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Comparison of Wilkinson Power Divider And Gysel Power Divider Using Ads For The Frequency Range of 3 Ghz

S.Banu1, A.Vishwapriya2, R.Yogamathi3,A.V.Meenakshi4, SPK.Babu5


Periyar Maniammai University, Thanjavur, India
rememberbanu@gmail.com,vishwaa.nivi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Wilkinson Power Divider (WPD) and Gysel Power Divider(GPD) are two competing power dividers and a simple comparison between them helps in choosing the technology for particular application. In this paper, the performance of Wilkinson Power Divider and Gysel Power Divider are analyzed based on the insertion loss, return loss, and also the isolation between the output ports. The insertion loss and return loss of GPD is found to be lower about -3.061dB and -13.754dB respectively when compared with WPD at a center frequency of 1.5GHz. These losses of power dividers realized by microstrip line are analyzed with the operating frequency of 3GHz using ADS software.

KEYWORDS
Wilkinson Power Divider (WPD), Gysel Power Divider(GPD), Advanced Design System(ADS), Micro-strip line(MLIN).

1. INRODUCTION
Power dividers are also called as power splitters, when used in reverse acts as the power combiner. It plays a vital role in various RF and communication applications [1,2]. The areas of applications are TV analyzer, hand-held spectrum analyzer, antenna arrays, and microwave applications, WLAN such as 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n over a frequency range of 2.4GHz band. It is a passive device which is used in the field of radio technology which requires power to be distributed among different paths. Power dividers are used especially for antenna array systems that utilize power-splitting network, such as a corporate or parallel feed system. The two main categories of power dividers are reactive and resistive and each can be suited for specific applications. In the above categories, Wilkinson Power Divider (WPD) belongs to reactive power divider properties such as lossless network, high isolation between output ports, low insertion loss and low isolation loss [1,2,8]. It has a single input port and more than one output port with the advantage of matching all ports theoretically and output ports are isolated from one another [4]. Power dividers can be designed with different transmission line sections such as stripline, microstrip and lumped circuit elements. The desirable properties of a power divider are low insertion loss, low isolation loss, high isolation between output ports and high return loss. The additional deseriable property of a power
Sundarapandian et al. (Eds): CoNeCo,WiMo, NLP, CRYPSIS, ICAIT, ICDIP, ITCSE, CS & IT 07, pp. 0108, 2012. CS & IT-CSCP 2012 DOI : 10.5121/csit.2012.2401

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divider is wider bandwidth leading to number of sections and is helpful for N-way power division [1,2].

Figure 1: Basic N-way power divider [8,9]

As an illustration let us consider an RF and microwave transmitters which use power dividers/combiners to produce high output power to antenna in phased-array systems [8,9]. In such a case, it is also required to provide a high degree of isolation between output ports over some frequency range. Figure 1 shows a basic parallel beam N-way divider/combiner, which provides a combination of powers from the N signal sources. Here, the input impedance of the Ntransmission lines (connected in parallel) with the characteristic impedance of Z0 each is equal to Z0/N. With Section I giving the introduction about power dividers the Section II deals with WPD and section III deals about GPD where as section IV describe the comparisons of GPD over WPD. Section V details about results and discussion where as section VI and section VII includes the conclusion and reference respectively.

2. WILKINSON POWER DIVIDER


Figure 2 shows the simulation design of WPD using ADS. The WPD has been widely used, and numerous works have been done in order to minimize its size or to achieve unequal dual band power division or wideband power dividers [5, 6]. The shortcoming of WPD is the inability to dissipate the heat to the surrounding. The WPD is a three-port network and lossless when the output ports are matched; where only reflected power is dissipated. Input power can be split into two or more in-phase signals with same amplitude [9]. The design of equal-split (3dB) WPD consists of two parallel microstrip lines. The input is given to both the microstrip lines and the outputs are terminated with twice the system impedance bridged between them. The desirable characteristic of WPD is that it solves the matching problem of the simple T-junction, low VSWR at all ports and isolation between output ports [8-10]. When it acts as an N-way combiner it cannot provide sufficient isolation between input ports. The output impedances are perfectly matched only when all input signals have the same amplitudes and phases at any combiner input. Isolation between any two input ports can be expressed by S-parameter as = 10 Where N is a number of the input ports and i, j = 2 N + 1. (1)

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Figure 2: Realization of WPD using ADS.

3. GYSEL POWER DIVIDER


As opposed to WPD, GPD is used to successfully combine and divide RF power above 10 kilowatt level for each input. This design has characteristics such as low insertion loss, high isolation between output ports, matched conditions at all ports, external high power load resistors and monitoring capabilities for imbalances at the input ports. GPD has not only the advantage of high power-handling capability [12] but also monitoring capability for imbalance at the output ports. In the above aspects it outperforms the WPD. Figure 3 shows the simulated design of GPD using ADS.

Figure 3: Realization of GPD using ADS.

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4. GPD VERSUS WPD


The GPD provides high power-handling capability and monitoring capability for imbalance at the output ports [12]. The presence of the resistor is transferred the generated heat to the surrounding media. Thus we can say from this GPD overcomes the problem of WPD. GPD has high isolation between output ports when compared to WPD and so it has high power handling capability. It also closely relates to RRC[11]. The above properties are already reported in many literatures for example see [11 - 12].

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The following figures show the simulation result of insertion loss and return loss of WPD and GPD using ADS. From the figures, it is shown that GPDs return loss is highly desirable and the insertion loss is low when compared with WPD. Figure 4 and Figure 7 shows the return loss of about -5.823dB and -19.577dB respectively. Comparing these two return loss is highly desirable of about -13.754dB.

Figure 4: Return loss of GPD

Figure 5: Insertion loss of GPD

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It is also seen in Figure 5 and Figure 8 the insertion loss of about -6.128dB and -3.067dB respectively. Comparing these two figures the insertion loss is minimized to about -3.061dB. So GPD is advantageous over WPD. Figure 6 and Figure 9 shows the general sparameter[S(1,1),S(2,1),S(2,3)] simulation of GPD and WPD respectively.

Figure 6: S-parameter simulation of GPD

Figure 7: Return loss of WPD

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Figure 8: Insertion loss of WPD

Figure 9: S-parameter simulation of WPD

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The important results are tabulated in Table 1. Table 1: Performance analysis of GPD and WPD Power dividers WPD GPD Return loss (S11 in dB) -19.577 -5.823 Insertion loss (S12 in dB) -3.067 -6.128

Table1 gives the performance analysis of GPD over WPD on the basis of return loss and insertion loss at the center frequency of 1.5GHz. GPDs return loss and insertion loss is measured of about -5.823dB and -6.128dB where as WPDs return loss and insertion loss is measured about 19.577dB and -3.067dB respectively. Hence the insertion loss and return loss of GPD is found to be lower about -3.061dB and -13.754dB respectively when compared with WPD.

6. CONCLUSION
In this paper, the performance comparison of WPD and GPD are analyzed in terms of return loss and isolation loss with the operating frequency of 3GHz. Due to the transfer of heat through the resistors, GPD possesses high power-handling capabilities and also due to high isolation between the output ports, the insertion loss, return loss gets minimized to about -3.061dB and -13.754dB respectively. The simulation result shows the reduction of losses between the two dividers using ADS software. Thus, we conclude that GPD overcomes the limitations and has better performance when compared to WPD.

REFERENCES
Hosseini, F., M. Khalaj-Amir Hosseini, and M. Yazdani, A miniaturized Wilkinson power divider using non uniform transmission line," Journal of Electromagnetics Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 7, 917-924, 2009. [2] Li, B., X. Wu, and W. Wu, A 10:1 unequal Wilkinson power divider using coupled lines with two shorts," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 19, No. 12, 789-791, 2009. [3] Zhang, Z., Y.-C. Jiao, S. Tu, S.M. Ning, and S.F. Cao, A miniaturized broadband 4:1 unequal Wilkinson power divider," Journal of Electromagnetics Waves and Applications, Vol. 24,No. 4, 505511, 2010. [4] Wu, Y., Y. Liu, S. Li, and C. Yu, \Extremely unequal Wilkinson power divider with dual transmission lines," Electronics Letters, Vol. 46, No. 1, 90-91, 2010. [5] Li, X., S.-X. Gong, L. Yang, and Y.J. Yang, A novel Wilkinson power divider for dual-band operation," Journal of Electromagnetics Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, Nos. 2-3, 395-404, 2009. [6] Wu, Y. L., Y. A. Liu, S. L. Li, and C. P. Yu, A new symmetric modified Wilkinson power divider using L-type dual-band impedance matching structure," Journal of Electromagnetics Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, Nos. 17-18, 2351-2362, 2009. [7] Lin, Z. and Q.-X. Chu, A novel approach to the design of dual-band power divider with variable power dividing ratio based on coupled-lines," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 103, 271284, 2010. [8] Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005, third ed., pp. 318-324. [9] Collin, R. E., Foundations for Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001, pp.442-443. [10] Hong, J. S., Lancaster, M. J., Micro strip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications, John Wiley & Sons,Inc. p. 48, 2001. [1]

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[11] www.microwaves101.com [12] H.Zhang, X.Shi, F.Wei and L.Xu, Compact wideband Gysel Power Divider with arbitrary power division based on patch type structure, Progress In Electro magnetics Research, Vol. 119, 395-406, 2011.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Mrs.S.Banu completed her Bachelors Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering and doing Masters in Wireless Communication systems in the year 2010 and 2012 respectively. She has published one paper in journal and four papers in conference proceedings. Her areas of interest are microwave engineering and RF/Antenna design.

Ms.A.Vishwapriya completed her Bachelors Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering and doing Masters in Wireless Communication systems in the year 2011 and 2012 respectively. She has published one paper in journal and four papers in conference proceedings. Her areas of interest are microwave engineering and RF/Antenna design.

Ms.R.Yogamathi completed her Bachelors Degree in Information Technology and doing Masters in Wireless Communication systems in the year 2011 and 2012 respectively. She has published one paper in journal and four papers in conference proceedings. Her areas of interest are wireless communication and RF/Antenna design.

Dr.SPK.Babu completed his Bachelors Degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering and Masters in Communication systems in the year 1995 and 1998 respectively. He did his Ph.D in Universiti Sains Malaysia in the field of wireless digital communication in 2010. He has published two papers in impact factor journal and numerous work in conference proceedings. He has more than thirteen years of teaching experience in India and abroad. His areas of interest are signal processing for communication systems and RF/Antenna design.

A.V.Meenakshi received her B.E degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from madras university, Government College of Engineering in the year 1998, and her M.E degree in Communication Systems from Anna university, Thiagarajar College of Engineering Madurai in 2004.She is currently working as an Assistant professor in Periyar Maniammai University, Thanjavur, India. She has also authored or coauthored over 6 international journal papers and 13 international conference papers. Her current research interests and activities are in signal processing, RF components design and wireless communication.