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MAKING A SINE WAVE


Audio computation in Pd is done using "tilde objects" such
as the three below. They use continuous audio streams to
intercommunicate, as well as communicating with other
("control") Pd objects using messages.

osc~ 440

< 440 Hz. sine wave at full blast

*~ 0.05

< reduce amplitude to 0.05

dac~

< send to the audio output device

Audio computation can be turned on and off by sending


messages to the global "pd" object as follows:
;
pd dsp 1
ON

;
pd dsp 0

< click these

OFF

You should see the Pd window change to reflect whether


audio is on or off. You can also turn audio on and off
using the "audio" menu, but the buttons are provided as a
shortcut.
When DSP is on, you should hear a tone whose pitch is A 440
and whose amplitude is 0.05. If instead you are greeted
with silence, you might want to read the HTML documentation
on setting up audio.
In general when you start a work session with Pd, you will
want to choose "test audio and MIDI" from the help window,
which opens a more comprehensive test patch than this one.

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osc~ 440

osc~ 440

osc~ 440

0.1 2000

< slow on

dbtorms

0.1 50

< fast on

osc~ 550
+~

0.1

< instant on

osc~ 660
0 2000

*~ 0

0 50

< slow off

+~

< fast off


output~

dac~

0
line~

(a)
*~

< instant off


< ramp generator

< multiplier: this time

dB 0

mute
(c)

taking a signal in
dac~

on both sides.
(b)

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frequency
frequency
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frequency

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optional for
centered segments

segment size

segment location

1
OUT

r9=>U7^$;.4=<\.7VE.;.Q.H>2 f :F!|H>Ae?:vu4?3CM\iEKH<=>GU?37OG/G4?hH>?3j.E74\.@+=<^'7ti:<93;.CF7u\KE.vuGUg 7=9.\%9$J:g3H>7uj.H7 :lU7H<^3jCF\.7u?\iH93CF: UE.k7G UH<93;%\KJLJ 7Vv GU?L?$vu\$9H>H=<4?$?3G \2B2j.7j.=<77


:l:l 77 ^3^3
MCFCF?3E7u7u\i\i7uHH=b#29:FH 4C ?3\ _JL4E%: ? UU\K\ivuH GU;%JL?37H<Jj.7U=<@ /_:l7O7 /_:l7j:lH<Ej.77}v I:l@+7g ^3CFH<jK7u78\iH)GU?LGUvu?L9vH94H ?34\?3\?H<@P?'H<ZjK77V:<GU7uE%@~7Hv U7uK\%7JJ8?9$@P:/H<H<j.j.77


   

`$`

    +
     

(a)

new periods

(b)

r93\4^3?$;.:>=>v7V4GUQL_92 m H>?3! =  K'&H>j.7u7F= 47u\.\h^'377uGU\h?$3E%77MGU?$vuE%937N\=>7Z%ti7'; vb4=<j.7?iCF:l77u\8\iH>H<:/?@+?$v ?$=D\L?$@+:>?3v =>4CnGU_9H>H<?3?=b9:\h9g8\KJJL7:>: 94CF=<7E.JG47uH =b4CF: ! 7:>9 vu9G447 \ 
H>Z?Mk7u)=>j.?F7Z%\87uH<@+?3j.=>7[7P/g$9?3$;7 H>j 93UH)Z.G4H<7 j._:7OT79\KJ=<7?v ?3@ =bH>JLj.77OJ:<9?33;.7 \%HbJ9Z.UG4H"7# :D@+?3;.=EH<jKH<7N?Kg$=>?3:l;HH<H ?4CF^$737 2 H)H>j.7[7\i$7uG4?3E7
EH>.jKG47 9H>H7uG4Uj.gHT7V@@+9$7=>?3JL93C:7U: 7:Z%UH\7/^ vu4GU9\.7g\9\.4H<\.G4?g^8JL9H<??8HDH<H>7j j.\K_:7VJZ 937u_::>V^ :<4;.:\.4C\CF4U\.E.\.^G4^g93YH<\K? 7VJE.?3=<4;.7G HEK99v G4=>G477M939H<\.ghj.GU:Dg7E.9:<G493HT9CMgH<j.EK9'7}GU7 7u9\K4\ 3J 7 2)93HbJL9Z.j 93G47V_:\Kv v CF7?$C9:<g? 
H>7=>j.73vu77u?3\ U=b\KJ Z%E.U7\K;L^KH[J.2 ?3: U\.^$7 \K94\ GBZhH>g j.79vuG 9$U\.:l77:<H<7uj%^$9CFH'7uH<\ijKHO787u/\h93$7GU7 ?$H>E%93Z.7MG47H 4CF_:'7Jc:<93CFH<?8E.C'GU7J9H>vbG 4jc37 H</j.7'Zhg G47uC[\.^3;KH<GIjH UE.?G4@/g H<U\KjK^7
7ZK\i9$$vb7u\G4?3?$EC'=N793H<Y\ij.7Mg87C'::>I9H>9CF;Kg9E.HG4U7 ?$9 \K\iHP:@+?3H<=jK??7 .vbYjK979CF3\K7uE.^3= G47} 7 UH<H Yj.47F7X:C :l7 j%U4H<9^3j.=>ji7E.H= \.7U\K9:>:vu\i?3H ?\hH<@3?)H>7E.j.\ G_7F497ugT7u\i\hHT?$3\.?37G4= GUgT?$4EEKCM493\.E=l^H?$:>?3JL: @$ghUH>Z.\Kj.G4937V7C H>:>?94vCF9EKE.G4=<U7G4g$7  2
?i\:<v :lUG47v9H H<U?$?$=>\ :/;KQL24: 1MU\KY^'7FC[jK;.9$GUHJ 4E.9G G44=>v7993H J.4?3g\8:lZh7g7u\ 9'jK=>?93eCFEH<?8@+;Kv \K?$\iv H H<U=>?$?3\ GH<j.97'G_:<?'93CMi\KEK?G U)H<;K\J.9$7M:)?39@/\8: U7\h\i;K$:<7u? G4_J?3.E937 G
^$Q.7u2 ` \.793=>\K9JH<?3=Q.2 Bd%293\KJ0j /_:793Z.G4; :<?UG H}/H>?3j =>_:LF:'\.K?H\.U7 ?$\ @+?3U=\iH>H<? ;.=>H>\ j.47\.^ 9:>39CF7uH>E.93Z.G47uGU=b7:?$?$:>\v 4GU_99\%H>J ?3=b:V? & ?@PH<? r 49^33;K? =<7_J :
/J93=<_:7>7Ov /?3@+=>\i7u7uH=>7}U78\hH<; ?@+=<UH7vb478j.7:?hH<K?$? Z.:<7[;.93HT:>93:l\i ;KgCMIH>7j7\i?3$H<jK\K7uG497V?3HEC'7VH<9jKH7 U?3C =D4J \.9'&3^7 7u/@+=>?$7u7M=<\KC /vu7 93G !/\$4\.H )7 j.:U\7u;.=>7H<Ej.9$:7F7\K4vu\8J9$:l/H>7}?9?$@Y7u7 \KH>:>93J9Z.CFTG47V:lE.? G :lUgh\KH<\i^jKH<9j.;KH7: U: /\K_:^7 
H>;.: ?I\KH>;KE.ku9=<77H=<UEK??$9\ Zi=>g7_:JcH>Ej._v7}9H>3H ;.47 CM=<@+7?$7MJ=<C'/U\8:7[r =>/7U^$937;.vb9j=>=>7O7FH>Q.j.?327MmKZ.27uG U\K^$J 7Jc?@XH<? H>j.^37}7 HO9H>j.377uH>793\iZ.$GU7N7uG4@+?3?$E=T7'H>j.^37}7\.K7u=>=b:l9HPH>?3H =4CM# :P7$?32O;.H<E.j ;L4H:
: UCFE.\G47::lUHH<;K99H gO4?3H<\K?[:/CF)93j.377=<7NH>j.97D\G4?i9=>?$Z E U4H<\.=b^V9=>/g}?3=>[93v 7u?$H>\$93H Z.U\hGU7;.?$C[;K;K:<:lGUgH)Z%4:X7NH<=>?[7uE93=<7=b99H<\.7^$J793@+:/?$=\.797CFJLE.7JG UH<L;KH<jKJL77


`d

  


   
:  
    

frequency

size
X

location

1
0

1
0

OUT

+@r ?3U=)^$;.7\i=<7D$7uQ.G42R?3pE !4\.A ^%:>2 9CFE.G47u=X93: U\'r U^$;.=>7)Q.2 m Z.;LHY IH>jF93\'93J.J UH 4?3\%9G.937uH>9ZKGU7/GU?h?$i;KE
7u?$vbjK\h:>v394\K7GU_GU^39?$7'H>E%?37 H>= ? 2B_:XZ;K7j :<_:7:<ghJM\KC'H>vb?[9j.g'=>vu?393Z%\G47vu4;.ku47G_CM9JH<EK7)GU7G4ICM?hH>?3j 7h\iH<;.H<jKE77J4\KG49$?hJ :/?3_v E:<7j.4\.:B?^)@+?3B\ =;%HU: \Y4\.?OK^c^$;.9c9=<37O:l7u7H>QLEK932q9phZ.=b2BGU97AH>: 73:?3U\.\.97)^$3GUj.7 7NHb?$9:>G4J9Z.UG4\.7 H<^V?h+?H<H<j.j.H>j 77
=<97Zv ?3?$;L=>HJL7_:JN^3:l7u?$Hl;.H \K4\.J^|9H>j.\K7 J0UH<\.j.EK7;LH>?3:OH<j.?37@Y=H>Bj.937M\0HY7u\h?37GU?$9E%37u7H>9:<jKZK9GU7E:T737293vbj jK7U\ C'UH>9 :N4\?)H<j \4\.9^E.E.H>=>??3EK/= ?3_9=>=<H>g 7
=>93\.^37$2
/9j $_:Y7 \OHbC'9CFZ.993G4g'7\hZgP:>7O9: CFIJLH>;K?3E.\.9G47uH7N=DU?$:<9?[\KH/: H>H>UjKj.H 97V_:H:>)JL97CFj.: 7u47P=>\93@+=<Z.97\hG47|t$g';KH<?DEK7u\K93v vu=l?$HgC[4vu9Z ;.\K4G_\.J97B=/9H?3HD/\.9F?)7 ?3:<4:E%= 79CMv HYU?$KH>=<j.77XJ7Nvu?37uE.\KE jK4J9$7:l:?7N?@ =>@hU7uH>H<G_:)j.97:<H 7u4GU?3^$?h\%CF?3:lE j7uU\i4\.EH^ 2
?34:P\.v 7N?$?$\i=/H 4CF\i;K?$?3=<;K7N:<?GUgH>j.C'7u=b9: 44: \.U^\:<H<?3j.;.7O\%CJ 2O_J. JL?G47O93?vu@vu?3H<j.CF7VE.:>G 49:<CFj7OH<j :l47:^3 CFY7u7}\iH\..7u:l7?MJ H<9j%9/H9H<gj.7VH<?93^3^3^$7\.=<77u^$=b99H>H>77
HU\ Y?E.G4?39$=Dv 7CF?3?3@=>7[H<j.:>79?$H<:>?hv ?4GUH>_j89H>?3/=V9$97H}:DH<9j.HD7H<H<jK?37}E JL?7@: 4K=<7^3J;K=<E.7jKQ.9$2R:lpL7V2=>7ucG_97H U?$vu9\K\ :<j :lUEH>93H>=ljKH}9 HPIYH>j 7}9vu9: \8U\.;%^$:lGU77
K:<9=b:HOH>?h?3?\KH<73j2[ @/93Y7F7F9 \K_:J ljH>j.97u\0:<9EK=<H>?L?iJL?3;KH<jcvu7')?j H>4j.vb7uj =b:V_: 9 H[:>9.g L\ 7L8J vuE.gLjKv 9$G47:l:O7'9=>jK7uG_7993H J U?$\K?@Y:lj H<Uj.EK7M:VK =bI:H>HOj?$H<\.j.7 7 

`if

    
   

frequency

1.3
a

0.3
WRAP

OUT
1
0.3

.E=br 9j%4CF^393;.:<7 =>7[H>7[7u=>=`QL7uG_2L9z 2 H!/4?3Ae\%:lH<j 74vbEKj.:\ _tZ%i7u;.H7OY7@+?37u=T\ ^3H<7uj.\K77uC=b92VH 4\.jK^F7}H/=>7u?'G_9?3H =U$CM7[?$E.=<jK7V9$:>:l97 4:NH<?hvu?3?3H<\ijH<=>/?39G4U$77J8:Zh gUH<H<j8j.7FKhEK79J 
/JL77V: 4: =>47CFJE.\.G4g7u 9$J.:<J9H<H>j.?i7[?3EKH<j9=b/9CF9$7 7 H>L7u93J= :)L:<j.9\%?)J\ H>j.U7u\8\r H>49^3$;.7N=>7VH<j.QL7V2 z.@+2 =>9$v H 4?3\%9GEK93=lH K)j _vbj _:)H<jK7
* 

4. .&%' ! 6$%' 6 3


 40 3

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C'=>7 @+97gc=[93H>G4? :<? 9$:*?3S=[? : 4C[E<H5;.C8GUH>)+93SH5\.C<7u ?$ZX;K]U:l,UG4g  BZ%@+?$7=F7 =<h7H<937:<\K?3JL\K7:[J Y4\ 7 # G498)JLv ?$7uCF$7uE.G4?3GU7E CF47u\ \iH>H>93j =<_:gcM:</79v gH 4?3H<\j%2 9H[/jK7u7 =># GU7
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?3 @[UH<9j\.?39H<GUH<j.77=<=\K2 9H 4\.\%^:H>7:l937J^3CFDY7u\i7 H>:Fv ?$?3;.@PG4J: UG47u93\%:<v 7 @+)?$?$==vu?3^3E ? 447\.:^ ?U@O\ H<H>jKj.7c7?39E.3E7u?$@+?3: I=>H>C 78J H<U? =>7Z%v H74?3:<\ EKY93vuH<jK7J 7

`3m

  


   
:  
    

(a)

(b)

(c)

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original

best fit
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0.2

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di`

      



0
mtof
0
tabosc4~ table10

table10

output~
dB 0
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;.+?$E=|J.9;KH>:7YH)H>H>j.= 7/4^3^$937uGU=>;K77J:?@%IH>H<jj.7/9CF 7:> :<'93^3CM7Y793:<=<:>^$9;.^$CF7  7uh\iH<H>j.:7O9CF\K7J :> :>I9@%^3H<7 j.7/_:)G47 ?3@~;LH<CFH>E.?i;L:HH 2 4\.GU7uH 4:|vbjK93\.^37J
;.CFE7J.:>:<9\93H>7^3H>7Dj H<_:H>jKD?F7EKGU979H>9vbG43;.j77H<H<j.j.?37V@)7NH<93EKj.=<9$^$7vb;.'KCF=b?3:7uZLHM\iH>79:)v =>H)^393;.=</7 CF9$4: 7u\ \iI HH Q4|y$93:<GUm}4?8gf3H>y y'jK
.9932|H\KJj.93f37N:[y 7 E .&4ZKv 7;LH<v ;.H)H)=>H<?7j.@J 7OH>|j \hH<_:j.;.7C}?3Z%\CM7?iH<=Dj.:ZHM7 ?=<7v   7\$UG4H
?3ZL7v HTZ7uG4? 4:DH<?=b9CFEH<?Q3y3m 4\ fyFC 4GU 4:<7vu?3\KJK:  U\^$7u\.7=>93GH<j.7[?3;LH>E.;LH?3@|H<j.7


%%(



+
+

(+

+

 

dhf

      



frequency

squeeze

162

206

generation >

phasor~

pack 0 50

range
adjustment >

*~

line~

phase

+~ 1

+~ 128

tabread4~ waveform12
<click to graph
output~
dB 4

tabwrite~ waveout12

mute

waveform12

waveout12

r 4^3;.=>7VQL241` !|A937 Hb9Z.G47P?$:>v 4GU_9H>?3= IH>j93= _9ZKGU7NJL;LHgv gLv G47 ! y3`K2 Hb9Z.=>79$JLdK2 EJ 2

d$m
       
:  
    

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KG42 gM@+?3G4U?D:BH<j.7N:lE?3=b93J 4v9G4UgMvbjK9\.^ U\K^
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99=>\K=>J93\.H<jK^377uCF\87u93\iJ."H J!Vmi:<f;.ZL4\KH>=>:l9$H<7v H934J\.^0?@|1 ?3\.Q7$@+2 =<?$CH>j.7
  C[;KGIH UE.G4g IH[Zhg 1Q3z?$=VCF?3=>7 


 






!


 

 
!  
  

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H<?fyFT7u=<H<kO^3= UH2 =<g IH)H>?FK\KJ?3;LH))jK9H)H<jK9HT:l?$;.\KJ.:G 437 
 

  

  



dLp

      



32

< read point, 0100

* 441

convert to SAMPLES

pack 0 100
line~
tabread4~ sampletable
hip~ 5

high pass filter to cut DC

output~
dB 90
mute

sampletable

44103 samples

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d$z


  
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:  
    

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dio

      



frequency (Hz.)

frequency

0
chunk size
(hundredths of a
second)

phasor~

phasor~ 0
~ 0.5

chunk size

*~ 0.5

* 441
cos~
~ 0.5

*~

*~ 0.5

+~ 1

cos~

tabread4~ table18

* 441
samphold~
*~

read point

+~ 1
*~

0
* 441

hip~ 5

pack 0 100

output~

line~

dB 0

samphold~

mute
+~
(a)
tabread4~ table20
*~
hip~ 5
output~
(b)

dB 0

mute

r /4^3y$;.m.=>2 7:<93CFQLE.241GU7f =! 2 G4?i?$E92 :lxCF?h9 ?H>jG42?hE?3J E  4 \.^Z M:<H>93j.CM7 EK:>GU79=CF7 /UZ.H<;Lj H 9 UH<j:lgh9\Kvbv jK?$=<\i?$H<\ =>U?3kG7Js@+?3='7=>\i7$9$7uJ G4?3GUE? 7 
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loadbang
< transposition,

< transposition

r chunksize

r precession

t b f

t b f

(tenths of a halftone)
expr pow(2, $f1/120)
expr (pow(2, $f1/120)$f3)/$f2

r chunksize

+~ 0.5

t b f
/
phasor~
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s~ phase

phasor~

wrap~

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wrap~

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* 0.01

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/ 0.9

(chunk size and read point


controls not shown)

phasor~

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s chunksize

r chunksizesamples

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s precession

loadbang
10
10

chunk
size
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r~ phase
r chunksize

r~ phase
samphold~
*~

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tabread4~ table22

r~ phase

r~ phase

*~

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~ 0.5

+~

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*~ 0.5

*~ 44100

~ 0.5

cos~

+~ 1

*~ 0.5

tabread4~ table23

*~
< (second reader
not shown)
hip~ 5

+~

output~

hip~ 5

+~

r~ phase

cos~

*~
< (second reader
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dB 0

mute
(a)

output~
(b)

dB 0

mute

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4v:<\ 7 9H/;K9:<HHV7YJNGU?}7Zh93H<gO:ljKHN=<:l7C'H:lYj.93??$GUiG4: JK= 44:CFE.!BE.E.9}G4G477'j: U/4^$\O9jH<gLj.?$:7\.2M7T: r U@+^$4?$=>\K=):l9HC'Giv 993G4?$=>:N :<:l7X4jK\.H<?^}?T)?3H<\ \Kj.7:<47 \H<Hbj.: EK=>L799:<=<\%j.H J?$+G4Z9}J P2GU??3/@j 7uH<_:=/jK7F?3v\K9K\V7T^3@+Z;.?$7Y=>=Y7 C'H> ;.93Y=>\K7'\.9? ^$vu& 937:u\J 2
93\\KJH<j_:D_v :>7)vbj.37u7CF=>:>7N9 H>/j.7O7?3=<;K\.GUG47 gV_:=>/7uEH<jK?39=<HDHB?3Y\.7O7?$H>\.;.GU=<g\K?=<7&E%9?$@~=lH<H7u=BH<jK77N93vbKjM=>:l?3H)\K?3:<7 \KH:<27 HT9jh@~;KH<:7=)H>j.7793vbH<jj UH<=b;KJ}=<H\.4?CM& 7 
H>Zj.77v9: ;KU^$:<7V\K9H>G/j.7uv =>=>7}?$:>:l793:P:H<\.j.?7H<j ;.U=>^$\.j? &0H<j.:=>47\K:<v j.7}?$G4H<J j.7M4\0E.=>H<7ujK 74?3K;K^$:;.?3=<7 \. 7$H>2 j.7uA/=>7 HV_::l[H>9\K=<?H<;K=<E 7E%Y?$=l7FH>793J v HN?39$\%: :l7uUH@
H>j.7OA CF:<?$7:lvuH?3=>\K7JOvu7u93\iE.H)E.?3=>?$;L93H>E.vbj;LHDH<?%93GI:)H>7u9}= UH<\.;K^T=<\.?3;L? &H %C}:l;.?MGUH H<4j%E.9GU7H?3H<\Kj.7N:<7 %Hb: =>:l9HD\%?3JP\KH<:<;.7 =>H \._:? & =<:7E%:<?$j.=l?H>)7J \ 2 U\OE%9=<H
4?$ \iv\KH</:l7u7u?=>H>@:P9H<Gh?3jK?=P7O@%H>KH ;.^34=<CF;K\K=<7? 7 & 9 @~:u4H<2M:7=BH>A)?7@~93H<937vb:>=Nj}:l?LH<=<vj.74E%7F9?$H<E7O=l7uH>9T7= UJ[?L-Jc?3CX\K-7u:<\K7 @&HJK3C>: H+JL (;.U' @Y=UH>\KH<j.^P?'7')7: 93j4^3vb4\%jvbjM9?3GY\KjK:<7/937 =>:OH7 2@+JL;K=>:<?3j 7/EK_:H<E%?N74:TJ=<79'E%Z?$7uv ?3G4=l?H|\% :CFHb9H<?3jK\i=>77H
H>93j.G4:<=<?7:lZjK7'?3G_93J :>:l4\0?Lv H>49j.H<77J CF793IH>\$j H UCFH<;.7 =>\./? & 7:Z 7u9G_\K9J H>7H<JLjKG4gc7F=>HY7uE??3=<H H[4CF97FH>E%;.7=<=\K4??L&|J.2:NC'T97g93JjKE937u7F= U?LJ J.&:[7CF=<79\ig H
9G4;.7j.:u27OH/?FKGUH<7= 4\.^:lH<=b9H>7u^ 47:DCF9gZ%7};K:<7J8:<7uEK93=>9H<7uG4g?$=T: 4C[;KGIHb9\.7?3;K:<GUg$2 H 4:
;K793:<;Kvbj93GU:<4gE7\.v 7U%vu7vO:>::<I93H>=<;Kg9H H<U??$\ H>9 4U\G4?3)=j H<j._vb7}jH<H>jKj.=<=>77:l:<j.j.?$?3G4G_J J 4\.9^ G4;.47::P;K9:<7\KJJ 2 ?3=NJL793JH UCF7:PZhg8jK93\KJ8H>?

m3m

  

    -            

onsets

threshold

(a)
turnoffs
time

(b)

high threshold
low threshold

(c)

dead periods

Hr YU^$?M;.H>=<j.7V=<`K7:l2RpjK!X?3G_Jj.G4=>7u7$:<7uj.G_?3:G_J vJL7 JLH>77vZ%H ?$U?$;.\\K!v 7 J9 ;K: 4\.UH<^'jJL\.7?93JJL7E%Z%7?$= ;.4?L\KJ.v :uU\.2 ^  Z )JL7Z%?$;.\Kv 7J;K: U\.^

emhp
^7uLU793: CF@+?3j.E.=|=>GU7N79:<=>v j.=b?$?39;.G_\.JG_^J4U\.\.Z^ ^D7_:vuH>?3?M?3CF@~:<H<7 E.7H;L\H>?;K7u& =:<79M=<J7:<:l9$7Eti:?3;.\%9V7u:l\%K7v =>: :l7TH<H/?P?3:l@9H<;K7E.E J=>7 U4Z. \'E.G47G_H<9j.v \.;.7N\K7JL7:7J'@+: =>E.4?3^3=>C\'?Lv ?3E7@7u:<j=<:<@+7U?3^$:=>hj.CM77u93= 7 vb=>GUj:723?37uA \.G7:: H>4H<CF=>?F9E.H<Z7G477 
g$:<7 ?3HP;58?/&?$?3=<Zi;K7Ng8G4J:l93?$:<\8E.7uj 7 ?3_:\KI@BH :<47 9MvHP9C[H>?7;K@J: :<_vJ.?3;.7 _9H<\K\7J v E.H>9?3G4@~9=bH<g$:77=+JZ.9; 9F4:lGUE:lH77?$t$v \;KIK7uH>7\K?3J8vuE7PE??37u@@= UH<EK?Lj.j.J8=>=>7?39$:<@Xj.:l7?3=<:7G_JG4:l97J.H EK47 39H<7[=b79v : H>H U7UG4?$7uJ\%\ Zhv /g7 v  ?3=>:<7;K;K:lG4H>vbJ:j 2JL9$7 :
H>ti7;.v 7HO\Kv v ?$7\i:H ?34@\i;Kti;?3;K_vb:N[:<9?3GU;.H<7\K=<J \%9?3H =N4?3: \}4G 7uZ%\K7uvuH7}Y7 7uU\MH<j E.4G_\9g 94\\.^O7uL9\%E%J[7v \.H<7?3J HBE.=bG499\Kg ^34\.7[^ ?3@Y?$JL=|;.E%=b79= H 4U?L?$J.\K:|:?@%?$H=O4CM:l7 7 
4?$\8=)C'j 9_v\hbgFj?H>H>j.j.7V7uE=/7uE%=b?iv :<7: \$4HbZ.9GU7^$7O@+7?9@|H<;.E.=>G497g:2|4\.^Fj.H 74:<CF7P7Ovu?3H<?;.G_=<J7::<Hb7 :H4? :&9E.Z=>?73JL7N7uH<?37u=T=>CZ%7UGU\K?7J9M=>7H<9$j.v =>H 7U?$:<j.\K?$:XG4?$J= 
K^$;.=>7 4\89\ UCFE.=>? 4:>9H U?$\2
            
    
 
  





, (40 6%'(+2

(+.103# 6$645(40

%' 62

#&!4&0 3

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!4 340& 25! 8 4

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H>E.?c=>?L;KJL: ;K4\.v H^04?3v \V?3?3\i@KH>=<??$H>G/j.7u:lH<=B=>97;%93CFJ U?P:X: /4^378\%9vuG_9:u\2;KY:<7?P93:lE;K7J v 4I? %v: 4H<^37\Kvb93j.G4\ :}_tiH<jK;.7u7C':@+:l=>7?3GUCe$7:}9\KH<93?0GU?$vu^?3\i:<ghH<=>\$?3H>G/j.7H<:jK_:7
G47u\KJ}H>j.j.7O7uC'9\%:<97uG4G4?33^}7:|:</7ti7u;.G4h7H<\K?Nv 7H>=j _:/|9$H<:Y=>7?39@~H<H<CF7\7u\i;KH":<!7J9\KH<93?'GU?$:<^P7 H):<7? ti& ;.79}\K=>v 7u4^3\.;K^OG4939=<\%G4J}gF:>?39=)CF:l7E.C G47 '9=<\K7J^3;. j.G_9?$=>G4JG4g 2
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7^$93&\K7 HD7Jv 9FHN9:<?)9@=bC}9H>E%?i;.?39GIHH<=>Uj?3EK;.GU9\Kg HD4J\.9M^?$C[E%97;.=>:>GU9H94H<E.?$G4H<=D7V?hH<???H>@j^3H<j.7u/HP7O99$?$7[= JL4^ 7Zh4: g8\KU=>9397G%\J@+=>E.U7\ijKtiH<93;.7:<^377}\K7=v :<g$j H<2 UjK@~H7u2V\ r )4^3=>;.93=>E.7}E 4`K\.2 ^z93:lj.=<?$?;.D\K:TJH<jKH>?7
G4:<?h7?3tih;.r.;.7=>\KE}?3v C@+7N=<?N3H>?$j.7 .GI7uHb=>9397 CM^$7EK_::/GU794:Z+;%?7:39$47 \.:l g^O2B9ADH<\? G4 4^3\$H<7uH>j.H7u7O=>E%H>? ?$9G4399 7uH @+4=<\.?37=>^E%C7H>99^3ZKH<77GU\.7)J 7uG4=b?h7u9\h?3H h$U?$7u;.G4\E}?3E9H<j7c\%_:J|:<jKH9349GICFH>E7u77 = $U\.Zh;.^Mg \.GH>U7$vb7Y9j.3@+\ 7 ?$_tHb=Bi9H<;.Z.jK7G477:
;K:<7Jj.@+?37N=)?C'H>j.937u =)4\.:l^FH>93E \KUJ.H>9vbj.=bJ7Jvu?3:l\i?$;.H<=>\K?3J.G:)H<7vvb9j.\\ 9_tiG_:l;.?F7TZ@+=>7O?3CZ.=<?$93;.\K^39jiG4?3H/^MH<?':lgh;K\i:<H<7NjK7j.: 7uU=>k737u2 =)v ?$\$H>=<?$G _:/H<jK7
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\9 H<4:<jK\K7?$v v :<?$?$7DC\KJ.U9\.93G4^=<;.g 7: :X4^3 @+\KH<?3= 93= UG^$U%H>^3E:Y7u_v= ?3b
;LhH>:D4\.E.?3E.;L;LH;LH2|H2vu7ujK=<A/H>7DHF9 EKUE%\ 9? =<4HU\K\i_v: HbHb;K: 9G4\934\ =
+

m3z

    -            

  

frequency

WRAP

OUT

+@r =<U7^$ti;.;.=<7u7\Kvu`.g32 z 2 !5;.GIH UEKGUg 4\.^09\KJ )=>93E.E 4\.^c9c:<9H>?i?3H<j 937H<? ^37\.7u=b9H>79 j U^$j.7u=

m$o

        
    
   

IN

trigger
S/H

OUT

r U^$;.=>7N`K2 o !X]L9CFE.G47V9\KJj.?$G4JK;K: 4\.^M@9G4 U\.^'7JL^37:/?@H<j.7NH>= 4^3^$7u=): 4^3\%9G 2


H4\.UCFE.;L7THT:<E%93\K7vJ UK4:D7JF?3;LZhH>g[E.H<;Lj.H7)vuH>?3= \i4^3H 4^$\h7u;.= ?34;K\.:<E.G4;.g'HY;.9N\iH\.47uGH<jKh7O: U\.\.^$7 hGU7)H)H 934CFGU;.7V7 E4:|? Hb4\$9$H .7u\F)j.@+=>7?3\ C UH H>j._:)7D=>E.7u= E.4CFG_93vu937=<Jg
Zhg9M\c\.7J  U^ IHb99G4GB;.97N;K?J @U? H<jKI7OH E.4:P= 4?3C'@~H<97u=>\cg ;KU\K:<7 E.@+;L;.HG2 H<?:>9CFE.G47M9\.7u 93GU;.7M?3\@9G4 4\.^7JL^$7:?@
H>H>j.j.77H>H>== 44^3^3^$^$7u7u=[=V:: UU^$^$\K\K99GG |4:M@+?3:l= C'4\K93:GU4Hb7u9=O\KH>vujK7 |9\ /7IHb:[vu93E.\ =>7u:< 934CF?3;KE.:VGU793)GU;Kj.737u\.2 737j =V_: H<jK_:M7:lv j.;K?=<)=>7u\ \iH[4\ 9r G4;.4^37;.=>?7 @
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E.=>?Lv 7:<:2


0 %'64( 0&! (40

(40 6%'(+2 ! 6%'  .

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?$7uhE%EK7=>G49 9UH \K4?3: \K4\:)j%G4939=<3^$7O7\.E%?9=<vuHD?3=>)=<7ji:lg EI?3H \%_:J U\K;K^':<7 ?3@+;.EG 7u=bH<9? H 44\$?3H>\%=<:)?L?3JL\;%v 937V;K9MJ 4)?j.: ?34^3G47V\%9v G_?$:u\i2DH<=>?3j.G 7 :UH>==<;%7 v H<_:;KH>=<7u7 \Kvu4\ 7
EK93=>93GU47uG UH<jH<j%9HD?@B9;%J U?': U^$\K9G_:2

py

  

in

    -            

delay time
delay

(a)

out

time
(input)

(b)

(c)

7r &U^$7;.v HD=<7N?@B`.249M1y : ! 4CMTEK7GUG47O9gJL79$G4:/9g93\?$\8?$E%9M7vu=>9?3H\i4H<?3=>\?3G ?3:l\H<=>9}793vuC ?3\i H<=>v?3/G 7:l&H<=>77v 9HDC ?!@B9F9 v Y?$Z.CMGU?LEvb?3;KJ\K4J93^3J.=b7u9G_C9g3 2 Z 
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U\KE.;LA H:<E.7=>vu?L?3JL\K;KJvu7?3:BE97u\M=b9?3H ;.U?$H<\E.;L?3H \$7v 3?$7\i\ H<=>U?3@G?3:H<H>j.779= C'4\.: E._:c;LHb? :XC<9H =>-= 4,337/2XZ7 @+j ?34=>: 7_:H<jK: 7)4CF?3;LE.H>G4g'E.;LH>H93 94EK\.E%^F799=b\h:ug 2
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0 300
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+
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< play the sample

bang

;
cutoff 0 5

delay 5

cut the
sound off

Wait for the


cutoff to finish

;
phase 1, 4.41e+08 1e+07;
cutoff 1

set the upper line~ to start


at the first sample and play
forever (or until next trigger)

start new playback


< record
r phase
vline~
tabread4~ tab28
0, 1 5

adc~ 1

del 3990

hip~ 5

0 10

r cutoff
*~
*~
(OUT)

line~

vline~
tabwrite~ tab28

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)

 


 

po

       

+

phasor~ 0.6
main loop: sawtooth of amplitude 9

*~ 9

read frequency sequence

tabread~ sequence
phasor~

wrap~

~ 0.5

*~ 100
+~ 1

9x original frequency sawtooth


adjust for reading
envelope sample

tabread4~ envelope
*~

multiply by audiofrequency sawtooth

*~ 128
cos~
+~ 1
*~

+~ 129

adjust amplitude
and center for wavetable

tabread4~ sample
multiply by raisedcosine smoothing function

(out)

sequence
sample

envelope

r 4^3;K=<7O`.241f !AT\89\K93GU?$^:lgh\iH<j.7: 4ku7= :lHgiG47T:<7ti;.7\Kv 7=2

z3y

    -            

  
notein

f store pitch below


pit

t b f

vel

b bang to recall velocity

noteon
filter
stripnote

float

velocity stored here

sel 0

test for note on or off

on

off

float

pitch
mtof
/ 127

select

$1 100

0 1000

recall pitch
test against latest
noteon pitch

phasor~
~ 0.5

line~

envelope generator now controls


amplitude as well as grain size
+~ 0.5

cos~
+~ 1

*~

*~

*~ 2

*~

cos~

This replaces the tabread4~


in the previous patch.

(OUT)

r 4^3;.=>7O`.241m !|Ae5T:HghG47NCM?$\.?3EKj.?3\ _vN:lgh\iH<jK7: Uk7u=2




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zif

          

attack
decay
sustain
(a)

release

time

(b)

(c)

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control

voice 1
voice 2
voice 3

OUT

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"notes"

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a
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time

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ohp

      



(b)

(a)

inlet
8
plusminus 5
13

+ $1

$1

outlet

outlet

h\r ;K4^3: ;.
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 .1032 !

"

 

 
  
# 

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!$%#



 



o3z

         

  

attack

    "    

release

stop
10 200

del 200
1 2500

0 500

line~

(IN)
*~
(OUT)

r 4^3;.=>7NdK241Q!|aT: 4\.^9" N?3ZL7v H)H<?F^$7u\.7=>9H<7N9\8AN] 7u\h37GU?$E%7$2


trigger
adsr 1 100 200 50 300
osc~ 440
*~
(OUT)

r U^$;.=<7Nd%2U1` !|\h3?3 4\.^}H<j.7 


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CFZhg 7u\i:lHD7j.\K?7OJ @49H<\.Hlj.^Hb7}93\hvb9;.ZKC[:l:<H<7uZ=b^$7u93CM=bv :PH 74H<\i?3?H\ Y^$H>j.?h?773:7 = H<E?'7939}8C H>9GUU7=>G43^3_:7u7u<G7H
v :<?$E9\K\K7J.vJ : UKL 7H<9JjKHl7Hb9$:<93:7Ovb
93GU4;K+\.H<7j.G4:)7 7PHbC':uK29=bg:HDZj.vu7F7V=<7?=>97u3H G4747?3=<9$)\:l7F= 9U=>Hl:l^3H<77;^ \ 
CF7u\iH 4:): 4C 4G_9=)7 .vu7uELHD: UCFE.G47u=D: U\%v 7PH<j.7NHb9=>^37uH _:)9G49gh:Yku7=<?%2Bj.7OjK9=bJE%9=<H _:


  

o$o

      



attack
trigger

test for negative trigger

moses

inlet
t b b
release
if zero
cancel
decay

if so, zero

the output

sel 0
t b

... do this

stop

anyway

peak
level
inlet

attack

decay

sustain

inlet

inlet

inlet

ATTACK:
optionally
f $1
jump
to zero

pack 0 $2

... then

DECAY
del $2

release

f $4

* $1

* 0.01

pack 0 $3

recall peak level

inlet
pack 0 $5
RELEASE: ramp

and pack with

back to zero
line~

attack time
outlet~

r U^$;.=<7Nd%2U1d !|\K: 4JL7PH>j.7 


93ZK:H>=>9$v H U?$\2


1y$y

  

         

    "    

QUARTIC

LINEAR

r freq

r amp

unpack

unpack

sqrt

sqrt

*~

sqrt

sqrt

output~

line~

line~

dB 0

*~

*~

mute

*~

*~

r freq
line~

r amp

osc~

line~

osc~
sample messages

*~

;
freq 1760 5000

output~
dB 0

;
freq 55 5000

mute

Er UUH>^$vb;.j=<2 7[dK241f! 4\.79=T93\KJti;K9=<H _vNH>=>93\K:@+7=D@+;.\%v H 4?3\%:D@+?$=vbjK93\.^ 4\.^9CFE.G UH<;KJL7M9\KJ


H<H 4j.CF77 JL7~vH>j.9gM7":<7u^$ CM7\iH3?3)ZLj 74v vbHj 293^$9 jK4\F7C[:l;K;K:l:lH>HY9 ZU\7TG4:<7u7 $H7u? G &_:V9vu@~H<937G4=Yvu;.9OG_9JLH<77G4J9gM@+=>7?3tiC;K93H<GLj.H<7?[H<E%j.77T9 9HlG4Hb7u93$vb7u G
9\KJH<j.jK7'7VH<:l=;K4:l^3H>^39 7U=\UE\K7uGU7u=bHv 7\$I@DHb9:<^$7u7\iH[C[9;.\hGUH;.4C[E.G4Zg 7u4\.=V^F?3H>H<j.j.7N7=OHYH<j%?'993\\KkuJ7=<J ? U _JH<= U4\K^3^'^37Zi=>g:N931\0y3y ?3 \K2 :<7 H +H<j.7
H<9+)j.H<H>7j 93=<_vCFvbb'j8?$93=<97\KG_u:lJ?MH>j.JL^3777vuA \.97uNgF=b9] :lH>70^7^3:CF$7u97u\.\\i7Hb?$=>: 9\K H<h:l?$7u93=H \K CFJ 2 9UgP@:<Z7u7X\iH=<7ku:l7u7u=>H? H<$?TH<ku= 47u^3=>^3?)7Zh=>g:XH<:<j.7u\K7PJ =>U7u\.G4^7939):<7\.7u:<^i7u^$9CFH U$7u7|\iHH<=2BUr.^$^3;K7u= =


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partial 1 1 0.56 0
pitch

partial 0.67 0.9 0.56 1

72

partial 1 0.65 0.92 0

mtof

partial 1.8 0.55 0.92 1.7

s frequency

partial 2.67 0.325 1.19 0


duration, tenths
of a second

partial 1.67 0.35 1.7 0

40

partial 1.46 0.25 2 0

* 100

partial 1.33 0.2 2.74 0

s duration

partial 1.33 0.15 3 0


partial 1 0.1 3.76 0

< click to play

partial 1.33 0.075 4.07 0


s trigger
catch~ sum
(out)

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$1
$2
$3
$4

trigger
arguments:
r trigger

amplitude;
relative duration;
relative frequency;
detune
ATTACK

t b b

relative
frequency

del 5

DECAY

float $3
float $2
r frequency
times global
frequency
+ $4 plus detune

relative
duration

r duration

actual duration

*~

*~

sqrt
sqrt

attack time
5 msec

line~
*~

* 0.1

$1 5

0 $1
osc~

throw~ sum

float $1

quartic amplitude
curve

add to global
summing bus

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1yif

      



51.8

loadbang

s pitch

metro 30

s polltable

s whammybar

spectrumpartial 1

send bangs to "polltable"


needed by the abstraction

spectrumpartial 2
spectrumpartial 3
spectrumtab

12

24

36

48

60

72

84

96

108

120

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1y$m

         

  

    "    

$1: partial number

r pitch
mtof

pitch to frequency

* $1

then get the frequency of this specific partial

ftom ... and then convert back to pitch.


r polltable
f

calling patch bangs this every 30 msec.

... at which time we get the pitch back...


and transpose by shifting table index.

r whammybar

tabread4 spectrumtab

get the strength from the table

moses 1
0

The vertical scale is dB from 1 to 50,


but we want true zero when

+ 50

the table value is 0 or less.

dbtorms
pack 0 30
osc~

line~

*~
throw~ sumbus

r 4^3;.=>7NdK241o !|jK7!
  
 

  

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    "    

r note
unpack 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
t b f
counter to
generate tags

+ 1

mod 1e+06
supply later
noteoff
allocate voice
get rid of
noteoff

makenote 64
poly 8 1
stripnote
pack 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

route to a voice depending


on voice number from poly

route 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

sampvoice
one "sampvoice"

sampvoice

abstraction
for each
voice, each

sampvoice
sampvoice

adding its

sampvoice

own output
to a sum (left

sampvoice

inlets and

sampvoice

outlets)

sampvoice
(OUT)

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inlet

bang
delay for
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take effect

delay 5

store parameters first in


floats below until muted

unpack 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

t b b b

mtof

* 44.1

/ 261.62

+ 1

* 4.41e+08
+
ending
read
point
mute and
unmute

delay
f

starting
read
point

pack 0 0 0 0 0
attack

0 5

1 5

wavetable
index
vline~

delay for
note end

$3, $4 1e+07

$5

0, $1 $2

makefilename sample%d

vline~
mute

set $1

select
wavetable

decay
0 $1

unpack
dbtorms
sqrt

tabread4~ sample1

sqrt
*~
line~

amplitude
envelope

*~
*~
inlet~

add to
summing
bus

*~

+~
outlet~

Kr ^$4^3;.;.=>=>77d%dK2 Q32Ry.QL21 !0j.7

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(out)

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modulation

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frequency

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3
4
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(b)

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pd delay
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loadbang

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mtof
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osc~ ring modulation

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pd

extra gain
on/off for original
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pd

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225

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0
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4
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1udio

100
80
60
40
20
Hanning
100
80
60
40
20
Gaussian

AMPLITUDE (dB)
100
80
60
40
20
Cauchy

...
PARTIAL NUMBER

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 NO 6Q    v ?$: 5NO6 \ : |
 v ?i
:  5e: 1  NO6 

  
 
HTU?$7u\K=>7V: H<N jK7[_:|@+;.H<jK\%7)v H @+4;.?3\K\ J.893CFC'7u9\igH>93ZGL7M@+=<77UtiH<;.j.7u7\K=vuH>g j.7 L N_:X99N;K:>CF: _9?hJ.\ ;.?3G49=VH 4W/?39\ ;K4vb\KjhJLg7 F/v 9?$$\$7H>:<=<jK?$9GUE 4U\.\.^^Z%@+9;.\K\KJv 
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^$93=>7u9\.H<77=>J 9H U4\i?3H<\?0:lH<9 7EE.jK?$9$;L:lH<7EK;L^3H>7:D\.9F7u=b:>99H U?$H<\ ?h?:lH>H<j7E : Y4^39\K93vuG93=<9= H47uH<=j.X7N9@+\K;KJ\KJ.9 9CFCF7?L\$JLHb;.9GG_9@+H>=>?37=ti2 ;.7\Kj.v g$72 E.j%93:<7

1f$Q

     
  
   

phase generator
fundamental
frequency
phase
trigger
S/H
1

carrier

modulator

WRAP
0

k+1

WRAP

1
X

index

0
10

10
X
OUT

1
X

0
p

r 4^3;.=>7Om.2 z !Bj.7O{ ATr ^37u\K7u=b9H<?$=)93:)9MZ.G4?hvbJ 493^3=b9C2

1 f3`
9Hj.j%7T9@+j.GU?3@7N=>H>C[CFj.;.7N?LG_9O@+JL;.;.@+\K?$G_9J.=H<93H>?$CFj.= 7P7u4\i:CMH>JL93?L?$GJL\.@+;K=<7NG479Zit$H<g;K?37u=:l\KH>: vu93Ug^$\K\KJ.9932 G_7$=>: J2  4\/9H>j.$77P:<{jKA9E r04\.vu^ 933GU% @+U?3H<=j899}\ :<4G \KU^$vuj$?3H/C HU \K^M_:HD: U93\hJK;KJL:<?7J_J 2
: 4\  N Q 
CF93:<;.\K7uZKJ\i:lHbH H>9Uj H<G/_:;LO@+H>=<7N\.7ti?3H<j.C;.7V7u4\K\K93vu9ZKg3G4:<2 g?3G4T;LYH<??$7NY;.G_7J93G47u;.=>= 77NXti?:; U@4\K=<H<vu7Mj.77V;KH>:N: j.4H>\i7?;%/:l;K? 9:l4$7J 7! :<9jKE.9Ej%U93\.:<^?3=P@+;.H<;.\K\Kv H 7UJc?$\ H<?_:FjK7u93$GI@/7u\ H<j.X7F/@+7;K\KCFJ.99 g 
: 4\  N Q 
)?$\.j 73_v2bVj =<77NE%7vu99H>\:)v 9?3HCFH<E.j.;.7NH<@+7D=>7H>tij ;._:/7\K: 4v CM*g EKN GUg'~H>Zhj.gF7N;KK: =bU\.:H)^MjK9V93jKGI@B93v GI@gLvuv GUgL7 vuGU_:7PH<: j.4\h7V;K:>:l9? CF4J7O9393:/:/9VH>j.7V93:<7 7Hbv 9?$Z.\KG4J 7
G4: ?hU\h?3;Kh:<;.? E_J'@+;KH>\KjKv9H HDU?$/\ 7OEK 9$I:<H>:YjH<E.?Fj%H>93j.:<7O7=>;.9\.3\ 74:<\.jK^}93E @+=<U\K?$C^V@+;.7 \Kv H QO4?3H<\? 2 Q  .9\KJ IH _:YH<j _:=<7v H IK7J
G4?h9?3G4;.hAD7;.GU: E H<jK+=>?3=b79;.9$\.^$vb^jj UU\K\KY^D^7@+@+E=>=<?3?$_vC C H<;KyTb=<17TH<y/? H<H<j.?[7P1H>/yj.97 $U47 \%\VHbJL9937 Z.v [G4H<7;K?393@+@K;.G CFU\KHgTv ?LH JL/4?3;.7 \G_#9=>H?7B4$?3?37u\ \.=Y2G4gTZ% ?3@%;KH<H<: jj.4\.7 \.^)47\KH<^$jKJL97X7 H }4E%3?i?7T:@%93UCFH \K43J'?L7YJLE:;.?$_JG_L:9I7|H H UU@+?$$?3\ 7=
HbH>7uj.9LZ.7Nvu7uG4H>7Y79 J.G4U?h:XG ?3?3H>hj.@;.7 H>E[j.U\K7O9$E.J./;LJL9H)=>$7=>7:>93::<\.jK:<^39j.7E ?$U;.?\.G4@^[J[H<@+j.Z%;.7P7\KH>v v 93GH 4Z.4E.?3G4E%\87 7J:lj.?M2B7uH>=>jK7Pj.9:<7YH)7 H>HH>9j.H>ZK7O?MGU77 :l&H<:l?$jK7Ev ?3HD;.9G_?HOJV@17uvuy[iG 4H>E.937u:E \K493JV\.\^ @97 _:=|.7u934\K\KCM?39EK;.;KGU^$J7 j UZ.hUG4\iH<73jKH>2 ?7
4\K9v g=>799$j.G4:l77H<JMvj.9Zi7O=>gM= G44?h7uC[?3=Oh;K: ;.GIUH ^$EUE.\KE.G 9_vjKuG 99$_:HV:lU7?$9:)\ 9Y+=>7Zh7NUg ^$vuj$?35FH>\i79H<J \K=>?3J :lG4;K57CJ:Zh?1 g'@/3=>H>H7j./:<7V?E%7:>vu9v ?$HCF:43U7O\K77:<GUg :9|)93H>?i\Kj.?3JF?$H<:<)j7M=>?$@+93=<:>E.7v Eti4GU4;._\.97u^KH>\K?32v =U2 7\':OH>9j =>47:

.
j
F
7
i
t
K
;

9
i
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H
U
H
4

7
@5   93\KJ8H>j.7M/9$7 H>93Z.G47 U\%JL7 +G_9Z7uG47J 4\KJL7
U\ H<j.7MK^ 
:
@+;.93;.=<=>\%77 J.H<.9j.9CF7O=>7O7u?$\i= vuHb49^ 9G_4Giv \K@+;K93=<G47G9tiE%H<;.79J7u=b\K993vuCF:)g 7 :<H>H<j.7ujK?=b7Y):@+\?3?$@=<UC'H>\8j.93r7O\$49H|^3G4;.v ^37=>?3\$7O= H>Um.H<7uj.2=o.C@+2B=<72Btij.;.7uj.7ug7V\Kvu9tig =>;K7993@+\i\K;KH JO\KIHvH>g Hj.U7Y?$.\KZ%\.:)9?\K?HDJL@:<H<j.jK_J?h7V)H>:lj \ E7U)\v Ij KH<_vjK7bjJ 7
K^$;.AT=>7 :M 4JL:B7:<;Kvu=:HV4Z%`17J 7 4h\02 H<j.7E.=>7u U?$;K:[:<7v H 4?3\ H>j.7ti;K93\iH UH 474: 5 B9\KJ CF9g ?3\KGUg
H>H>vbj.jKjK7'993H\.vu^3N 97FG_v IHb9;K:lHOG479GIE.H@ 4j%C'?393\ 9:<7MgV?@ )?3\K5=bGU9gVE%7 Z9Hbv=>7)?32 ;.;.EJL\KJ.7JE%9E%7H>7\K? JFJ.U\i:O)H>:?$j.\ 7H>\MjKH>j.H<9j.7FH 7)_:PE.93j%GUH<;K?8937M:<:>7 ?39_:@Yg X H>9Pj.97FC[HO;KE%EKGI79H ==bU49E.?LCFG4J.7D:N7u?3H<@?7u@)=Q  QN i ? UH>NDHOj.2@+7u?3=>] G4 4?\K_:Dlvu7 7: 
9V9 vb+j%$7u9=>\.g^$7 9;KU\;J UN Z.G4v 7 ?3;K@+G4=bJ93v :<H7u4\%?3JF\ H<?j.@7P9v 7E\$7uH>= 7u4=?hJ@+=<2'7t$;K\ 7u7\K&vu7g v H5`:9G4| !H<N0jK7'H<?}EK993=b\ 9CF4\K7 v H>?$7u=<=O=>7vuv 93HG4vu;.9G_G49;.H 7)4?3@+\%?3=:
:<j.?3;KTG49J Z%4\.7V^8:<ghH>j.\K7vbj.?i=>:<?3v \ UG44ku97H<J'?$="H>#?F:OH<E.j.jK7O9$E.:l7j%93v :<?$7P\$H>?3=<@ ?$H>GBj.H<7OjK?37= U;.^ EU\%J.99GH U?$\K:>^cv 4GU?3_@9H>U?3H>:}=2 ?)\0@+=>7ti;.7\Kv g 4:
H>E.j.=>7F?Lv K7=b:<:": HV# :D7u?3L;L93H>CFE.;LE.HPGU7'9$/:D7'?$\.jK7V9$?7F@ U:<H>7u: 7\U\KE.?;LO@ H>V>:CX2DCG EX-Zj.+7 \|)E.j=>?L_vbv j 7:>U: \0U\.^$^7uJ \.U7^ =>I93HbGB9G|CM97;K9J \K4:V?;K: U: ^$4\.\K^9G_:D93\i9g H
9Z<%D.H+LH5C<7,&J F:<?393;LCFH>E.E.GU;L7FH=b939H>:7 93 \ 93:NU\K/E.7 ;L# =<H7F:JL4? \K4v \.7c^ 9 HUH H>j.4:N7\.H 7UCF377 =P/E?$7:>:/UZ.?3G4;.7}G_JH<?\.jK779J37}UHH<jK/7M7EK=<jK?L9v $77u:<\ :"## H:
g$?$7 ;LH}H<E.v;.9H G_ v ;.UG_\9H>77 J&7Uv HH2cD9$J.jKJ 74\.Z^07:l?3H}\K/77:<93vu93CM\0EKGUj.78?3E?3@O7J.@+?$7u=G_9_:g3V2 H>?\ ;K:<ZK7GU?LH>vbj. 77E.\h=> 7u4 =>?34?3\.;KCF:}7u:<\i93HbCF: E.GU:<7;Kvb?j @
9$JL:Y7G459gO9J_:.>{v ;KJ:>L: 49\.\%^JH<jKW/9:<HB?3;.;.\%\iJH 4BGhH>H<j.j.7O7\.: U7uH<i;%HX9Hvb4jK?393\ELZ%H<77= v ?$9CM\%7J}:/9CM$??$_J=<V7NJLv 7?$93CFG 4E.\.G ^P_vu 9H<I7H>j[JhH>Z.j.;L7HDE./=>?37Z.G47u4C GU
4\H>j.7O7 .93CMEKGU7:)9H)H<jK7O7u\KJ?@H<j _:)?$\.7  2
 ? 
                

1fd

     
  
   
center
frequency
bandwidth
fundamental
frequency

fundamental
frequency

/
/
phase
phase
trigger
trigger
S/H
S/H
WRAP

index

rJL7 U^$ ;. =<7V %mK92 o \K!)J W/YO93@+G4?$vu;.=)G_;K9H:<47 ?3\U\?3H<@jKH>7Oj.Z.7VGU?LH UvbCF7 J  4939^3=>=bg 9U\KC^'?EK@|9r =b9U^$CF;.7 =<H>7O7u=bmK:A2 zKL 2 ~H<jK7[937:<jK93E U\K^ 4\

<H<= jK?$;.93\c^3jKj.?$GU7[g \.7 91 CF9lE.\K1JG JcU:H<;K@9JLG4 7O U\.?3U\^@H>? ?j.&H<7[jKUvu7u\h7u=[3\i/7H<=>=b?3:<9=b7uG J.G4g8E:7 93vuUGUH<?ij4:l\7G493H>H<j.=<?^$7[7u;.=P:<\ E%I7H9vgG4H>;.=<)7;.:Nj.C 7?3\@?@H<j.2'H<j.7 r.7}?$U\K{ =OJ.AT7 r9 G4;.^$77u:P4\.:}7?=>:l@ 9C'[H<?$93GU=GU747u:<_:=:
H<U\ijKH>93=<\?LJL9;KZv ?3H 4;L?3H'\H>?7u@|\ ?H>H>j.j.7u7=TG4EK?39;K=<J.H _9\.7G_:>: :'L7?3@P7\H<jK97HD?3GU?;L/H>E.7u;L=DH93CFJ.?iE.7G :'UH<;%\.JL?37H:K9? =>&g :<7 ^3Hb:=>7H<9j.H<7VG4g J.)7: v 4=>\K7vu9$7:l7NH<j.?37 @
H< j.I7NH>j v 7:l\iEH<77uv =I%EK793J0=lH E4937G 93# :/c99CFCFE.E.G IG H>UH<;K;KJLJL7372X: T?H>j.Y773?$7;L=H< E.I@;.H};K: :l4jK\.?3^};.H<G_j.J7OZ%{ 7AC[r ;.H<GU?MH 4E.^3G7uU\K7J07u=b9ZhH<g 7TJ1@+?3: =>C'9\i?3H>=:
7u$97uG4;.\ 7O UJL@7u\KE77uv \K7JK:<::>9?3=>\g LH<9Mj.7NZ7 Hl9H>37u=T7:<93jKE.93E.E =>U?\K ^VUC'@+;.9\KH v UH?$4\?3\ ?3 @ 2H<jK7Vj _:v )?39=>=>CF7E.v H G UIH>?$;K\JL@7O9$vv H<?$?$=<==>L7v )H jK4?3?$\:<7P:<j.7u?$.;.93G4v J H
Z%7O=b] 9UCF\%v E7)7H>Jj.L7)\K7 ?LHTEK:>939\KCF: 4E.?3G4\M7J ?@9H<\KjKJ 7D j./79G4J$72 :<jK9E U\.^ +CF?LJL;.G_9H>?3=|: 4^3\%9G.v ?$\K: 4:lH>:|?3@93GUKvu? 
??: 4@B@B\.H>H>7/j.j.H<7M7[7=<=>vC'79:<=>: ;.= 4GU 7uH2= 739 2 =>$U7[HT: 4@+9\K?$G4v |GU47/?v H<D?$jK: :)47u\.g}@+7=>?3:93CnGU93L:Dj%H>9/j.37M7u7 G4vuU2T\?$:IH U\K4j 937V_:G.TE.E.CF=>jK?h9$7J.:l937;K\Kv ku:)H7H>=<@+jK??39=>HO3C[9$9;.:B\hG_JL9'g?PH>\hjKH<;.j.9C[7HZHH</7uj.=7F?O?v v @?$?$CMCM{ ATEEr?3?3\K\K^$7u7u7u\i\i\H>H>::
7u9=bG4%9H>Z?37 =b:U\ UE.@ jKH<jK9$7u:l7Pg993\K=<J7NC'v ?393C}J.Z74H>\ ?'U\K:l^VjK93H<jK=<7P7uC H>j.^7OU$:<937CM:BH>7Nj.?i7O:<:lv ;KUG4C9H<??$@=YH>@+j.?$7 =)4E.\KjKJ 9$4:l7N4J.^3;K79\.G 7u:<=bE%97H vU?$H<\=b9.h2X ]hUG4?
Y7Ovr 94^3\;KCF=<7)93m.37O24139M1:<C[j.;.?DGUH 4:|E.9G47 E @+?$?3:>=>: C'UZ.9G4\i7H)?3;L37uH>E.=b: ;LUHX?$\?3@939P:)EK:<j.9 ?4=|)?\ @%@+U?3\=>CFK^$93;.\i=>H>7N:|mK^32U71\.y.7u2 =b9H>7JVH<j _:|/9g 
H<9j.HP7[EKK9=b=<H:H_9@+G/?31=>QCF%93 \iUH H<jc4:GUv ?7/\$7uH>=T7u=>937CFJ8E.j%G 9UH<GU;%@+/JL97Mg93Z%\KJ87uHYZK9377u\K\JL EK_J93h=lH<H j 4932NG4:`jK7F9\%W/J89;%d vbji9g\KJ89H<3j.77M:ljK:l793v E ?34\%\.J^
@+;.\Kv H 4?3\/9$:Y;%:l7Jh)j 4vbj^37\.7u=b9H>7:YG 4\.79=>GUg:<GU?$E%7J:<E%7v H>=>9 + 47u/7J 4\J  2.j.7


1f$f

 ? 
                

fundamental
frequency

phase
generation

index 1

modulator 1

k1,
p1, q1

carrier 1

index 2

modulator 2

k2,
p2, q2

carrier 2

OUT

r{ A4^3r0;.=>^37D7m.\.247u1=by 9! H>?3 /=GU2?LvbFJ _9^3=b9C @+?3=YCF93 U\.^V9[:lE7v H<=>;.C


 IH>j'HY?N@+?$=<C'93\$Hb:X;K: 4\.^OH<jK7

1f3m

     
  
   
AMPLITUDE
(dB)
100
80
60
40
20
.

...

PARTIAL NUMBER

r 4^3;.=>7Om.24131 !B]hE7v H<=>;.C@+=>?3C 9[H/? @+?3=>C'9\iH){ ATr0^$7u\.7=>9H<?3=2


H?3Y\.?7@+:<?3;.=>EC'7u=>9E%\i?iH[:lH>7?9$H<J.jKJ 7UH ?343H<7j.GU7g =|20:<?H<j.j%79HVGU?H>/j.7u7=[:<@+E%?3=>7CFv H>93=>93\iGXHM7u9\hG_3:<?c7GU?$93E%JK7J.:Vvu;.H>?=>37UH>:[:M:l?CF)?h\ ?H>=>j.7 GUKgc7v @+H=>U?3?$C \
9Z?3;LHj.7PH>j.{ 7OA3r7=l^3H 47v\.97uG=b99H>?3_: =.v:<9?M\H<jKZ97NH 9IGUHTH<7u93=>E.7JEK93I=>@:J.:<7G : 4U^3=>ji7H<JFG4gH>?}vu;.C'=<$9373J7 4;.\.EhjK/9393=<CF=>J?$H<\ j.4vT7=<:l7$E2 7v H<=b9[Zhg
?$CF:lG :>_J?hv 4J.UGU\K_;.9^VG4H>9?3H<H jK=4?37\H<?EKE%93H<?$=lj.H =l47H 93U?$G4E.:\jK;.?39$Eh@:l/7cH>93j.?=>7VJ@[J Z?3_9=Y?^3H>J.j =b?9)Cv\i9i=>=\.94?37u=b==J H>v 4?M\'?i:H<@+4j.=<\.77V7ti:vu;.T?37u\iZK\KH<;Lvu=>g3H8?32BG4\.4\.??}H^}JLE.H<?[? jK93H<H<j :<j.7N_:7 ?.@E.9$J.jKH<j.J9$7V:l9}7 :>9:l?7CF@[v E.?3H<\%G4j.7 J7 
EH<K9j.\K97V=bJ9 :>j.CF9?$CF7uG4H<J7N7u= E.;.;.jK\ E9$UH>JK:l:7N92 H<^$77u: \.H:l7H H<=>4;.9GU$H=>Y4\K?3:?$\=<?3LE;L : ?3H=<9H H<\K4?3j%JP\9@+H;. =<H<4H<j.GUjK77u:lH=>:>4CM9G CF?$Z%=<E.77 G47 4C}\9;L\KE.H JjK4E.9$j.G4:l7?$7NG4{ J ATUH<:lrH<j=b^$977uH>9$\.7uvb7^$j=>g 9?3H<@+H<?3?$j.=b=7: =:<:<2 CFjK9?h= ?U\KH<j^
CFG49H?h4J.?3;.\;.G49=?3H ;.H>47?3H<vbE.\ j.;L\ 93H}4: tijKI;.9HV7B3JL7'@+?$?hv =7?$:D:<CF;.@+E?$E.=7uG _v=>uH>E%j.9?iH<7':74Jc{ \.AT^TEKr:<jKE93^$7:<v7u7'H>\.=>=<79T7=>G49JL9H<?hH ?347?3= :\K\.:<H<?jjKH47}EK/EK:O?3939=>=l\%NH 4J 9393:G4H>:j.EK?7u=<@Y7gJ H<:<4j.v 7u7MH>7u93CE.Z.jKGUgJ 9$:l@+;'7M?3=vuCF;.E.?LGUjKHVJL9$H<;:l?7 
EKv :lE?$9C[7H<vH<Z7I=<4\.\KvO7':FJLv 7?3?$:@PUj.=>:<7u7E%=>J77uv\i7 H>H<&=>G47g393v 2'G)H>:7u23\?$^$GU;.7uH \.47?3=>\ 93YG )EKj.jK7u93=>:<77F9$:'CM{ ?LATJL;Kr G49_:H '4?37\9$:  47uU=MG4XH>^ ? U$EK7M=<7CFJ ?$4v =<H7'9v \K?$CFJ E.H<G;K_vu=<\9H<7H<J?




 .

0325 !
 
!  
   
  ! 



B{:H>9=<Hb7uvbH>jvbj.r|7J0y.1$2 EK9;.3G47 :<Hb7392 EZ.JG47 G4r ?hU?3^$h;.;.=<E7'2 mK2Ur 14Q ^3;.^3=>77\.mK7u2U=b19` H>7:<:Oj.?9D:[9= H4Y93Z.? G47 U\i  H<74=<JhCFH>jc7J EK4;.9H<G4:<77FE.H<=>=b?h9 J.4\;Kv ;KHb: :[U\.?3^ @
H</j.97Pg .EK)9H>j vb_vjbj93\KE.J G49$Uv H>7:Y:?3H<;Lj.H>7[E.;LE.H;.2XG_:l7[jK97THDEKE.9jKH>9$vb:lj7"v 9=>4= \K47:H>:7?39$;LJHY?H<@|j.7YE.jK?393Z:<7O4\'ku7H>=<j.? 7PLH<: j4CM4:TEK GU7U:G4HZE%7O?i:<.: 4LZ.7GUJ 7
U\G_9H>7u=)EK9H>vbj7 .9CFE.G47:Zhg9$J.J 4\.^'y.2RfVH>?FH<j.7OEKjK93:<7O9\KJ)=>93E.E 4\.^K2
  

!$#

1fip

      



107 <frequency
phasor~
~ 0.5

0centered sawtooth

<index

28
/ 10

...in tenths

pack 0 50
line~
+~ 1
*~

smooth it
add 1

increase amplitude of sawtooth

clip~ 0.5 0.5


cos~

clip to range 1/2 to 1/2

cosine wave lookup (1/2 and 1/2 give 1)

+~ 1
*~ 0.5

add one (range now from 0 to 2)


...and now from 0 to 1

(OUT)

r:lH<4=>^37 ;.Hb=>vb7Dj.7m.J241/Q !9$B7 .Hb939CMZ.G4EK7GUG47D?hE%?3h9H>;.vbEj2 r|yK132 E.;.G_:l7$2 EJi)j 4vbj:<gh\iH<j.7: 4ku7:9OE.;KG4:<7)H<=b9 4\';K: U\K^

1f3z

     
  
   

(a)

0.5

phase

0.5

(b)

0.5

clipped

0.5
output

(c)

[Cr9\KU;.^$JGU;.H y.=<4E.7 2Rf G4g m.U24\.1v^V`Y!0H<H>j.j.7D7O\$EKH>?37ujK;L=>93H>CFE.:<?37;L=XJ H_92Zhg}H>7cH<j.97 ;%J 4U\K? JL:7 4 ^3


\% 9G_Z:@+H<=>jK?3C7:>9r CFU^$7 ;.i=>v 7cG UE.m.E2417Q JM! H>?V9 G 'U7DH>Zj.7 7cH/=>77u7:<;.\ GUH yK?32 f @

1 f3o
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ZKC}:<j.9$;.?vbGI)[H U\H>EK?O2[G 47uH<=MjKjK7 Y7M47\i^$=<H<=>77u93=>E.9Hj9G%U4H>Z%\ :}7uHEKC Y9U7=<\ H7uU\C}+Z ;.y.PC 2R:<fOj.+9??3\%D\KJ7:y.H<|2Rj.fH>7F$j.;K7=>7: 4:<:<\.9;.^[GIHOH>H<?ij.?3?3@/7 H<v j0G 4E./ E ?34T;.\.G_^?$JZLH>?3j.7\K7v GUHg:>2|9=b@9H<\.H<?hjK^$?77'H>j :>@+vu=<9?$GC 94\.3^7
yK:>vu2 fM93G H>4\.?^yKC[2 f;.9GUH\h4ghE./G U79=Vg^39=>\K7J89H<H<7j.=7FH>jKv G9UEK\E ?$U\K\.^7  /H<?3j.;.7G_J8vuG 4jKE.9E $47[\.^8\.??$;L7 H<&E.7;.v H}H2O: Ur.H>:[?3=N9HO9\hH<gjK7'9G493;.GU7[;K7 ?3@X yKH<jK2 f 7 
H>j.97u3\07u@+=b?39=>CFCwEK=b:N9CFH>? EKy.:)2R93f\K JH<j.H<7j.\ 7O:CFIHb?3:V=>7P9H}H 4yKCF2 f.7 2IHT:<jKE%77\Kj J.4^3:Dj.vu7G 4=OE.H<Ej.77JC[9H);.H>GUH j.4E.7OG ZU7?=HlH>H<?3jKCn7'9@93\K:lJH<7H<=V?$EH<jK2 7
j.7 
F?$ZL7v HPH>j.7u\0vu?3\h37=lHb:DH>j 4:N937u@+?3=>C U\iH<?89E.;.G_:l7$2}\KE.;LH>:V?@Z?H>j
y.2RfD93\KJ[yK2 fT^3?TH<? >1 ~H>j.7ug[93=<7Y?3\.7v gLvuGU79EK93=lH 39HH>j.7C 4JLE? 4\iHB?@.H>j.7/9$7 @+?3=>C 
H>@+;.j.G47 4vu\.ghE.vu;LGU7OH ?3_:Y@y}H>j.97V\Kv JF?iH>: j.4\.7T7P?$@+;L;.H<\KEKv ;LH H4?3_:\ KH<H<jhj.;K7:\813v 2|?3CFj.77:?$ZK;L93H<vbEK';LH>H?'H>j.=<77u:=>HD7 @+9?$H =<7T>1$: 2XUH>:/j.9 H7ObE.1 =>$?3H<E=b?393=<vuH74:Y?3\9
?3C}@B;.H GI4H CMUEK7MG 47uH>=j.K7}:<? 9IH3# 7u:O@+?31=>y3Cny :<E@+7u?3\K=TJ.9M:TC}H<=b;.93GIv H UU\KEK^G 47uH<=jK7M?@vu1?$%: Uf3\.y 7}@+;.@+\K?$v =H Q4?3K\ 93\K4:PJ?3:l\K?F7}?$J \42 4r JLU7\%J9G4ZhUg g.H<H<jKjK77
E. v;K/G4:<?7[@?$H<j.;L7NH<E.%;.^3H ;._:=>N73293J;K:lH<7J8H>?=b9\.^$7O@+=<?$C y'H>? 1 U\c93GU;K7 H<j 4: _:T^$=>93E.j.7J U\E%9=<H
      



  

"!

 '
  
# 

E4j._J\.h7 ^}H<j \.H<3?F7 ^3hEK=bH99EKH>H>vbj.j j=>U7uH>7u7:.9:lEKECF97H>E.v vbG4H<j 7N=>;.r|7uC Lyi93fLiCF293= \K4E.\.JFGU^K7v :2 CF?3JL\i?LH>7JL=>CF;.9$?3:G_9H|\KH H<:l4jKH<?3=b\7)92 /H>E78J9$H<7j.r :<7 jK4^39:l;.E?$=>;.47O\.\K^Pm.J24E.1u?3;.d @OG_:lh7TH<Yj.^37c7N7u\K:<j.7u93=b?=<9g H<4?$\.H<=^0jK27NE.]h: ;.4UCG_E:<7 
E.C'G479:l$H7/9V9@+gM?3=>?CF@93vu?3\iC}H2BZ U\ j.U7P\.^[E.;.H<j.G_:l7N7E.H<=b;K9 G4:<4\'7T^$@+=>7u?3\.C
7=>9H<jKH<?37=YE. =>7uIH> j4?39[;K:Y= 47 \..^}93CMCMEK?LJLGU7 ;K4G4:9H v 4?$\.\i^}H>9?i4:<\.v 7UG4J _9UH<\?$=XH<jKH>?7

   c:<;.Z.E%9H>vbj 20 H _:MC[;.GUH 4E.G U7J Zhg 9\ ?$:>v 4GU_9H>?3=})j.?$:<7@+=>7ti;.7\Kv g
_:4\iNH<v 7u?3^$\i7uH>= =< ?$9GU47jKJ93=<9$CF:N?39\ 4C}vM;.:lGI?$H ;.UEK\KGUJ87F?=>7@Y:<H<;.j.GUH>7}:@+2 ;.D\KJK?99CFH<H<7u7u\iCFH>93ELG|H @+=<_:7PtiCF;.7u9$\KJLvu7}g32VH<? @Yv ?3H<j.\iH>7F=<?$C}G ;.H>GIj.H U7}EK=>GU7 7uG__:9PH U93$\ 7
E.j%93:<7j.:/7X?\K@7 H<hj.H7VEKvu9?3H>CFvbjNE7 ?3.\.937CM\$HbEK:GU7 ?@r|H<y$j.m.7O2 EKEK93;.vbG4$:<7P7 H>H<:=b2 9E4J \ r 93\KU^$J;.=<?7B@mKH<j.2U17Vf v9:<=>j.= 4?7uD=): : Uj.\h?;Kc:<? H<_J?Tvu2 ?3C}Z U\K7
H>@+?$j.=<7[C':l9H<=>\i7 HbH>: vbhjK937:/JJL/7:>9v $= 7 4Z%Hb97Z.J G47U\EK:l;.7G4v:<H7OU?$H>\=>9 m.U\2 `. 2BUH<jj.7P9E.:>;.9G_CF:l7E.^3G477J\.7u: =bU9\hH>;K?3:<= ? _J_:/93H<?':YZ%=>77u9@+?3G 4=>ku7 7OhZ.CF;L?H)9\.Z.?G4 7
H>H j.UCF7P7v:O9=>H<=j.477u=Yvu: 7u4\i^3H<\K793=OG @+_:=>/79Vti;.Z.7u=>\%?3v $gc7u\ti;.: U?3\hH ;K47u:<?\i_JH2BH<jK] 74\Kv :<937 CFIHbE.:GUEK7  jKH>93? :<7:<93_:CFYH<E.j.GU7F7E.@+;.j%\K93J.:<937 CFU\K7uvu\i=<H>793CFG%E.7u\ij%H 93:<47:
H>)j.=b79EK:<93:TCF9=>7?3;.93:P\KJ @+?3L=}H<j.97M: vu493\i=<;%= :lU?74=)JE.9jKHO9$:lH>7j.7;.v CF7\iEKH<:T7uH<=V?@+=<97t$J ;K&7u\K7=<vu7g3\$2HTE.?G49$Yv 77 347u\8= H<jK)7[j.7v \gLv H<G47j.7'93E.:Tj%/939$:<7:
4?$GU\.4;K7 :l H<=bH>j.9H>7F7J=<7G4U9\H 4r37F4^3v ;.7=>\$78H>7um.=N2qph@+2=>7tiAD;.GU7H<jK\K?3v g;.^$+j H<j.H>7'j.7ti;.=>?37uH G_497uH \iU$HV7Z%ZK7uH93Y\K7JL7u \_Jhv H<7j \$H>C}7u=P;K@+:l=>H7tiZ%;.77u\%9v Hg GU79393\K:lJ H
@+;.\%J.9CF7u\iHb9G /CF9g'Z7V93:G4? 9$:ku7=<? U@|JL7: 4=>7J 2


 

 





 %#

!$%#

!  '

)

 &
#
!-



{Bvu=<9?iH>:<vb: j @9$r|JLy$7z.: 2 HZ%Y7u?%HY2 vu7?$7u: \MU\.jK7:u92=>ECFJ ?3~\ %_v^3u:;.=>H<7O?Nm.C'2419m$Y7Y:<vuj.?3?\iDH 4:/\h;.j.?3?;K:<G4H>gO?'CF93= 93_93ZK7NGU9'7/v vu7u93\i=<H>= 7uU7==/@+=<: 74^3ti\K;.937uG\KvH<jKU79:uH 2
j.7Xvu7u\iH<7= @+=>7ti;.7u\%v gti;.?3H 47u\iH ~H>j.7Yvu7u\iH<7= @+=>7ti;.7u\%v gJ U _JL7JPZhgTH>j.7B@+;.\%J.9CF7u\iHb9G 
 

 %

#&#

+

1m$y

     
  
   

RING MODULATED PULSE TRAINS

< bandwidth

pd pulsetrain

< modulation frequency as


multiple of fundamental

0
*

< pulse train


generator from before

r freq

osc~

modulating oscillator

*~
|
(OUT)

=r 4U\.^$^F;.=<CF7'?LmKJL2U;.1dG_9!VH 4B?3\.vu 7u=>UH<ELj8H>:P9'@+=>:?3H>=<C 7uH>vbE%j.97H>Jvbj7u9L3937uCFH>93E.Z.GUGU77Pr|E.;.yifLG_:<2 7P= 4\.^$7u^K\.2 CF7=>?L9JLH<;.?$=G_9H 4?3\ 2 EJcvu?3C}Z U\ U\.^
center
(frequency)
|
phasor~ 100
~ 0.5
bandwidth
(as multiple of
fundamental)
|
*~

frequency
(as multiple of
fundamental)
|
*~
magnified
phase signal

clip~ 0.5 0.5


cos~
+~ 1

raised
cosine
pulse

*~ 0.5
cos~
*~

carrier

r9Z.U^$G47O;.=<v 7O7\$mKH>2U7u1=f!|@+=>aT7ti: ;.U\.7^'\Kv :lg$H<=>2 7 Hbvbj.7J/9$7 Hb9Z.G47P:<gh\iH<j.7: _:/H<?FC'9$7N9}@+?$=<C'9\iH IH>jCM? 

1mK1

      



center frequency
(relative to fundamental)
fundamental
frequency
|
phasor~

|
line~
wrap~

the fractional part "q"

subtract to get the integer part "k"

*~

+~

multiply phase by k and k+1

cos~

cos~

synthesize two partials "c1" and "c2"

c2 c1
*~

+~
|
OUT

q * (c2 c1)
q * c2 + (1q) * c1

r 4^3;.=>7m.241m !WY=<?i:<:  @93J 4\.^)Z7 H/7u7u\}: 4\h;K:l? 4JK:H>?TC'9$7XCF?93Z.G47Yv 7\iH<7u= @+=<7ti;.7u\Kv U7:u2
93;KE.: E%4\.79^O=bH>:j.937 :H<j. 7?3T;LH>?3E.ZL;LH7v ?3H @KX 9 9\KJ  UH>X: ?$U\iZLH<77^3v 7H=X2EK9j =<4H : _:ZigF:<7u:<EK;.93ZL=>H<9=bH<937v J H 44\.\i^NH<? H<jKUH>7): @+@+=>=>9$9$vv HH UU?$?$\K\K99G.GE%E%99=<=<HH
@+:<=>7?3v CH 4?3H<\j.7Pm.2 ?3`.= 2 4^ 4\K9G  2|j.7:<793=<7TG493Z%7GU47J9$: O93\KJ 5MH>?}93^3=>7u7D UH<j'H>j.7H<=>79H>CF7u\iH 4\
Zh93\KgVJZ?H<j.j.H>7j 7FEK5}v ?ijK9:93\%4:<\.7J 7 7 5:D:98?@X1:<Z9~?H<H>jKH>j 7)?h?9G49H<=>jHl7OH<7Hb=B993Zh37g}7'\ 939JKHVH<Jj.H>U7j.\Kg87'^9H>@+=>;.j.7O\%7)H<J.?3j.9= 7CF4^=<7u7u4\K@+\i?39Hb=>GL97[GX:>99@+@H=>7H<58ti?h;.?97H>\%\Kj J v 4g \$5 H>?N: 4:VH<1Oj.C[7/H 4;.@+CF?$GUH=<74CF:E.G7uH<U=7jKJ 7 
@+;.j.\%78J.9\KCF7 h7uH\iHb:l97GB3@+7=>=>793tiG/;.?$7ZL\Kv 7g v H>9: \K4J\jKH<9j.$787FE%\.9?H>vbJ j _:<vuvu?3?3\iCFH E.4\h;L; H>I7H U7H<j.:V789HV/EK7 4jK^393ji:<H<7'7J )=>:<93;.E.C E 4\.^8E: ? 4\$Hb:u2
)7uhj.EK7=<=<77 :<: U?$\  # 9:=>7[H> j.7M7HY? : 2Y4\h;Kj:l? 4:4JK^ :PU$937\K:/J ;Kb:/H>Kj.7VJ1 JL7 7: 4=<7ZhJg8CF7?939GU;%Z.9G47 H  4@+\.=<^7ti9;.\c7u\K7vutig; 4vu9393=<GU= 7U\i7# H=
#
: U^$\K9G 2
?$vu?3ZL\i7H{B4v \h9H[Hb; vb9Ij'H @~UH<77r: =Oy$4o.H<\0jK2 JL7 H<7jKvu7G $_vb?$ ;LIH'H<2E.E?3;.J Z.HM7: \.vU?^$HMH\Kv 9:l?3GYj.\i?7uH>)3=<?$7\'\GU jKU\KI7u@T^=>7H<vuj.B7u7:<\ij.H<JL?77D=O: U:B@+=>=>7j.7J ?ti;.v 7ui7u\%\iZhv H>gMg7u=V9$J.g3@+J=>?$74;\.ti^[;.v79"9 \K\0v
g93 vb? jK4J 93\.J^3_:7:
Jv9_:>=>v = ?347u\i=)H UJ \h4;. ?$4JL;K7:lJG4g32/Zig\@+;.H<\KjKJ.7V93EKCF97u=<H\i_vH> 93;KG G4)9393=DGI7 H>7u.=>9\KCF9E.H>7G47[:Z:<j.7 ?H/)7u\ 7L\H>j.d'7V93@+\K=>J7ti1;.`.72R\KfLv 2YgA/tiHD;.=>?93H CMU7E\$H H U CF2 7$72 : 
Z93GU7u?$G4\.?7})93jZ%4?$vb;LjH}J Q_:y<93C'E.E%:l779vM=NH<j.)7j.=<77'\ 93H>=<j.7'7 9;%
J UZKGU793 =lH }I@9$?3v ZLH>:N7v)H jK47u:O\9$;KJ.:JLU7\.J ^2 H>j. A7 J _:< 9$JL'9?$\iZLH>937^3v 7H
@+H>?3=>j.@77/:<ti93@+;.;.CF7\K\KE.J.v GU9347 7CM:93L7\K\iH<JjKH> 97}j.Gh?3vb@+G_jK=>J 7934ti\.\.;.^V^377H>\K:)j.v vu7Pg 9@+\84=<:|7ZG4ti?7V;. 7uj.\K97vu\%9gJV=bJtiH>;.j.93?7D:DH v JU77_:\i\$>v HH>=>7u_:7 =/H<@+7}H<=>jK7:9tiH>H7u;.hEK7u@+\%:?$2v =/gV]L$? \.7u7=>U7g'\J}GU: ?\.UH<?;KHX9@+;.vbH jK4\K?393J.\K\.93:)^3CM7/)73jK\i77uH>=<=>9g7 G
ti; _vbhGUg  IHDC'9gZ7OZ%7uHlH>7u=)H>?M?$C IH)H>j.7V:<93CFE.GU7  93\KJ j.?3G_J:lH<7E2 


 

 

1miQ

     
  
   
center
frequency
54
fundamental
(MIDI units)

mtof

29

pack 0 50

bandwidth

line~

mtof

72

expr 1/$f1

mtof

*~
phasor~

pack 0 50

C.F. relative
to fundamental

line~

*~ 0.5

*~

divide by
fundamental

samphold~
~ 0.25
~

wrap~

cos~

*~ 25

*~

*~

+~

cos~

cos~

range for table

+~ 100
~

offset to middle
of table

tabread4~ bellcurve
+~

*~
waveshaper
ring mod

*~
|
(OUT)

r 4^3;K=<7Om.241p!Bj.7OE.jK9$:l7  93G 4^3\.7J'@+?$=<C'9\iH { Ar :lgh\iH<j.7: _:)9G4^3?$= UH<jKC2


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ZH<%j.7j.7Pvu793E.;K=<jK:l79$7:l:l;K7P?GIH@)CFU\.H>?Lj.^0JL7;.:<E%vuG_9?37HCFv 4H>?3E.=>\9 G 4v:lvuE993H>7\ 7v JH<Z=>;.E.78CjKC'9$h:l93\.7JL?}7=<C'7H<G49?9H Hl4H<H>?37=>\K=9:<$j.j 7u?4GEK ;.:VEg3Z?$7 9;H\K/9J 7uG U7^$JL\ \?)\.H/7\ U?}^$Uji\ :<Z;K@+?3vb=<j= 74ti\.:<;.^E7u7E\Kv H>vu7=>g99[/L: g3Z.?$;LU\; H
vu93\\.737=D93? _J^$7 H<H 4\.^FE.jK93:<7Ovu93\Kv 7GU_9H U?$\K:)j.7u=>7PH<j.7g?37=<G_9E 2


'

 
  
# 

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!$%#

1m$`

      



t b b
0

until
f
sel 199

+ 1
t f f

expr ($f1100)/25
expr exp($f1*$f1)
tabwrite bellcurve
bellcurve

r 4^3;.=>7Om.241z !|r UG4 U\.^ 4\H<j.7O937uH>93Z.GU7@+?3=Dr 4^3;.=>7Om.241pL2


@+H>=>j.77ti;.=>7793\KG v 4kg 9XH 94?3\K\J 93H<=<j.7)7H>?MZK9J \%U JL_J L47JLvuH<7uj \i/H<97=G4 @+=>4\ 7ti;. 587\Kv g'
ZhgM;.@+\ ;.U\KH>:J.2 93CF7uj.\i7H>93KG =b+:H<HF?M:^3H>7u7 EKH/:}H<jKHb7P93vu77u\\iH<74\ =
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H>K?[^$j ;.H>_:j.=>7 7V4:}v 7;K93\$\K:<H>7J87uJ0=/H>Z?@+=>?7vuH>ti?3j0;.CF7uH<E.\%? ;Lv gv H>7M?3ti\iEK;.H>jK=<?3?$93H GY4:<7u79\i:TH
@+?3+G_=N9ZZ7u?G4H<7jJ   W?3
2 ZLrYF2L?37=>vZ.7uH[G_79)v H HbUj $:P47Tvb)j H>j ?M:<4vbgh@+jc;.\K\Kvb?3j.J.E=>937u?3CM=b\ 974H>ku\i7}7H>:V993G :N;.
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1p`



IN

OUT

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1pd

     



input

output

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1p3f



  



d/2
d/2
AZ
1

real

Z d/2
A
imaginary

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1pm

     



gain
2

2
d

4
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$      


  



1p$p



IN
+
OUT
d

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loadbang
metro 1000
tabplay~ G01tab
input signal
write to delay line
delwrite~ delay1 1000

18

< delay time


(msec)

delread~ delay1
read from delay line

+~
|
OUT

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60

mtof

phasor~

adsr 1 100 1000 0 1000

*~

*~

input
signal

50

< delay time

delread~ G02del 160


*~ 0.7
+~
|
OUT

read from delay line

feedback gain

add the original and the delayed signal


delwrite~ G02del 2000

write to delay line

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mtof
30

< timbre

* 0.5
* 0.01

pack 0 100

/ 100

line~

osc~ 0

< cycle frequency (hundredths)

osc~

*~

+~ 1

cos~

10

< cycle depth (msec)

pack 0 100
line~

*~

hip~ 10
clip~ 0.2 0.2

60

< feedback
(hundredths)
* 0.01

+~ 1.46
vd~ G03del

pack 0 100

+~

line~

hip~ 5
|
OUT

*~
clip~ 1 1
delwrite~ G03del 1000

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4~:[Hgh@+E 7_vJ u93ZKG T93vb:< 93CMU\iEKH>GU? 7VU=bH>9: H>7VU\.?EK@X;Ld$HdK2 1y3yFj.7DCk$2T4\ 9U\KC}J;.Z.CGU?LEvb?$:>: : 44kuZ.7[G47?@JL7umG_d9g :<934CM: EK:GU7: >K9CFH<j E._:G47vu:?32 CFr.7?$:D=MH<?9
132 difC 4GU _:l7v ?3\%J.:u2j _: C 4^3jiH\.?3H|:<?3;K\KJV9HK=b:HG 437/9D37=<g 4CME?3=<H>93\iH=>7:lH<= 4v H 4?3\2
/;LH U@|g$?3;89=>7PH<=>g U\.^FH>?'H<;K\.7[9F=>7v 4=bv ;.G_9H U\.^'vu?3C[Z%GIH>7u=)H>?9':lE7v IvOE UH>vbj KH<j.7
jJL47u^3G_9j.gL7:/:HNg3g3?3?$;;cC[vu;%93:\ H ^$4\K7 v HN=>?379$\.:lG4g7H<v jK?$7VCM:<793:CMH<EK?GU7N9Z=b?39H<;L7NHV?$m3=Do$yJL7Tvu=<k372[93:<7T?H>j.^$7O7 HVZ.:<G4j.?hvb?3=<H<:74=ku7$=>27v U=bv ;.G_9H U\K^
Z%7Vvu{B?39\iH>H<vb=>j ?3G4N7Jyd%42\8vu?3{\iJH<=>?3;KG: 2 UZK\.GU^?Lvb9ML:\.47ku7$2 E?$J ZL7r v 4H"^3! ;.=>7ph2RQ$p T:ljK?D:Tj.? H<j.7FZ.G4?Lvb: 4ku7Fvu93\
   
    !D]h7uHTH>j.7[G4?Lvu9GZ.G4?hvb: Uk7V?@|H<jK7[EK9H>vbj8 4\KJL?H<jK7V?3ZL7v H
:vuU93H>\ : UZ%\72 ;K /:<G47?LJvb H>?: 4H>ku;.7=<:O\ C[9;%;K:J HOU?Z7vu?3E%CF?/E.7u;L=bHb:P9H ?U@/?$\ HY ?%I2'H>j 4\ j.7 H<jK
7    4\KJLM??$ZL?$\7v H9 \KUJ \0? 93& JKXJ I;KH : U?$U\.\ ^ 
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\E%9=<H  9 /?@H<j.7PK^$;.=>7 +H<j.7NC'9 4\EK9Hbvbj .9M=>7v H>9\K^3;.G_9=/E.;.G_:l7 _:):l7\iH/H>?MH<j.7
    }:<;.Z.EK9H>vbj K)j.?$:<7N?3;LH>E.;LH _:H<j.7\8=<7uH<;.=>\.7JH>?FH<j.7VC'9 U\EK9Hbvbj2
{B9=<H Z ?@%H<j.7/K^$;.=>7:<j.?D:H<jK7vu?3\iH<7\iH>:|?@%H<j.7D:<;.Z.E%9H>vbj )j _vbjM:<7u\KJK:H<j.7E.;.G_:<7:








 

Qyif

       

+

(a)

(b)

loadbang

incoming

delay

pulses

time

metro 500
inlet~

inlet

random 60
delread~ G04del

del 1
1

+ 30
+~

*~ 0.99

mtof

vline~

expr 1000/$f1

delwrite~ G04del 1000

pd delaywriter

outlet~

block~ 1

|
OUT

set block size

.\r9?$4^3=<;.C'=>937OGpLm3N2 d}Qi?3p:>ZL!|9CFA7v E.HDEKG4799:"Hb\%!vbJj 9 9M;K : =>2|47\.H<v j.^FU=b7PZ.v C';.GU?LG_99vb4H \U\K: EK^M4ku97NJLH>vb7v jG4?39\igH>Z=<\.?$ 7 G%2|H/H>H>?Fj.?37=>GU? /2 JL7u7=/G49H<g jK 7P)G4= ?hUH<?37E=
OJL7u:<G_;.9Z.g'EKZ97uH>vbG4?j H<IjKH>j 7



4: \iU^$H<\K?899G$v =>?37CFv UE.=bv ;.;KH>G499H H U4?$\.\V^;KJ.:<7u7G_:99Dg32FZ.G4?Lj.vbP7 : Uk 7   M?3?$@.ZL?37\.v G4gPHV?3:lE\.77$v2IK]h?)7:PH>j.H<jK79C H4\ U4\ C[H<;.j C 4:O9$:<vb;.j Z.UEK799H>Z.vbj G47 
JL7G49{Xg ;._:Hl)H 4?$\.\.^7O9:<93EKCM;.EKG4:<GU7 7 4+\K?$=:H>?379$H<j.J7?3=P@ 7uH>.j.v 7VUH>JL9H7 U@?$93\c;.GU:HTU^$m\KdK92 G  4\iH<?9=>7v U=bv ;KG49H 4\.^vu?3C[Z KGUH<7u=
H>:>?v = C'UZ97J37}4\M9'9PE EKUH>93vbE%j 7_:=BZi:<gV?3CFH<j.7u7H C 4CM 7V]:T.vz39` G4
U7$J 93GIH>aj.H?3S;.@.^$"/jV%U)7H>; j..7  H54'J.,7 9N)+:l7[#7u,&C' ]^:C>H<)+?N )%ZjK79?3 G_JL4\.7u^=2Z 7uHB7C'\ 93JLJ.7 7 
U H>:)]^'? 9g'#) @+?$O=D#?7 J.@.9(CF'#,%E.2G47 4\$H>?{B9;.G 9\K:<hg # :N1oipo}E 47vu7  .d ,&!_)+(C+) ', e@^' C<? E<[




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_::<W/j.:<?34?3CF;K;.G4E%\%J?iJH>:lji7H>J;%j.:T7TZhZg:<77[tiH<\.j.;.?7 7u\%4GU\$v ?7)H>/7u?7u=>@=TE%;.?$G 4\G4C 9IHH/I4HP?3^3\?37u\K\8:>7uvbH>=bj.j.97u7[H<CF?$G4=B7u7 \.v ?3^3:lCFH<7j7}E.?3;.:<7@BH>v9H<H H j.UU?$7M?$\ \ JLph47u: G_2q9p +g CF2G?$4\.:l\cH<7 G4G4g 93B7 \..7 ^3v L;%7E.9ELG ^3_vH7U):DH$j%:<:<;K9?OvbH<jc7H>3j 9$74:=:
_:4CFB7E.9$G :l_vg[UHOH<?[9\K:<EJ793v U\.@+g3?H>2|j.7u\F=NH>9j.EK7TE.^$=<=>?i9393E.vbjj8_vuC}9GL;KE%:HP9H>Z%vb7}j UH>\.93^O377\8\h H<4?=>?37u\.\KCF:<;.7u=\iUHb\K: ^$j.H<?j%Y9H73@+7?$==H>7uj.L7D93CF?3=bE.JLGU77 =  49 :
pL2 9Q3 g z   ?2 @O  93vTv ?$?3CMZ.EK7G v_:lH j _:U/\.^vu?3H>CFj E.4: ;LH>47:J:lj.Z%?7u)@+?3\ =>7P4H<\j.7O{B9v ?$H>vb=<j=>7:<NEy$?3f.\K2 J 7u4L\.7^!v ;.H 4?3 \ 2 ?3=bJL7u=?32 EZLJ7v Hr 2XU^$;.\K=>77
?$vu?3=>JLCF7E.\[=[;LE%H>Hbj.997=<H H4?3H Y\ 9 |? H<?JLj.@K77 H>G4j.97Yg0K ?$^3E%;. 7=>=>7  9HH>4F?3j.\K7?3:Fv ZL?397\KEKv \.E%H}77v vu9H ?3= 4;.?3U\KG_\ J: H<4Z\VjK77H<jKv :<?$7/?3CFE%=<H<E.97H>;LJ vbH<jM7:<J07JLti?P7 ;.U\.7H<?jK\KHB7uv =[7JL7 Z?H>7 @7u@+=>?$H C 4=<G 7JLU\.7?37/=[?$)ZL9j @~7_vH<b7uv j =H
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" 

#'

(!& %+



%"

 #

!&

'

Qy$m

     

(a)

delay in
samples

45

(b)



/ 44.1
pd pulse
pack 0 30
delwrite~ G05d1 1000
line~
vd~ G05d1
pd pulse
+~
pd delaywriter
(BAD)
pd delayreader
(GOOD)

<HCr j.UU^$7^$gM;.j$=<H|937=<Z7)ph7/=>2R7uQ7Lz9$7!J v ;.UaT\'H<:7\.UJ \K?$^U\\M :l=<7 ;K7UH<vZ.jK4EK=>7uvu9=;.HbH<vbG49j.j.H 774:'\. ^N= H<4? ^3\.ji7 7HH \K/
T:<?3?3;.=>==<L7H<: j.! H>7 jK99 )BHH<=>JLj.?37u7 \KG_^9g
)?$ G =>4\.JL 77:=   9=>Z)78 9H<\K)j.J = 7UHlH>7uT\ ?$ZZL7  7@+ ?$v =<H>7:
H<?3:lj.;KZL7Z.7EK v 9H Hbvb_:j.7U: \%B: H>_JLj. 77  H<?$jK=>7J.7u=M??3@T\.7$7u2 h 7 /v ;L7vH U9?$;K\ :< 7F?3 @D? @/H<:lj.H<;Kj.7Z.7EK=>793993;KHbJ vbJ j4?)93= v \KI?$H>J \.7\.H<EK7j.9 v 7 UH = 4?34\ :}8Z%@+?$?37u=>Z.HvuY777Jv 7uH \ H>?c_:H<jKZ47'7\K: HH<_JYj.L?77
v ?$=<=>7v H/?$\.732
H<HYj.7[?'=<?$7E%937J =>49\.H ^F4?3?3\KE: 7uU=b\9H :<U;.?$\Z.EKL9YH>7Vvbj.v79: \E.v ?$=>\.?Lv \.7u77v JH 4\.93^': 4H>\8j.7OEK9H/=<H ?'+Z _9D?93@;KH<J j.47V?K: ^34^3;.\K=>937 G4%:T9:l\K?'JH>E.jK;L9HTHTH<H<j.j.77
K:l;K=bZ.:HEK:<9;.HbZ.vbj.EK79: H>vb_:Bj'JLC}?$;K\.7):HY9Z%H<?$7TC vu?34vCF9E.G4U;Lg H>7U\}JFH<ZjK7 7D@+?$:l=<77)\K:lH>7/j.7TH>jK:<97HBvu?3H>\Kj.JM77u?3\i\KH 7342=<7)AD:<;.;%Z.J EKU?}9H>v vb?3jFCFv E.?$;.\$H>H>7u9\iH UH>?$:B\ 93U=<\ 7
Uv \?$\KH>:j.\_J7OL7H<?3j=<\.747O:NJ}:<7u9$;.L:Z.93H<EKCFj.97DE.H>GU93vb7 j;KJ jKH<4j.9?N7EKvuE%?3 7CF= \KU^$E.:)ji;LZ H Hb
7 9@+H ?393U=>\K?$7O\[J89@+H>?$\hj.=|gi7 H<H<j j. 4)7D\.=<^:<?$;.4\.Z.\^EK
FH>9j.H>7Vvbj'9:<g793v :BH<?$?9P\KJC')j.?39?$3\.GU7[7$7$2 2|H<j.]L7F?Pv 7?$3C[7=<Z8giH<%j GIUH>\.7u^ =
jK: _J9L37}7}?9@|;KH<J j.47}Z.G4EKg89JHbvb'&j 7u+=>;%7u\i: 4HN\.^=<7:<:l;.;KZ.GIHbE%:u92PH>r.vbjK?3=N7: JL7^ G4943gL7:D:)G4H<7jK:>:T7}H<v jK?$93=<\=>7v mHDd=<:<793:lCM;KGIEKH GU%7Z.: ;.%HH<j.H>7Mj.7[= U^$G47 j$@~HPHjKjK99\K\KJJ
: _JL7OJL?h7:<\ # HDE.=>?hJ.;Kv 7OJL7G49gL:Z7uG4?H<jK7Vmd':<93CFE.GU7NZ.G4?Lvb: Uk732


%$

 

 





 

 
!  &
#
!





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UU\K\iH>^O=<?LH<j.JL7T;KvuE%7Y7=:<4;.?LZ.J jK4v93I=<HCFgM?$?\ @ 493v\:u2U\KDvu7u?3=>C 7/Y4\.7Y^[=<:<7?39;.G U\KkJ'7XH<93jKGU47Y?/?Lv 7HbJM93;K7:BJ.H>?3?O;.H<Z.;KG4\.7u7=|JL9N7= :<Uvu\K= ^V4Z%CF7J ?hJ.4\M;.G4]h97H<v?$H =B4?3H<\?
4:lphvE2 :`.7 2'v GUH<7aT=b99: G44\.7u\.^8\h^397?3GU\.?$G493E%g= 7P_9H<?jKZ.@ 7'G4H<7 7uj. 37N\.7?3:l\ ?$\;.?$ =>\K\.7J7v :44=b:/v );.=>?3jG_9;._vbH ^$Ujc\.j.^GU:<gF?3v ;.E.?$\%=>C[7Jc:<Zc7u93=>K\c3GI7H>?LJF7uv =VHbZh9/gF37M7MH<j.Kj 7PGU4H<^3?37uj.E=O77u?$==b2M;L9HVH ATU?$?L:N\ J.ZLJ 7 :l?}@+jK?39Y=>=>7 7NCFvuH<?393j.\\ 7 
H<9=b39? \K4J}:<EH<?$jK: 7 IH U ?$vb\j 42 E.C};.\.
N7 &7v HY/7DY?$;.G_JFjK937)^$?HXZhg};%: 4\.^[:<E%77Jvbj%9\.^$7H<?[JL?VH<j.7
"

%+

#

!$ 

 %

%(*!

'

%+

Qyhp

       

+

pd looper
delwrite~ G06del 100
fiddle~ 2048
unpack

mtof

moses 1

expr 500/$f1

fundamental frequency

t f b

1/2 period, in msec

samplerate~
expr 2048000/$f1

+
delread~ G06del

estimate fiddle~ delay


as one window (in msec)

pack 0 20
line~

vd~ G06del
+~
|
OUT

r 4^3;.=>7MpL2 ?3Q3ZLo ! 7v ATH \ H>? ?LH<v ;.H>\K9377 9JLvu?3?3;KC}Z.ZcGU7= %


GIH>7u;K=N:<7H<:?8E =>U7uH>CFvbj ?$47[\L@+H>?$j.=<7'C'?L9J.H UJ ?$\ jK9+=>?$CFZLH>?39 \ U_v\Ku7: J 4\0;K: 94\\.^ U\9 
vu?3C U\K^F:<?3;K\KJ 2

Qy$z
     


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H<?1y$j.y3By7$Q393y= d$_9z ZK#GUg 7 )JL7uj.G_79=<g e7 4g :_:H</jK7H<jK:>7V9:<CF93CM7 TEKE.GU7NG4;K=b: 9H<1 7$32 Q0?@[H<j.7 CF793:<;.=>7J E%7= 4?LJ?@[H<j.7
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vph42 7` :) ?3_:Y@|kuH<7uj.=>7V?[=>97H:<;.H<GUjKH 7D4\.@+^=>7vuti?3;.C[7u\%Zv K47GU: H<7 =`93=< 7[$&Q $ $ h2 d:l?[ 2 H<m j. 7$=<$&7$ :lK;.H>GUj.H 47O\.^MH>=>:l93?$\K;.:\K@+7J'=)v @+;.?$\i\KH>v 9 H 44?3\K\:?3 \.:l7G4gMv H H<4?3j.\ 7
EKU\%9v =<?3H C_94G_\.:B^9HX:<?3C};.;.\%GUJH 4E.4:TGU7?3:X;L?3H>@E.Q ;L HT H 93_v\} 7 ?L2 v 9H>92 jK397)GU93@  Z%vu?gL$v 7YG47VH>9j.EK7D93?$=l= H 4%^ 4?L\KJ.9JG 2jK]L937u=<7uCF\'?$93\ \.4v?:DH>j.97u=>=X7OH>j.9g7u=>7uH<Zhj.g7
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%$





 %, % 

 
! 

! 

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"



 

 %

Qy$o

       

+

frequency

time constant
(msec)
100

on/off

110
metro

phasor~ 80
delwrite~ G07del 30
*~

* 4

+ 1
mod 4

line~

t f b
delread~ G07del 30
random 1000
*~

line~
expr 2 * $f1/1000 0.7

delread~ G07del 17
pack 0 0 200
*~

line~
route 0 1 2 3

delread~ G07del 11
*~

line~

+~
|
OUT

>Hr j.4^37N;.H>=>937PEKph:u22 `3y !A <: jK9337u=


$9O@+?3;K=  H>93Ev ?$C[Z'KGUH<7=Y UH<j=>93\KJL?$CMG4gM93=<g 4\.^[^i9 4\K:X?$\

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%$

 
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!$%#

 

%$

!)  !

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"

 

 !&

QL1$1

       

+

inlet~

"early echo" generators, which also increase echo density.

reverbecho echodel1 5.43216


reverbecho echodel2 8.45346
reverbecho echodel3 13.4367
Get the outputs of the recirculating

reverbecho echodel4 21.5463

delays. Add the inputs to two of them.


reverbecho echodel5 34.3876

delread~ loopdel1 60

reverbecho echodel6 55.5437

delread~ loopdel2 71.9345


delread~ loopdel3 86.7545
+~

+~
delread~ loopdel4 95.945

outlet~

outlet~

Tap outputs from here.


+~

+~

Do a powerconserving
mix of them in pairs.
First combine (1,2) and
(3,4)...

+~

+~

...then (1,3) and (2,4)


feedback gain on a scale
of 0100 controls reverb
time.
/ 200
inlet

*~

min 100
*~

*~

*~
max 0
delwrite~ loopdel4 95.945

delwrite~ loopdel3 86.7545


Put the signals back into
the recirculating delays.

delwrite~ loopdel2 71.9345


delwrite~ loopdel1 60

r 4^3;.=>7Vph2 `.1 !BAT\93=lH Iv _9G =>7u37=<Z7u=b9H>?3=2

QL1Q

     

inlet~



inlet~

+~

delwrite~ $1 $2
delread~ $1 $2
outlet~

outlet~

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%$

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%$



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QL1`

       

+

r transpose
r window

< transposition
(halftones)
* 0.05776
0

<window
(msec)

max 1

exp
speed
change

* 0.001

t b f

* 1

delay
(msec)

tape head
rotation freq

r delay
pack 0 200

+~ 0.5
line~

phasor~

wrap~

max 1.5
pack 0 200

~ 0.5

*~

*~ 0.5

+~

cos~

vd~ G09del

~ 0.5

*~

*~ 0.5

+~

cos~

vd~ G09del

line~

*~
*~
+~
|
OUT

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QL1d

     



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