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CHAPTER ONE

1.1.0 THE STUDENTS INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

1.1.1 OVERVIEW OF SIWES

The Student Industrial Work-Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a planned and supervised training intervention based on stated and specific learning and career objectives, and geared towards developing the occupational competencies of the participants. It is a programme required to be undertaken by all students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria pursuing courses in specialized engineering, technical, business, applied sciences and applied arts.

Therefore, SIWES is generic, cutting across over 60 programmes in the universities, over 40 programmes in the polytechnics and about 10 programmes in the colleges of education. Thus, SIWES is not specific to any one course of study or discipline.

Consequently, the effectiveness of SIWES cannot be looked at in isolation with respect to a single discipline; it is better explored in a holistic manner since many of the attributes, positive outcomes and challenges associated with SIWES are common to all disciplines participating in the scheme.

Hence, the approach of this paper is to look at SIWES as a general study programme cutting across several disciplines. Nevertheless, the paper also pays attention to the peculiarities and problems associated with effective implementation of SIWES for science, engineering and technology (SET) and its effectiveness in contributing to the professional development of the SET student.

1.1.2OBJECTIVES OF SIWES The Industrial Training Funds Policy Document No. 1 of 1973 (ITF, 1973) which established SIWES outlined the objectives of the scheme. The objectives are to

1. Provide an avenue for students in institutions of higher learning to acquire experience during their courses of study;

industrial skills and

2. Prepare students for industrial work situations that they are likely to meet after graduation; 3. Expose students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available in their institutions; 4. Make the transition from school to the world of work easier and enhance studentscontacts for later job placements; 5. Provide students with the opportunities to apply their educational knowledge in real work situations, thereby bridging the gap between theory and practice; 6. Enlist and strengthen employers involvement in the entire educational process through SIWES.

1.1.3

ORGANISATION AND OPERATION OF SIWES

The organisation of the Students Industrial Work-Experience Scheme (SIWES) involves many stakeholders as follows:

1 2 3 4 5

Federal Government (Federal Ministry of Commerce & Industry) Industrial Training Fund (SIWES Division) Supervising/Regulatory Agencies (NUC, NBTE, NCCE) Industry/Employers (NECA, NACCIMA, Government Establishments) Tertiary Institutions (Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education) and

SIWES is operated as a joint venture through the contributory activities of the stakeholders identified above.

1.1.4 THE NEED FOR INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

Theoretical knowledge alone would not usually prepare an educated person for the world of work. The worker or productive individual must not only be knowledgeable but must also be versatile in the application of skills to perform defined jobs or work.

The reality of the foregoing fact can be illustrated by using a simple analogy. While it is possible for someone to learn and imbibe all the available information on driving a car in the classroom, it is unlikely that the individual would, based on this knowledge alone, be able to drive a car at the first opportunity. On the other hand, someone else without the theoretical information on how to drive a car, on being told and shown what to do, followed by hands-on practice and supervision by an instructor, would at the end of the day be able to drive a car successfully. Of course, someone who has been exposed to both the theoretical underpinnings of driving a car and the hands-on experience of doing so would and should be a better driver! Consequently, there are two basic forms of learning - education and training both of which are indispensable to the productive world of work and the functioning of society today. In the illustration given above, the first individual had abundant education on how to drive a car; the second individual had received adequate training on how to drive a car; the third individual had the advantage of being able to combine theoretical knowledge with practical skills to become a better driver.

This need to combine theoretical knowledge with practical skills in order to produce results in the form of goods and services or to be productive is the essence and rationale for industrial training. Both education and training are important: there cannot be effective education without some training input and there cannot be effective training without some educational input. The

productive individual, particularly in this millennium, must be able to combine and utilize the outcomes from the two forms of learning (Know-How Ability and Do-How Capability) for the production of goods and services. This requirement is particularly crucial for individuals pursuing careers in science, engineering and technology (SET) disciplines.

1.1.5THE ADVENT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

The power-driven machines, steam engines and the new system of manufacturing associated with the industrial revolution demanded a cadre of workers who were freed from the limitations of their immediate craft capabilities and possessed knowledge of the new technologies prevalent then in the workplace. This demand led to the concept of the application of higher learning to practical and technical affairs.

The concept flourished with the establishment of technical and engineering courses first at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, United States in 1824 and followed by Columbia University in 1830, which introduced a new scientific curriculum that required neither Latin nor Greek. By the close of the 19 Century, science, engineering and technical education had been firmly established in several universities and other institutions of higher learning in both the United States and Europe.
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The graduates of these institutions were equipped, through systematic instruction (i.e. education), with a body of knowledge in science and engineering which was conceptual and generic. They possessed general ideas or notions underlying the workings of various engineering systems but lacked a thorough grounding in the application of knowledge to the execution of specific jobs.

It became clear that engineering students needed to supplement their education with practical experience and training in industry for them to be effective and productive workers in the execution of specific jobs after graduation.
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An innovation in engineering education which took place during the first decade of the 20

Century addressed the need of engineering students for job-related practical hands-on experience when Herman Schneider, Dean of the College of Engineering, University of Cincinnati introduced Cooperative Education. The engineering student would go to school for a time, followed by working in a factory or industry for an equal period of time. Then the student would repeat the process: going to school for additional education and going back to the factory or industry for additional training and practical experience.

Although variations of cooperative education exist today, the innovation of Schneider in 1906 constitutes the foundation and the bedrock of all forms of industrial training of Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) students throughout the world. The Centenary or 100 years of this innovation was celebrated in 2006 through a World Conference on Cooperative Education at the University of Cincinnati, U. S.A.

In Nigeria industrial training also began with the dependence of industry on technical competencies for the operation and maintenance of its resources. Industrial training or workexperience had its origins in the practice at the first Nigerian Polytechnic, the Yaba Technical Institute (now Yaba College of Technology) which was founded in 1948. Students were sponsored by government establishments or private firms at the time. They returned to work with their employers during the long vacations. In this way, the students had some form of industrial training or work experience integrated with their learning at the polytechnic. Subsequent expansion in higher education in Nigeria and discontinuation of the system of automatic sponsorship by employers, as a result of the increase in the number of institutions and enrolments, led to the demise of this format for industrial training.

. 1.1.6 EXTANT NEED FOR INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

The need for industrial training of Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) students as identified by Schneider exists till today.

Advanced countries, with over 100 years of sustained industrial development and requisite technical and human infrastructure, have been able to adequately implement industrial training for their SET students. Developing countries which are really just starting their industrial development, and having a weak or non-existent technical infrastructure, faces problems in adequately implementing industrial training for SET students.

The situation is exacerbated in African countries by the inappropriate and inadequate technical manpower training structures that are prevalent in these countries. This is exemplified in the comments of Professor Kwake, former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (Kwake in Mordell and Coales, 1983): It is true that most universities in Africa were initially inspired by, and developed as carbon copies of universities in Europe; course contents, standards, methods of assessment and other aspects of the educational programme were copied from the model and any departures from the European practice were looked upon as anathema both inside and outside the African country. In the science and

technology disciplines and especially in engineering, the result has been devastating. The products have been academically equal to the best in the world but they have not brought any significant progress in endogenous technology .. Let us face it, the main criticism that has been persistently leveled against technology-based professions is that their products are too theoretical, and in some cases, too specialized. These observations are supported by the findings of the study jointly conducted, by the World Bank and the Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research (World Bank and NISER, 2000), on the one hand, and the National Needs Assessment Surveys conducted by the National Universities Commission (NUC, 2004), on the other. Both reports highlight the

criticisms of Nigerian SET graduates by employers, particularly with respect to their performance on the job.

The main criticism is that employers believe that SET graduates bring sufficient theoretical knowledge to the job but that they generally lack hands-on or practical skills that would make them productive.

This situation has led to some employers establishing special training schools where fresh SET graduates acquire the requisite KSAAs before they can be employed. An example of this approach to bridging the gaps in the knowledge and skills repertoire of fresh SET graduates is the Special Intensive Training Programme (SITP) of the Shell Petroleum Develoment Company of Nigeria Limited, which was established in 1998. Participants in the programme undergo a one-year intensive technical skills acquisition through hands-on experience. Although the SPDCs approach is commendable since it contributes to the enhancement of availability of technical skills for the economy (particularly for the oil and gas sector), not all employers can adopt this model because of cost implications and likely erosion of their profits. Secondly, only a small number of SET graduates can benefit from such programmes since available places are limited

Consequently, there is a need to put in place modalities that would ensure that fresh SET graduates are equipped with the requisite KSAAs that would enable them to be productive on the job following graduation. The Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), properly implemented through the joint efforts of all stakeholders, offers an avenue for achieving this objective.

1.1.7BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

The major benefits accruing to students who participate conscientiously in industrial training are the skills and competencies they acquire. These relevant production skills (RPSs) remain a part of the recipients of industrial training as life-long assets which cannot be taken away from them. This is because the knowledge and skills acquired through training are internalized and becomes relevant when required to perform jobs or functions.

Several other benefits can accrue to students who participate in industrial training, These include the following: 1. Opportunity for students to blend theoretical knowledge acquired in the classroom with practical hands-on application of knowledge required to perform work in industry. 2. Exposure of students to the environment in which they will eventually work, thereby enabling them to see how their future professions are organized in practice. 3. Minimization of the bewilderment experienced by students, particularly those from a nontechnological background, pursuing courses in science, engineering and technology with regard to different equipment, processes, tools etc. available in industry. 4. Enabling SET students appreciate work methods and gain experience in handling equipment and machinery which may not be available in their institutions. 5. Preparing students to contribute positively to the productivity of their employer and national developments immediately after graduation. 6. Provision of an enabling environment where students can develop and enhance personal attributes such as critical thinking, creativity, initiative, resourcefulness, leadership, time management, presentation skills and interpersonal skills, amongst others. 7. Preparing students for employment and making the transition from school to the world of work easier after graduation. Enhancing students contacts with potential employers while on training. 8. Enabling students bridge the gap between the knowledge acquired in institutions and the relevant production skills (RPSs) required in work organizations. 9. Making SET students appreciate the role of their professions as the creators of change and wealth and indispensable contributors to growing the economy and national development. 10. Enabling students appreciate the connection between their courses of study and other related

CHAPTER TWO 2.1.0 ESTABLISHMENT OF ATTACHMENT (PAY AND ACCOUNTING GROUP, NIGERIAN AIR FORCE) 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION

The pay and accounting group (PAG) of the Nigerian Air Force is one of the many groups of the establishment with its headquarters at the Sam Ethnan Air Force base, PWD, Ikeja lagos. Since the financial management and analysis, pay management and auditing of any organization is quite imperative, the pay and accounting group of the Nigerian Air Force is an indispensible group. The group is dedicated to effective and efficient financial management, pay and account management, financial budgeting and general auditing of financial accounts of the Air Force. The PAG is also committed to maintenance of staff related issues (staff matters) and therefore takes care of the general financial ware fare of staffs. The PAG comprises of 103 different offices, inclusive of the section where I was posted for my attachment, the In-House computer center. 2.1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ESTABLISHMENT (PAG) The origin of Pay and Accounting Group (PAG) dates back to 1962 when the idea of establishing an air force was concretized. The Ministry of Defence funded the Nigerian Air Force at inception through the Nigerian Army. Therefore, the financial administration of the Service rested with the Nigerian Army, which had an established, Pay and Records Office.

The present PAG was thus, started as a section under the Nigerian Army Pay and Records Office, Apapa. The first set of Nigerian Air Force (NAF) pay personnel trained by the Nigerian Army assumed duty in the Ground Training Group Kaduna in 1965 under the supervision of the Nigerian Army Assistance Group. The current Pay Office at the 335 Base Services Group, Kaduna thus became the first Pay Office in the Nigerian Air Force. By 1969, the Nigerian Air Force Pay and Records Office was established at 75 Airport Road, Ikeja. An army officer, Major SS Adejoro was appointed as the first Commanding Officer. The office was later relocated to Idiroko, Maryland and subsequently to its present location at Sam Ethnan Air Force Base Ikeja in 1971. Squadron Leader Y Abba was the first Nigerian Air Force Officer to head the NAF Pay and Records in 1971. In due course, the Nigerian Air Force became a self-accounting entity on 1 April 1972, when the Service assumed full control of its accounting records. The Group comprise of a headquarters and 4 wings, which include Personnel Emolument, Bills and Recovery, Inspectorate and Civilian Pay. An Assistant Director, who represents the Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, heads the Civilian Pay Wing. In addition to the 4 wings, there is the office of the Federal Auditor, which though colocated with PAG, reports directly to the Auditor General of the Federation. The Federal Auditor advises the Commander on all matters relating to audit queries. 2.1.3 VISION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT The pay and accounting group PAG is purpose driven and aims towards 1. Efficient financial management 2. Ensuring prompt salary payment of staffs 3. Budgeting and monetary allocations 4. Accurate bills and recovery 5. Auditing of general accounts and
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6. Staff ware fare related matters. 2.1.4 ORGANIZATIONS OF PAG The order of organization of the pay and accounting group as a military base is according to rank, level, experience and years of service. The first in authority is the group commander who is of the rank of a group captain in the Air force. The Group Commander controls and directs the affairs of the PAG and passes administrative order through the admin officer (AO), communicates to the civilians through the most senior in the civilian wing, assistant director of account (ADAC).

NAF

COMMANDER

AO

FED. AUDITOR

ADAC

OIC Chief Clerk Inspectorate Officer Officer

Cashier

OIC Section Head

Pay master Bills & Recovery Unit

Staffs Unestablished Staff

2.1.5 THE IN-HOUSE COMPUTER CENTER, A VERY PARAMOUNT SECTION

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The world is often referred to as a global village simply because the use of computers that has dominated every human area of works. The importance of computer in public offices can never be over emphasized. The use of computers in public offices (office automation) has reduced a lot of stress for human being and has also made file management works more efficient and reliable. Since the need of computer in offices is very imperative, there is need for human resources that will manage and maintain these computers and hence the establishment of the In-House computer laboratory. The In-House computer center is a stand alone office. Stand alone in the sense that it does not belong to any of the four wings of operations of the Pay and Accounting Group. It is a computer maintenance unit that is majorly concerned with the repairs, upgrade, troubleshooting and the general maintenance of the whole computers in the many number of offices in the PAG. The office is not just limited to the maintenance of computers, it also undertakes a comprehensive tutorial and training of Air men (officers) in the basic computer operation.

2.1.6 ORGANIZATION AND HIERARCHY OF THE IN-HOUSE COMPUTER CENTER The in-house computer center is headed by an O.I.C (officer in charge) a flying lieutenant officer in the person of fg E.E Lawrence who is also a computer engineer. The O.I.C receives information through the admin. Officer (A.O) and reports to the commander through the (A.O) on issues relating to office automation, general computer maintenance and training of officer on computer literacy. The OIC passes information to the chief engineers who issues order on the in-house members.

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COMMANDER

A.O

OIC

CHIEF ENGINEER

In-House STAFFS

IT STAFFS

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CHAPTER THREE

3.1.0 COMPUTER HARDWARE, MAINTENANCE, TROUBLESHOOTING AND REPAIRS

3.1.1 BASIC COMPUTER HARDWARE COMPONENTS

3.1.2 INTRODUCTION

Computer hardware is the general name given to all the physical devices or components found in a computer system. Hardware comprises all the peripherals that can be touched in a computer system. It includes input and output devices (e.g keyboard and monitor), processing devices (system unit-CPU), communicating devices (modem and network cards) and even electronics devices (e.g jumper, dip switches, resistors and diodes). A personal computer hardware are component devices which are typically installed into a computer case to create a personal computer upon which system software is installed including a firmware interface such as BIOS and an operating system supporting application software that performs the user/operator desired function. The operating
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system usually communicates with devices through hardware buses by using software devices. 3.1.3 COMPUTING CONCEPTS

3.1.4 SOFTWARES Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, execunguage consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Programs are an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an assembler.
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3.1.5 TYPES OF SOFTWARE 3.1.6 SYSTEM SOFTWARE

System software provides the basic functions for computer usage and helps run the computer hardware and system. It includes a combination of the following:

Device drivers Operating systems Servers Utilities Window systems

System software is responsible for managing a variety of independent hardware components, so that they can work together harmoniously. Its purpose is to unburden the application software programmer from the often complex details of the particular computer being used, including such accessories as communications devices, printers, device readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner. 3.1.7 APPLICATION SOFTWARES

Application software are those that depends on the system software for their proper operation. They includes all the programs and or applications that is aimed at achieving user specific task. Examples of application software includes Word processors-Ms word, Note pad, etc Spreadsheet Ms excel Accounting-Peachtree

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Presentation-Ms power point Database-Ms access, FoxPro, oracle, etc 3.1.8 FIRMWARES Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. It is a software program that is integrated on a hardware chip. A good example of firmware is the BIOS chip. In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a term often used to denote the fixed, usually rather small, programs and/or data structures that internally control various electronic devices. Typical examples of devices containing firmware range from end-user products such as remote controls or calculators, through computer parts and devices like hard disks, keyboards, memory cards, all the way to scientific instrumentation and industrial robotics. Also more complex consumer devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, synthesizers, etc., contain firmware to enable the device's basic operation as well as implementing higher-level functions. There are no strict boundaries between firmware and software, as both are quite loose descriptive terms. However, the term firmware was originally coined in order to contrast to higher level software which could be changed without replacing a computer hardware component, and firmware is typically involved with very basic low-level operations without which a device would be completely non-functional. Firmware is also a relative term, as most embedded devices contain firmware at more than one level. Subsystems such as CPUs, flash chips, communication controllers, LCD modules, and so on, have their own (usually fixed) program code and/or microcode, regarded as "part of the hardware" by the higher-level(s) firmware. Low-level firmware typically resides in a PLA structure or in a ROM (or OTP/PROM), while higher level firmware (often on the border to software) typically employs flash memory to allow for updates, at least in modern devices. (Common reasons for updating
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firmware include fixing bugs or adding features to the device. Doing so usually involves loading a binary image file provided by the manufacturer into the device, according to a specific procedure; this is sometimes intended to be done by the end user.) Thus, while high-level firmware (or software) typically is stored as a configuration of charges, low-level firmware may instead often be regarded as actual hardware in itself. For instance, older firmware was often implemented as a discrete semiconductor diode matrix. The modern equivalent is an integrated matrix of field effect transistors where 0's and 1's are represented by whether a particular component in the ROM and/or PLA matrices is present or not. 3.1.9 HARDWARES Personal computer hardware are component devices which are typically installed into or peripheral to a computer case to create a personal computer upon which system software is installed including a firmware interface such as a BIOS and an operating system supporting application software that performs the operator's desired functions. Operating systems usually communicate with devices through hardware buses by using software device drivers. 3.2.0 IDENTIFICATION OF COMPONENT PARTS OF THE COMPUTER

3.2.1 INPUT DEVICES An input device is any hardware device that sends data, signal or information to the computer, without any input devices, a computer would only be a display device and not allow users to interact with it, much like a TV. Below are some input devices that can be used on a computer

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3.2.2 KEYBOARD

In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers. Despite the development of alternative input devices, such as the mouse, touchscreen, pen devices, character recognition and voice recognition, the keyboard remains the most commonly used and most versatile device used for direct (human) input into computers. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, to produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or computer commands. In normal usage, the keyboard is used to type text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or other program. In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is generally left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other and reports all key presses to the controlling software. Keyboards are also used for computer gaming, either with regular keyboards or by using keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations. A keyboard is also used to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as

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Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination, which brings up a task window or shuts down the machine. Keyboards are the only way to enter commands on a command-line interface.

3.2.3 MOUSE

A mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons. It sometimes features other elements, such as "wheels", which allow the user to perform various system-dependent operations, or extra buttons or features that can add more control or dimensional input. The mouse's motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a graphical user interface. 3.2.4 OUTPUT DEVICES 3.2.5 MONITOR (VDU)

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A monitor or display (also called screen or visual display unit) is an electronic visual display for computers. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel, while older monitors use a cathode ray tube about as deep as the screen size. Originally, computer monitors were used for data processing while television receivers were used for entertainment. From the 1980s onwards, computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality. The common aspect ratio of televisions, and then computer monitors, has also changed from 4:3 to 16:9. A single color monitor is known as monochrome while those of more than one color is referred to as dual chrome.

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3.2.6 PRINTER

In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most new printers, a USB cable to a computer which serves as a document source. Some printers, commonly known as network printers, have built-in network interfaces, typically wireless or Ethernet based, and can serve as a hard copy device for any user on the network. Individual printers are often designed to support both local and network connected users at the same time. In addition, a few modern printers can directly interface to electronic media such as memory cards, or to image capture devices such as digital cameras and scanners; some printers are combined with scanners or fax machines in a single unit, and can function as photocopiers. Printers that include non-printing features are sometimes called multifunction printers (MFP), multi-function devices (MFD), or allin-one (AIO) printers. Most MFPs include printing, scanning, and copying among their many functions

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3.2.7 THE SYSTEM UNIT (SYSTEM CASE)

A computer case (also known as a computer chassis, cabinet, box, tower, enclosure, housing, system unit or simply case) is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a computer (usually excluding the display, keyboard and mouse). A computer case is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the CPU referring to a component housed within the case. CPU was a common term in the earlier days of home computers, when peripherals other than the motherboard were usually housed in their own separate cases. Apart from the peripherals, every other components of the computer resides inside the system unit.

3.2.8 STORAGE DEVICES


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3.2.9 HARD DISK

A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive, hard disk, or disk drive)[2] is a device for storing and retrieving digital information, primarily computer data. It consists of one or more rigid (hence "hard") rapidly rotating discs (often referred to as platters), coated with magnetic material and with magnetic heads arranged to write data to the surfaces and read it from them. Hard drives are classified as non-volatile, random access, digital, magnetic, data storage devices. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have decreased in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity and speed. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have maintained this position because advances in their recording capacity, cost, reliability, and speed have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage.

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3.3.0 POWER PACK (PSU-POWER SUPPLY) A desktop power supply pack

A laptop power supply/power adapter cable

A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to lowvoltage DC power for the internal components of the computer. Some power supplies have a switch to change between 230 V and 115 V. Other models have automatic sensors that switch input voltage automatically, or are able to accept any voltage between those limits. Power supply units used in computers are nearly always switch mode power supplies (SMPS). The SMPS provides regulated direct current power at the several voltages required by the motherboard and accessories such as disk drives and cooling fans.
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3.3.1 SOUND CARD

Enables the computer to output sound to audio devices, as well as accept input from a microphone. Most modern computers have sound cards built-in to the motherboard, though it is common for a user to install a separate sound card as an upgrade. Most sound cards, either built-in or added, have surround sound capabilities and 3-D sound effect.

3.3.2 THE MOTHERBOARD

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The motherboard is the main component inside the case. It is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives (CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others) as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots. In personal computers, a motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computers and holds many of the crucial components of the system, providing connectors for other peripherals. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board.[1] It is also sometimes casually shortened to mobo. 3.3.3 OVERVIEW OF THE MOTHERBOARD A motherboard, like a backplane, provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate, but unlike a backplane, it also connects the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices. A typical desktop computer has its microprocessor, main memory, and other essential components connected to the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables, although in modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself. An important component of a motherboard is the microprocessor's supporting chipset, which provides the supporting interfaces between the CPU and the various buses and external components. This chipset determines, to an extent, the features and capabilities of the motherboard. 3.3.4 Components Directly Attached To The Motherboard Include:

The CPU
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(Central Processing Unit) is a rectangular chip arrayed with grid pins (hence pin grid array for modern PCs), it performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the "brain" of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heat sink and fan. Newer CPUs include an on-die Graphics Processing Unit (GPU).

The Chipset mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory.

The RAM (Random access memory)

RAM (Random-access Memory) stores resident part of the current running Operating System (OS core and so on) and all running processes (application parts, using CPU or input/output (I/O) channels or waiting for CPU or I/O channels). The random access memory is a primary storage device and it is said to be volatile because it loses its memory retention on the event of power failure. The RAM capacity is a measure of the bandwidth of a running process. The RAM

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memory chip fits in or is usually installed in the ISA (industry standard architecture) port.

The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) includes boot firmware and power management. The tasks are handled by operating system drivers. Newer motherboards use Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) instead of BIOS.

The ROM (Read-only Memory) stores the initial program that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution (Bootstrapping also known as "booting" or "booting up"). Usually stores the BIOS or UEFI.

Internal buses connect the CPU to various internal components and to expansion cards for graphics and sound.

Power connectors, which receive electrical power from the computer power supply and distribute it to the CPU, chipset, main memory, and expansion cards

3.3.5 MOTHER BOARD INSTALLATION Before getting started 1. Difficulty of installing computer motherboard should be a 5 out of 5. 2. Write down important information from the top or bottom of the card such as the Model Number, Serial Number and specifications. 3. Backup any important data currently on the hard disk drive(s). 4. Ensure you are familiar with ESD and its potential dangers. 5. When physically installing the motherboard ensure the computer is off and the power plug is disconnected from the power supply. Form factor
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Before installing a computer motherboard, ensure with the case that the motherboard is going to be installed into that it supports the form factor of your motherboard. Presently, you will find that the majority of available computer motherboards are either ATX / Micro ATX. Verify / Set Jumpers Before installing the computer motherboard ensure that all the jumpers or dipswitches have been set properly. While generally these jumpers / dipswitches can be changed when the motherboard has been installed, it is generally easier to adjust the settings while the motherboard is outside of the case. New motherboards today will have the jumpers generally set as auto, allowing either the BIOS or the software to setup the proper settings for the CPU / Memory and other settings. If the motherboard supports this feature, ensure that the jumpers are set as auto. If you wish to manually adjust the settings for your peripherals, ensure that they are the correct values. While it is possible to 'overclock' a system, it is recommended that first the values be the real values of the system to ensure the system works before tampering with its settings. Install pegs / standoffs Once the jumpers have been verified, if pegs / standoffs are not installed into the computer, insert these attachments now to the case. These are required to help prevent the motherboard from shorting out and must be installed. When installing the pegs / standoffs ensure that they are inserted into the proper holes in the case. Many cases will support different form factors that allow for different motherboards to be installed. If the pegs are not placed in the proper holes this could cause damage to the motherboard if turned on. Generally, the holes on the case will have

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a small indication of what the holes are for; for example, a hole may have the words ATX listed next to it to indicate the hole is for an ATX motherboard. As the peg / standoff is being installed, ensure that they are installed firmly into the case to help prevent issues such as the pegs coming loose when unscrewing the screw from the peg. 3.3.6 MOTHERBOARD INSTALLATION Once the pegs have been firmly attached, if a back plate is on the computer, ensure it has been removed. Next, place the motherboard on the mounting plate or panel in the case and screw tightly; when placing the motherboard in the case ensure that you align the back of the motherboard with the back of the case. As the motherboard is being placed in the computer align the holes in the motherboards with the pegs / standoffs that were attached earlier. Once aligned, begin placing screws into the motherboard that should then be held by the peg / standoff. Note: when screwing in the screw you do not want the screw to be extremely tight; if too tight it could cause the motherboard to crack. However, the screw should be in enough to hold the motherboard in place. INSTALL IMPORTANT COMPONENTS If not already installed, install the below necessary components into the computer: CPU Memory Power Supply

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3.3.7 FRONT PANEL SETUP Once the motherboard has been successfully physically installed into the computer, the Fpanel, short for front panel, must be connected. This panel controls such things as the power button, reset button, hard disk drive light, power light, etc Unfortunately, the setup of this panel can be confusing at first, even with the instructions provided from the Motherboard manufacturer. Below are steps and additional information and help with successfully connecting the cables to this connector. 1. This connector generally consists of a series of 2 pin connectors. 2. The cables that connect to these connectors are generally 2, 3 or 4 pin connectors. 3. The cables will generally consist of a red, green, blue, white or other color cable with a black cable. This may vary, the important thing to remember is that the black cable or the dark color of the cable is ground or '-' 4. Generally, most cases have a separate cable for each setting, but some computers now will have all of these cables as one large connector. If the computer has one large connector it is likely it will go in only one way. It is important to note that this one large connector is generally only found with OEM computers. If you are installing a new computer motherboard into an OEM case it is very possible that the one large connector will not work with your motherboard. Unfortunately, this connector is usually proprietary. 5. Finally, the computer WILL NOT boot if some of the cables are not properly connected. If you are unable to turn on the computer or receive a NO POST, this is one of the first things we recommend you check when attempting to install a motherboard. Connect Cables Once the front panel cables appear to have been successfully connected, connect the other cables in the below order.
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1. Connect the main motherboard power cable coming from the power supply to the motherboard. Note: it is very important that this cable is properly connected to the computer. If improperly connected, this will likely destroy the motherboard. Today, ATX and other new motherboard form factors have a keyed power supply connector allowing the cable to only go in one way. 2. Next, connect the IDE/EIDE or other interface cables to the motherboard from the hard disk drive, CD Drive, floppy drive. 3. Connect the power cables from the power supply to the drives in the computer hard disk drive, CD Drive / floppy drive BIOS setup Once the Motherboard has been successfully physically installed and connected into the computer, place the case back onto the computer and connect the keyboard, monitor and power to the computer (we recommend that you do not connect all the cables yet, if problems are experienced you may have to disconnect all the cables again). Once the computer successfully boots, enter BIOS setup as the computer is booting to set all of the values not automatically detected. We recommend you check or set the below values. 1. CPU settings; ensure the proper speed - voltage etc is properly set accordingly to the CPU. 2. Memory; ensure that the memory is correctly detected and setup. 3. Drives; ensure that the floppy, hard disk drive and CD-ROM drive are properly setup. 4. If onboard video, modem, NIC or sound card is present and you wish to have these devices disabled for new video, modem, NIC / sound card disable these devices before any other thing. 5. Check other settings such as the time, date, COM ports, etc.
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Once everything has been properly detected / setup, save the settings and exit / reboot the computer. In summary, to install a mother board easily and fast, follow the following steps;

Install the correct processor


Install memory modules set the jumpers Mount the motherboard on the casing Install the drives Connect data cables Connect the power cable Replace the cover and connect external cable

3.3.8 COMMUNICATION PORTS A port is an interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Personal computers have various types of ports. Internally, there are several ports for connecting disk drives, display screens, and keyboards. Externally, personal computers have ports for connecting modems, printers, mice, and other peripheral devices. Almost all personal computers come with a serial RS-232C port or RS-422 port for connecting a modem or mouse and a parallel port for connecting a printer. On PCs, the parallel port is a Centronics interface that uses a 25-pin connector. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports support higher transmission speeds than do conventional ports and enable you to attach up to seven devices to the same port.

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3.3.9 SERIAL PORTS

A serial is the type of port, or interface, that can be used for serial communication, in which only 1 bit is transmitted at a time. Most serial ports on personal computers are RS-232C or RS-422 standards. A serial port is a general-purpose interface that can be used for almost any type of device, including modems, mice, and printers (although most printers are connected to a parallel port). 3.4.0 PARALLEL PORTS

A parallel interface for connecting an external device such as a printer. Most personal computers have both a parallel port and at least one serial port. On PCs, the parallel port uses a 25-pin connector (type DB-25) and is used to connect printers, computers and other devices that need relatively high bandwidth. It is often called a Centronics interface after the company that designed the original standard for parallel communication between a computer and printer. (The modern parallel interface is based on a design by Epson.) A newer type of parallel port, which supports the same connectors as the Centronics interface, is the EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) or ECP (Extended Capabilities Port). Both of these parallel ports support bi-directional communication and transfer rates ten times as fast as the Centronics port. Macintoshes have a SCSI port, which is parallel, but more flexible.
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3.4.1 COMPUTER MAINTENANCE It is often said Take good care of your PC, and it will take good care of you. It's a nice sentiment, but reality is more like "Take good care of your PC, and it won't crash, lose your data, and cost you your job. The PC's two mortal enemies are heat and moisture. Excess heat accelerates the deterioration of the delicate circuits in the computer system. The most common causes of overheating are dust and dirt: Clogged vents and CPU cooling fans can keep heatdissipating air from moving through the case, and even a thin coating of dust or dirt can raise the temperature of the machine's components. Any grime, but especially the residue of cigarette smoke, can corrode exposed metal contacts. That's why it pays to keep the system clean, inside and out. If the PC resides in a relatively clean, climate-controlled environment, an annual cleaning should be sufficient. But in most real-world locations, such as dusty offices or shop floors, the system may need a cleaning every few months. Hint 1 Before you get started cleaning, check around your PC for anything nearby that could raise its temperature (such as a heating duct or sunshine coming through a window). Also clear away anything that might fall on it or make it dirty, such as a bookcase or houseplants. Always turn off and unplug the system before you clean any of its components. Never apply any liquid directly to a component. Spray or pour the liquid on a lint-free cloth, and wipe the PC with the cloth.
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Clean the case: Wipe the case and clear its ventilation ports of any obstructions. Compressed air is great for this, but don't blow dust into the PC or its optical and floppy drives. Keep all cables firmly attached to their connectors on the case. Maintain your mechanical mouse: When a nonoptical mouse gets dirty, the pointer moves erratically. Unscrew the ring on the bottom of the unit and remove the ball. Then scrape the accumulated gunk off the two plastic rollers that are set 90 degrees apart inside the ball's housing. Keep a neat keyboard: Turn the keyboard upside down and shake it to clear the crumbs from between the keys. If that doesn't suffice, blast it (briefly) with compressed air. If your keys stick or your keyboard is really dirty, pry the keys off for easier cleaning. Computer shops have special tools for removing keys, but you can also pop them off by using two pencils with broken tips as jumbo tweezers--just be sure to use a soft touch. Make your monitor sparkle: Wipe the monitor case and clear its vents of obstructions, without pushing dust into the unit. Clean the screen with a standard glass cleaner and a lint-free cloth. If your monitor has a degauss button (look for a small magnet icon), push it to clear magnetic interference. Many LCDs can be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol; check with your LCD manufacturer. Wipe your LCD lightly: The underlying glass is fragile. Check your power protection: Reseat the cables plugged into your surge protector. Check the unit's warning indicator, if it has one. Surge protectors may power your PC even after being compromised by a voltage spike (making your system susceptible to a second spike). If your power protector doesn't have a warning indicator and your area suffers frequent power outages, replace it with one that has such an indicator and is UL 1449 certified.

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Swipe your CD and DVD media: Gently wipe each disc with a moistened, soft cloth. Use a motion that starts at the center of the disc and then moves outward toward the edge. Never wipe a disc in a circular motion. Note: For a visual tutorial on many of the tips in this article, see our video. Hint 2 Before cracking open the case, turn off the power and unplug your PC. Ground yourself before you touch anything inside to avoid destroying your circuitry with a static charge. If you don't have a grounding wrist strap, you can ground yourself by touching any of various household objects, such as a water pipe, a lamp, or another grounded electrical device. Be sure to unplug the power cord before you open the case. Use antistatic wipes to remove dust from inside the case. Avoid touching any circuitboard surfaces. Pay close attention to the power-supply fan, as well as to the case and to CPU fans, if you have them. Spray these components with a blast of compressed air to loosen dust; but to remove the dust rather than rearrange it. If your PC is more than four years old, or if the expansion cards plugged into its motherboard are exceptionally dirty, remove each card, clean its contacts with isopropyl alcohol, and reseat it. If your system is less than a couple years old, however, just make sure each card is firmly seated by pressing gently downward on its top edge while not touching its face. Likewise, check your power connectors, EIDE connectors, and other internal cables for a snug fit. While you have the case open, familiarize yourself with the CMOS battery on the motherboard for its location, check the motherboard manual. If your PC is more than four or five years old, the CMOS battery may need to be replaced. (A system clock that loses time is one indicator of a dying CMOS battery.)

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Hint 4 Give your PC a periodic checkup with a good hardware diagnostic utility. Adding and removing system components leaves vacant entries in the Windows Registry. This can increase the time your PC takes to boot and can slow system performance. Many shareware utilities are designed to clean the Registry. Disk Defragmenter won't defragment the file on your hard drive that holds overflow data from system memory (also known as the swap file). Since the swap file is frequently accessed, defragmenting it can give your PC more pep. You can defragment your swap file by using a utility such as the SpeedDisk program included with Norton SystemWorks 2004, but there's a way to reset it in Windows. In Windows XP, right-click My Computer and choose Properties. Click Advanced, and then choose the Settings button under Performance. Click Advanced again and the Change button under Virtual Memory. Select another drive or partition, set your swap file size, and click OK. Hard-Drive Checkup Windows XP offers a rudimentary evaluation of your hard disk's health with its errorchecking utility: Right-click the drive's icon in Windows Explorer and select Properties, Tools, Check Now. (Windows can fix errors and recover bad sectors automatically if you wish.) If the check discovers a few file errors, don't worry, but if it comes up with hundreds of errors, the drive could be in trouble.

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3.4.2 BASIC TIPS FOR PC MAINTENANCE 1. Keep your PC in a smoke-free environment. Tobacco smoke can damage delicate contacts and circuits. 2. Leave your PC running. Powering up from a cold state is one of the most stressful things you can do to your system's components. If you don't want to leave your PC running all the time, use Windows' Power Management settings to put your machine into hibernation rather than completely shutting down turning your PC off "does more good than harm," I find that my PCs last longer when I keep them in hibernation. 3. Don't leave your monitor running. The best way to extend your display's life is to shut it off when it's not in use. 4. Avoid jostling the PC. Whenever you move your system, even if it's just across the desktop, make sure the machine is shut down and unplugged.

5. Never, never, turn your computer off with the power switch until Windows has shut down. The one exception to this rule is when your computer locks up and your hard drive is not running (hard drive light is not blinking). In this situation, you can turn the power off without harmful effects to the hard drive. As cutting the power can also result in lost data or Windows files, you should only do this when you have to. Following this rule will prevent permanent hard drive defects caused by the hard drive heads contacting the surface of the drive disc, and it will prevent a host of Windows problems. Whenever possible, recover from crashes by pressing the Ctrl + Alt + Delete keys at the same time. Press them again to reboot your computer.
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6. It is highly recommend that you purchase an UPS (uninterruptible power supply) for your computer. This will keep your computer from crashing during power outages, and will protect your computer from low and high voltage occurrences. An UPS is far superior to a surge protector and will save your computer from almost any type of power disaster. (See #1 above for what happens when your computer crashes.) This is an especially important thing to have if you live or will be living in old houses or apartments. The reason for this is the electrical work in apartments like those can often have faulty wiring that may short out resulting in a damaged computer or loss of information for you. Why have a surge protector when you could put that money towards a UPS? 7. Backup, any data you cannot afford to lose to at least two separate physical drives. So backup data to external hard drives, USB/thumb drives, CD-RW's etc. The time to backup is when you create something you can't afford to lose. 8. Run Scandisk and Defragment at least once a month. This will keep your hard drive healthy and prevent crashes. Alternatively, purchase a disk utility program and use it to keep your hard drive healthy. These programs are part of Windows and can be found at Start/Computer then Right click on the drive you want to fix. Choose Scandisk or Defragment from the menu. 9. Never unplug peripherals from the computer when it is powered up. Unplugging with the power on can short out the connector socket or the motherboard. The only exception to this rule is if you know a peripheral is "hot pluggable". If you do not know what "hot pluggable" means then ignore this exception. 10. Do keep at least 300 MBs of your C: drive free for Windows to use. If you use Windows XP, Vista, or WIndows 7 then you should have 400-600 MBs of free space on your C: drive. If you do not have enough free space you will choke Windows and it will start dumping
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data to your hard drive (or designated virtual drive), or it will just get really, really, slow (you will see your hard drive light on all the time and your computer will be locked up until the drive stops spinning). Use the ADD/Delete tool in the Windows Control Panel to delete unneeded programs from your drive.

You can also use disk/utility cleaning programs and speed-up programs to get rid of clutter on your hard drive and to speed up your system, 11. Do not let a lot of programs load up when you start your computer. They use valuable memory and Windows Resources (Windows internal workspace). All programs in your Windows System Tray (in the lower left of your screen) are running on your computer. Close them if you don't need them or run them and configure them not to load when you boot up. Other programs running in the background can be found by pressing Ctrl + Alt + Delete at the same time. 12. Do use an antivirus checker regularly. Everyone should have an antivirus checker that boots up when their computer starts. The best type of protection is continuous monitoring from a dedicated anti-virus program (for example, Avast , AVG, Norton, BitDefender ,
ESET, etc). Also, make sure the anti-virus program is set to update automatically. These

programs must regularly update their virus definitions to provide the best defense against new viruses and other malware.. 13. If you have a high speed Internet connection, you need a firewall program. A firewall program keeps those who want to hijack your computer from gaining access to your system. You really do not want someone else running your computer. All current versions of Windows come with a built in firewall program. You can access the Windows firewall at Start/Control Panel/Internet Connections/Windows Firewall. This program should always be running unless you choose to use a different firewall
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program. For additional protection, you should consider Internet security software that has firewall programs and other web security tools built-in e.g. PC Tools Internet Security and BitDefender Total Security have firewall, antivirus, and other security programs bundled together in one package. 14. Keep track of the software disks you receive with your computer and new peripherals. These disks contain valuable software drivers and programs for Windows and are needed when Windows must be reloaded. Keep these disks and your Windows software disks in a safe, dry, place -- you never know when you will need them. 15. Make sure Windows Update is set to Automatically Update your computer. Windows is frequently updated by Microsoft to prevent virus and malware attacks, to improve Windows performance, and to provide new features. Access Windows Update at Start/Control Panel/System/ Security/Windows Update. Keeping these computer maintenance tips in mind will keep your PC in top shape and keep you from having an expensive repair bill. If you would like to comment on this article see the comment box below.

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CHAPTER FOUR 4.1.0 COMPUTER TROUBLESHOOTING AND REPAIRS 4.1.1 INTRODUCTION Troubleshooting is a diagnostic approach to fixing computer defects weather hardware or software problems. System troubleshooting is not the same for all system. Computer troubleshooting varies with respect to PC individual architecture but the basic tool for troubleshooting PC problems remains unchanged - it's the brain. The majority of computer problems turn out to be software issues, especially malicious software. But intermittent hardware failures can baffle the best technicians, and the only way to work around them is to adopt a systematic approach to troubleshooting rather than shooting from the hip. When you master the basic troubleshooting technique, you'll be able to apply the lesson to technologies and situations not covered here. 4.1.2 TROUBLESHOOTING MODEL OR METHOD OF TROUBLESHOOTING

TALK TO CLIENT/CUSTOMER

GATHER INFORMATION

BACK UP

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There are four basic methods that one should follow to obtain optimum result when fixing a malfunctioning computer, these includes; 1. Talk to the customer or client (verify error): when a client brings a computer for repairs, the first thing that is expected of me is to verify from the client the malfunctions he/she has observed about the computer, by trying to verify what the problem is, client or customer relationship could be established. The next thing to do after I have enquired of my client is to reboot the system if it can power on and personally see what the problem could. 2. Gather information: information gathering is about making analysis of the observed problems and finding possible ways of resolving the problems. 3. Check for quick fixes: after analysis and information gathering, it is necessary to find a more possible, easy and efficient way of tackling them. This also involves looking for the solution on the internets. 4. Back up: Before making any system change, it is very important to back up system to avoid loss of important data, information, files or documents. 4.1.3 TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS 1. Reboot your system...it is amazing how often this solves many of problems. If you find you have to reboot too often, then that might be a sign you have other problems to solve 2. If you think you may have a network gremlin, power off all your network components (modems, routers, etc.), wait 30 seconds and power them back up one at a time 3. Run your antivirus software. (make sure it is updated with the latest definitions) 4. Backup your system (or make sure you have a backup from your routine tasks) 5. Run your defrag software
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6. Run your registry cleanup utility software

Over the years, the list of computer troubleshooting problems has become consistent from the perspective of key problem areas. All computers at one time or another lock up or misbehave. They are imperfect machines built by imperfect beings. Thus, it is never a matter of "IF" they will lock up or misbehave, but, rather it is a matter of "WHEN" will they lock up or misbehave. A computer that locks up or behaves funny once in a long while is not an indication of a problem, just part of the norm. Only if a computer locks up or misbehaves regularly following a particular pattern, step, or operation is it an indication of a problem. Well over 80% of all encountered computer problems can easily be resolved with a little know how and patience. The key in dealing with a computer problem is NOT to panic and carefully think the problem through! The following are step-by-step things to try if your computer system is not working properly or stops responding. As trivial or obvious as some of these steps may seem, you will be surprised how often they work in resolving the vast majority of encountered computer problems. 4.1.4 YOUR SYSTEM DOES NOT POWER UP 1. Check to see if your computer is properly plugged into the power source, e.g., UPS, outlet, or surge protector. Power cords sometimes come loose.

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2. If your computer is plugged into an UPS or surge protector, make sure that it is turned on. Something may have tripped it. 3. Check to insure that all the different components are properly connected. Sometimes connections jiggle themselves loose. 4. Check the power button found on the power supply. Many of the newer power supplies have an on/off breaker button on the back that sometimes gets tripped. 5. Try unplugging the computer from the power source, wait 30 seconds to five minutes, and plug it back in. The computer may be "confused" and in some sort of hibernation mode. Your system powers up but does not boot up 1. Carefully read any error messages that come up. The problem may be as simple as the keyboard or mouse not being plugged in. 2. Try booting from a system disk (e.g., bootable CD). The operating system files on your hard drive may be damaged or missing. 4.1.5 NOTHING APPEARS ON YOUR MONITOR 1. Make sure that the monitor and computer are both turned on. 2. Make sure that the monitor is properly connected to a working outlet or that the UPS or surge protector is turned on. 3. Jiggle the data connection and make sure that it is properly inserted on both ends. 4. Ensure a more tight connection of the VGA cable.

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5. Check to see if the screen saver has been activated or if the monitor or computer is in sleep or hibernation mode. Press any key on the keyboard to try to turn the display back on. 6. Check if the monitor power light on. If you have done steps 1 through 5 and the power light is not on, chances are good that you have a dead monitor. 7. Is the power light flashing green or an amber color? If so, chances are good that the problem is with your computer and not the monitor. 4.1.6 YOUR MOUSE DOES NOT WORK OR STOPS RESPONDING 1. Check to see if the mouse is plugged correctly into the proper port. Sometimes they could be loose. 2. If a USB mouse, try plugging it into a different USB port. 3. If working in Windows, reboot your machine by pressing <Alt><F4> until you get the Shut Down Windows dialog box. Using your arrow keys and TAB button, you can select the shut down option you want. 4. If your mouse is a non-optical mouse, it may be dirty. Turn your mouse upside down and clean the bottom. Open the bottom of your mouse where the ball is housed according to the directions printed on it's bottom (e.g., <<open and >>lock) and carefully clean the ball and the housing area. 5. If using an optical mouse, make sure that the surface you are running it over is clean and a solid pattern. Optical mice work best with plain mouse pads. 6. If it is a cordless mouse, try changing the batteries. 4.1.7 IF YOUR PRINTER DOES NOT WORK

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1. Make sure that the printer is turned on and plugged in. 2. Check to see if the printer is connected properly to your computer. If wireless, make sure the WiFi feature is turned on and configured correctly. 3. Check to see that the printer has paper and ink/toner. 4. Check the printer directly to make sure the printer is on-line or not in some setup mode. 5. Try turning it off, counting to ten, and then turning it back on. 6. Test to determine if you are having trouble printing from one program or multiple programs. If you can print from one program but not the other, it may be a printer setup problem from within the program. 7. If you are having trouble printing from old DOS programs (yes some people still have older DOS programs), you must go into your printer's property options and set your capture port. If printing over a network, be sure to set the correct printer path when you select your capture port. 8. Check your printer's print manager settings to make sure it is not set to use off-line or is paused. Goto START-CONTROL PANEL-PRINTERS AND FAXES. Double click your printer then make sure under the PRINTER menu option that it is NOT set to work off-line or that pause printing is NOT turned on. Checkmarks next to these options mean they are turned on. 4.1.8 YOUR MODEM DOES NOT WORK 1. Make sure that the phone line is tightly plugged into the wall jack and the proper modem port. All internal modems have two ports, one that goes to the wall jack and one that goes from the computer to an optional phone device.
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2. Make sure the phone line being used is a dedicated line, i.e., a fax or home line. 3. If using an external modem, make sure that the phone line is plugged all the way in on both ends, that the cable from the modem to your computer is properly connected, and that the modem is turned on. 4. Make sure that no other modem software applications are running. 5. If you have a voice mail system that changes the dial tone when you have messages (e.g., gives short beeps when you pick up the receiver), you may have to remove all the new messages. The modem may require that there be a solid dial tone to locate the phone line. 6. If using an external modem, shut off the modem for ten seconds and then turn it back on. 7. Do a complete shutdown of your computer. Wait 30 seconds to 5 minutes, then turn it back on. 8. Check the settings of your communication software to make sure that the port the software is attempting to use is the same as the one that your modem is set at. 9. If using a broadband (DSL) or cable modem, unplug it from the power source, wait two to five minutes, then plug it back in. Most broadband and cable modems have three to four lights (e.g., power, Ethernet, DSL and Internet). All lights should be a solid color when the connection is good. This may take several minutes to occur when you power up the modem. 4.1.9 YOUR SCANNER DOES NOT WORK 1. Make sure that the scanner is turned on and plugged in.

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2. Check to see if the scanner is connected properly to your computer. If wireless, make sure the WiFi feature is turned on and configured correctly. 3. If a flat bed scanner, check to see that the scanner is not locked. The lock switch is usually on the back or bottom. 4. Try turning the scanner off, counting to ten, and then turning it back on. 5. Try shutting down your entire computer system, counting to ten, turning the scanner on first, then turning on the rest of your computer devices as you normally would. 4.2.0 WINDOWS LOCKS UP WHILE WORKING 1. Try pressing the <Esc> key three to five times. 2. Press the <Ctrl><Alt><Delete> keys all at the same time. Windows will launch the Task Manager directly or bring up a list with an option for the Task Manager. The Task Manager lists all the programs you are currently running. Click the one task on the "Application" page that is not responding and click on End Task. 3. If step 2 does not work, press the RESET button on the CPU case in order to re-boot the system. 4. If you do not have a reset button on the CPU case, press the On/Off button in and hold it for five to ten seconds. Leave your computer off for thirty seconds to five minutes and turn it back on. 5. If step 4 does not work, unplug your computer from the power source, count to thirty, plug the power cord back in, and turn your computer back on. 4.2.1 WINDOWS KEEPS LOCKING UP ON BOOT UP 1. Try turning off the computer, wait about five minutes, and power on the computer.
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2. Shut down the computer. Unplug the power cord, count to thirty, plug the power cord back in, and turn your computer back on. 3. Take your computer into Safe Mode. Safe Mode is sometimes self-fixing. To do this, hold down the F8 key while booting up to get the startup selection screen. Select "Safe Mode" from the list. Once Safe Mode fully loads, do a shut down to restart the computer. 4.2.2 YOU ARE ON A NETWORK AND YOUR COMPUTER CANNOT FIND A PROGRAM OR DATABASE FILE ON THE SERVER 1. Check to make sure that the network cable is properly plugged into the network card. Sometimes they come loose. 2. Check to insure that you are properly mapped to the server. a) Double click on the "My Computer" icon, or "Computer" icon if using Vista or Windows 7, on your desktop. b) Check for the icon pointing to the server, e.g., "C on Server (E:)." 3. If the pointing icon is not in the My Computer folder, map a drive to the server. a) Right click on the "My Computer" icon. b) Left click on "Map Network Drive." c) Select the drive letter to map. d) Fill in the path information pointing to the server, you can also use the drop down arrow to select the path. e) Press OK

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4.2.3 YOUR COMPUTER SLOWS DOWN

1. Close out all your running programs and delete all the files from the TEMP folder (directory). Nothing worth keeping should ever be stored in this folder. Click STARTRUN, type %temp%, and click OK. 2. Clean out the TEMPORARY INTERNET FILES folder. From your browser go TOOLS-INTERNET OPTIONS and use the Delete Files option. 3. Empty out the Recycle Bin. 4. Those with Windows 98 or greater can use the CleanDisk option. STARTPROGRAMS-ACCESSORIES-SYSTEM TOOLS-CLEANDISK. 5. Run the Windows defrag program: START-PROGRAMS-ACCESSORIES- SYSTEM TOOLS-DISK DEFRAGMENTER. 6. If the problem is with only a database program, compact/re-index the database file(s). 4.2.4 WINDOWS PASSWORD HAS EXPIRED ERROR If you get this password when connecting to a machine that is a Server, you can disable the password expiration option. 1. Go to the CONTROL PANEL on the machine you are trying to connect to. 2. Click USERS AND PASSWORDS a) Click the ADVANCED TAB. b) Click the ADVANCED command button.
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c) Click the Users On Left. d) Double click the USER NAME that is having the problem. e) Check the PASSWORD NEVER EXPIRES option. f) Press OK . Backup Errors 1. Make sure all programs and files being backed up are closed. 2. Check the report to see which file being backed up failed and close that file. 3. Try the backup again. 4. If it still gives an error, reboot all the machines in the network and try the backup once again. 4.2.5 COMPUTER REPAIRS Repairs in the context of computer hardware is an art of fixing already detected problems or malfunctions. There are several components of the computer that needs repairs while there are others that needs replacement. In repairing a computer, there are setting thing to bear in mind, these includes; 1. One is expected to have technician tools like multimeter, screw drivers, software tools like system recovery, operating system service pack, etc. 2. Feel relaxed as in mindset so as to assume control over what you are working on 3. Discover what is actually the problem. This involves diagnosis and or troubleshooting. 4. Map out the algorithm to successful repair 5. Fix the problem.
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CHAPTER FIVE 5.1.0 WORD-PROCESSING 5.1.1 INTRODUCTION Word Processor is a Software package that enables you to create, edit, print and save documents for future retrieval and reference. Creating a document involves typing by using a keyboard and saving it. Editing a document involves correcting the spelling mistakes, if any, deleting or moving words sentences or paragraphs. 5.1.2 ADVANTAGES OF WORD PROCESSING One of the main advantages of a word processor over a conventional typewriter is that a word processor enables you to make changes to a document without retyping the entire document. 5.1.3 FEATURES OF WORD PROCESSING Most Word Processor available today allows more than just creating and editing documents. They have wide range of other tools and functions, which are used in formatting the documents. The following are the main features of a Word Processor 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Text is typing into the computer, which allows alterations to be made easily. Words and sentences can be inserted, amended or deleted. Paragraphs or text can be copied /moved throughout the document. Margins and page length can be adjusted as desired. Spelling can be checked and modified through the spell check facility. Multiple document/files can be merged.

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7.

Multiple copies of letters can be generated with different addresses through the mail-merge facility.

5.1.4 SOME COMMON WORD PROCESSING PACKAGES The followings are examples of some popular word processor available

Notepad Softword WordStar Word perfect Microsoft word etc

5.1.5 IMPORTANCE OF MS-WORD Ms-Word not only supports word processing features but also DTP features. Some of the important features of Ms-Word are listed below: i. Using word you can create the document and edit them later, as and when required, by adding more text, modifying the existing text, deleting/moving some part of it. ii. iii. Changing the size of the margins can reformat complete document or part of text. Font size and type of fonts can also be changed. Page numbers and Header and Footer can be included. iv. Spelling can be checked and correction can be made automatically in the entire document. Word count and other statistics can be generated.

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v.

Text can be formatted in columnar style as we see in the newspaper. Text boxes can be made.

vi. vii.

Tables can be made and included in the text. Word also allows the user to mix the graphical pictures with the text. Graphical pictures can either be created in word itself or can be imported from outside like from Clip Art Gallery.

viii. ix.

Word also provides the mail-merge facility. Word also has the facility of macros. Macros can be either attached to some function/special keys or to a tool bar or to a menu.

x.

It also provides online help of any option.

5.1.6 GETTING STARTED WITH MS-WORD . You can go inside MS-WORD by the following way 1. Take the mouse pointer to START button on the task bar. Click the left mouse button. 2. Move the pointer to programs or all programs.

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3. Point the cusor to Microsoft office and the click on Microsoft word to lunch the application.

5.1.7 COMPONENT FEATURES OF MS WORD. 5.1.8 TITLE BAR The title bar displays the name of the currently active word document. Like other WINDOWS applications, it can be used to alter the size and location of the word window. 5.1.9 TOOL BARS

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Word has a number of tool bars that help you perform task faster and with great ease. Two of the most commonly tool bars are the formatting tool bar and the standard tool bar. These two toolbars are displayed just below the title bar. At any point of time any tool bar can be made ON or OFF through the tool bar option of View Menu. 5.2.0 RULER BAR The Ruler Bar allows you to format the vertical alignment of text in a document. 5.2.1 STATUS BAR The Status Bar displays information about the currently active document. This includes the page number that you are working, the column and line number of the cursor position and so on. 5.2.2 SCROLL BAR The Scroll Bar helps you scroll the content or body of document. You can do so by moving the elevator button along the scroll bar, or by click in on the buttons with the arrow marked on them to move up and down and left and right of a page. 5.2.3 WORKSPACE The Workspace is the area in the document window were you enter/type the text of your document. 5.2.4 MAIN MENU (MENU BAR)

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The Word main menu is displayed at the top of the screen. The main menu further displays a sub menu. Some of the options are highlighted options and some of them appear as faded options. At any time, only highlighted options can be executed, faded options are not applicable. Infect if the option is faded you will not be able to choose it. You may not that any option faded under present situation may become highlighted under different situations.

5.2.5 MAIN MENU OPTIONS The overall functions of all the items of main menu are explained below. File You can perform file management operations by using these options such as opening, closing, saving, printing, exiting etc. It displays the following sub menu.

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5.2.6 FILE SUB MENU EDIT Using this option you can perform editing functions such as cut, copy, paste, find and replace etc. It displays the following sub menu.

EDIT SUB MENU VIEW Word document can be of many pages. The different pages may have different modes. Each mode has its limitations. For example in normal mode the graphical picture cannot be displayed. They can only be displayed in page layout mode. Using the option "View" you can switch over from one mode to other. It displays the following Sub menu.

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VIEW SUB MENU INSERT Using this menu, you can insert various objects such as page numbers, footnotes, picture frames etc. in your document. It displays the following Sub menu.

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INSERT SUBMENU FORMAT Using this menu, you can perform various type of formatting operations, such as fonts can be changed, borders can be framed etc. It displays the following Sub menu.

FORMAT SUBMENU TOOLS Using this menu, you can have access to various utilities/tools of Word, such as spell check, macros, mail merge etc. It displays the following Sub menu.

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TOOL SUBMENU TABLE This menu deals with tables. Using this menu you can perform various types of operations on the table. It displays the following Sub menu.

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TABLE SUB MENU WINDOW This menu allows you to work with two documents simultaneously. This would require two windows to be opened so that each one can hold one document. Using this menu, you can switch over from one window to another. It displays the following Sub menu.

WINDOW SUB MENU HELP Using this menu, you can get on-line help for any function.

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5.2.7 TEXT FORMATTING 5.2.8 INSERTING TEXT Text will be inserted where the blinking cursor is located. You can move the cursor either with the arrow buttons on the keyboard or with the mouse. Just click on the screen where you want to begin then start typing!

5.2.9 SELECTING TEXT

To select any text, first, Click and drag the mouse over the desired text, being sure to keep the left mouse button depressed. Alternatively, you can hold down the SHIFT key on the keyboard while using the arrow buttons to select the text.

5.3.0 FORMATTING TEXT The formatting toolbar is the easiest way to change attributes of text. If the toolbar as shown below isn't displayed on the screen, select View| Toolbars and choose Formatting.

You can choose the function before you start to type. If you want to change the format of text you have already typed, select and highlight the desired text then use the mouse to select a function on the toolbar. Then click on the appropriate function.

5.3.1 DELETING TEXT Use the BACKSPACE key to erase text behind the curser. Use the DELETE key to erase text after the curser. To delete a large selection of text, highlight it and press the DELETE key.
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5.3.2 MOVING (CUTTING) TEXT This method will save text to a clip board that can be used to paste the text elsewhere in this or another file. Highlight the text that will be moved. Then either: Select Edit | Cut from the menu bar. Press CTRL+X

Right click and choose cut

5.3.3 COPYING TEXT To copy text to the clipboard, highlight text then either: Choose Edit | Copy. Click the Copy button on the standard toolbar Press CTRL+C Right click and choose paste

5.3.4 PASTING TEXT To paste cut or copied text, move the cursor to the desired location and either: Select Edit | Paste from the menu bar Click the Paste button on the standard toolbar Press CTRL+V Right click and choose paste

5.3.5 THE CLIPBOARD The last 12 elements that were cut or copied are placed onto Word's clipboard. You can view the elements on the clipboard by selecting View | Toolbars | Clipboard from the menu bar.

Place the mouse arrow over each element in the clipboard to view the contents of each
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item and click on an element to add its contents to the document. Click Paste All to add all of the items to the document at once. Click the Clear Clipboard button (the icon with an "X" over the clipboard image) to clear the contents of the clipboard.

5.3.6 SAVING AND PROTECTING A DOCUMENT 1. Chose File | Save from the menu bar. 2. Press CTRL key + S.
OR click on file sub menu and select save as In the save as dialogue box, type the desired file name Click on file and select general option from drop down menu In the security dialogue box, enter a password to open the file and another to modify and confirm the password, and then click on save.

5.3.7 OPENING A SAVED FILE


1. Click the Open File button on the standard toolbar. 2. Choose File| Open from the menu bar. 3. Press CTRL+O on the keyboard. Each method will open a dialog box. Choose the file and click the Open button.

5.3.8 RENAMING A SAVED FILE (SAVE AS) 1. Chose File | Save As from the menu bar.
This will open a dialog box. You can use the pull down menu under Save in to change where the file is saved on the computer or to a disc. To change the file name, in the space labeled File name type in the new name for your

document.
Click Save to save the file and close the dialog box.

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