_

Y

n

2

< and by theorem

2, Ch. 5.6 Part II, there exist Hermitian operators B

k

B such that

_

n

H

p,q

Y

n

B

k

Y

n

2

< 1/k

2

. Therefore H

p,q

e

n

B

k

e

n

e

n

n

k

0

as k ., i.e.,

_

_

n

H

p,q

()Y

n

() B

k

()Y

n

()

2

d() 0 as k . 113

112 11. Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II

As in Riesz-Fisher theorem, we can nd a subsequence B

k

i

such that

H

p,q

Y

n

B

k

i

Y

n

0 as k

i

outside a set of measure zero. Since the

H

p,q

are only countable in number, we can pass to the diagonal sequence

and get a sequence B

k

j

such that for every p, q, H

p,q

Y

n

B

k

j

Y

n

0 as

k

j

outside a set N measure zero.

Let N and L be a subspace invariant under 7() or again under

7()

U

B

() where B B (where U

B

() =

_

i

M

i

()U

A

() whenever B =

_

i

M

i

A

i

).

So,

(S H

p,q

()e

n

(), e

m

()) = lim(S U

B

k

(), e

n

(), e

m

())

= lim(U

B

k

(), S e

n

(), e

m

())

= lim(S

e

n

(), U

B

k

(), e

m

())

= (S

e

n

(), H

p,q

(), e

m

()).

or H

p,q

() commutes with every S 7()

7()

only invariant subspaces of 7()

tation A U

A

() of 7in H () is irreducible.

The following corollary is more or less immediate:

Corollary. Let U be unitary representation of a separable, locally com-

pact group G in a Hilbert space H such that there exists a H with

the minimal closed invariant subspace containing a = H . Then U is

a continuous sum of unitary representations which are almost all irre-

ducible.

In fact, in Mautners theorem, we have only to take for 7 the uni- 114

form closure of the algebra generated by elements of the form U

x

, x G.

2.5

We have already said that the space could have been used in much

the same way as the space . We now give an illustration to explain our

remark that is too large for practical purposes and that in the decompo-

sition with respect to the same representations may repeat too often

Continuous sum of Hilbert spaces - II 113

(which is what we sought to avoid by our equivalence relation). Let H

be the space L

2

(R) and U the regular representation

x

of R in L

2

(R).

Let 7 be the algebra of operators

f

for f L

1

. It can easily be seen

that 7

on L

2

with , a bounded measure. 7

and 7

. We say take

m

to be 7

trum of M

1

. This is the much larger than the spectrum of L

1

, whereas

a good decomposition of L

2

(R) into a Fourier transform is given by

f

f (y) =

1

2

_

f (x)e

ixy

dx. The Fourier in version formula will be

f =

1

2

_

f (y)e

ixy

dy. L

2

is the direct integral of Hilbert spacers of

dimension 1. If M

1

denotes the set of bounded measures, then L

1

is an

ideal in M

1

and is hence contained in a maximal ideal of M

1

. Thus two

dierent characters of M

1

give rise to the same character of L

1

. Thus

a decomposition with consists of unnecessarily repeated representa-

tions while that with (spectrum of L

1

in our example) economises

them and reduces the decomposed representations to a minimum.

2.6 Equivalence of representations

115

The decomposition into continuous sum is obviously not unique, be-

cause the process depends on the choice of a H such that Aa : A

7 is dense in H and on this choice of M. The question therefore

arises whether all these decompositions are equivalent in some sense.

Denition . Two decompositions L

2

1

, (

1

,

1

,

1

) and L

2

2

(

2

,

2

,

2

)

of H are said to be equivalent if there exists a measurable one-one

map t :

1

2

and a map U

correspondence to every vector eld X on

1

of a vector eld on

2

dened by Y(t()) = U

X(), is an isomorphism of L

2

1

onto L

2

2

.

It is almost immediate that if the vector a is changed, we get equiv-

alent decompositions. However, it is not true that if M is chosen in

dierent ways the corresponding decompositions are equivalent.

Chapter 12

The Plancherel formula

3.1 Unitary algebras

116

Consider the regular representation of a locally compact group G in the

space L

2

and decompose this into a continuous sum of irreducible rep-

resentations. Then we have an isometry f X

f

of L

2

onto L

2

. By

the denition of the norm in L

2

, we have

_

G

f

2

d =

_

X

f

2

d().

The map f X

f

is in a sense the Fourier transform for G, and the

above equality, the Plancherel formula. As a matter of fact, we do get

the classical Plancherel formula from this as a particular case when G

is commutative. However, we have had many choices to make in the

decomposition and as such this denition of a Fourier transform is not

suciently unique and consequently uninteresting. We now proceed to

obtain a Plancherel formula which is unique.

Let G be a separable, locally compact, unimodular group. We have

seen (Ch. 8, Part II) that the regular representation of G in L

2

gives rise

to a representation of L

1

in L

2

. In fact we have the formula for every

f L

1

and g L

2

.

g f (x) =

_

g(xy

1

) f (y)dy

= y(a) where g(x) = f (x

1

)

If we take x = e, g f (e) =

_

e(y)

f (y)dy (Since the group is uni-

115

116 12. The Plancherel formula

modular)

= (g, f

) where f

(x) = f (x

1

)

By associativity of convolution product, we see that

(g f , h) = g f h

(e)

= g (h f

(e)

= (g, h f

) for every f , g, h L

1

L

2

117

The operation we have dened is an involution. Moreover L

1

acts

on L

2

or, what is the same, L

2

is a representations space for L

1

. The

mapping f T

f

where T f (g) = g f is unitary. Thus L

1

is a self

adjoint algebra of operator on L

2

= H . 7 = L

1

L

2

is a subalgebra

H with an involution . This satises the following axioms:

(a) (x, y) = (y

, x

) for every x, y 7

For,

( f , g) =

_

f (x)g(x)dx

=

_

g(x

1

) f (x

1

)dx

=

_

g

(x) f

(x)dx

= (g

, f

) for every f , g, L

1

L

2

.

(b) (x, yz) = (y

x, z), or equivalently

(yx, z) = (y, zx

) for every x, y, z 7.

(c) 7is dense in H .

As a consequence the operators V

x

(y) = yx on 7can be extended

to operators on H .

(d) The identity operator is the strong limit of that V

x

.

This is an immediate consequence of prop. 3, Ch. 4.7, Part II,

The Plancherel formula 117

Denition . Let 7 be subspace of the Hilbert space H . If 7 is an

associative with involution satisfying conditions (a), (b), (c) and (d), 7

is said to be a unitary algebra (Godement). (Ambrose with a slightly

dierent denition calls it an H

- algebra).

3.2

118

Associated with a given unitary algebra, we have a representation

U

x

(y) = xy and an antirepresentation V

x

(y) = yx. Axiom (b) asserts

that these two representations are unitary. The map x x

is an isom-

etry by a (a) and consequently can be extended to a map S : H H .

The U

x

and the V

x

are related by means of the relations V

x

= S U

x

S

for every x 7. In fact, if y, z 7, we have

(V

x

y, z) = (yx, z)

= (z

, x

)

= (z

, U

x

y

)

= (S U

x

S y, z)

Hence V

x

= S U

x

S on 7and hence on H . We shall denote by 1,

+ the uniformly closed algebras generated by the U

x

, V

x

respectively.

Let F be the uniformly closed algebra generated by both the U

x

and the

V

x

.

Denition. An element a H is said to be bounded if the the linear

map x V

x

a of 7 H is continuous.

The mapping shall be denoted U

a

, and the set of bounded elements

B.

Remark. To start with, one should have dened right -boundedness and

left-boundedness of elements in H . But if a is bounded in the above

sense, a trivial computation shows that U

a

x = V

x

S a for every x 7. So

S a is bounded and U

S a

= U

a

. Now we have U

x

a = S V

x

S

a

= S U

a

S

x

and the map x U

x

a is continuous and hence denes a continuous

operator V

a

and we have V

a

= S U

a

S .

118 12. The Plancherel formula

Proposition 1. M = U

a

: a B is a self adjoint ideal which is 119

weakly dense is +

.

In fact, for everyx, y 7, U

a

V

x

y = U

a

(yx) = V

yx

a = V

x

V

y

a =

V

x

U

a

y; therefore U

a

commutes with V

x

; hence U

a

+

. Moreover if

T +

, we have TU

a

x = TV

x

a = V

x

Ta; hence Ta is bounded and

U

Ta

= TU

a

and consequently M is an ideal in +

. Since U

a

= U

S a

,

it is self-adjoint. Since +

that +

, or again that T +

, X M

But we have seen that, for x 7, TU

x

M. Hence TU

x

X = XTU

x

and we may now allow U

x

to tend to 1 in the strong topology to obtain

TX = XT.

From this follows at once the

Theorem 1 (Godement-Segal). In the notations, 1

= +

, or equiva-

lently +

= 1

.

In fact, since + 1

, + 1

+

+

. Since the U

a

, a B and sim-

ilarly V

a

, a B are dense in +

, 1

the commutativity of V

a

, V

b

, a, b B. First we assert that U

c

b = V

b

c

for every c B.

For,

(U

c

b, x) = (b, U

S c

x) = (b, V

x

S c)

= (V

x

b, S c) = (c, S V

x

b)

= (c, U

x

S b) = (c, V

S b

x) = (V

b

c, x)

Now, U

a

V

b

x = U

a

U

x

b = U

U

a

x

b = V

b

(U

a

x) by the above calculation

and the proof of theorem 1 is complete.

3.3 Factors

120

A weakly closed self-adjoint subalgebra of operators on a Hilbert space

H is said to be a factor if its centre reduces to the scalar operators.

The Plancherel formula 119

If in the above discussion we assume R to be irreducible, then R

=

1 +

= 1

= Centre of 1

Schurs lemma (Ch. 5.4, Part II), R

is a

factor.

Example. (1) The set of all bounded operators on H is a factor.

(2) The set of bounded operators on H which is isomorphic to

Hom(H

1

, H

1

) where H

1

is another Hilbert space is also a fac-

tor. This is said to be a Factor of type I. If H

1

is of dimension n,

this is said oe be if type I

n

.

3.4 Notion of a trace

If we consider only the operators on H which are of nite rank, then

we have the notion of a trace dened by

_

n

(Te

n

, e

n

) where the e

n

form

an orthonormal basis. In the general case, we may dene trace axiomat-

ically in the following way:

Denition. If P is the set of positive operators on H , trace is a map of

P into [0, ] satisfying

(a) Tr(UPU

1

) = Tr P for every unitary operator U, and

(b) If P is a positive operator =

_

T

, where the T

tive operators, and the series in strongly convergent, then Tr P =

_

Tr T

.

In particular, (b) implies that for every positive , Tr(P) = Tr P. It 121

is obvious that this is true if is rational and since the rational numbers

are dense in R, by (b), it is also true for all R

+

. If A is any operator

on H with a minimal decomposition into positive operators, then trace

can be dened on A by extending by linearity.

Now, instead of Hom(H , H ), we may consider any -subalgebra

F of Hom(H , H ) and dene the notion of a trace as above. However,

for arbitrary -subalgebras, neither the existence of a non-trivial trace

nor its uniqueness is assured. For instance, if H = H

1

+ H

2

is the

direct sum of the Hilbert spaces H

1

and H

2

and F is the subalgebra

120 12. The Plancherel formula

Hom(H

1

, H

1

) + Hom(H

2

, H

2

) of Hom(H , H ), then the function

dened by (T

1

+ T

2

) =

1

Tr T

1

+

2

Tr T

2

(where

1

and

2

are ar-

bitrary positive constants) is a trace. However, when F is a factor, the

nontrivial trace, if it exists, is unique. Those factors which do not pos-

sess a nontrivial trace are said to be of type III.

A nontrivial trace on F can be proved to have the following proper-

ties:

1. If H F P, TrH = 0 of and only if H = 0; and

2. For every positive H F, there exists H

1

F such that 0 < H

1

H and Tr H

1

< .

Denition. An element A of a-algebra F operators on H , is said to

be normed (or of Hilbert-Schmidt type) with respect to a trace on F, if

Tr(A

A) < .

Let F

0

be the set of operators of nite trace and F

1

the set of normed 122

operators in F. Than if A, B F

1

, we have B

A F

0

and Tr(B A) is a

scalar product on F

1

.

In the case of the algebra 1

Theorem 2. There exists on 1

(a) A 1

a

for some a B.

(b) If A = U

a

and B = U

b

are normed, then Tr(B A) = (a, b).

The proof may be found in [23] or [12], Ch. I, 6, n

2.

In particular, if R is irreducible, then the factor 1

3.5

We now assume that two more conditions are satised by 7, viz.

(1) 7 is separable i.e. there exists a -subalgebra everywhere dense

in 7, which has a countable basis (in the algebraic sense).

(2) There exists an element e 7such that e

= e and R is dense in

7.

The Plancherel formula 121

Condition (2), however, is, as in the case of general decomposition,

not a real restriction, and if it is not satised, 7 can be split up into a

discrete sum of algebras each of which satises this condition.

We shall now perform the decomposition of H into a continuous

sum of Hilbert spaces with reference to the uniformly closed algebra R

of operators on H . Let 7

1

be the set Re : R R.

The fundamental family of vector elds in L

2

is given by a = Re 123

a() = X

R

() H (). We have already seen (Ch. 2) that this map

is an isometry. Consider for every the set 7() = a() : a 7

1

.

U

a

, a 7is a decomposed operator =

_

U

a

()d().

Our object now will be to put on 7() the structure of an algebra and

an involution with respect to which 7() becomes a unitary algebra,

To this end, we dene for = a

1

() and = a

2

(), a

1

, a

2

7

1

,

= U

a

1

() a

2

() and

1

(). Of course we have to prove that these

denitions are independent of the particular a

1

, a

2

we choose. In other

words we have to verify that if a

1

() =

a

1

() and a

2

() =

a

2

(), then

U

a

1

() a

2

() = U

a

1

()

2

and that a

1

() = a

former, we show that U

a

1

() a

2

() = V

a

2

() a

1

(). If a

1

= R

1

e and a

2

=

R

2

e, we have

U

a

1

() a

2

() =

(U

a

1

a

2

)() = X

Ua

1

R

2

()

=

b() where b = U

a

1

R

2

e

= (R

1

e)(R

2

e) = V

a

2

(R

1

e)

Hence

b() = X

Va

2

R

1

() = V

a

2

() a

1

(). Therefore, we have proved

that the vector elds U

a

1

() a

2

() and V

a

2

() a

1

() are equal and so we

have U

a

1

() a

2

() = V

a

2

() a

1

() for almost every . But since 7

1

has a

countable basis, we can nd a set N of measure zero such that for every

a

1

, a

2

7

1

, we have U

a

1

() a

2

() = V

a

2

() a

1

() for N. Now the left

hand side is unaltered if we replace a

2

by a

2

while the right hand side

remains the same if we replace a

1

by a

1

. 124

It only remains to prove that

. It is

enough to prove that for every a

1

, a

2

7

1

, the set of such that a

1

()

= a

2

() and a

1

() a

2

() is of measure zero. Let E = : a

1

() =

122 12. The Plancherel formula

a

2

(). The operator eld A dened by

A() =

_

_

Identity if E

0 if E

is a Hermitian scalar decomposed operator in H and we have Aa

1

=

Aa

2

. Hence we have Aa

1

= Aa

2

, i.e. A()

a

1

() = A()a

2

() almost

everywhere and

a

1

() =

a

2

() for almost every E.

We shall now prove that with the above operations, A() is a unitary

algebra.

(a) (, ) = (

)

We have, in our usual notation, (, ) =

R

2

R

1

(). a

1

= S R

1

S e =

S R

1

S e (since e

= e) and a

2

= S R

2

S e. We have now to prove

that

R

2

R

1

() =

(S R

1

S )(S R

2

S )

(). We assert that M

= S MS for

every M R. In fact, if x 7, U

x

M = MU

x

= U

Mx

and

U

MS x

= M

U

S x

= U

(Mx)

= U

S Mx

. Since the map x U

x

is

one-one, we have M

S X = S Mx or M

= S MS . Therefore

(M(S R

1

) (S R

2

S )e, e) = (MS R

2

S e, S R

1

e)

= (R

1

e, R

2

S MS e)

= (R

1

e, R

2

M

e).

In other words,

(M(S R

1

S ) (S R

2

)e, e) = (MR

2

R

1

e, e)

for every M A. By the denition of the spectral measure,

d

(S R

1

S )

(S R

2

S )e, e = d

R

2

R

1

e,e

and hence (S R

1

S ) (S R

2

S ) =

R

2

R

1

. 125

(b) (

1

2

,

3

) = (

1

,

3

,

2

).

We have to show that

R

3

R

1

R

2

=

(R

3

R

2

)

R

1

which is obvious.

The Plancherel formula 123

(c) A() is dense in H ().

This is again evident.

(d) Regarding the existence of suciently many operators, we cannot

assert that is true for all . However, this is true for almost all

For this we need a

Lemma 1. In a self adjoint algebra 7of operators on H , the set Ax :

A 7, x H is dense in H if and only if the Identity is the strong

limit of A 7.

In fact, if x is an element of H , we denote Ax by F. Let F

1

+ x

2

with

x

1

F, x

2

F

. Then Ax = Ax

1

+ Ax

2

with Ax

1

F, Ax

2

F

2

f

2

= 0 for every A 7. If

x

2

0, this contradicts the assumption that Ax : A 7, x H is

dense in H . For, space E = x : Ax = 0 for every A 7is non-

zero. E is invariant under 7 and therefore E

is invariant under 7.

Consequently 7a : a 1 is contained in E

. Now, U

x

y : x, y 7

is dense in 1 and hence xy : x, y 7

is dense in 7

1

. On the other

hand, there exists a sequence Y

n

is 7

1

such that the

Y

n

() are dense in

1() for every . Each Y

n

can be approximated by a sequence X

n, p

Y

n, p

126

with X

n, p

, Y

n, p

A

1

. Hence we have

Y

n

() = lim

p

U

X

n,p

()

Y

n, p

() for

almost every and for each n, since we have only a countable family

Y

n

. Therefore : , A() is dense in 7() for almost every .

Thus we have shown that the algebra 7() is unitary for almost ev-

ery . By Mautners theorem, almost all these algebras are irreducible.

Thus U()

the scalar product in the space of bounded elements is given by a trace.

More precisely, we have a trace function on U()

such that ( a

1

(),

a

2

()) = Tr(U

a

2

()U

a

1

)()). But we know that the correspondence

a a is an isometry and hence one gets

(a

1

, a

2

) =

_

Tr

_

u

a

2

()U

a

1

()

_

d()

124 12. The Plancherel formula

This is the Plancherel formula which is in a certain sense unique.

However this is obviously not absolutely unique as the trace function is

unique only upto a constant multiple.

In the case of a locally compact, separable, unimodular group G, we

take 7 = L

1

L

2

and H = L

2

. In this case Plancherel formula can be

rewritten as

_

G

f (x)g(x)dx =

_

Tr(U

g

()U

f

())d().

Or again g

f (e) =

_

Tr(U

g f

())d().

If we write g

f = h, we get

h(e) =

_

z

Tr(U

h

()d()

This is the generalisation of the Fourier inversion formula. At any

point x, the value of h(x) is given by

h(x), =

_

Tr(U

h

()U

x

())d()

This is of course true not for all functions, but only for function of 127

the type g

f with g, f L

1

L

2

as in the classical case.

3.6 A particular case

We have obtained a Plancherel formula in terms of the factorial rep-

resentations of the group G and it would be more desirable to have a

formula in terms of the irreducible representations of the group. This is

however possible only in the following particular case.

Denition. A locally compact group is said to be type I if every factorial

representation of the group is of type I.

This denition implies that every factorial representation is a dis-

crete multiple of an irreducible representation. In fact, if F is the factor

corresponding to a factorial representation of G, then F is isomorphic

(algebraically) to Hom(H

2

, H

2

) where H

2

is a Hilbert space. If F is

The Plancherel formula 125

of type I, it can be proved (see, for instance [1], 8, Ch. I) that F

is

also of type I. by the isomorphism between Hom(H

1

, H

1

) and F

, we

therefore get that for every projection P in F

projection < P. in other words, every invariant subspace 0 of H con-

tains a minimal invariant subspace. The restriction of the operators of F

to any such minimal invariant subspace gives rise to an irreducible uni-

tary representation and since the minimal projections in a Hilbert space

are conjugate by unitary isomorphisms, these irreducible unitary rep-

resentations are equivalent. On the other hand, the family of invariant

subspaces of H which are direct sums of minimal invariant subspace,

partially ordered by inclusion, is obviously inductive. By Zorns lemma,

there exists in it a maximal element say H

1

. If H

1

H , H

1

is 128

nonempty and consequently contains a minimal invariant subspace H

1

1

.

Then H

1

H

1

1

again belongs to the family, thereby contradicting the

maximality of H

1

.

Thus if x 7, the operator of the factorial representation is decom-

posed into irreducible U

0

x

which are all equivalent. The map U

x

U

0

x

is an isomorphism. Hence in a group of type 1, we have the formula

_

G

f (x)g(x)dx =

_

Tr(U

g

()U

f

())d()

where the U() are irreducible representations and not merely factorial

representations, and the trace is the usual trace.

The denition of a group of type I seems a little inoccuous but is of

importance since all semisimple lie groups are of type I. The problem

remains however to give an explicit Plancherel measure, etc.

It is known in the case of complex semisimple lie groups (see [26])

and in the case of S L(2, R) ([2], [25]), but not in the general case.

3.7 Plancherel formula for commutative groups

Let be the spectrum of R

a quotient by means of an equivalence relation. It can be proved that

is actually the one point compactication of the spectrum of L

1

. We

now assert that every representation of L

1

in a space E arises from a

representation of the group G. In fact if a = U

f

b, with b H , f L

1

,

126 12. The Plancherel formula

we put U

x

a = U

x

f

b. It can be proved (see for instance [22], [6]) that

the U

x

are well dened.

This establishes a one-one correspondence between characters of G 129

and one dimensional representation of L

1

. Hence the spectrum of L

1

is only the character group of GU0 to compactify it. In this case,

every factor consists only of scalar operators and hence any factorial

representation is a discrete multiple of irreducible representations of di-

mension 1. If the character group of G is denoted by

G, we have, since

Tr ( f ) = ( f ) =

_

f (x)(x)dx,

_

G

f

2

dx =

_

G

( f )

2

d().

It only remains to prove that the Plancherel measure in this case

is the Haar measure on

G. But this is obvious since each character is

of norm 1 and multiplication of ( f ) by another character leaves the

integral invariant. Thus in this case, we have the classical plancherel

formula

_

G

f

2

dx =

_

G

( f )

2

d.

Again the Fourier inversion formula becomes in this case

f (x) =

_

G

( f )(X)d.

Bibliography

For Part I, see particularly [3], [8], [9], [10], [43], [49]; for Part II, [4], 130

[5], [6], [7], [19], [22], [29], [31], [44], [49]; and Part III, [12], [20],

[23], [33], [34], [36], [40], [46], [47],

[1] W. Ambrose - The L

2

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[17] I. Gelfand - D. Raikoy - Irreducible unitary representation of lo-

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groupes. Trans. Am. Math. Soc., 63, 1948, p. 1-84.

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129

[22] R. Godement - A theory of spherical functions-I. Trans. Am. Math.

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