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IRELAND-IRISH CULTURE Dubliners

Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914. They were meant to be a naturalistic depiction of Irish middle class life in and around Dublin in the early years of the 20th century.
The stories were written when Irish nationalism was at its peak, and a search for a national identity and purpose was raging; at a crossroads of history and culture, Ireland was jolted by various converging ideas and influences. They centre on Joyce's idea of an epiphany: a moment where a character experiences self-understanding or illumination. Many of the characters in Dubliners later appear in minor roles in Joyce's novel Ulysses.[1] The initial stories in the collection are narrated by child protagonists, and as the stories continue, they deal with the lives and concerns of progressively older people. This is in line with Joyce's tripartite division of the collection into childhood, adolescence, and maturity.

Publication history
Between 1905, when Joyce first sent a manuscript to a publisher, and 1914, when the book was finally published, Joyce submitted the book 18 times to a total of 15 publishers. The book's publishing history is a harrowing tale of persistence in the face of frustration. The London house of Grant Richards agreed to publish it in 1905. However, their printer refused to set one of the stories (Two Gallants), and Richards then began to press Joyce to remove a number of other passages which he claimed the printer also refused to set. Joyce protested, but eventually did agree to some of the requested changes. However, Richards eventually backed out of the deal. Joyce thereupon resubmitted the manuscript to other publishers, and about three years later (1909) he found a

willing candidate in Maunsel and Roberts of Dublin. However, a similar controversy developed and Maunsel too eventually refused to publish, even threatening to sue Joyce for printing costs already incurred. Joyce offered to pay the printing costs himself if the sheets were turned over to him and he were allowed to complete the job elsewhere and distribute the book, but when Joyce arrived at the printer's they refused to surrender the sheets, and burned them the next day. Joyce managed to save one copy which he obtained "by ruse". He then returned to submitting the manuscript to other publishers, and in 1914 Grant Richards once again agreed to publish the book, using the page proofs saved from Maunsel as copy. The book was finally published in June 1914.[2]

The stories

The Sisters After the priest Father Flynn dies, a young boy who was close to him and his family deal with it only superficially. An Encounter Two schoolboys playing truant encounter an elderly man. Araby A boy falls in love with the sister of his friend, but fails in his quest to buy her a worthy gift from the Araby bazaar. Eveline A young woman abandons her plans to leave Ireland with a sailor. After the Race College student Jimmy Doyle tries to fit in with his wealthy friends. Two Gallants Two con men, Lenehan and Corley, find a maid who is willing to steal from her employer. The Boarding House Mrs. Mooney successfully manoeuvres her daughter Polly into an upwardly mobile marriage with her lodger Mr. Doran. A Little Cloud Little Chandler's dinner with his old friend Ignatius Gallaher casts fresh light on his own failed literary dreams. The story reflects also on Chandler's mood upon realizing his baby son has replaced him as the centre of his wife's affections. Counterparts Farrington, a lumbering alcoholic scrivener, takes out his frustration in pubs and on his son Tom.

Clay The old maid Maria, a laundress, celebrates Halloween with her former foster child Joe Donnelly and his family. A Painful Case Mr. Duffy rebuffs Mrs. Sinico, then four years later realizes he has condemned her to loneliness and death. Ivy Day in the Committee Room Minor politicians fail to live up to the memory of Charles Stewart Parnell. A Mother Mrs. Kearney tries to win a place of pride for her daughter, Kathleen, in the Irish cultural movement, by starring her in a series of concerts, but ultimately fails. Grace After Mr. Kernan injures himself falling down the stairs in a bar, his friends try to reform him through Catholicism. The Dead Gabriel Conroy attends a party, and later, as he speaks with his wife, has an epiphany about the nature of life and death. At 1516,000 words this story has also been classified as a novella. The Dead was adapted into a film by John Huston, written for the screen by his son Tony and starring his daughter Anjelica as Mrs. Conroy.

BANDS
U2
U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin. Formed in 1976, the group consists of Bono (vocals and guitar), The Edge (guitar, keyboards and vocals), Adam Clayton (bass guitar), and Larry Mullen, Jr. (drums and percussion). U2's early sound was rooted in post-punk but eventually grew to incorporate influences from many genres of popular music. Throughout the group's musical pursuits, they have maintained a sound built on melodic instrumentals, highlighted by The Edge's textural guitar playing and Bono's expressive vocals. Their lyrics, often embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal themes and sociopolitical concerns. U2 formed at Mount Temple Comprehensive School when the members were teenagers with limited musical proficiency. Within four years, they signed with Island Records and released their debut album Boy. By the mid-1980s, they became a top international act. They were more successful as live performers than they were at selling records, until their breakthrough 1987 album The Joshua Tree,[1] which, according to Rolling Stone, elevated the band's stature "from heroes to superstars".[2] Reacting to musical stagnation and late-1980s criticism of their earnest image and musical direction, the group reinvented themselves with their 1991 hit album Achtung Baby and the accompanying Zoo TV Tour. U2 integrated dance, industrial, and alternative rock influences into their sound and performances, and embraced a more ironic and self-deprecating image. Similar experimentation continued for the remainder of the 1990s with mixed levels of success. U2 regained critical and commercial favour after their 2000 record All That You Can't Leave Behind. On it and the group's subsequent releases, they adopted a more

conventional sound while maintaining influences from their earlier musical explorations. U2 have released 12 studio albums and are among the all-time best-selling music artists, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide. They have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, and in 2005, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 in its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".[3] Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and philanthropic causes, including Amnesty International, the ONE/DATA campaigns, Product Red, and The Edge's Music Rising.

Gary Moore
Gary Moore was an internationally highly regarded guitarist, featuring prominently in many world's top guitarists lists. He played a diverse range of styles - psychedelic, jazz-rock, melodic hard rock, heavy metal and blues rock. He started his career at the young age of 16 when he moved from his home town of Belfast to Dublin and joined Skid Row. His playing at that stage was very mature and complex you would never think it was coming from a teenager! In his Skid Row days he got noticed by another guitar legend, and one of his own guitar heroes, Peter Green. Skid Row had opened for Fleetwood Mac in Dublin and Peter was so impressed with what he heard that asked to meet Gary and invited him back to his hotel to jam with him. While in Skid Row Gary met Phil Lynott who also briefly was a member. Gary had a long association with Phil as a member of Thin Lizzy and contributing to each other's solo projects. Gary did a brief stint with Thin Lizzy in the early seventies was a member of the jazz rock outfit Colosseum II in the midseventies and was back with Thin Lizzy in 1978. In the 80s Gary was a leading heavy metal guitar hero and released a string of blazing solo albums. He turned back to his blues roots in the 90s and successfully reinvented himself as a bluesman. Sadly, Garry passed away on 6th Feburary 2011

TRADISIONAL CELEBRASIONS
Saint Patrick's Day or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Irish: L Fhile Pdraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick") is a cultural and religious holiday celebrated on 17 March. It commemorates Saint Patrick (c. AD 387461), the most commonly recognised of the patron saints of Ireland, and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland.[2] It is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion (especially the Church of Ireland),[3] the Eastern Orthodox Church and Lutheran Church. Saint Patrick's Day was made an official feast day in the early seventeenth century, and has gradually become a celebration of Irish culture in general.[4] The day is generally characterised by the attendance of church services,[4][5] wearing of green attire,[6] public parades and processions, and the lifting of Lenten restrictions on eating, and drinking alcohol,[6][7][8] which is often proscribed during the rest of the season.[4][6][7][8] Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland,[9] Northern Ireland,[10] Newfoundland and Labrador and Montserrat. It is also widely celebrated by the Irish diaspora, especially in places such as Great Britain, Canada, the United States, Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand, among others. Today, St. Patrick's Day is probably the most widely celebrated saint's day in the world.

THE DUBLIN HORSE SHOW


The Dublin Horse Show is one of Dublin's traditional social highlights. While the riders fight it out for (amongst others) the Aga Khan Trophy, everybody even remotely interested in equestrian sports gathers in the stands and the exhibition halls. Never in more flamboyant style than on "Ladies' Day", when the hunt for the best-dressed female on two legs steals the show from the four-legged competition

FAMOUS PLACES
Pheonix Park Pheonix Park is the largest urban park in Ireland and is situated two miles away from the city. This place has beautiful garden, lakes and big grasslands. The place is peaceful and serene and is far from crowd where you can enjoy the scenic beauty. This is one of the famous places to visit in Ireland. Trinity College It was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth and is Ireland's oldest university where many famous people have studied and is still a prestigious institution. Personalities like Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde and Samuel Beckett have studied. The lush, sprawling campus is an added attraction. Ireland Castle Among various famous places in Ireland, Ireland Castle is a must watch. Built in 1204 by King John it is located at Dame Street. Previously meetings of Parliament, Law courts, the council chamber etc were held. But now it is a heritage building and famous tourist attraction. National Library It is a historical library which has a domed shaped reading room was once abode to many Irish personalities from the literary circuit. James Joyce was one of them. Many rare literary collections can be found here.

TYPICAL FOOD
Irish cuisine is a style of cooking originating from Ireland or developed by Irish people. It evolved from centuries of social and political change. The cuisine takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in its temperate climate. The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced Ireland's cuisine thereafter. Representative Irish dishes are Irish stew, bacon and cabbage, potato, boxty, coddle, colcannon and (mainly in Ulster) fadge

There are many references to food and drink in Irish mythology and early Irish literature such as the tale of Fionn mac Cumhaill and the Salmon of Knowledge[1]. The old stories also contain many references to banquets, although these may well be greatly exaggerated and provide little insight into everyday diets. Honey seems to have been widely eaten and used in the making of mead. There are also many references to fulacht fiadh, which may have been sites for cooking deer, consisting of holes in the ground which were filled with water. The meat was placed in the water and cooked by the introduction of hot stones. Many fulacht fiadh sites have been identified across the island of Ireland, and some of them appear to have been in use up to the 17th century. Excavations at the Viking settlement in the Wood Quay area of Dublin have produced a significant amount of information on the diet of the inhabitants of the town. The main meats eaten were beef, mutton, and pork. Domestic poultry and geese as well as fish and shellfish were also common, as was a wide range of native berries and nuts, especially hazel. The seeds of knotgrass and goosefoot were widely present and may have been used to make a porridge.

From the Middle Ages, until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century, the dominant feature of the rural economy was the herding of cattle. The meat produced was mostly the preserve of the gentry and nobility. The poor generally made do with milk, butter, cheese, and offal, supplemented with oats and barley. The practice of bleeding cattle and mixing the blood with milk and butter (similar to the practice of the Maasai) was not uncommon. Black pudding is made from blood, grain, (usually barley) and seasoning, and remains a breakfast staple food in Ireland. Potatoes form the basis for many traditional Irish dishes. The potato was introduced into Ireland in the second half of the 16th century, initially as a garden crop. It eventually came to be the main food crop of the poor. As a food source, the potato is extremely valuable in terms of the amount of energy produced per unit area of crop. The potato is also a good source of many vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C when fresh. Potatoes were widely cultivated, but in particular by those at a subsistence level; the diet of this group of this period consisted mainly of potatoes supplemented with buttermilk. Potatoes were also fed to pigs, to fatten them prior to their slaughter at the approach of the cold winter months. Much of the slaughtered pork would have been cured to provide ham and bacon that could be stored over the winter. Fresh meat was generally considered a luxury except for the most affluent until the late 19th century and chickens were not raised on a large scale until the emergence of town grocers in the 1880s allowed people to exchange surplus goods, like eggs, and for the first time purchase a variety food items to diversify their diet. The adoption of the potato as the core of Irish cuisine should not be seen as a voluntary choice. As a result of the Penal Laws (Ireland), the large Irish Catholic majority were denied the right to buy land or to pass it on as they wished to their descendants. Consequently farms became smaller and smaller as the population of Ireland ballooned in the early 19th century

(8 million in 1840 compared to 20 million for England, Scotland and Wales combined at the time). Many "farms" were less than a quarter of an acre, which had to provide food for a family of as many as 8 people for a year. The only way to avoid starvation was to intensively cultivate a single crop, the potato, as this crop provided much of the basic nutrition requirements, and so became the only "choice" available to the rural Catholic poor, who formed the vast bulk of the population. The reliance on potatoes as a staple crop meant that the people of Ireland were vulnerable to poor potato harvests. Consequently several famines occurred throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. The first Great Famine of 1739 was the result of extreme cold weather but the famine of 1845 to 1849 (see Great Irish Famine) was caused by potato blight which spread throughout the Irish crop which consisted largely of a single variety, the Lumper. During the famine approximately 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland.
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FAMOUS WRITERS
Ireland has a long and rich tradition of writing. Some of our most important writers include: W.B.Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett and Seamus Heaney, each one a winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. But that's not all there is. Ireland has produced even more world famous writers and literary names such as James Joyce, Flann O'Brien, Oscar Wilde and Jonathan Swift. Who hasn't heard of Ulysses by James Joyce or Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift? Ireland is home to the oldest vernacular literature in Europe . When George Thomson, the great scholar of ancient Greece , went looking for a culture and a literature to match that of Homer, he found it in the writings of the Blasket Islands. A remote and desolate set of islands off the south west coast of Ireland , where they developed their own distinct literature in the first half of the twentieth century.

The great tradition of poetry in Irish still lives on today. Some of Ireland 's present- day poets still actually write in Irish .

George Bernard Shaw


George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 2 November 1950) was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces of journalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60 plays. Nearly all his writings address prevailing social problems, but have a vein of comedy which makes their stark themes more palatable. Shaw examined education, marriage, religion, government, health care, and class privilege. He was most angered by what he perceived as the exploitation of the working class. An ardent socialist, Shaw wrote many brochures and speeches for the Fabian Society. He became an accomplished orator in the furtherance of its causes, which

included gaining equal rights for men and women, alleviating abuses of the working class, rescinding private ownership of productive land, and promoting healthy lifestyles. For a short time he was active in local politics, serving on the London County Council. In 1898, Shaw married Charlotte Payne-Townshend, a fellow Fabian, whom he survived. They settled in Ayot St Lawrence in a house now called Shaw's Corner. Shaw died there, aged 94, from chronic problems exacerbated by injuries he incurred by falling from a ladder. He is the only person to have been awarded both a Nobel Prize in Literature (1925) and an Oscar (1938), for his contributions to literature and for his work on the film Pygmalion (adaptation of his play of the same name), respectively.[1] Shaw wanted to refuse his Nobel Prize outright because he had no desire for public honours, but accepted it at his wife's behest: she considered it a tribute to Ireland. He did reject the monetary award, requesting it be used to finance translation of Swedish books into English.

OSCAR WILD
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 30 November 1900) was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. Today he is remembered for his epigrams, plays and the circumstances of his imprisonment, followed by his early death. Wilde's parents were successful Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life. At university Wilde read Greats; he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the rising philosophy of aestheticism, led by two of his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles. As a spokesman for aestheticism, he tried his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured in the United States of America and Canada on the new "English Renaissance in Art", and then returned to London where he worked prolifically as a journalist. Known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress, and glittering conversation, Wilde had become one of the most well-known personalities of his day. At the turn of the 1890s, he refined his ideas about the supremacy of art in a series of dialogues and essays, and incorporated themes of decadence, duplicity, and beauty into his only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890). The opportunity to construct aesthetic details precisely, and combine them with larger social themes, drew Wilde to write drama. He wrote Salome (1891) in French in Paris but it was refused a licence. Unperturbed, Wilde produced four society comedies in the early 1890s, which made him one of the most successful playwrights of late Victorian London.

At the height of his fame and success, while his masterpiece, The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), was still on stage in London, Wilde had the Marquess of Queensberry, the father of his lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, prosecuted for libel, a charge carrying a penalty of up to two years in prison. (Libel Act of 1843) The trial unearthed evidence that caused Wilde to drop his charges and led to his own arrest and trial for gross indecency with other men. After two more trials he was convicted and imprisoned for two years' hard labour. In prison he wrote De Profundis (written in 1897 & published in 1905), a long letter which discusses his spiritual journey through his trials, forming a dark counterpoint to his earlier philosophy of pleasure. Upon his release he left immediately for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain. There he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol (1898), a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life. He died destitute in Paris at the age of forty-six.

BEST REGARDS PETER KAKOULLI S

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