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Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal.

Mammals during pregnancy can have one or more gestations at the same time (multiple gestations). The time interval of a gestation is called the gestation period. In human obstetrics, gestational age refers to the embryonic or fetal age plus two weeks. This is approximately the duration since the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) began.

embryo (irregularly from Greek: , plural , lit. "that which grows," from en- "in" + bryein, "to swell, be full"; the proper Latinate form would be embryum) is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth,hatching, or germination. In humans, it is called an embryo until about eight weeks after fertilization (i.e. ten weeks after the last menstrual periodor LMP), and from then it is instead called a fetus. The development of the embryo is called embryogenesis. In organisms that reproduce sexually, once a sperm fertilizes an egg cell, the result is acell called the zygote, which possesses half the DNA of each of its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism. The result of this process is an embryo.

Viable or viability is the ability of a thing (a living organism, an artificial system, an idea, etc.) to maintain itself or recover its potentialities. "Viability is the ability to germination of the seed when provide it to all environmental condition." Viable or viability may also refer to: Fetal viability, the ability of a fetus to survive outside of the uterus Viability selection, the selection of individual organisms who can survive until they are able to reproduce Viability of cells, the status of a cell to survive, grow, and multiply Viability study, a study of the profitability of a business concept which is to be converted into a business Viable Paradise, an annual one-week writing workshop held each autumn on Martha's Vineyard Viable system model, a scientific model of the organization of a viable or autonomous system Viable system phenomena, the science of observing the behavior of a system Viable prefix, in computer science, the set of prefixes of right sentential forms which can appear on the stack of a shift-reduce parser Genetic viability, having a realistic chance of avoiding the problems of inbreeding Minimum viable population, in biology, ecology, and conservation biology, a lower bound on the population of a species, such that it can survive in the wild Minimum viable product, in product development, a strategy used for fast and quantitative market testing of a product or product feature Population viability analysis, a species-specific method of risk assessment frequently used in conservation biology

Gravida/para/abortus (GPA), or sometimes just gravida/para (GP), is a shorthand notation for a woman's obstetric history.

Gravida indicates the number of times the mother has been pregnant, regardless of whether these pregnancies were carried to term. A current pregnancy, if any, is included in this count. Para indicates the number of >20 wks births (including viable and non-viable i.e. stillbirths). Pregnancies consisting of multiples, such as twins or triplets, count as ONE birth for the purpose of this notation. Abortus is the number of pregnancies that were lost for any reason, including induced abortions or miscarriages. The abortus term is sometimes dropped when no pregnancies have been lost. Stillbirths are not included.

Therefore, the history of a woman who has had two pregnancies (both of which resulted in live births) would be noted as G2P2. The obstetrical history of a woman who has had four pregnancies, one of which was a miscarriage before 20 weeks, would be noted as G4P3A1 (in the UK this is written as G4P3+1). That [1]:142 of a woman who has had one pregnancy of twins with successful outcomes would be noted as G 1P1.

multipara /multipara/ (mul-tipah-rah) a woman who has had two or more pregnancies resulting in
viable fetuses, whether or not the offspring were alive at birth.multiparous

grand multipara a woman who has had six or more pregnancies resulting in viable fetuses.

primigravida
[primigravid] Etymology: L, primus + gravidus, pregnancy a woman pregnant for the first time. Also called gravida. Compare multigravida, primipara. primigravid, adj.

nulligravida
[nuligravd] a woman who has never been pregnant. para (parah) a woman who has produced one or more viable offspring, regardless of whether the child or children were living at birth. Used with Roman numerals to designate the number of such pregnancies, as para 0 (nonenullipara), para I (oneprimipara), para II (twosecundipara), etc. Symbol P.

Parity (biology) (redirect from Primipara)


A woman who has given birth once before is primiparous, and would be referred to as a primipara or primip. A woman who has given birth two ...

In medicine, gravidity refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant,[1] regardless of whether the pregnancies were interrupted (by abortion, or fetal death) or resulted in a live birth. In biology, the term gravid (from Latin gravid-us,-a, burdened, heavy[2]) is used to describe the condition of an animal (most commonly fish or reptiles) when carrying eggs internally. Inentomology it describes a mated female insect.

A gravida is a pregnant woman. A nulligravida or gravida 0 is a woman who has never been pregnant. A primigravida or gravida 1 is a woman who is pregnant for the first time or has been pregnant one time. A multigravida or more specifically a gravida 2 (also secundigravida), gravida 3, and so on, is a woman who has been pregnant more than one time. An elderly primigravida is a woman in her first pregnancy, who is at least 35 years old. This term is becoming less common as it may be considered offensive.[3]

Cancer i/knsr/, known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer,cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumors are cancerous. Benign tumors do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neighboring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body. There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict humans.[1] Determining what causes cancer is complex. Many things are known to increase the risk of cancer, including tobacco use, certain infections,radiation, lack of physical activity, obesity, and environmental pollutants.[2] These can directly damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause the disease.[3] Approximately five to ten percent of cancers are entirely hereditary. Cancer can be detected in a number of ways, including the presence of certain signs and symptoms, screening tests, or medical imaging. Once a possible cancer is detected it is diagnosed by microscopic examination of a tissue sample. Cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. The chances of surviving the disease vary greatly by the type and location of the cancer

and the extent of disease at the start of treatment. While cancer can affect people of all ages, and a few types of cancer are more common in children, the risk of developing cancer generally increases with age. In 2007, cancer caused about 13% of all human deaths worldwide (7.9 million). Rates are rising as more people live to an old age and as mass lifestyle changes occur in the developing world.[4]

Signs and symptoms

When cancer begins it invariably produces no symptoms with signs and symptoms only appearing as the mass continues to grow or ulcerates. The findings that result depends on the type and location of the cancer. Few symptoms are specific, with many of them also frequently occurring in individuals who have other conditions. Cancer is the new "great imitator". Thus it is not uncommon for people diagnosed with cancer to have been treated for other diseases to which it was assumed their symptoms were due. A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapid loss of brain function(s) due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockage (thrombosis, arterial embolism), or a hemorrhage.[1] As a result, the affected area of the brain cannot function, which might result in an inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech, or aninability to see one side of the visual field.[2] A stroke is a medical emergency and can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and death. Risk factors for stroke include old age,high blood pressure, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), diabetes, high cholesterol, tobacco smoking and atrial fibrillation.[2] High blood pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor of stroke.[2] It is the second leading cause of death worldwide.

Signs and symptoms

Stroke symptoms typically start suddenly, over seconds to minutes, and in most cases do not progress further. The symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. The more extensive the area of brain affected, the more functions that are likely to be lost. Some forms of stroke can cause additional symptoms. For example, in intracranial hemorrhage, the affected area may compress other structures. Most forms of stroke are not associated withheadache, apart from subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral venous thrombosis and occasionally intracerebral hemorrhage. Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus) is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains [1] ofmycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection [2] cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit their saliva through the air. Most infections areasymptomatic and latent, but about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected.

Signs and

symptoms
About 510% of those without HIV, infected with tuberculosis, develop active disease during their lifetimes.[8] In contrast, 30% of those coinfected with HIV develop active disease.[8] Tuberculosis may infect any part of the body, but most commonly occurs in the lungs (known as pulmonary tuberculosis).[9] Extrapulmonary TB occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs. Extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary TB as well.[9] General signs and symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue,[9] and significant finger clubbing may also occur.[8]

Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.[2] This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms

ofpolyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Dengue fever (UK /de/ or US /di/), also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A. aegypti. The virus has four different types; infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. As there is no vaccine, prevention is sought by reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites. Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. The incidence of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the 1960s, with around 50100 million people infected yearly. Early descriptions of the condition date from 1779, and its viral cause and the transmission were elucidated in the early 20th century. Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is endemic in more than 110 countries. Apart from eliminating the mosquitoes, work is ongoing on a vaccine, as well as medication targeted directly at the virus.

Signs and symptoms


Typically, people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic (80%) or only have mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever.[1][2][3]Others have more severe illness (5%), and in a small proportion it is lifethreatening.[1][3] The incubation period (time between exposure and onset of

symptoms) ranges from 314 days, but most often it is 47 days.[4] Therefore, travelers returning from endemic areas are unlikely to have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after arriving home.[5] Children often experience symptoms similar to those of the common cold and gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea),[6] and generally have less severe symptoms than adults,[7]but are at greater risk of severe complications.[5][7]

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