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THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

The
Fireless
A
Manual

Cook Book
and Use of

of the Construction

Appliances for Cooking by Retained Heat

WITH

250
By

RECIPES

MARGARET

J.

MITCHELL
t

Anthor of "Cereal Poods and Thar Prepaxatxm"; foinieily IXeUtfan (rf Manhattan State Hospital. New York: Director dt Dotnestac Sdeoce in Public S^km^ Bradford, Pa.; Instructor in Domestic Science, Drezel
Instxtnte. Philaddphia, Pa.

'

'

"

"*

2* ? ^

New York DOUBLEDxW, PAGE & COMPANY


Garden City
1013

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, mCLUDINt; THAT OF TRANSLATION


INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN

COFXRIGHT, 1909, BY DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY PUBLISHED, MAY, igog

Assistance

is

gratefully

acknowledged from Mr. Abra-

ham Henwood,
who
istry in the

Professor of Chemistry at Drexel Institute,

supplied valuable information and revised the chem-

Appendix.
also

Thanks are lunch room in

due

to

Mrs. Runyon, manager of the

the Buffalo

Chamber

of

Commerce, and

to

Miss Armstrong, director of the Drexel Institute Lunch

Room,
others

for information furnished

by them upon the subject


quantities
;

of fireless cookery with

large

and

to

many

who have

aided the author by advice, information,

and encouragement.

304671

PREFACE
this book is to present in a conform such directions for making and cookers and similar insulating using fireless boxes, that those who are not experienced, even in the ordinary methods of cookery, may be able

The

aim of

venient

to

follow^

them

fact

that their

and with success. management has been so


easily

The
little

understood has been the cause of failures


the adventurous

among

women who,

attracted by their

novelty, have tried to experiment with

them and
and are

have come to the mistaken conclusion that they


are

not practical, have limited

scope,

altogether a good deal of a disappointment.

Such

women
will not

have made the statement that they are

not adapted to cooking starchy foods; that they

do

for

most vegetables; that raised breads


in

and puddings cannot be cooked


there
is

them, and that


It

little

economy
found,

in

using them!

has

invariably been

however, that a better


followed

understanding of their management has resulted


in

complete

success,

inevitably

by

enthusiasm.

The

first

few chapters of the book give directions

viii

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


making and using a cooker, methods of

for

measuring, and some tables for quick reference,


followed by a large
recipes,

number of frequently tested some of which are entirely original, but

many of which are based on the well-tried recipes from such books as Miss Farmer's " Boston Cooking School Cook Book," Mrs. I/incoln's "Boston Cook Book," Miss Smedley's "Institution

Recipes,"

and

Miss

Ronald's

"Century

Cook Book," somewhat modified and adapted


to

hay-box cookery. "The Fireless Cooker," by Lovewell, Whittemore, and Lyon, has furnished some excellent ideas, such as the refrigerating box and home-made insulated oven and insulating pail, which have been elaborated in this book.

Miss

Huntington's

bulletin,

"The

Fireless

Cooker," has also been suggestive of a number


of experiments which are to be found in the

Appendix.

The
tions,

chapter on

"Institution

Cookery" was
small institu-

introduced in the hope that

many

boarding-house keepers, and those


arranged in suitable

who

are

managing lunch-rooms, would be induced, by


finding
recipes

quantities

for them, to introduce fireless cookers into their

kitchens, and benefit

by the great saving

in

labour

and expense which

is

specially necessary to those


their kitchens for sup-

who

are dependent

upon

PREFACE
port.

ix

When
it

little

experience
all

is

gained by using

them,
in

will

be found that

the other recipes

the

book can be enlarged without minute


be noticed that nearly every recipe
in

directions.
It will

the book states

how many

persons

it

will

serve,

the idea being that, in spite of the variable quantities

which

different

people use, this would act

as

a guide to those

closely.

who wish to plan rather Where two numbers are given the varidifference between

ation

is

in proportion to the

the

amount eaten by men and by women. The Appendix describes or suggests a series of
scientific

experiments illustrating the

as well

as

the practical side of fireless cookery.

Many

of

them would be easy for the average housekeeper to carry out, and would illuminate the subject to an extent which would repay her; but they
are specially planned for students of household

economics who have time and opportunity for


such work, and

who

are supposed to

know more

than mere methods of housework, and to require


an explanation of the principles involved.

CONTENTS
CHAPTEX
I.

VAGX

11.

III.

The The The

Fireless

Cooker
.

Portable Insulating Pail


Refrigerating
for

32

Box

36

IV.

Cooking

Two

V.
VI.
VII.

Measuring

....
Ma.
.

40
43

Tables of Weights and Measures

45 47

Table of Proportions
Seasoning and Flavouring
terials

VIII.

IX.

Breakfast Cereals

49 52
57
81

X.
XI.
XII. XIII.

Soups
Fish

Beef

89
.

Lamb and Mutton


Veal

106

XIV. XV. XVI. XVII.


CVIII.

114

Pork
Poultry
.

120
.

126 136

Vegetables

Steamed Breads and Puddings


Fruits
.

154
168

XIX.

XX. XXI.

Miscellaneous Recipes

183

Recipes

for the Sick

195

xii

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Recipes
for

XXII.
XXIII.

Cooking
. .

in

Large
.
,

Quantities

202
221

XXIV.

The Insulated Oven Menus


Appendix
Additional Recipes

250 257 277 297

Classified Index of Recipes

Alphabetical Index of Recipes

307

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

The

Fireless

Cook Book

THE FIRELESS COOKER

DOES the
until
it is

idea appeal to you of putting your

dinner on to cook and then going visiting,


or to the theatre, or sitting

down
It

to read, write,

or sew, with no further thought for your food

time to serve

it ?

sounds

like a fairy-

you can bring food to the boiling box of hay, and leave it for a few hours, returning to find it cooked, and often better cooked than in any other way! Yet it is true. Norwegian housewives have known this for many years; and some other European nations have used the hay-box to a considerable extent, although it is only recently that its wonders have become rather widely known and talked about in America. The original box filled with hay has gone through a process of evolution, and become the fireless cooker of varied form and adaptability. Just what can we expect the fireless cooker to do What foods will it cook to advantage ?
tale to say that

pointj put

it

into a

.?

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Almost
all

such dishes as are usually prepared

by boiling or steaming, as well as many that are baked soups, boiled or braised meats,

fish,

sauces,

fruits,

vegetables,

puddings, eggs,

in fact, almost everything that does not

need to

be crisp can be cooked in a simple hay-box.


If the

composition

of foods

and the general


understood, but

principles
little

of cookery are well

special instruction will

be needed to enable
the

one to prepare such dishes with success; though


even a novice
the
individual

may

use a fireless cooker

if

general directions and explanations, as well as


recipes,

are

carefully

read

and

followed.

While such dishes as toast, pancakes,

roast or broiled meats,

baked bread and


in

biscuits,

are

impossible

to

cook

the

simpler
the

form
latest

of

hay-box,

the

insulated
fireless

oven,
cooker,

development
tion of

of the

opens

up

possibilities that

may lead to
meats,

much wider adapta-

home-made
Roast
in the

insulators to domestic pur-

poses.

however,

may
in the

first

be

cooked

oven and completed

hay-box

or cooker, or they
till

may

be cooked in the hay-box

nearly done and then roasted for a short time

to obtain the crispness

which can be given only

by cooking with great heat. During ordinary cooking there is a great loss of heat, due to radiation from the cooking utensil

THE FIRELESS COOKER


and escaping steam.
in the
If,

however, this heat could

be retained, the food would continue to cook

absence of

fire.

This

is

what occurs

in the

hay-box.

will, if closely

Hay, being a poor conductor of heat, packed around a kettle of boiling

food, maintain, for a

number of hours,

a sufficiently

high temperature to continue the cooking process.

The
the

familiar

practice

of using newspapers or

carpet in keeping ice from melting depends

upon

same
is

principle.

In both cases a material

which

a poor conductor of heat,


air

when

interposed

between the surrounding


found
to

and

articles

which
Other

are either colder or hotter than the air, being

preserve

their

temperature.

materials than hay or papers will act in the

same
will

way; such, for instance, as


have the

excelsior,

sawdust,

wool, mineral wool, and others.

vacuum

same

effect

as

insulating

materials.

The "Thermos
which are glass

Bottle" and similar inventions,


bottles
in

surrounded by a vacuum
hours.
If heated with a
is

and
little

contained

metal cases, will keep foods

hot or cold for

many

boiling water before boiling food

poured

in they will

even cook some foods


is

satisfactorily.

A vacuum

expensive, as

it is

difficult to obtain,

and therefore the ordinary


is

fireless
if

cooker

is

better

suited to every-day use; but


at

one of these bottles


illness

hand

it

may

be utilized in cases of

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

or on journeys or in other unusual circumstances,

when a cooker is not available. The general trend of recent


that the prevalent idea that

scientific investi-

gation seems to indicate more and more clearly


all

food must be

cooked
boiling

at a high temperature,

such as that of
is

w^ater

(212

degrees

Fahrenheit),

mistaken

one.

Experiments

have

shown that
tem-

starches are

made thoroughly

digestible at

peratures varying from 149 degrees to 185 degrees

Fahrenheit. Cellulose, the


foods,

woody fibre of vegetable


at a

becomes perfectly softened


which
all

temperature
vegetable

considerably below 212 degrees, while albuminous


materials, of

animal and

many

foods are largely composed, are not only well-

cooked

at a

low temperature, but are decidedly


than when cooked
at the

more

easily digestible

higher temperatures of boiling or baking.

SPECIAL ADVANTAGES OF THE FIRELESS COOKER


First, its

economy, not only of fuel and of space


efi^ort,

on the

stove, but of

of utensils, and also of


It

food materials and flavour.

has been stated

that 90 per cent, of the fuel used in ordinary

cooking will be saved by the hay-box.


as

This

percentage will vary with different housekeepers,


better than others, but there

some understand the economy of fuel much is no doubt that it

THE FIRELESS COOKER


IS

very great

especially true

when the cooker when the fuel


use).

is is

used.
gas,

This

is

kerosene,

gasolene, or denatured alcohol (possibly the

comfire

ing fuel for

common

Where

wood

or, particularly,

where a coal

tained, the fuel saved


festly

fire must be mainby the cooker will, mani-

be

less

than with such fuels as can be

readily extinguished

when
is

their use

is

over, but
fuel.

even in such cases there

some economy of

One must
in

use the cooker to realize the saving

work that it means. Think what it is to have method of cooking involving no necessity for remaining in the kitchen to keep up a fire or watch As most hay-box cooking takes a conthe food siderable length of time, and many articles are not specially injured by overcooking, this means that foods can often be placed in the box and
a
!

left

for hours, while the housekeeper

is

enabled
care of

to

go out for a day's work, or to occupy her time


ways, with a mind free from
is

in other

all

the meal that

cooking.

The
hay

user of a hay-

box will soon hard to wash

find, too, that utensils are not so

after lying in

as

when food

has been dried or burned on, and as the scraping

and scouring given to ordinary utensils wears them out very fast, there is here also a considerable economy of utensils. There is found to be a very great saving of food materials on account of

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


foods

"left-over"

and

others

that

might

be

utilized, if the

long cooking which they require


palatable

to

make them

did

not involve

such

expense in the

way

of fuel as to offset the advan-

tage of using them, such as in the case of soup


stock, tougher cuts of meat, etc.

Special atten-

tion

is

paid in this book to the preparation of a


absence of heat

variety of cheap foods

The
is

and "left-overs." and odours in the kitchen


a cooker will not

another of the advantages of this cookery.


the hottest

On

summer days

increase the heat of the room, while even in a

living-room, onions, turnips, cabbage, and such


ill-smelling foods could be

cooked with no

sus-

picion of the fact on the part of the family or


visitors.

The

fact that
in

cooker can also be

made

attractive

appearance,

and

used

in

rooms not ordinarily used for cooking, is of interest to some people who are not able to com-

mand

even
life.

the

ordinary

amenities

of house-

keeping
gain

In the matter of flavour there


in
fireless

is

distinct

cookery.

Many

are

familiar,

by experience or hearsay, with the

specially

delicious flavour of food cooked in primitive ways,

such as burying the saucepan in a hole in the

ground, of clambakes, or of cooking food by

dropping heated stones into the mixture,

in

which

THE FIRELESS COOKER


cases the closely covered food
at a
is

slowly cooked

low temperature.

The

praises given to such

cookery are often ascribed to the "hunger-sauce*'


that usually accompanies outdoor cookery, but

not with entire justice, for there


in flavour.

is

a real difference

As
is

it

has been well proved that


easily

tasteless

food

less

or

thoroughly digested than food


flavour, owing,

which has a good

probably, to

the fact that high-flavoured food stimulates the

flow of digestive juices, the


this

advantage

lies

in

respect also with hay-box food over

much

of the ordinary food served.

The

bearing of fireless cookery upon the servantfill

problem might well

a chapter

by

itself.

Any
can
cook-

woman who

uses this

device for
this subject.

year

become eloquent upon

When
is

ing no longer ties one to the kitchen,

no longer

a labour that monopolizes one's time, dishevels

one's

person,

and exasperates the temper, the

cook
in

may

go.

We

shall save her wages, her food,

her room, and her waste, and have more to spend

ways that bring a more

satisfactory return.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING A HAY-BOX OR FIRELESS

COOKER
The box may be an unpainted one such
as can

be obtained for a few cents from any store where

10

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


size

one of suitable
trunk.
ciently

and shape is used, or it may be a handsome hardwood chest, or even an old


In selecting
it,

choose one

made

of

suffi-

heavy boards to admit of having hinges and


If
it is

on it. room, or where


a hasp put
desired,
it

to be used in a dining-

attractive

appearance

is

to

be

may

be covered with chintz or denim,


if

or a coat of paint,

not

made

of finished hard

wood.
lid at

An

old ice-box, one that has a hinged

the top, has been utilized for this purpose

with success.

barrel

makes an

excellent hay-

box, especially for very large

kettles,

but the

cover cannot easily be hinged and must, therefore,

be weighted to hold

it

down

tight.

In

size the box should be from two to five inches larger in every dimension than the kettle it con-

tains.

The

kettle

is,

therefore,

the

first

thing
it

to be secured,

and

full directions for

choosing

are given on page 13.


sider
is

The

next point to con-

the packing material.

When

this

has

been chosen, the directions for packing the box,


given on page 15, will
tell

how much

space must

be allowed for insulation and, consequently, of

what

box must be. If it is so large as to admit of more insulation than that absolutely required, there is no objection, only a possible If it is intended to pack the box with gain. more than one utensil this will also have a bearing
size the

THE FIRELESS COOKER


upon
its size.

ii

Allow nearly, or

quite, double the


is

insulation between the utensils that

provided

on the other sides, otherwise there may be difficulty in removing one utensil while the other is
still

cooking.
a hasp, or

Hinges and

some device
is

to hold

the cover of the box shut, will be necessary, as the packing should be such that there a
little

upward pressure on the

cover.

cushion

is is

desirable to cover each kettle used,

one which

thick
is

enough
place.

to

fill

the hay-box

after the kettle

in

For making these

cushions use muslin, denim, or any thing of the

kind that
the

is at

hand,

filling

them, generally, with

same material as that used in packing the Shape them like a miniature mattress, joining two pieces which are the dimensions of the top of the box with a strip which is from two and one-half inches to four or five inches wide, the width depending upon the material with which the cushion is stuffed, some materials
box.

requiring thicker insulation than others.

The packing
Southern

material

may

be either hay, straw,

paper, wool, mineral wool, excelsior, ground cork.

moss,

sawdust,
is

or

any

other

nonthe
is

conducting material that


choose soft hay.

adapted to

filling

space between the kettle and the box.


used,

If

hay

Wool

is,

perhaps, the

12

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

best heat retainer of those mentioned, and

is

easy and pleasant to handle.

Clean, soft wool

may
It

be purchased at woollen mills and elsewhere. should cost about thirty-five cents a pound.

Hay-Box With Two Compartments.


Partly packed compartment of hay-box,

Finished compartment
of

showing
Cushion.
pail to
fit

pail

in

place

for

packing.

hay-box.
Pail.

Cushion.

" Space
in

adjuster."

Small

Large
cover.

Pan and

" space adjuster."

but as

it

is

very light

it

requires

much
at

less,

by

weight, than of some other cheaper materials.

Mineral wool can be purchased

large hard-

ware

stores.

It costs

about

five cents a

pound,

THE FIRELESS COOKER


but about
as
five

13

times as

many pounds
Cheap
is

are required

an equivalent for wool.


at

cotton batting

can be obtained

dry-goods stores; ground cork

from large grocers.


dust,

This

used by them as
fruits.

packing for grapes or other fancy

SawExcel-

obtainable at sawmills, and perhaps else-

where, must be well dried before using.


sior is

used by

many

kinds of merchants, and can

be bought for about two cents a pound.


is

Hay

plentiful

in

country places and can also be

purchased

at feed-stores in the cities.

Southern

moss, easily procurable in the Southern States,

can be found
as well.

at

many

upholsterers' in the
hair,

North
used

Newspapers and

such as

is

by

plasterers, are available in city

and country.
will

The
least

utensils.

Perhaps the best shape for the


is,

cooking utensil, that


the depth of

one which
is

have the

possible radiating surface,


its

a pail about
sides should

own

diameter.

The
to

be

straight

and perpendicular
fit

the

bottom.
If a

The

cover should
is

securely into place.

smaller utensil

to be used inside the large one,


it

which

is

often a great convenience,

must not

be so high that the cover of the larger pail will


not go on.

the inside utensil, resting

"pudding pan" may be used for on the rim of the pail;


fit

but care must be taken, with this arrangement,


that a cover
is

secured that will

the

pan

closely.

14

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


To
select the material best

adapted for cooker

utensils
its

one must consider

its

wearing quality,

heat-absorbing power, to some extent, and also

the action

upon

it

of the water, acids,


in

salts, etc.,

which are found

the

foods.

For instance,
will rust

iron utensils, as well as most tinware that has

been used for any length of time,


will
tin

with

the long subjection to heat and moisture; acids

make

a disagreeable taste with iron or old acids


in

utensils; while

such long contact

with even
tin
salts

new

tin

might also form poisonous


quantity to be decidedly

in

sufficient

injurious.

Earthenware would seem ideal except


likely to

that
It
is

it

is

break when over the flame.

desirable that the covers be of the

same

material as the utensil, or of some other rust-

proof material.

It will

pay
a

to get the best,

when

buying these

kettles, for aijd

they will last well, with

reasonable care,

poor utensil will soon

be of no use whatever.
except for
its

Well-enameled

iron,

weight,

is

good; also the best quality

of agate ware, ordinary aluminum, or, perhaps


best of
all,

for very large utensils at least, cast

aluminum.
ties

Aluminum
it

is

expensive, but

its light

weight, excellently fitting parts, and lasting quali-

commend
size

above other materials, and

it

will

be found to pay in the end.


of the pails will depend to some extent

The

THE FIRELESS COOKER


upon the number of people
there
is

15

to be served, although

minimum

size,

below which there

is

not a sufficient bulk of food to cook well. Under the heading " Practical Suggestions on the Use

of the Fireless Cooker," this matter of quantity


is

more
it

fully discussed.

For a family of
fit

five

or

six

persons a six-quart pail with a pan to

inside

of

has been found satisfactory.

It will

be con-

venient to have also a larger pail for large pieces

of meat, such as hams.

Method of packing the box. This will vary somewhat with the different insulating materials used. These may be classified as: Those into which the cooking utensil may be
set

without

any

intervening

covering,

among

which are hay,

excelsior,

and paper.

Those requiring them in place and


with the utensil,

a covering material to keep


to protect

them from contact


are wool, mineral

among which
with the

wool, cork, sawdust, and cotton.

Boxes to be

filled

first

class of insulat-

ing materials are packed in the following manner:

Line the box and cover, smoothly, with one


thickness of heavy paper, or several thicknesses

of newspaper.
finding
pieces
its

This

will prevent cold air

from

way through
sifting out. lining.

the cracks, and dust and

from
a

Asbestos sheeting also

makes

good

Pack

in

the bottom of

i6

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


than three or four inches
raise the
in depth. This cooking pail to within from three

the box a firm layer of insulating material not


less

must

to five inches of the top of the


utensil in the

box.

Set the
it

middle of the space allowed for

on

this layer,

and pack around


will

it,

very tightly,

until level with the top of the kettle.


is

When
left

this

removed

it

be found to have
for
it

a hole

just large
little

enough

to slip

into

again.

manipulation will make the rim of this


less

pocket

ragged than

at

first.

The

cushion

for boxes

packed with excelsior or hay should


In packing with
first

be

at least four inches thick.

paper, lay

an even layer three or more inches


In
place

thick of folded papers, filling the space around

the kettle with soft, crumpled papers.

of

the top cushion,

make
flat

bundle of papers

folded to just the right

size.

This can only be


covers are used,
first

done when perfectly


over the
pail.
is

pail

unless a supplementary soft cushion be

laid

The box

now ready
use,
is

for cooking, but

if,

after

considerable

the

material

shrinks

so

that

the whole space

not firmly

filled, a little

more
be
at

may

be

added.

There

should

always
is

least a slight pressure

when

the cover

closed.

The paper

lining described on page 20, while not


is

necessary to this class of boxes,

an improvement.

THE FIRELESS COOKER


Boxes to be
filled

17

with the second class of

material are packed in the following manner:

Line the box with a smooth covering of paper or

Pack a layer of more in thickness, in the bottom, laying a piece of heavy paper on this. Sew two or three thicknesses of pliable cardboard into the form of a cylinder that (Fig. No. i.) will fit around the utensil loosely.
asbestos, tacked
into
place.

insulating material, three inches or

Figure No.

i.
fit

Pasteboard cylinder to

the pail.

must be of the same height as the kettle. Set this cooker-pail, surrounded by the cylinder, on Holding the kettle in place the layer in the box. with one hand, pack tightly around it, to the
It

level of the top of the pail.

(See page 12.)

The
this

efficiency of the

box depends largely upon


round hole, the
size of the

packing.
nest, in

Cut

cooker
fit

a piece of

heavy pasteboard,
completely.

to

the

top of the box.


that
it

Lay
it

this over the packing, so

will cover

The box

is

now

i8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


its

ready for

cloth lining.

To make

this, cut

three

pieces of cloth; one to be one-inch or

more larger
in

than the top of the box, with a round hole cut


its

centre,

one inch smaller than the diameter

of the cooker-pail (Fig. No. 2:1); another to be a

%
Figure No.
2.

Showing how

to cut the cloth pieces for lining a

home-made

cooker.

round piece one-inch larger than the diameter of the pail (Fig. No. 2:2); and the third to be a
strip

one-inch wider than the height of the

pail,

and long enough to go around it with an inch to Sew the ends of this strip spare (Fig. No. 2:3).

THE FIRELESS COOKER


together to
this

19

make

a cylinder.

Into one end of


piece.

cyHnder sew the round


is

The

other
in

end

to be

sewed into the large piece, taking

each case a half-inch seam.


into the

When

this is

put

box

it

will line the

nest for the kettle,


rests

and cover the pasteboard which


(Fig.

on

top.

No.

3.)

Remove

the pail and tack this

W
Figure No.
3.

Showing the cloth

lining just about to be placed in the box.

cloth lining in place, turning in the edges


it is

where
be

tacked to the box.


for

paper lining

may

substituted

cloth

in

the following manner:


at least

Take
the box.

a sheet of very heavy paper,

one
the

inch larger in every dimension than the top of

Draw

a circle in the centre of

it

size of the pail.

In the centre of this circle cut

20

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


enough
to insert the blade of
this

a small hole large

a pair of scissors.

From
(Fig.

hole,

cut to the

circle, so as to strike it at intervals

of about one
Fit the

and one-half inches.


this circle will

No.

4.)

paper

over the top of the packing in the box so that

come

just over the nest for the pail.


it

Put the cooker-pail into the nest and


crease the points

will

down

at exactly the right place.

Figure No. 4.

Showing the manner of cutting the paper coyering


for a fireless cooker.

paper lining
to cloth.

Figure No. 5 shows the cooker completed. A is in some respects to be preferred


It is

easy and quick to


if it

make and can


soiled.

be readily replaced

becomes

With

either class of cooker


It is well, in

more than one nest


that case, to have a

may

be made.

wooden

partition put into the

box before packing

THE FIRELESS COOKER


it,

21

although this

is

not strictly necessary.

Each

portion of the box can then be packed indepen-

dently and for utensils of different sizes


If possible,

if

desired.

wool, do the

when work out of

packing a box with mineral


doors, wearing a pair of

Figure No.

5.

Showing the paper

liniji/?

of a fireless cooker in place.

gloves, as particles

from
to

it fly

into the air

and are
skin.

extremely

irritating

the

throat

and
will

Twenty-five pounds of mineral wool


a

pack
fifteen

nine-quart pail

in

box

fifteen

by

inches and eleven inches high.

Five pounds of

wool
pail.

will

If

pack the same box for using a nine-quart a smaller pail is used, more wool or

mineral wool will be required.

22

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Sawdust
is

one of the easiest materials to handle.


answering the
purpose

It

packs easily and does not require a cloth

covering,
perfectly.

heavy paper

Proceed with the packing as for wool


In place of this and the

or mineral wool and such other materials, omitting


the pasteboard top.

cloth covering use a paper lining.

The "space
which
slips

adjuster''

into

padded cylinder a cooker pocket and makes a


is

**

Space adjuster" before


to
fill

it is

covered; and small pad

the space below the pail.

receiver for a smaller cooker-pail than that for

which the cooker was packed. It can be made by putting together two pasteboard cylinders of
equal length, one of which will
fit

rather loosely

outside of the small pail, and the other of which


will slip easily into the

cooker pocket and line


the small cylinder

it

from top

to bottom.

When

is

stood inside of the larger one the space between

the two should be firmly packed, preferably with

THE FIRELESS COOKER


a soft material such as cotton or wool.
the
filling in

23

To

keep

place while packing


twine, as
It

it

the cylinder

may

be

wound with
fitted

shown

in the

accom-

panying
with a

illustration.

muslin cover.
lift

may then be covered Sew two tabs on this

cover, with which to

the space adjuster out.

When

slipped into the cooker pocket, and the

small pail placed in the

new pocket

thus formed,

there will be found to be a space below the pail,

which may be

filled

by a round cushion made

for the purpose.

Section Tiew of " space adjuster " showing the pail

and cushion

in place.

Ready-made
are to be found

hay-boxes

and fireless cookers on the market, some of which

have
along

advantages
with

over the home-made article some disadvantages. First of the


is,

disadvantages

perhaps, the cost, the expense

being considerably greater than for the home-

made

box.

Also the choice in the matter of shapes


for the utensils cannot be as great

and material

24
as in

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


home-made
boxes, and

some of the cookers

are unpractical in minor details.

On

the other

hand, the commercial cookers are ready for use,

some of them being


purpose, and to
the cost.

excellently adapted to their

many

people this would offset

Those that

are

made

.of

metal, on the
all,

plan of refrigerators, perhaps not boxes at

would appeal to certain housekeepers as to be more cleanly than upholstered boxes.


as food
is

likely

But,

always in tightly-covered vessels, and

as experience has

shown

that ordinary care will

prevent anything from being spilled, a hay-box

having been kept sweet and clean without


so great
as

refilling
is

for over a year, the danger of uncleanliness

not

would

at

first

appear.

Doubtless

where servants are entrusted with the use of the cooker there would usually be a greater necessity
for

guarding against untidiness.


be
considered.
are

In selecting a ready-made cooker certain points

should

See

that

the

parts

fit

closely together,

simple and strong in con-

struction; that there are

no seams or pockets
if

in

the kettles which would be difficult,


sible, to get clean; that
size,

not impos-

the kettles are a suitable


if

namely, not too large,

they are to cook

food for a small family, and not too small to ensure


sufficient heat for
is

proper cooking; and that there

no

air

space over the cover that will not be

THE FIRELESS COOKER


filled

25

when
is

the cooker

is

closed.

In the case of

the metal cookers a round cover with a single

hinge

a point of

weakness, for the cover

is

not

sufficiently supported to

endure the strain of conDoubtless


in

stant use.

Many
be

of the cookers also use tin very


is

considerably, which
there
will

objectionable.

constant
is

improvements

these

inventions, as there

growing demand

for

them

and an increasing intelligence as

to their use.

MATERIALS NEEDED FOR A HOME-MADE FIRELESS

COOKER

A
A

box or barrel

(see

page

9).

One

pair of strong hinges.

hasp.

Material for stuffing (see page 11).

One One

or
or

more

large pails (see page 13).


pails or

more small

pans (see page

13).

Muslin, Iy yards or more, depending upon the size of the box,

cooking thermometer.

Heavy pasteboard.
Pliable pasteboard.

Brown

paper.
screws.

Tacks and

PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR USING A FIRELESS

COOKER
While success
sure
if

in using a

cooker

is

reasonably

directions are clear

and

detailed,

and can

be followed exactly, yet

it is

well to understand,

26
in

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


a general way, the

conditions of success in
if

order that a deviation from directions,

such

should ever be found necessary, will not


failure.

mean

As the cooking depends upon the


heat,
it

retention of

stands to reason that there must be heat

to retain.

pint of food does not contain as

much

heat as a quart, even though both be of

the same temperature to begin with.

This can

be demonstrated by setting a pint and a quart


of boiling water side by side.
its

The
its

pint will lose

small amount of heat and grow cold

much

sooner than the quart, with

larger amount.

After an equal time eight quarts of food in the

cooker have been found to register


other conditions being the same.
the failures of

15

degrees

Fahrenheit higher than one and one-half quarts,

This explains
are due to

some beginners which

the fact that such a small quantity of food

was

taken that there was not sufficient heat to begin


with.

Obviously

this

danger

is

less

with foods

requiring only a slight cooking, since, even with

small quantities, some time

elapses
all.

before the

food grows too cold to cook at

The
the
will

total quantity of

food

is,

therefore, seen to

be an important factor in success.

The

larger

amount of

food, the higher the temperature

be at the end of a given length of time.

Where

THE FIRELESS COOKER


the

27

amount

is

very large, as in the case of hotel


cookery, this gain
is
is

and

institution

so

great

that the time required for cooking

materially

reduced.

amount of food and the size of the utensil in which it is cooked is equally important. Experiments have shown that one and one-half quarts of water, in a pail just large enough to hold it, will register 15 degrees Fahrenheit more than the same measure of water in a nine-quart pail at the end of an hour; while at the end of twelve hours there is
the

The proportion between

28 degrees of difference.
well-filled kettle is

It is

thus seen that a

more

likely to

cook successit is

fully

than one partially

filled.

When

impos-

sible to

cook in a smaller

pail,

and thus avoid

vacant space in the

kettle, the difficulty

may,

to

some extent, be
with
sloping

offset

sides

by using a pan for the food and broad rim, such as a

''pudding

pan,"

which

may

be
its

set

into

the

cooker-pail and, by resting

upon

rim, will be

suspended
filling

in

it.

This arrangement admits of


part

the lower

of the
food,

pail
in

with

boiling

water or with
kind of food
of time.
is

boiling
to be

case a

second

cooked for the same length

Space between the pail and packing material


is

also likely to be disastrous, so that

it

is

not

28

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


for a large

advisable to try to use a small pail in a "nest"

made

one without the "space adjuster"

described on page 22.

Even

the space which

results after a short use of a


will

newly packed box

be sufficient for the escape of some heat


filled in.

and should always be


Place
the

cooker

near

the

stove,

since

it

is

important to transfer the food very quickly from

one

to the other.

The cooker
taken from the
it

should be open,

the cushion removed and everything in readiness

before the food


it

is

fire;

then, before

has time to stop boiling,

should be in place

in the box.

Loss of time

at this juncture
is

owing

to uncertain
failure

movements
beginners.

a fruitful source of

among
is

Keep
the food
if

the box tightly closed

from the moment


entirely done, as

put into

it

until

it is

for

any reason the box

is

opened before the

appointed time, the contents must be reheated


to boiling

point before being replaced.

The
short.
roasts,

time for cooking foods on the stove, previous

to putting

them Food in

into the cooker,

is

usually very

large, solid masses, as


etc.,

ham, pot
until

moulds of bread,
boiling

must be boiled
and

thoroughly heated to the centre, obviously requiring

longer

the
is

larger

denser the
less

pieces are.

Food

that

broken and

com-

pact will be readily penetrated by heat and will

THE FIRELESS COOKER


surrounding water.
cooker.
easily

29

be boiling hot nearly or quite as soon as the

Such foods need only a


into
partiin
fine

moment's brisk boiling before being put


the
cles,

Cereals, although
settle

into

dense,

impenetrable

mass

during

the

long

period
until

of

undisturbed
are
slightly

cooking,

unless

boiled

they

thickened.

The

length of time for cooking in the cooker


(i) the

depends upon several factors:


cooker, whether well or
ill

kind of

packed, and whether


is

good or poor insulating material


the
skill

used; (2) of the cook in getting the kettle into the


(3) the

box quickly;

amount, toughness, density,


(4)

and
soft

size

of the
is

pieces;

whether
is

hard

or

water

used.

If hard water

used foods

require

with soft water.

more cooking to become tender than Hard water may be softened,


by
the
addition

however,
soda.
to

of

little
is

baking
adapted

The time home-made

given in this book

cooker, well packed with any

of the materials suggested in the section giving


directions for packing the cookers.

With some

commercial
sufficient.
It is

cookers

shorter

time

may be

frequently stated that few foods are injured


this
is

by overcooking, but while

true of a great

many

foods,

it

has not proved to be the case with

30
all.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Potatoes,
as
rice,

custards,

raised

mixtures,

such

dumplings, suet pudding,

and brown

mzny other foods, are decidedly injured by overcooking. The recipes generally state the minimum and maximum time which
bread, as well as

each food should have.


also be

This information
in

will

found easily accessible

in the classified

index.

There

is

danger

leaving

meats or

soup stock or even cereals in the cooker long


after
likely

they have cooled


to
spoil.

down,

as

they will be

Needless to say,
directions

careful

reading of

all

the

given,

and following them


until

in

every

particular, will be necessary

one becomes
measuring, in
failures,

well acquainted with this novel

method of cookery.
in

Mistakes in temperature

tests,

time, and in other conditions, may result in

which must not be imputed


the cook.
It

to the cooker, but to

will

probably not be long, after the


up; in which case
is

first

experiment with a cooker, before several com-

partments are

fitted

it

is diffi-

cult to remember what food

in

each and at
it is left

what time
so

it

is

to be

removed, since

for

many

hours.

To

meet

this difficulty a slate,

hung

in the kitchen

near the box, will be found a


It

great convenience.

may

be permanently ruled
table, to be filled

and arranged

in the

form of a

THE FIRELESS COOKER


out with pencil.
given below.

31
is

good form

to use

the one

The compartments may be num-

bered or described.
Compartment
Food

Time put
1

in

Time

for

removal

II

THE PORTABLE INSULATING PAIL

A
and

CHEAP,

portable retainer, for keeping food

hot or cold on picnics, automobile trips, and

other outings, will be found a great convenience


will
fill

a long-felt want.

Tight-fitting covers,

fastened in place, will be necessary to keep food

from

spilling;

and very cheap,


should

easily

obtained
for

insulating

material

be

used

these

pails, so that in case the


it

packing becomes soiled


loss.

can be discarded without

Newspapers,

hay, or excelsior are best for the purpose.


object in using such pails
is

The

not to cook the food,


if

though

this

might be done

the inner pail were

small enough or the outer pail large enough to

allow of sufficient insulation, but to keep food


already cooked, or nearly cooked, at a temperature

which
a

will

make

it

appetizing.

For

this

purpose
such

couple

of inches

of insulation,

with

materials as those suggested, will answer very


well.

If an ordinary fibre or
is

wooden household

pail

used, this will carry two or three quarts

of food.

Take

for the
$2

inner utensil one just

PORTABLE INSULATING PAIL


large
pail

33

to

enough to hold the food, and pack the outer accommodate it, like any hay-box or
If designed for frequent use
it

cooker.
to
it

will

pay

make

a fitted cushion, but for a single occasion

will not

be worth while to take this trouble.


In

Any

small cushion or pillow can be used, merely


if
it

turning the corners under,


order to protect
it

is

square.

becoming soiled, lay a number of thicknesses of newspaper over the inner pail before putting on the cushion. Be careful to pack it so that the cushion will fill A cover must be the upper space completely. found for the outer pail, and if a wooden cover is not at hand, a round tray or large kettle cover
of
that will
fit it

from danger

may

be utilized.

A
its

butter pail,

tin pail or

candy

pail will

have

own

cover.

To
in the

fasten the covers on, tie a loose slip-knot

middle of a piece of very strong twine (Fig.

No.

6:1); before

puUing

it

up

tight, slip the

noose

over the cover of the pail and draw the remainder


of the knot out
the pail.
If
it

till it is

loose

enough

to go

around

is

placed under the rim near the

top of the utensil, or under the fastenings of the


handle,
it

will

be held by them from slipping


tie

off.

Then draw

the knot up tight, and

the two

ends of twine over the top. (Fig. be well to use two such

No

6:2.)
it

For
will

greater safety, especially on the outer pail,

strings, placing the logps

34

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


one another.
this

at right angles to

Soft copper wire

might be used for

purpose instead of twine.

When

the food
it

is

in the inner pail, tie


fire until it is

on the

cover, put

again on the

boiling hot,

Figure No. 6.
I*

Mediod

of tjing slip-knot.

2.

Method

of tying the coTcr

on a

pail.

and place it quickly in the insulating pail. More than one kettle of food may be placed in the pail Food thus insulated will keep if there is room.
hot for hours, even in cold weather.

Obviously, this arrangement will work equally


well in keeping cold foods cool in

summer, such

as

PORTABLE INSULATING PAIL


ice water, or cool

35

drinks.
in

Even frozen creams


a mould, covered tin

and

ices, if

packed well

pail or can, sealed

quantity of ice
insulated, will

and

and surrounded with a small salt, and the whole thus

keep for

many

hours.

To

seal

the mould, dip a narrow strip of muslin in melted


fat

and lay

it

quickly over the crack between the

cover and mould.

iir

THE REFRIGERATING BOX

AS WE
l\.

have seen
the

in the case of the insulating

pail,

principle

involved

in

cooking

by retained heat may be reversed, and the heat may, by similar means, be excluded from foods which are to be kept cold. Ice-boxes and refrigerators are

made with

this

end

in view.

They

are constructed with heavy walls, usually, if not

always, with an interlining of some non-conducting


material, to exclude the heat of the atmosphere.

Where such an

article

is

needed permanently,

or for large quantities of food, the various refrigerators on the market are better adapted to the

purpose than a home-made box.


erator,

But, in cases

of temporary necessity or to supplement a refrigthe

home-made
a
use.

refrigerating

box

will

doubtless

find

Ingenuity

will

suggest
principle

variations in the

manner of applying the

of insulation to keeping foods cold, but by

way

of

suggestion two forms of refrigerating boxes

are described below.

Take

three

or

more stoneware crocks with


36

THE REFRIGERATING BOX


well-fitting
size

37

covers

of the

same

material.

The
in

of the crocks must be determined by the

quantity of food to be kept.


the

Good

results

way

of temperatures have been obtained with

those holding a half gallon, but the

amount of

food accommodated in them

is,

of course, small.

Refrigerating box packed with three crocks.

Proceed exactly as for packing a cooker, except


that the crocks must be set in place so that
all

of them touch the central one, which


filled

is

to be

with

ice.

Although any insulating material suitable for


cookers will answer for a refrigerating box, sawdust will be found the easiest to handle, for the

38

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


its

reason that
fill

fine

particles will

more

readily

the acute angles between the crocks, which


carefully
It will

must be

packed or the insulation


be best to

is

not

complete.

make one narrow

cushion that

may remain

in place over the central

crock, except when the ice is to be renewed, and two others, each of which can be removed singly

when
with

the crock under

it

is

to

be opened.
obviate

Put
the

the food into dishes or pails that can be removed


it

and
for

washed.

This

will

necessity

taking out the crocks frequently


a considerable saving of ice.

and

will

mean

In
will
ice-

lieu of

one

solid piece of ice,

broken pieces
Fill

be found to answer excellently.


crock as
it

the

full as possible,
refilling.

needs

and do not open it until little observation of your own


tell

individual box will be necessary to

you
It

just
will
full

how
days

long your crock of ice will


safe, in
filling
it

last.
it
it.

probably be
after

any

case, to leave

two
If

before

opening

no

foods that have not been reasonably cooled are

put into the refrigerating box


the ice

it

is

possible that

may

last three or

four days.

Aside from the efficiency of the insulation, the

consumption of

ice will

depend largely upon the


in the other

amount and temperature of the food


opened to the

crocks and the frequency with which they are

warm

outside air;

therefore chose

THE REFRIGERATING BOX


as cool a place as possible for the

39

box

to stand, to think

and open
of
all

it

only

when

necessary.
it

Try

the articles you want from


cushion.

before taking

off the

Better results in the

way

of

temperature can be obtained with these boxes

than with
the
skill

many commercial
and care

refrigerators, although

in using either will

be a large

factor in the
to

economy of ice.
let it

When it is necessary
that
it

open the box,

be for as brief a time as


is

possible, as every

moment

open means

an increase of temperature and, consequently, a


loss of ice.

Another variety of refrigerating box

may be

made by thoroughly
filled

insulating a tin pail partly

with

ice,

or a bread box, containing a crock

for ice.

Allow the same amount of insulation


called
for for

as

that

with

the

various

packing

materials

used

hay-boxes or cookers,
It will

and

pack them

similarly.

not often be necesif

sary to remove the inner box

care

is

taken in
to be
it

handling the dishes of food; but when


scalded, take
it

it is

out,

wash

it

well, boil or scald


it

with soda and water, and cool


replacing
it

again before

in the packing.

IV

COOKING FOR TWO

WHILE
size,

the

fireless

cooker

is,

perhaps,

especially adapted to families of average

or larger,

there

is

no reason why small

quantities of food cannot be equally well cooked,

provided the cooker


in view.

is

properly

made with

that

large utensil will involve a great waste of


it

gas and time, for in every case

will be necessary

to heat a considerable quantity of water


is

which

only required to

fill

the utensil.
it

Select, instead,

a two-quart pail, pack

very tightly in a mod-

erately small box, allowing, however, the requisite

thickness of insulation (see page i6).

This

will

be suitable for

much

of the cooking to be done,


etc.,

such as vegetables, steamed breads,

that are

cooked

in

much

water; but for such articles as

oatmeal, stews, puddings, and some vegetables,


use a small pudding pan, just fitting into the pail

and resting on
closely
filled
fit

its

rim, with

a cover that will

the pan.

The
40

pail

must always be

with boiling water or food to touch the upper

COOKING FOR TWO


pan, and
if

41

these conditions are fulfilled and the

food

is

put quickly, and while boiling hard, into

a cooker

which stands

close to the range,

it

will

be found to cook as perfectly as larger amounts.

Two
but,
it

kinds of food can thus be cooked at once,

when only water


will

is

used in the lower

pail,

can be kept in the cooker during the meal,


be hot

and

when

the time comes for washing

the dishes.

The
book

fact that

almost

all

the recipes in this

number of persons which they will serve will make the quantity to be cooked easy Where articles are to be cooked to ascertain.
tell

the

in

moulds, as steamed breads, puddings, meat


be used.

loaves, etc., one-half

may

It

pound baking powder cans will be safer to test them to see

whether or not they leak. The only change in the method of cooking such dishes that will
then be necessary
cuts of
boiling.
is

shortening the time of boiling

previous to putting

them

into the cooker.

Small

meat One-half the time given

will also require shorter preliminary

will be

found

sufficient.

The

great

majority

of dishes

may

be cooked as directed in the full-sized recipes,


without
quantity.

any change on account of the small

For such purposes as preserving and baking


(see

page 228), a large pail

will

be needed, even

42

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

by a family of two, and it is suggested that the cooker be packed first to accommodate such a

and the box then be made to receive also the two-quart pail by means of the space-adjuster
pail,

described on page 22.

V
MEASURING

ALL

measurements given
in

in

this

book

are

IjL made

standard half-pint cups, table-

spoons, teaspoons, quarts, pecks, etc.

The

dry

materials are leveled even with the top of the cup,

spoon, or other measure by

filling it

heaping
lies

full,

then pushing off with a knife that which


the top.

above

When

held level with the eyes, nothing

should be seen above the cup or spoon, and yet


the receptacle should be completely
filled.

Where
and
be better be easier

standard

cups,

with

divisions

in
it

thirds
will

quarters, are not to be obtained,


to use a straight-sided glass if

one can be found


It will

which holds an exact


to get

half-pint.

an accurate half or third of

cupful in such
at

a measure than in one

which grows smaller

the bottom, as most cups do.


ful of liquid is all that

cupful or spoon-

they can be

made

to hold.

tard, meal,

Such materials as flour, powdered sugar, musand others, that pack as they stand, should first be sifted or stirred up, and must
any lumps pressed
43

have

out.

Do

not

shake

44

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


settle

such materials to level them, or they will

and the measure


rial,

will

be incorrect.

Half cupdry mate-

fuls or other fractions of a cupful of


fat,

etc.,

may be

leveled with the back of

a tablespoon.

To measure

fractions of a spoonful, whether


fill

a teaspoon or a tablespoon,

the spoon, level

it,

then with a knife divide


the

halves

lengthwise of
of
the
halves;
thirds

spoon;

quarters
dividing

crosswise
these
in

eighths

by

halves;

crosswise;
first

and

sixths

by dividing the

spoon

in halves,

then in thirds across the halves.

VI

TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES


2
I

Cupfuls of granulated sugar


Tablespoonful granulated sugar

equals

pound
ounce

2 Cupfuls of powdered sugar

....

equals J

equals

pound

2 Cupfuls of brown sugar 3J Cupfuls of bread flour not shaken down I Cupful of bread flour 3J Tablespoonfuls flour 1 Pint of milk or water
2

equals
equals

i
i

pound
pound
ounces

equals 5 equals equals


i I
I

ounce

pound

Cupfuls of solidly packed butter

equals equals

pound
ounce

2 Tablespoonfuls butter
2
2

i
i
i

Cupfuls of solidly packed lard Cupfuls of chopped meat

equals

....

pound pound

equals equals

1} Cupfuls of rice
I
I

pound

Cupful of rice
Cupful of
raisins

equals 8 J ounces equals 7 ounces equals


I
i

2^ Cupfuls of raisins
3^^
1

pound pound
ounces

Cupfuls of currants

Cupful of currants
Cupfuls of hominy Cupfuls of samp

......

equals

equals 5

2
2
I I

grits

equals
equals

i
i

pound pound
ounces

Cupful of split peas

equals 8

Cupful of dried beans

I
I

Quart of bread crumbs


Cupful peanuts, chopped Cupful prunes
45

....

equals 7 J ounces equals 7 ounces


equals 5^ ounces

equals 6J ounces

46
I I I

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cupful dried apricots or peaches
Cupful macaroni
equals 6

ounces

Cupful oatmeal
Cupful commeal

equals J equals 4
equals 6
in shells
.
. .

pound
ounces ounces

8
I

Medium-sized eggs Medium-sized egg

equals

in shell

....
.

pound
ounces

equals 2

10 Medium-sized eggs (broken)


I
I

equals

pound
ounces

Cup almonds, blanched and chopped


Square Baker's chocolate

....

equals 5 equals i equals


i
i

ounce
ounce

2J Tablespoons salt 4 Tablespoons pepper

equals

ounce

2i Tablespoons ground ginger 2i Tablespoons ground cinnamon.

....
.

equals equals

i i

ounce

ounce

VII

TABLE OF PROPORTIONS
Batters;
i

cupful liquid to
i

cupful flour.

Muffin or cake dough;

cupful liquid to 2 cupfuls flour.

Dough Dough

to knead;

cupful Hquid to 3 cupfuls flour.


i

to roll out;

cupful liquid to 4 cupfuls flour.


i

6 teaspoonfuls baking-powder to
are used; or
I

quart flour,

if

no eggs

J teaspoonfuls Ijaking-powder to

cupful flour.
is

J teaspoonful soda and i teaspoonful cream of tartar equivalent to 2 teaspoonfuls baking-powder.

about

J cup liquid yeast equals i dry yeast cake, and J compressed


yeast cake.
I

cupful liquid yeast,

cake to

dry yeast cake, or J compressed yeast pint liquid if bread is raised during the day.
i

J cupful liquid yeast, J dry yeast cake, or J compressed yeast cake to i pint liquid if bread is raised over night.
I
I I

J teaspoonfuls soda to J teaspoonfuls soda to

i i

pint thick, sour milk.


pint molasses.

teaspoonful soda to ij cupfuls thick, sour cream.

J cupful corn-starch to i quart milk for blanc-mange. 1 teaspoonful salt to i quart soup stock, sauces, etc.

i teaspoonful pepper to each teaspoonful salt. 2 to 4 egg yolks to i pint milk for soft custards.
2 or 3 whole eggs to
I i

pint milk for cup custards.


i

teaspoonful

salt

to

quart water for boiling vegetables,

meats,

etc.

47

48

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


I

2 tablespoonfuls flour to
gravies.

cup liquid

for white sauces

and

3 tablespoonfuls flour to

cup liquid for brown sauces.

Whites of 8 eggs make


3 teaspoons equal
i

cupful.

tablespoon.
i

l6 tablespoons equal

cup.

2 cups equal

pint.

VIII

SEASONING AND FLAVOURING MATERIALS

HAVING
and
called
for

always

to

substitute

a familiar
is

time-worn

flavouring,

which

in

the house, for the newer and particular flavour

and required to give the distinctive "tang" to a dish, is what gives some people's cooking a monotony that is no easier or less expensive to produce than a variety, if only
the kitchen
is

as well

supplied as

it

might

be.

Many

diff^erent

recipes
as

can be made, using the


basis,

same ingredients
rice

by

changing the

flavouring, as in stews, cakes, etc.

Macaroni and
all

admit of a wide range of variation.


will

For the housekeeper who does not want


her cooking to taste alike,
venient to have
flavouring
it

be found con-

always on hand a variety of

and seasoning materials.

list

is

given below of the ones frequently called upon


in this

book; those which are commonly used


dishes

in

sweet

being

grouped

together,

and

those

used in savoury dishes,


49

such as soups,

50
stews,

THE
etc.,

FIRELESS
although in

COOK BOOK
some cases these
are

used interchangeably:

Flavourings
Almond extract
Orange rind and juice

for

Sweet Dishes
Cloves

Vanilla bean or extract

Nutmeg
Allspice

Lemon

rind and juice

Ginger

Cinnamon

Wine

Pepper

Seasonings for Savoury Dishes Thyme


Bay leaves
Worcestershire sauce
Parsley

Cayenne
Curry powder
Sage

Summer savoury
Sweet marjoram

Celery seed Celery leaves

Dried peppers

Many
no
cost,

of these

can

be

prepared

at

almost

and put away

in tin cans or boxes, either


pestle.

whole or powdered with a mortar and

The

leaves of celery and parsley, the herbs

peppers
kept free
rind

may

be washed well

and and hung near


if

the kitchen stove or in the sun,

they can be

from dust and

flies

out of doors, or

put into a warming oven.

make good
if

flavourings for puddings

cakes,

correctly

Orange and lemon and prepared, to vary the mono-

tony of perpetual vanilla.


with
a

The yellow

part only

of the rind should be grated, for cakes, or shaved


off

knife

for

custards

and puddings,

SEASONING AND FLAVOURING


which can be strained to take out the Caramel is easy to make, and is useful
tards

51

pieces.
in cus-

and creams.
caramel.

To make
pan.
colour,
at
if

Melt one cupful of sugar


a
fryinga golden

with one tablespoonful of water, in


Stir
it

constantly until

it is

brown

add one-half cupful of water,

one-half

a time.

The

sugar becomes very hot, and,


is

only a small amount of water


it

added,

it

does

not cool
to

enough and will be so quickly turned steam as to have almost the effect of exploding.
sugar
is

If the
it

allowed to become dark brown

will taste bitter.

Such caramel
but
is

is

sometimes
sufficiently

used

to

color
in

gravies,

not

delicate

taste for flavouring purposes.

Avoid
dish.
It

using
is

the

better

same seasonings in every to put only a few flavours

together for each dish than to mingle a great

many and
It
is

be obliged always to use the same.


principle,

good general
are

where several
all

flavours

combined, to keep
is

somewhat
agree
that

equally balanced so that no one


present.

conspicuously
to

Public

opinion
is

seems

the

skilful

cook

the one

who makes sometell

thing good, "but you can't

what's

in

it."

This

is

done

chiefly

by the

careful

selection

and equalizing of flavouring ingredients.

IX

BREAKFAST CEREALS

THAT
pare

so

cheap
as

and easy a food


should
so

to pre-

cereals

often

be
of

unappetizing, and even indigestible, because of

poor
the

cooking,
great

is

partly

due
in

to

ignorance

improvement

flavour which
to

long
diffi-

cooking gives them,


culties

and partly
hours
is

the

attending
to
rise

such long cooking.


before

No
on
less,

one
the

wants
cook
those

two
in

breakfast to

cereal

which
ten

advertised

package to cook

minutes or
coal
fires

and
to

who

do

not

have

burning
a
loss

through the night are somewhat

at

know how to keep cereals cooking over night. The fireless cooker seems to fill a long-felt want
in this

direction.

At the
it

cost of a fraction of

cent

for

fuel

accomplishes
of

an

all-night

cooking
idea

without

danger
be

scorching,

boiling

dry, or needing to

stirred.

The
is

fallacious

that

boiling

temperature

necessary for

cooking starches
proved
false.

and

starchy

foods

has

been

As a matter of
52

fact, a

temperature

BREAKFAST CEREALS
of 167 degrees Fahrenheit
starch grains of
is

53

sufficient for the

some
at

cereals, while

long-conpoint

tinued
will
fibre

cooking

much below

boiling

serve

to soften and rupture the woody which surrounds and entangles the starch

and other nutrients.


forming
easily

The
is

nitrogenous or tissue-

substance

probably
boiling,

rendered
is

less

digestible
at

by

and
these

perfectly

cooked
starches.
for

temperature which will cook the


temperatures time
not

Merely reaching
is

short

sufficient,

however, to

produce well-cooked
affecting the flavour,
is

cereals.

further change
digestibility,

and perhaps the


required

accomplished by long cooking.

The
the

length

of time

depends upon

amount and character of


are
left

the

woody

fibre,

whether the grains

whole or ground

fine, and the degree of cooking they may have had in the course of manufacture. Rolled oats and wheat are steamed to some extent, and do not, therefore, require as much cooking as whole or cracked wheat and oats. Preparations of corn, having more woody fibre than any of the

other cereals, will, unless cooked during


facture, require

manufinely

more cooking than equally ground preparations from other cereals.


requires the least cooking of
the least
all,

Rice

as

it

contains

woody

fibre.

54

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Rolled Oats
2i cups water
I
i

teaspoon

salt

cup

rolled oats

Look over
pieces.
pail that
five
fits

the oats and remove any husks or


salt,

Put water,
or

and oats

in
boil

a pan, or

into a cooker-pail,
until
slightly

them

for
stir-

minutes,

thickened,

ring

them

frequently, then put the

pan over a
it

cooker-pail of boiling water and put

into

cooker for from two to twelve hours.


soft

Although

and digestible after two hours, it is greatly improved in flavour by longer cooking. If
it

cooked over night

will

need to be heated,

somewhat, before serving. This can be done by putting it over the fire while still in the cookerpail of water.

the oatmeal

When the water may be served.

in the pail boils,

Serves four persons.

Cornmeal Mush
4 cups
I

boiling water
salt

cup cornmeal

teaspoon

J cup cold water


it

Mix
stirring

the meal with the cold water, add


let it boil five
it

to

the boiling salted water;


it

minutes,

frequently, then set


it

in a cooker-pail

of boiling water and put

into

a cooker for
is

from
used

five

to ten hours.

If the

mush

to

be

for frying,

use two cupfuls of milk and

BREAKFAST CEREALS

55

two cupfuls of water, reserving one-half cupful of the milk cold to mix with the cornmeal. When cooked, pour it into a wet bread pan, and slice it when perfectly cold. If coarsely ground meal is used, sift it through a coarse sieve before cooking it, to remove the largest Granulated meal will not particles of bran.
require sifting.

Serves six or eight persons.

Hominy
5 cups water
I

Grits
ij teaspoons salt
grits

cup hominy

Add
boil
it

the

hominy

to the boiling

salted water,
into a cooker

for ten minutes,

and put

it

for ten hours or more.

Serves six or eight persons.

Cracked
i cup wheat
I

Wheat
i teaspoon salt
2 cups boiling water

cup cold water

Soak the cracked wheat in the cold water for nine hours or more; add the boiling water and salt, and let all boil hard for ten minutes in an
uncovered pan.
pail of boiling

Place the utensil in a cooker-

water and put

it

into

a cooker

for ten

hours.
it

Reheat

it

to

the boiling point

and cook

again for ten hours.

Serves four or five persons.

56

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Steel Cut
i cup oatmeal I cup cold water

Oatmeal
J teaspoon
salt

2 cups boiling water

Cook

it

in the

same manner
five

as cracked wheat.

Serves four or

persons.

Pettijohn's Breakfast
2^ cups water
I i

Food
teaspoon
salt

cup Pettijohn's Breakfast Food


salt

Add
it

the

and cereal

to

the

cold

water,

stir until it boils, boil it

for five minutes, or until


it

has thickened, and put


to twelve

into a cooker for


It
is

from two

hours.

improved by

the longer cooking.

Serves four or five persons

Cream
3^ cups boiling water

of W^heat
i

teaspoon

salt

J cup cream of wheat

Put

all

together, stir until boiling,

and put

it

into a cooker for

from one

to twelve hours.

Serves four or five persons.

Cook
Cook

it

in the

Wheatlet same way as cream of wheat.


Farina

it

in the.

same way

as

cream of wheat.

X
SOUPS

THERE
in

two classes of soup, (i) those made with meat stock, which is the water which meat has been cooked, sometimes in
are

combination with other materials for seasoning


purposes,
stock.

and

(2)

those

made without meat

Bouillon,
clear; or

Soups made with meat stock include: made from lean beef, always served
from clams.
stock,

Brown
ferably
fat,

made

usually from

beef,

pre-

one-half lean

and

one-half

bone

and and

with seasonings of vegetables, herbs,

spices.

made from chicken or veal. Consomme, made from several kinds of meat,
White
stock,

seasoned highly with vegetables, herbs, and spices,

and always served


Broths
or beef

clear.
tea,

made usually from lean and not clarified. mutton, lamb, or beef, Soups made without meat stock include: Cream soups, made from vegetable or fish
57

58

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


somewhat thickened

stock with milk or cream and

with flour or corn-starch.


Purees,

made from
also

vegetables or fish put through


addition of milk or

a strainer, often with the

cream.

They

are thickened with flour or

corn-starch and are usually thicker than cream


soups.
purees.

White stock
are

also

is

sometimes used in
purees, except
that

Bisques

made

like

pieces of vegetables, fish, meat, or


in

game

are served

them

in addition.

SOUP MAKING

To make
let

stock.

Wash and
it

cut the

meat into

small pieces or gash

frequently; crack the bone;


in the cold

meat and bone soak

water while
into

preparing the seasonings; then add the seasonings, boil the stock ten

minutes and put

it

a cooker for from nine to twelve hours.

When
set
it

cooked, pour

it

through a wire strainer and

away

to cool.

When

cold,

it

should be kept in a

refrigerator or other cold place.

Be

careful that

the pail

is

well filled, or the soup will cool with

the long cooking and

may
fill

sour.

If too small a

quantity

is

cooked to

the pail or

pan

it

should

be

set

over hot water.

The cake
is

of fat which

forms on top

when

the stock

cold should not be

removed

until the

soup

is

to be

made,

as

it

seals

SOUPS
When

59

the stock and keeps out air and germs, thus helping to preserve
fat is
it.

taken

off,

to be made, the and any desired the stock heated,

soup

is

seasonings or additions are put

in.

To
stock,

clear

soup
if it

stock.

Remove

the

fat, taste
it

the

and

needs more seasoning add

before

the clearing.

Put into each quart of the cold

stock the slightly beaten white of one egg and one

crushed egg-shell.
it.

Wash

the egg before breaking


it.

Stir
it

the stock constantly while heating

Let

boil

for one-half

and

strain

two minutes and set it in a cooker hour or more. Remove the scum it through two thicknesses of cheesefat from hot soup or broth. can be taken off with a spoon.

cloth laid in a colander.

To remove
off all that

Skim With

take off the rest as

brown paper you were using blotting paper on the surface of the soup. When no spotted appearance is seen on the papers, the fat
a succession of small pieces of soft
if
is all

removed.
soups.

To bind

This name

is

given to the

process of thickening cream soups and purees,


the liquid and solid part of which would separate
unless

bound
it

together.

when

is

liquid

Melt the butter, and add usually an equal quantity


till

of flour and rub

them together
added
to the

well blended.

They

are then

soup and stirred

6o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


till

constantly

perfectly mixed.

If the proportion
it

of flour

is

greater than that of the butter


little

will

be better to add a

of the soup to the flour

and butter
to

in a separate

saucepan as for making

white sauce, and

when enough has been added


it

make

a smooth sauce,

may

be poured into
i

the soup.

Brow^n Stock No.


3
lbs.

shin of beef

sprig sweet

marjoram

qts. cold

water

2 sprigs parsley

i teaspoon peppercorns
6 cloves

J cup

carrot

i bay

leaf

i cup turnip J cup celery


J cup onion
I

3 sprigs

thyme
tablespoon

salt

Prepare the meat brown one-third of


fat.

as directed for
it

in a frying

making stock, pan with the


all

Wash

the vegetables, scrape or pare them,


in small pieces.

and cut them

Put

the ingre-

dients together

and bring them

to a boil.

When
Unless

they have boiled for ten

minutes put them into


not safe

a cooker for from nine to twelve hours.

there
to

is

a large quantity of soup

it

is

leave it more than twelve hours, lest it grow cold and sour; but nine or more quarts

may
Pour

safely

be

left

for
is

fifteen

hours or more,

provided
it

the

kettle

at

least two-thirds full.


it

through a wire strainer and cool

as

rapidly as possible.

SOUPS
Brown
ij
lbs.

6i

Stock No. 2
3 sprigs parsley

meat and bone, raw


water

or cooked
I

^ cup carrot J cup turnip

qts.

6 peppercorns 3 cloves

J cup onion J cup celery


i

i teaspoon shaved lemon rind

teaspoon

salt

Do

not use salt or

stock, or

smoked meats for soup any parts of meat which have become
Very
little

charred or blackened in the cooking.

of these would be enough to destroy the good


flavour of soup.

Cut from the bones


to

all

the meat that

is

easy

get

off.

Tough ends from

steak or roasts

should be cut off before they are cooked, and

saved for soup or stews.

Cut meat

for

making

soup
joints

in small pieces.

Separate the bones at the


if

they are large. Soak the meat in the water while preparing the seasoning. Put all the ingredients together and bring them to a boil. Boil them for ten minutes and put them into a cooker for from nine to twelve hours, standing the pan or pail in a large pail of boiling water, unless this recipe
Strain the
cool
it

and crack them

fills

the cooker

pail.

stock

through a wire strainer, and

as rapidly as possible.

White Stock No.


I

chicken or fowl

Water
i

to cover the chicken


qt.

Salt (i teaspoon to

water)

62

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cook chicken
or fowl according to the directions

given on page 131 for stewed chicken.

The water in

which the chicken was cooked makes white stock.

White Stock No.


2
lbs.

knuckle of veal

12 peppercorns

2 qts. cold water


1

J cup
I

celery or

tea-

tablespoon

salt

spoon celery seed


onion

Prepare
stock.
in pieces.

meat as directed for making Pare and slice the onion; cut the celery
the
If celery cannot easily be obtained,

substitute

dried

celery

leaves,

using

three

or

four sprays, or use celery seed.

Put

all

the ingredients together,

let

them

boil

for ten minutes,

and put them

into a cooker for

from nine to twelve hours.


in

Set the pail or

pan

a larger cooker -pail of boiling water unless


fills

the soup nearly

the cooker-pail.

Bouillon
3 lbs. lean beef from round or
i

tablespoon salt

shoulder
2
lbs.

marrowbone

J cup carrot J cup onion

3 qts. cold water


I

teaspoon peppercorns

J cup turnip J cup celery

Prepare

the

brown
the

stock.

meat as directed Use the marrow fat


all

for

making
browning
minutes

for

meat.

Boil

together
a

for

ten

and put them

into

cooker for from nine to

SOUPS
twelve hours.
strainer
fat

63

Strain the stock through a wire

and cool
clear

and

remove the the soup as directed on page 59.


it.

When

cold,

Serve in bouillon cups with crisp crackers.


Serves fifteen to twenty persons.

Beef Broth
I lb.

lean beef from round or

pt. cold

water
salt

shoulder

J teaspoon

Wash and chop the meat fine, removing any pieces of fat. Add the salt and let the meat
soak for one hour in a cold place.
cooker-pail or

In a small

pan
165

set

over

larger cooker-

pail of hot, but not boiling water, heat the broth


till it

registers

degrees

Fahrenheit.

Slip

the pails into a cooker for one-half hour.

Strain

the broth through a coarse wire strainer, remove


all
it

fat

by the directions on page 59, and serve


it

immediately in a heated cup; or


or frozen to the

may

be

chilled,

consistency of mush.

Mutton Broth
3 2
lbs.

mutton (from neck)


water
salt

Few

grains pepper

qts. cold

3 tablespoons rice or 3 tablespoons barley


all

2 teaspoons

Wipe
fat,

the meat, remove carefully

skin

as these impart a rank flavour to

and mutton
put

broth.
it

Cut the meat


a

into small pieces, or

through

food

chopper.

Cover the
salt,

and bones with the water, add the

meat and

64

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


boiling put

when
it

them

into a cooker for


If barley
it

from
soak

nine to twelve hours.

is

used,
pail or

over night and cook

in a small

pan
put

set into or

ove the broth n the

ame

cooker-pail.
boiling,

When

broth and barley are bo h

the pails together and slip them

nto the cooker.


treated
in
this

Rice would

be over cooked

if

way, and should be cooked


the broth

in the strained

broth,

or separately, for one hour in the cooker.


is

When
every

done, strain

it

and remove
59.

particle of fat as directed

on page

Consomine
3
lbs.

lower part of round or

2 tablespoons butter
i
i

shoulder of beef
I lb.

tablespoon

salt

marrow bone
knuckle of veal
chicken stock

teaspoon peppercorns teaspoon shaved

3
I

lbs.

lemon rind

qt.

3 sprigs thyme
I

J cup carrot

sprig

marjoram

J cup turnip J cup celery

2 sprigs parsley

i bay

leaf

J cup onion

3 qts. cold water

Prepare

the

meat

as

directed
fat

for
to

brown

stock, using the

ma row

making brown half


in the

of the meat.

Soak the raw meat and bone

cold water while browning the remaining

meat

and preparing the vegetables and


Prepare the vegetables as
to

seasonings.

directed for

making
Bring
chicken

soup stock, and brown them in the butter.


all

boil

together,

reserving

the

SOUPS
stock.

6s
it

Boil for ten minutes, and put

into the

cooker for from nine to twelve hours.


not

Strain

this stock through a wire strainer, add the chicken

stock,

and,

if

it

is

seasoned

sufficiently,
it it

add what seasoning it needs. as possible, and when cold, to the directions on page 59.
It
is

Cool
clear

as rapidly

according

served,

usually,

with custard cut into


noodles,

fancy

shapes;

or

with

macaroni,

or

other Italian pastes, which are

first cooked as on page 143; or with delicate vegedirected

tables,

such as peas or string beans, or other

vegetables cut into fancy shapes; or with cooked


chicken, cut in dice, and green peas.

poached

egg

is

sometimes served

in

each plate of soup.

Serves sixteen or twenty persons.

Mock
1

Turtle Soup No.


ij teaspoons

i
salt

cairs head

6 cloves 8 peppercorns

2 cups browri stock

allspice berries

} cup butter J cup flour


I

2 sprigs thyme

cup stewed tomatoes, strained

J cup sliced onion J cup carrot cut in dice

Juice J lemon

Madeira wine

Clean

and wash
for

the

calPs

head,

reserving

the tongue and brains to use for

Soak
cover

it
it.

one hour
it

in

some other dish. enough cold water to

Boil

in

a covered pail for twenty

66

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


and seasoning, and put
from
nine
to
it

minutes with three quarts of salted water and


the vegetables
the
into

cooker

for

twelve
face
it

hours.

Remove
reserve

the head;
it;

cut off the

meat and
reduced to
fat

boil the stock until

is

one

from it as directed on page 59; or cool it, and remove Melt the butter, add the flour the hard fat. and stir it until it is well browned; then add
quart.

Strain

and

remove the

the brown stock, one-half at a time, stirring


constantly,

it

and

allowing

the

mixture

to

boil

before adding the second cupful of liquid.


this

To

add the head

stock, tomato,

one cupful of

the face meat cut in dice, and the lemon juice.

Simmer

for five minutes.

Just before serving

it

add Madeira wine


if desirable,

to taste,

more

salt

and pepper,
prepared,

custard cut in dice, and egg balls


balls.

or
as

forcemeat
it

If the

soup
it is

is

may

be,

some time before


hours
it

to be served,

slip

the pail into the cooker until time for serving.

If kept

many

will

need to be reheated.

Mock
I I I

Turtle Soup
4 cloves
i

calf's or

lamb's liver

calf's heart

teaspoon peppercorns

knuckle of veal
to cover (about 2 qts.)

2 teaspoons salt
i

Water

bay leaf

J cup union J cup turnip


i cup celeiy

4 yolks of hard-cooked eggs

J lemon
Madeira wine

SOUPS
Wash
the

67

the meat, cover

it

with cold water in a

cooker-pail.

Let

it

stand in a cold place while

vegetables

are

being prepared.

Wash

the

them in small pieces. Put them and the seasonings with the meat, bring
vegetables and cut
all
it
ft,

to a boil,

and

boil

it

for ten minutes.

Put
Strain

into a cooker for nine hours or more.

to it one cupful of the heart and meat cut into small dice. Pour it into a tureen in which the lemon and the egg yolks, Add Madeira cut in quarters, have been placed. wine to taste. The remaining heart and liver
liver

and add

may

be used for stew or hash.

Serves ten or eleven persons.

Vegetable Soup with Stock


2 qts. brown stock

i cup turnip i cup carrot


i cup celery

^ cup cabbage J cup onion i teaspoon


salt

2 tablespoons rice or barley

Wash and
the celery
dients,

pare the vegetables.

Put

all

but

the celery through a coarse food chopper.


in
fine

Cut
Put

pieces.

Boil

all

the ingre-

together
into

hard

for

one

minute.

them
If

a
is

cooker for three hours or more.


used, soak
it till
it

barley

over night in cold


or

water and boil


cooker with
six hours.

soft;

cook

it

in
five

the
or

boiling

salted

water

for

68

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cream
2 cups white stock
3 cups celery, cut small
I

of Celery

Soup

3 tablespoons flour
2 cups hot milk
i i

cup water
small onion, sliced

cup hot cream


teaspoon
salt

'

2 tablespoons butter

J teaspoon pepper

Cook

the

first

four ingredients together in a

cooker for three hours or more.

Rub them through


and
flour,

a sieve; bind the soup with the butter


as directed

on page 59, and add the milk, cream,

and seasonings.
Serves six or eight persons.

Asparagus Soup
3 cups white stock, or
gus has cooked
I
I

J cup butter
2 cups hot milk

3 cups water in which aspara- i cup flour

can asparagus, or
pt.

i teaspoon
slice

salt

cooked asparagus
I

i teaspoon pepper
onion

If

Cut

off the tips

canned asparagus is used, drain and rinse it. about an inch long, and reserve
Put the stalks of asparagus,
boiling,

them.

stock

or

asparagus water

When

and onion into a cooker-pail. put them into a cooker for two

and one-half hours or more. Rub through a sieve, bind it with the butter and flour, as directed on page 59, and add the remaining ingredients
and the
tips.

Serves six or seven persons.

SOUPS
Tomato Soup with Stock
I qt.
I
I

69

brown stock
i

4 tablespoons butter J cup flour ij teaspoons

can or
onion

qt.

tomatoes

salt

or

Cook more
it

the

first

three ingredients for one hour

in the cooker.

Rub through
flour, as
salt.

a strainer,

bind

with the butter and

directed

on

page 59, and add the


before
it

Or

bind the soup

putting

it

into

the

cooker,

and

strain

just before serving.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Creole Soup
I

qt.
pt.

brown stock
tomatoes

J cup flour J teaspoon

salt

3 tablespoons chopped green

Few

grains of cayenne

sweet peppers
2 tablespoons

2 tablespoons grated horse-

chopped onion
i

radish

J cup butter

teaspoon vinegar

i cup macaroni rings

Cook the pepper and onion


five

in the butter for

minutes, add the flour, then the stock and


gradually, and cook
all

tomatoes
for

in the

cooker

one hour or more. Rub it through a sieve, and add the remaining ingredients. The macaroni rings are made by cutting cooked macaroni Do not soak macaroni into very short lengths. for making rings.
Serves six or eight persons.

70

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Ox
Tail

Soup
i cup Madeira wine i teaspoon Worcestershire
sauce
i

small ox
qts.

tail

l^

brown stock
salt

^ teaspoon

Few

grains of cayenne

teaspoon lemon juice

2 tablespoons butter

Flour

Cut the ox tail into small pieces, wash it, it, and sprinkle it with the salt, pepper, and flour. Brown it in the butter. Add it to the stock with the vegetables, which have been with French vegetable cutters. cut small or Put it into the cooker for two hours or more. Add the seasonings and lemon juice.
drain Serves six or eight persons.

Julienne Soup
I qt.

brown stock

2 tablespoons peas 2 tablespoons string beans

J cup carrot

J cup turnip

Qarify the stock and add the cooked beans and peas and the carrot and turnip, which have
been cut into thin
strips

long and cooked for

one and one-half inches two hours in the cooker.


it.

When

boiling hot, serve

Serves four or five persons.

Macaroni Soup
I

qt.

brown stock

J cup macaroni rings

Cook the macaroni

in boiling salted

water for

two hours in the cooker.

Drain

it

in a colander.

SOUPS
Cut
it

71

into

very short lengths to


in the stock.

make

rings.

Heat them

SOUPS MADE WITHOUT STOCK


Vegetable Soup
J cup carrot J cup turnip
i

pt.

tomatoes

5 tablespoons butter

} cup celery ^ cup onion


li cups potato
I

i tablespoon parsley
2 teaspoons salt

i teaspoon pepper
qt.

water

Wash
the
leaves

the vegetables, scrape the carrot, pare

turnip, potatoes,

and
pieces,

onions,
celery,

and

strings
in

from the

remove the and cut the


all

vegetables

small

or

put

except

the potatoes and celery through a coarse food

chopper.

Measure

the

vegetables

after

they

Put them all, except the potatoes are prepared. and parsley, into a frying pan with the butter, and cook them for ten minutes; add the potatoes and cook them for two minutes more, then
put
all

the
in

ingredients,

except

the

parsley,

together

cooker-pail,

and when they are

boiling put

them

into a cooker for three hours

or more.

Add

the parsley just before serving.

"Left-over" vegetables, in pieces,


in place of
five given.

may

be added,
first

an equal measure of any of the

Serves six or eight persons.

72

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Bean Soup
beans
2 tablespoons Chili sauce

1 pt.

2 qts. water or stock


I

2 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour

onion
lb. lean,

raw

beef, if stock

is

2^ teaspoons

salt

not used

J teaspoon pepper
2 stalks celery

Wash and soak the beans over night, cut the meat small, and pan-broil the pieces in a dry, hot frying pan till brown. Put all the ingredients except the butter and flour into a cookerpail, and when they are boiling put them into a cooker for from nine to twelve hours. Rub the soup through a strainer, and bind it.
Serves eight or ten people.

Black Bean Soup


1 pt.

black beans

2 qts. water
1

J teaspoon pepper J teaspoon mustard

small onion

Cayenne
3 tablespoons butter
salt

2 stalks celery, or

J teaspoon celery 2 teaspoons salt

ij tablespoons flour
2 hard-cooked eggs
I

lemon
night, drain

Soak the beans over


half of the butter;

the two quarts of water.

them and add Cook the onion in one-

add onion and celery to the them into a cooker Rub the soup for from eight to twelve hours. through a strainer, add the seasonings, bind it,
beans, and,

when

boiling, put

SOUPS
and when
it

73
five

has boiled for

minutes pour

it

over the sliced eggs and lemon in a soup tureen.


Serves eight or ten persons.

Tomato Soup
I

can tomatoes, or
qt. pt.

slice

onion

I I

raw tomatoes
water

2 teaspoons salt

J teaspoon soda
2 teaspoons sugar 2 tablespoons butter 3 tablespoons flour
first

12 peppercorns
I

small bay leaf

4 cloves

Cook the
salt

six

ingredients together in
Strain,

cooker for one hour or more.

add the

and soda, and bind


it

it.

If

it is

not to be served

at

once

may

stand in the cooker, to keep hot,

for

an indefinite period.

Serves six or seven persons.

Pur^e of Lima Beans


1

cup dried lima beans


onion
turnip
^

cup cream or milk

3 pts. water

4 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour 2 teaspoons salt

2 2

slices slices

J teaspoon pepper

Wash

the beans and soak


boiling,

them over

night.

Drain them, and, when prepared onion and turnip and the water
cooker for four hours or more.

cook them with the


in a

Rub

this

through

a strainer, add the seasoning and cream or milk,

and bind

it.

Serves seven or nine persons.

74

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Baked Bean Soup
2 tablespoons butter

3 cups cold baked beans


3 pints water 2 slices onion 2 stalks celery

2 tablespoons flour
i

tablespoon Chili sauce

teaspoon

salt

li cups tomato

J teaspoon pepper
five ingredients in a

Cook the

first

cooker for

three hours or more, rub them through a strainer,

bind this with the butter and

flour, as directed

on

page 59, and add the seasonings.


Serves eight or ten persons.

Green Pea Soup


I 1

can marrowfat peas, or


pt. shelled

slice

onion

peas

2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour

2 teaspoons sugar
I
I

pt.

water
milk

i^ teaspoon

salt

pt.

J teaspoon pepper

If fresh peas are used take those

which are too


If

old to be good to serve as a vegetable.

canned

peas are used, drain and rinse them, add the sugar,
water, and onion, and,
into a cooker for

when

boiling,

put them

two hours or more.

Rub them

through a strainer, add the hot milk and seasoning and bind the soup with the butter and flour, as
directed on page 59.

Bean and pea soups

are very nourishing

and

should not be followed by a rich, hearty meal.


Serves five or six persons.

SOUPS
Potato Soup
3 potatoes
I 1

75

2 tablespoons flour
I

pt. pt.

milk

J teaspoons

salt

water

2 slices onion

J teaspoon celery salt J teaspoon pepper

4 tablespoons butter
I

Cayenne

teaspoon chopped parsley

Scrub and pare the potatoes and cut them into Cook them in a cooker with the small pieces.
water and onion for one and one-half hours or
more, standing the pail or pan in a larger cookerpail of boiling water.
sieve,

Rub

the soup through a

bind

it,

and add the seasoning.

Serves five or six persons.

Fish Chowder
4
lbs. cod,

haddock, or other

ij inch cube
i

fat salt
salt

pork

firm white fish

tablespoon

4 cups potatoes
I

(in

} inch dice) J teaspoon pepper


3 tablespoons butter cup oyster crackers

onion, sliced

4 cups scalded milk

page 82), cut the flesh into two-inch pieces, put the head, tail, and bones into a small cooker-pail or pan, add two cups of cold
Skin the
fish

(see

water and bring


larger

it

to a boil.

Set this into a

cooker-pail

of
salt

boiling

water

to

which
lower

one teaspoonful of
quart of water.
pail

has been added for each


this

Put the potatoes in


boiling,

and,

when

cook

all

in

the

cooker

for

one hour.

76

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cut the pork
into small pieces, try out the fat

in a frying-pan
fish

and

fry the onion in

it.

When

the

and potatoes are cooked, drain

off the fish-

liquor,

add

all

the ingredients except the milk


it,

and crackers
it

to

bring

it

to

a boil

and place

in the

cooker for one-half hour.

Add

the

milk and pour the chowder over the


in a tureen.

crackers

Serves twelve or sixteen persons.

Connecticut Chowder

Make

this in the

same manner

as fish chowder,

substituting

two and one-half cups of stewed or

canned tomatoes for the milk.

may

be added to the other ingredients


If desired,

The tomatoes when they

are put together.

crumble the crackers

and add them just before serving.


Serves ten or twelve persons.

Clam Chowder
i pk. clams
or
I I

in the shell

tablespoon

salt

qt.

clams

qt. potatoes, cut in

f inch

J teaspoon pepper 4 tablespoons butter


I

dice
I

qt.

scalding hot milk, or

cup water

6 or 8
fat salt

soda crackers, broken

i inch cube

pork

or crumbled

2^ cups stewed tomatoes

Wash

the clams in a strainer, pick

them

over,

to see that there are

no

bits

of shell with them, and


the hard parts or

cut off the soft parts.

Chop

SOUPS
cut

77

them

into small pieces.

Cut the pork

into
it.

pieces, try out the fat,

and

fry the onion in

Put all the ingredients together, except the crackers and the milk, if that be used, into a cooker-pail. Bring them to a boil and put them into the cooker Reheat the soup and for from one to two hours.

add the milk and crackers.


Serves ten to sixteen persons.
Split-pea
I
I

Soup
2 qts. cold water
salt

pt. split

peas
lbs.)

soup bone (2

2f teaspoons J teaspoon pepper

Soak the peas over night and drain them.

Wash

the bone, boil


it,

it

for ten minutes in the water

add the peas and seasoning, bring all to a boil and put it into the cooker for four hours or more. Take out the bone and serve The peas must be the soup without straining it. and skim
cooked
until they fall to pieces easily

when

well

If desired, the meat may be taken beaten. from the bone, cut into small pieces and served
in the soup.

Oyster or Clam Stew


I

qt. oysters qt.

or clams

J cup butter li tablespoons


salt

milk

^ teaspoon pepper

Heat the milk

till

it

boils.

Heat the oysters

or clams in their liquor which has been strained

78

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Add
more.
the pepper and the

through cheese-cloth.
for one-half hour or
for

hot milk and put the stew at once into a cooker

Oysters will keep

some hours without curdling if they do not boil after the milk is added and if the salt is put
It will

in just before serving.

be safer to keep
in the

the clams and milk separate while

cooker
salt

and combine them just before serving. Less will be needed for clams than for oysters.

SOUP GARNISHES
Noodles
I

egg
Flour to

i teaspoon salt

make

stiff

dough

Beat the egg until it is evenly mixed, add a little flour, through which the salt has been mixed.

Gradually add more flour


minutes, then
roll it as

until a

dough

is
it

made
a few

that can be rolled out very thin.

Knead

thin as possible.

Let

it

stand for fifteen

or twenty minutes covered with


it

and cut, from narrow slices. Unroll the end of the roll, very these strips and lay them on a board, covered
a towel, then roll
like jelly-roll

lightly with a towel or clean cloth, to dry.

When
may
be

perfectly dry they are ready to use, or

put away

in covered cans or boxes and kept in

a cool place.
If noodles are used as a vegetable they should

SOUPS

79

be prepared as macaroni, except that they must


not be soaked before cooking.

Egg
4 ^ggs, cooked
I

Balls
J teaspoon
I

salt

egg,

raw

teaspoon butter

J teaspoon pepper

Put the eggs into enough cold water to more


than cover them
(at

least

one quart for


it

every
into a

four eggs), bring this to a boil and put

cooker for twenty minutes.

cold water, take off the shells and cold


carefully

Drop the eggs into when they are

yolks whole.
as they are,

remove the whites, leaving the These may be dropped into soup or they may be mashed, mixed with

the butter and salt and enough egg yolk, or egg

white or whole egg, beaten, to moisten them, so


that they
size of a

may

be moulded into balls about the


Roll these in flour

hard-cooked yolk.
in butter.

and saute them


i cup fine, i cup milk
I

Forcemeat Balls
soft

crumbs

egg

cup raw fish or meat


salt
I

teaspoon

tablespoon flour

tablespoon butter

Cook the bread and milk to a paste, cool it, add the beaten egg and fish or meat, forced through a fine meat-chopper or chopped and then ground fine with a mortar and pestle. Mould
it

into balls, lay

them

in a

pan with the

flour

8o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

and shake
saute
carefully

until

the balls are floured; then

them with the butter, shaking the pan from time to time, till the balls are browned on all sides. Or the balls may be dropped into boiling soup and put into the
cooker for one-half hour.

Croutons

Cut
thinly

slices

of bread one-half inch thick, spread


butter.

Cut the slices into strips one-half inch wide, and these into dice one-half inch thick. Put them into a baking-pan, and brown them in a hot oven, stirring them about frequently that they may be brown evenly. Add them to the soup just before serving, or pass them after serving.
with

Soup Sticks
Prepare the
If

bread
the

exactly

as

for

croutons,

except that the strips of bread are not cut into


dice.

desired

strips

may

be sprinkled
are
cut.

with

grated
side

cheese

after

they

Lay

them them them

to allow

by side with enough space between them to brown on the sides. Serve

as

an accompaniment to soup.
Crisp Crackers

Split plain, thick

crackers; spread the rough


butter,

sides

slightly

with

and

brown

them

delicately in a hot oven.

XI
FISH
OfiO
-^
tell

fresh

ph.
will

The
rise

flesh

of fresh
if

fish

is

firm,

and
fish

quickly

pressed
gills

with the finger; the eyes are bright, and the


red.

Frozen

may be

kept for a long time,

but must be used at once


spoils

when thawed,
fresh
fish.

as

it

more
fish.

quickly

than

Thaw
and

frozen fish in cold water.

Care of

Qean

it

and wipe

it,

inside

out, with a cloth dipped in strongly salted water.

Do

not put steaks or cutlets of


it

fish into
ice,

the water.

Lay

on a plate on cracked
It

or in a cool

place.

wrapped
or
it

in

will

must not be kept in an ice-box unless two thicknesses of brown paper, impart an odour to milk, butter, and
a

other foods.

To

clean

fish.

Before opening

it

the scales by scraping slowly from the


the head, holding the knife nearly
fish.

tail flat

remove toward on the


slit

Rinse the knife frequently


half-way

in cold water.

Open

the fish on the under side, cutting a


gills

from the

down

the body.

Remove

82

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

the entrails clear to the backbone, scraping the


inside if necessary.

To
tail,

skin a

fish.

Cut

slit

down

the back to the

on both sides of the dorsal

fins,

deep enough
knife

to take

them

out.

Insert a sharp-pointed
gills

under the skin as near the

as possible.

Holdgills,

ing the head by the bony part near the

work the

knife

down toward
Fish
is

the

tail.

Cooking of -fish.
If boiled too long,

sufficiently

cooked when

the flesh will easily flake


it

away from the bones.


soft

becomes
palatable

and watery.

An

acid

flavour

is

for this reason slices of

with fish, and lemon or an acid sauce

are often served with

it.

Left-over boiled

fish

may
fish,

be served
of

in a variety
fish,

of ways,

as

creamed

scalloped
fish, etc.

fish

souffle, croquettes, casserole

TABLE OF THE SEASONS,


MAMK or nsB
WEIGHT
5 or 6 lbs., or

ETC.,

OF FRESH-WATER

FISH
IN SEASON

Salmon Shad
White
Bass
fish

more

May

to Sept.

3 lbs., or

more

Jan. to June

lbs.

Winter

3 to 8 lbs

Always
to a lb.

Perch
Pickerel

Average 8
I

Summer
Always
Apr. to Aug.
Apr. to Aug.

to 4 lbs.

Brook Trout Lake Trout


Pike

4 to 9

lbs.

Summer

FISH
TABLE OF SEASONS,
NAME or FISH

83

ETC.,

OF SALT-WATER FISH
IN SEASON

WEIGHT
3 to 20 lbs.
5 to 8 lbs.

Cod Haddock
Black Bass

Always Always
Aug. to Mar.

3 lbs.

Cusk
Halibut

5 to 8 lbs.

Winter

Always
i to 5 4
lbs.,

Flounders

lbs.

Always
Late winter

Red snapper
Bluefish

or

more

4 to 8

lbs.

June

to Oct.

Tautog
Sturgeon
Swordfish

July to Sept.

Summer
July to Sept.
3 to 5 lbs.

Weakfish

Winter

Mackerel

i to 2

lbs.

May
lb.
lb.

to Sept.

Turbot
Herring
Smelts
Lobsters

Jan. to Mar.

6 or 8 to a

Mar. and Apr.


Sept. to

Average 8 to a
I

Mar.

to 2 lbs.

Always
Sept. to

Oysters

May

Clams
Crabs

Always

Summer
Boiled Fish

Put a three-pound
small
fish,

fish,

or three

pounds of

into four quarts of


salt

boihng water to

which four teaspoonfuls of


Set
it

have been added.


in

at

once

into

the

cooker for one hour.


the

Larger

fish

may
fish

be
is

cooked
used.

same
or six

way

if

more water

For instance, a
five

four-pound

should be put into

84

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Or, with large
put them into
fish,

quarts of water.

into boiling water to cover them, let


to

put them them come


cooker for

a boil, and

the

three-quarters of
to the
will
size of the

an

hour

or

more, according

fish.

Fish

when overcooked
break
if

be watery, but will


very

not

to

pieces,
in

unless

much

overdone,

cooked

hay-box or cooker.

Creamed
I lb. fish

Salt Codfish

No.

3 or 4 qts. water

Wash
put put
it
it

the

fish

and,

without
it

shredding
to a boil,

it,

into the cold water, bring


into a cooker for one

and

and one-half hours.


salt.

Drain, pick into pieces, and bring to a boil in

one cup of white sauce, omitting the


is

It

improved

by

adding a beaten

egg

before

serving.

Serves six or seven persons.

Creamed
I

Salt Codfish

No.

lb.

codfish
qts.

4 eggs

3 or 4

water

J cup milk
J teaspoon pepper

J cup

butter

Cook
No.
I.

the

fish

as

for

creamed

salt
it

codfish
into
this

When
boiler

picked to pieces, put


with the butter.
fish

a
is

double

When

absorbed by the

add the remaining ingrediCook,


stirring constantly,

ents beaten together.

FISH
until
it

85

it

thickens like custard.

Serve at once or

will curdle.

Serves six or eight persons.

Codfish Balls
I

cup raw

salt

codfish,

in

3 qts. cold water


i

small pieces
I

egg

heaping pint
i-inch pieces

potatoes

in

J tablespoon butter J teaspoon pepper

Bring the
water.

fish

and potatoes
Drain
fire

to a boil in the

Put them into a hay-box for one and

one-half hours.
covered, over
potatoes,
till

and
to

shake

them, unas

the

dry them
mealy.

boiled

white

and

Mash them

thoroughly, add the other ingredients, and mix them together thoroughly. If necessary, add a little more salt. Take the mixture up by
tablespoonfuls

and, without
fat.

moulding
Fry
until

them,
they

drop them into hot, deep


are a
rich

brown, and drain them on brown


temperature of
stale
fat for fish balls,
fat.

paper.

To

test the

drop a cube of
of the

bread into the

If

it

grows a rich brown


right

in forty seconds the

fat is

temperature.

If

fat

is

too

hot,

fried food is injured in flavour


if

and

digestibility;

not hot enough the food will be greasy.


it

If

fish balls fall apart in the frying,

is

because

86

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

the fish and potatoes were not well dried before

adding the other ingredients.


Serves four or six persons.
Salt Fish Souffle
I
I

cup

salt codfish
pt.

heaping
qts.

potatoes

2^ tablespoons butter } cup milk


J teaspoon pepper
2 eggs

water

Cook

the fish and potatoes as for codfish balls.

When
stiff.

drained and dried, add the butter, milk,

pepper, and yolks of eggs; then the whites, beaten

Turn
until

into

bake

puffed

buttered baking-dish, and and brown (about one-half

hour) in an insulated oven, the stones heated


until the

paper

test

shows a golden brown.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Salmon Loaf
I

can salmon

i cup butter (melted) I cup soft breadcrumbs

J teaspoon pepper li teaspoons salt


2 tablespoons chopped parsley
I

4 eggs If only hard, dry

small bay leaf

crumbs can be obtained, add

one-fourth of a cup of water to the recipe, mixing


it

with the eggs, and soaking the crumbs

one-half hour in the mixture.

Rub

the

fish

and butter together, add the and put


or
all

other ingredients,

into

buttered

one-quart

bread-mould

water-tight

empty

FISH
coffee

87
can.

or

baking-powder
sides.

Set the

mould

in enough cold water to reach two-thirds of the

way up
fifteen

its

Let

this

come

to a boil, boil

minutes and put into the cooker for one


It

hour.

will

not be injured by remaining in

the

hay-box

two

hours.

Or

set

the

into boiling water, boil one-half hour, into the cooker for an hour.

mould and put

Serves eight or ten persons.

Casserole of Fish
I

cup cold flaked


teaspoon
salt

fish

cup mashed potatoes

2 hard-cooked eggs

J teaspoon pepper

Butter a quart mould, put into


layers of fish, potatoes,
layer.

it

alternate

Stand

the

and egg; seasoning each mould in a cooker-pail of

boiling water to reach two-thirds of the


its

way up
into the

sides.

Boil ten minutes and put

it

cooker for from three-quarters of an hour to two


hours.

Serves six persons.

Cape Cod Turkey


I

lb. salt

codfish

lb. fat salt

4 pork

qts. cold

water

Wash
water.

the

fish

and put

it

on the stove

in

the

boiling, put it into a cooker and from one and one-half to three hours. let it cook While this is cooking cut the pork into one-fourth

When

88
inch

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


slices,

gash the

slices

occasionally,
it,

nearly
it,

to the rind.

Pour boiling water over


out in a frying-pan
the codfish
is
till

drain

and
crisp.

try

it

brown and
it

When
it

done, drain

and

garnish

with a border of the hot, crisp pork.


boiled

Serve drawn-butter sauce and

potatoes

with

it.

Serves six or eight persons.

Creamed Oysters
1 qt.

oysters

2 cups milk or cream

i cup flour } teaspoon

salt

i cup butter

Few

grains of white pepper

Drain and wash the


through cheese-cloth.
liquor

oysters.

Strain the liquor

Heat the oysters in the by themselves and scald the milk. Rub the butter and flour together, add them to the hot milk or cream, and let it boil. Put this mixture with the boiling oysters and set it in a cooker
for

one-half hour or more.

Just
it

before

serv-

ing add the seasoning.

Serve

on toast or crisped

crackers, or in croustades.

XII

BEEF

TTb

select

gocd
that

beef,
is,

(i) Quality.

" Heavy "^


fat,

beef,

taken
It

from

heavy

animals,
fat
all

is

the best.

should be mottled with

through the lean, and the large masses

of fat should be firm and of a creamy white

Thegrainoftender meat is fine. Coarsegrained meat, and meat streaked with concolour.

nective
(2)

tissue

or

gristle,

is
is

sure to be tough.
a good red colour,

Freshness.

Fresh beef
it

modified, shade.
stale,

when
its

is

very cold, to a purplish

If black or greenish in tint the

meat
is

is

and
it

odour

will

be bad.

Meat

flabby

after

is

killed,

but soon grows firm.

It is in

suitable condition for cooking before this change

takes place, or

some days

after

it.

Uses of the

different cuts:

Beef

is

cut variously

and the same cuts are not always similarly named. Merely to call the cuts by name would, therefore, make this chapter unintelligible to some readers; but
in different parts of the country,
89

90

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

by consulting the accompanying chart the pieces can be selected without reference to their names, according to the part of the animal adapted
to

Those muscles which are much used and which have hard work to do will have the most juice and the best flavour, though, at the same time, they will be the
each particular use.
toughest.

For instance,
shin,

all

cuts,

such as round,

shoulder,

and

rump, which

come from

Figure No.

7.

Diagram

of the cuts of beef.

The double

line

shows the division

between forequarter and hindquarter.

the legs or parts by which the legs are connected

with the body,

will

be tough and high-flavoured.

The neck

also, and upper part of the shoulder, by reason of the support they give to the weight

of the head, are tough, although rich in flavour.

Any
they

cuts

from these
called,

parts,

by whatever
for

name

are

are

not

suitable

cooking

with dry heat, such as that of baking, or broiling,

but will

require

long,

slow cooking with

water to

make them

tender.

Such pieces are

BEEF
the

91
a

ones

to

buy

for

cooking in

hay-box.

They do
cuts

not

command

the price of the tender

from the back of the animal, and it is, therefore, a distinct economy to buy these cheap pieces

and by skilful cooking make them and palatable. The parts numbered
II

digestible
i,

2,

7,

8,

9, in Fig. 7 are suitable for stews; those

marked

and

12, as well as all bones, are suitable for

soups.

Numbers

2,

5, 6,

and 10 may be used

for stews or broth, but are adapted also to pot


roasts,
etc.,

rolled steaks, cannelon,

Hamburg

steak,

while only numbers 3 and 4 are adapted


as food, suitable for

to roasting or broiling.

Other parts of beef used

cooking in the hay-box or cooker, are:


Brains, stewed or scalloped, or for croquettes.

Heart, stuffed and braised.


Liver, braised.

Tongue, boiled;
Kidneys, stewed.
Tail, soup.

fresh, corned, or pickled.

TABLE SHOWING SOME OF THE NAMES GIVEN TO CUTS OF BEEF IN DIFFERENT FARTS OF THE COUNTRY.
The numbers
taken, as
1.

indicate the part


(Fig.

from which the cuts arc

shown on the chart

No.

7).

Neck, part of the Rattleran, and Sticking

piece.

2.

Chuck, part of Rattleran.

92
3.
4.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Chuck and Rib
Sirloin
roasts.

steak,

Porter-house steak,

Pinbone
7.

roast.

Tha

latter includes also a part of


5.
6.
7.

Number

Rump,
Round.
Flank,

Aitchbone.

Top

of Sirloin.

8.
9.

Flank, Plate.
Brisket, Navel.

10. Shoulder,
11.
13.

Shoulder clod, Rattleran, Bolar, Cross

ribs.

and

12.

Fore and hind shin. Soup bones.

Vein, Veiny piece.

All meat should at once be Care of meat. removed from the wrapping paper when it comes

from the
juices

store, otherwise the

paper absorbs the

and
liver,

sticks

to

the
it

meat.

Never

put

meat
ney,

into water, except


heart,
etc.,
is

be such parts as kidsoak

or the water will

out the juice which


tains
cloth,

the part of meat that conit

the flavour.

Wipe

with a clean, wet


If
it

and keep

it

in a cool place.
is

must be

kept longer than

safe for

partially cooked, cooled


till

quickly,

raw meat, it may be and kept cold


put into cold water

time to complete the cooking.


If

Cooking meat.

meat

is

and gradually heated

to the boiling point, a large

proportion of the juice will be extracted.

The
Long

meat

will

thus

be

rendered

tasteless

and the
of the

water will contain the flavouring matter.


cooking in water dissolves the
gelatine

BEEF
bones and connective
desirable for soups
tissue.

93

These

effects

are

and broths, but undesirable


is

when
If
boil

the meat itself

also to be used.

meat is put into boiling water, allowed to a few minutes, and then cooked a long time at a lower temperature, the albumen of the juice is hardened on the surface of the meat and
the remaining juice
extent.
is

thus kept to a considerable

The

long cooking

may

then soften the


its

tough tissue while the meat retains much of


flavour, the water
is

desirable
etc.,

for
in

poultry,

becoming also flavoured. This stews, meat pies, pot roasts, which cases meat and liquor
Braised Beef

are both to be served.

Wipe

the beef with a wet cloth, cut off any


if
it

tough ends and bone

will

not

mar

the

appearance of the meat, as these parts

will not

become palatable
for the

in the length

of time required

remainder of the
steak,

roast.

They

will

be

found useful for soups, stews, cannelon of beef,

Hamburg
meat
quickly to

and such

dishes.

Roast the
it

in a hot

oven for half an hour, transfer


cooker utensil, add enough
it,

boil-

ing water to nearly cover

let

the whole
it

become
comsize of

very hot in the oven, and place


cooker.

quickly in the
for

The time

that

is

required

pleting the cooking will

depend upon the

94
the

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


piece

and the degree of cooking desired. A five-pound roast may be cooked four hours, and if not found done to taste, it can be reheated to boiling point and cooked longer. A larger roast will require more time in the cooker. If
preferred, the
in

meat may

first

be partially cooked
in the

the hay-box and browned


It

oven

after-

ward.

must then be boiled for half an hour, more hours in the cooker, and then roasted. Lay a piece of raw fat on top
cooked three or
it

of the roast, or baste


in the

with drippings to

assist

browning.

Pot Roast
3
lbs.

beef

rump

2 small carrots

3 cups boiling water


I
I

2 sprigs parsley

bay leaf
small onion

J teaspoon celery seed, or

Salt

and pepper

J cup celery, cut in pieces Flour

i teaspoon Worcestershire sauce

Have
dredge
it it

the

butcher bone

and

roll

the

meat,

well with salt, pepper, and flour, and

brown

on

all

sides in a frying-pan with* a

little

of the fat from the meat, or one or two tablespoons of beef drippings or pork
dients
fat.

Put

all

the ingrepail, let


it

together

in

small
it

cooker-

simmer
hours
strain

thirty minutes, set

into a larger pail

of boiling water
or

and put
Reheat

into a cooker for nine


it

more.

to

boiling

point;

and thicken the liquor for gravy.

Round

BEEF
of beef

95
it is
it.

may

be used for pot roast, but


fat

drier

than the rump, which has some


or five pounds of

on

Four

when boned.
market to use

rump will make three pounds Have the bone sent from the
soup stock.

for

Serves ten or twelve persons.

Beef a
3
I

la
I

Mode
onion

lbs.

beef from the round

oz. fat, salt

pork

i teaspoon allspice

2 teaspoons salt

i teaspoon nutmeg
6 cloves
2 tablespoons rendered beef fat

i teaspoon pepper Flour

Water

to nearly cover
it

it

Wash

the meat, lard

with the pork cut into


pepper, and

strips, or

gash

it

deeply and insert the pork in


it

the gashes.
flour,

Dredge
fry
it

with the beef fat

salt,
till

and

in the

well

browned

on

all sides.

Put the meat and other ingredients

a two or three quart cooker-pail or pan, and nearly cover the meat with boiling water.
into

Let
put

it

simmer

for half an hour, then stand the

pail in a larger cooker-pail of boiling


it

water and

into a cooker for

from nine
this

to twelve hours.
is

Unless
twelve
before

several

times

recipe

cooked

at

once, do not allow the meat to cook more than

hours,
serving.

or

it

may

ferment.

Reheat

it

Strain

and thicken the gravy.

Serves ten or twelve persons.

96

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Corned Beef

Order
pail
it

eight or ten

pounds of rump of beef


Put
it

corned for four days.

into a large cooker-

and

fill

the pail with


it

cold water.

When

boils,

allow

to
it

simmer
into a
it

for thirty or forty

minutes, then put

hay-box for ten or


it.

twelve hours.

Reheat

before serving
it

If

ordinary corned beef is used


if,

will

be more delicate
boil, the

when

it is

allowed to come to a

water

is

may

changed and fresh boiling water added. It then be cooked as directed above for that

specially corned.

Serves twenty or twenty-five persons.

Boiled Dinner
2
lbs. lean, salt

pork

head cabbage

3 turnips

I2 potatoes

4 beets
2 carrots

J teaspoon pepper Water to cover

Wash the pork and gash it in slices; wash and pare the vegetables. If preferred, the beets
may
Put
pail

be cooked separately, without paring them.


all,

except the potatoes,

into

the cooker-

boiling

and cover them with boiling water. let them cook ten minutes on the
put
or

When
stove,
six
it

then

the

pail

into

the

cooker

for

hours
to
for

more.
point,

Add
If

the

potatoes,
it

reheat

boiling

and replace

in the

cooker
is

two hours.

more

salt

or

pepper

BEEF
required

97
in.

add
to

it

when

the potatoes are put


potatoes

In

order

save

time the

may
to

be
the

cooked separately, drained


dinner before bringing
it

and

added

to a boil for serving.


in place

Corned beef may be used


preferred.

of pork,

if

Serves eight or ten persons.

Beef Stew a
li
lbs.

la

Mode

beef brisket

6 cloves
2 teaspoons salt
fat

Flour

4 tablespoons rendered
I

2 slices lemon

onion

J teaspoon ground
J teaspoon nutmeg
to cover (about
i

allspice

J teaspoon pepper

Water

pt.)

Buy two and


brisket to get

one-half or three pounds of one and one-half pounds of clear,


pieces,
fat
till

lean meat.
roll

them

in

Cut the meat into one inch flour, and fry them in the
onion
is

brown.

The

may

be sliced and added

when
pail,

the meat

nearly brown.

Put the meat

with the other ingredients into a small cookercover


it

with hot water, boil for ten minutes,


in a

and cook
If left for

it

hay-box for

five

hours or more.
trifle

many

hours the meat becomes a


is

dry,

but otherwise the stew

not injured by
thickened,
if

overcooking.
desired, with

The
flour

gravy

may be

and water mixed together


put in

in

equal

parts.

The bones may be

98

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


may be
used to

with the stew during the cooking and removed


before serving, or they

make

soup stock.
Serves five or six persons.
Stuffed Rolled Steak
I I
I

flank steak

i teaspoon pepper
2 tablespoons butter

cup

soft

breadcrumbs
salt

teaspoon

i teaspoon thyme or summer savoury


I

tablespoon chopped parsley

Wash
market.

the steak
it,

that covers

and remove the membrane unless that has been done at the
a stuffing of the crumbs, melt-

Make

ing the butter and adding the crumbs and other


ingredients to
it.

If the steak

is

large enough,

use

more

stuffing

than

one

cupful.

Spread

the stuffing over the meat to within two inches

of the edge.

Roll and skewer or tie

it

into shape.

Brown
fat.

it

well
it
it

on

all

sides in a dry frying-pan,


it

or dredge

with flour and fry

in

rendered beef

Lay

in a small cooker-pail or pan.

Make

two cupfuls of Brown Sauce, or enough to cover Boil the roll for two minutes and the roll.
set

the pail in a larger pail of boiling water.


it it

Put

for
is

five

or

six

hours

into

cooker.
or

When

to be

served,

remove the

string

skewers, lay the roll on a platter, and pour the

gravy over

it.

BEEF
Round
steak,

99

cut about one-half inch thick,

may

be used.

Remove

the bone before rolling

it.

Beef Stew with Dumplings


2 cups cooked or raw beef 2 cups raw or cooked potatoes cup tomato
1
i

teaspoon

salt

J teaspoon pepper J cup flour i tablespoon chopped panley

onion, cut in slices


fat or

4 tablespoons rendered
butter

J cups water, or more

If

cooked meat and potatoes are used, cut


in three-quarter-inch dice,
fat,

them

sauce of the

a brown and water, add the vegetables and meat and enough water to
flour,

make

seasoning,

just

cover the stew.


it

Place the dumplings on

top, boil

for five minutes,

and cook

in a hay-

box

for

one

and

one-quarter

hours.

If
it

the
like

meat is tough it will be better to treat raw beef. If raw beef is used, cut it in bring it to a boil with the water, and put
the other ingredients.

pieces,
it

into

the cooker for three or four hours before adding

Dumplings
2 cups
flour

for

Stew
salt

4 teaspoons baking powder

2 tablespoons lard or butter

f
Sift

to

J teaspoon cup water

the flour,

salt,

work the
it

fat into

and baking powder together, them with the fingers, or cut

in with a knife.

Add enough

water to

make a

100
stiff

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


dough.

Drop

it

by tablespoonfuls on

the

top of the stew.

The dumplings
in the gravy.

should rest on

the meat and vegetables, as they will not be so


light if

submerged

Serves six or seven persons.


Irish
3 cups meat 2 cups potatoes

Stew
^ cup
celery

2 teaspoons salt

i cup turnip
J cup carrot J cup onion

J teaspoon pepper J cup flour


4 tablespoons rendered fat
3 cups water

Wash and
pieces.

cut about two pounds of beef, from,

the leg, brisket or other cheap cuts, into one-inch

desired.

Remove most of Wash and pare

the

fat,

or

all

of

it,

if

the turnip and carrot

and cut them into small

pieces.

Pare the potatoes


Slice the

and cut them into one-inch cubes. and cut the celery into small

onion

pieces.

Roll the
in the

meat
fat.

in the flour

and

fry

it till it is

brown

Put

all

the ingredients, except the remaining

flour, into a cooker-pail

and,

them
Stir

into a cooker for five

when boiling, put hours. Mix the remainit

ing flour with an equal quantity of cold water.


it

into the stew,

and when

has boiled

it

is

ready to serve.

It will

not be harmed by being

kept hot in the cooker for another hour or more.


Serves eight or ten persons.

BEEF
I lb.

\^::' :
\

;'

i';^

.
-

loL

Cannelon of Beef
lean beef, chopped
2 tablespoons

butter

or

Grated rind J lemon I tablespoon chopped parsley


I

rendered fat beef

} teaspoon nutmeg

cup

soft

breadcrumbs

^ tablespoon
2 eggs

salt

teaspoon scraped onion

J teaspoon pepper

Mix

in the order given,


slightly

add the eggs, which


put
it

have been
tight can.

beaten,

into

a well-

greased one-quart brown bread mould or water-

Stand the mould


if

in a large pail of

water, arranged on a rack,

necessary to raise the

top of the mould to the level of the top of the pail.


Fill

the pail with boiling water, to within oneBoil


it

third of the top of the mould.

for one-half
If

hour and put


several

it

into a cooker for four hours.

times

this
it

recipe

is

used, and put into

larger moulds,
It is

should be boiled a longer time.


hot, with

good served

brown

sauce, or cold.

Serves

six or eight persons.

Meat Pie
2 cups cooked or raw meat 2 cups potatoes
1

2 onions
i

teaspoon

salt

cup tomatoes

2 sprigs parsley, chopped

i teaspoon pepper J cup flour


i

J teaspoon

celery salt

bay
i

leaf,

broken

fine'

Water (about
If

pt.)

cooked meat

is

used, cut

it

into three-quarter-

inch cubes.

Cut the potatoes

into similar pieces,

I02
slice

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


all

the onions, put

the ingredients, but the

flour, together in

a cooker-pail or pan,

boiling water, and,

when

boiling,

add the add the flour

mixed
hours

to a paste with an equal quantity of water.

Boil five minutes

or

more.

and put it into a cooker for two Raw meat will require five
If the stewed mixture
is
it

hours
in

or

more.

not
to

pan

suitable for baking, transfer

baking-pan or dish, cover with a crust and bake


for one-half hour.

Crust for Meat Pie


ij cups flour
3 teaspoons baking powder J teaspoon salt ij tablespoons butter

J cup water, or more

Mix and
fat,

sift

the dry ingredients,

work

in the

enough water to make a dough Roll it out on a board. stiff enough An inverted cup in to the dish and bake it. pie, under the crust, will the centre of the
and put
in

to roll

prevent the gravy from boiling over during the


baking.
Serves six or eight persons.

Braised Beef's Liver


I

liver
lb. fat salt

2 teaspoons sage leaves

\
I

pork

2 teaspoons
i

thyme
salt

onion
^

teaspoon

Flour

} teaspoon pepper

Fat

Water to cover

BEEF
flour

103

Lard the liver with the pork. Dredge it with and brown it in a frying-pan, with rendered
Put
it

beef or pork fat or butter.


pail or
it

into a cookerit.

pan
pail

just large

enough
it

to hold

Cover
minutes,

with boiling water, boil


in

for

five

set the

a
it

larger
into a
it

cooker-pail

of boiling

water, and put or more.


cutting
it

cooker for ten hours


it

Reheat

and serve

on a

platter,
slices.

through, but not separating the

Pour over it the gravy, which has been strained and thickened with flour and water mixed to a
paste.

The number

of persons

that

it

will

serve

depends upon the size of the liver. pound for three or four persons.

Allow one

Beef Kidney

Wash

and soak two kidneys in a large amount

of water, for several hours or over night, changing


the water at least once.

Cut them open,

rinse

them and put them on


pail.

to boil in boiling

salted

water to barely cover them, in a small cooker-

Let them boil

five

minutes, set the pail in

a larger pail of boiling water,

hours or more in a cooker.


the tubes and

and cook them ten When tender, remove

Thicken

as

membranes and slice the kidneys. much of the gravy as you wish to use,

with one-fourth of a cupful of flour mixed with


one-fourth of a cupful of water to each pint of

104
gravy.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Add
the sliced kidneys and serve

them

when they

are boiling hot.

Stuffed Heart
I

heart

i cup crumbs
I

J teaspoon pepper I small onion, chopped

tablespoon buttef
salt

J teaspoon powdered thyme


i

i teaspoon

thick slice bacon

Flour

Wash

the heart, remove the arteries and veins


clots

and squeeze out any

of blood that there


soft

may
to

bread crumbs which the seasonings and melted butter have been added. Try out the fat from the slice of
be.

Stuff

it

with the

bacon, dredge the heart with


flour

salt,

pepper and

and brown it on Put the heart and the


it

all

sides in the

bacon

fat.

crisp
it,

bacon into as small a


cover
it

cooker-pail as will hold

with boiling
pail into

water, boil

for five

minutes and put the

a larger cooker-pail with as


as
it

much

boiling water
is

will hold

when the
and cook
it

small pail

in place.

Put
Boil

it

into a cooker for ten hours, or over night.


it

again

it

for

three
it,

or four

hours.

Reheat

when ready

to serve

thicken-

ing each pint of the gravy with one-fourth cup

of flour and an equal quantity of water mixed


to a smooth paste.
attra/:tive
if

The
and

heart will look

more
gravy

sliced

covered

with

before serving.

BEEF
Beef or calPs heart
stuffing

105
without a

may be cooked

and served with caper sauce.

Corned Tongue

Wash

the tongue, put

it

into a cooker-pail of
Fill

from four to
boil

six quarts capacity.

the pail

with cold water, bring the tongue to a boil and


it

for

depending upon

from twenty minutes to half an hour, its size. Put it into a cooker for
If not perfectly tender, bring

ten or twelve hours.


it

again to a boil and cook

hours longer.

Plunge
it

it

from two to four into cold water, remove


it

the skin, and serve

cold, cut in thin slices.

Fresh Tongue
I I

tongue
onion

teaspoon peppercorns

8 cloves
Salt
it

bay leaf

Wash
and
fill

the tongue, put


it,

into as small a cooker-

pail as will easily hold

add the other ingredients


Let
it

the pail with boiling water, using one


salt to

teaspoonful of
boil for

each quart of water.

twenty minutes or half an hour, depending


size of the tongue.

upon the
it

Put

it

into a cooker for

ten hours or more.


to boiling point

If not perfectly tender, reheat

and cook

it

for

from two to
Plunge
it

four hours longer in the hay-box.


cold water

into

and remove the

skin.

Serve

it

hot with

caper sauce, using the liquor in which the tongue

was boiled

in place of water, to

make

the sauce.

XIII

LAMB AND MUTTON

SPRING
able in
ling
is

lamb

is

the meat of lambs from six


old.
It
is

weeks to three months

obtain-

March and throughout the spring. Yearlamb one year old. The flesh of lamb is
than that of mutton and the bones
be distinguished from mutton,
size of the cuts,
It

lighter in colour

are pinker.
also,

may

by the smaller
dark meats,

which are
Mutton,

otherwise the same in mutton and lamb.


as
all

may

be served rare; but lamb,

is classed with white meats in this and should be thoroughly cooked. The rank flavour of mutton is greatly reduced if the pink membrane, which surrounds the animal, is

being lighter,

respect,

of mutton has and most of it should be removed. It will not be good for any cooking purposes as veal, beef, and pork fat are.
pulled off before cooking.
a
strong,
fat

The

disagreeable flavour,

rib

Cuts of Mutton. The favourite cuts are the and loin chops and the leg, but as other parts

of the sheep are

much

cheaper,

it is

well to

know

their possibilities.

Shoulder, boned and tied into


zo6

LAMB AND MUTTON


shape, will,

107

when cooked

in the

hay-box or cooker,

make

a very good substitute for the leg, while

shoulder of lamb makes a good roast for small


families

who grow

tired of perpetual steak

and

chops.

Figure No. 8.

Diagram

of the cuts of

mutton and Iamb.

TABLE SHOWING THE WAYS IN WHICH THE VARIOUS CUTS OF MUTTON AND LAMB MAY BE COOKED IN THE HAY-BOX OR COOKER
1.

Neck, stews and broth.

2.

Chuck, stews, broth, meat


hash.

pie, casserole

of rice and meat,

3.

Shoulder, braising, plain or boned


of rice and meat, hash.

and

stuffed, casserole

4 and
6.
7.

5.

Loin chops, cooked as veal

cutlets,

breaded or plain.

Flank, soups, stews.

Leg, braised or boiled.

OTHER PARTS OF THE ANIMAL, USED FOR FOOD, WHICH MAY BE COOKED IN THE HAY-BOX OR COOKER
Heart, braised, plain or stuffed.
Liver, braised, or breaded as veal cutlets.

Tongue,

boiled.

Kidneys, stewed.

io8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Oven
directions

In the chapter on the Insulated


are also given for roasting

some

cuts of

mutton and
list,

lamb.

They
is

are not included in this

since

the oven

not an accompaniment of every cooker.

Boiled

Leg or Shoulder

of

Mutton
put
it

Wipe
to cover

the meat v^ith a

damp

cloth,

into

a cooker-pail with boiling salted


it,

water enough
the
leg.

and

to permit of at least three or

four quarts of water being used,

amount
Boil
it

depending upon the


for half an
six

size

of the
it

hour and cook

in the

cooker for
with brown

hours or more.

The

broth should be saved Serve


it

for soup stock

and gravy.

gravy or with caper sauce.


require
will take the

Shoulder will not


boiling,

more than twenty minutes


full

but

time in

the

cooker.

Lamb

may

be treated in the same manner.

Wipe

Braised Leg or Shoulder of Mutton the meat with a damp cloth, roast
till

it

in

a hot oven

brown, or dredge
it

it

with

salt,

pepper, and flour, and brown

in a frying-pan;

put

it,

while

still

hot,

into

a cooker-pail with
it,

enough boiling water


Bring
put
it
it

to half cover

or more.

to a hard boil, while tightly covered,

at
it

once into a cooker for

six

hours or more.
be treated

Serve

with brown gravy, saving the remain-

ing broth for soup stock.


in the

Lamb may

same manner.

LAMB AND MUTTON


Mutton Stew
2 cups meat cup tomato
I
1 i

109

teaspoon

salt

onion
tablespoon chopped parsley

J teaspoon pepper ij cups water, or more


J cup butter, lard or beef fat
J cup flour

2 cups potatoes

Wipe
with
all

the meat with a

damp
it

cloth, cut

it

into

three-quarter-inch cubes, put


the

into a cooker-pail

other ingredients,

except the fat

potatoes should be pared and and one-half-inch cubes. Bring all to a boil, boil it for five minutes and put it Make into a cooker for from four to six hours. a brown sauce, using the fat, flour, and liquor from the stew. Heat the stew in this till boiling. Or the meat may be dredged with the flour and fried in the fat until meat and flour are brown,

and

flour.

The

cut into one

before

being put into the

cooker.

If

cooked

meat
will

is

used, one and one-half hours in the cooker


is

be enough, unless the meat


it

very tough,

in

which case

may

be cooked as long as raw

meat.

The

addition of one green pepper

makes

a good variation of this stew.


Serves five or six persons.

Chestnut Stew
2 cups raw mutton 2 onions 2 tablespoons fat
3 cups blanched nuts

2 tieaspoons salt

J teaspoon pepper

3 tablespoons flour

Water

no

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the meat with a

Wipe
onions.
it

damp
peel

cloth, cut

it

into

three-quarter-inch

cubes;

and

slice

the

Dredge the meat with the


in a

and the onions


for

brown frying-pan with any fat


flour,
all

suitable

cooking.

Put

the

ingredients
boil-

into a cooker-pail, barely cover

them with

ing water,

and
it

let

the

stew boil Rve minutes

before putting

into

a cooker for four hours

or more.

Serves six or eight persons.

Syrian Stew (Yakhni)


2 cups r?.w mutton
2 tablespoons fat 3 tablespoons flour 2 cups string beans
2 onions 2 cups tomatoes

ij teaspoons

salt

J teaspoon pepper

Water

Wipe
the
fat.

the meat with a


it

damp
flour,

cloth, cut

it

into
it

cubes, dredge

with the

and brown

in

Put

all

the ingredients together, scrapall

ing from the frying-pan

of the flour and


let

fat.

Add enough
boil

water to barely cover them,


minutes,

them

for

five

and put them into the

cooker for six hours or more, depending upon


the beans.
require
If they are old
six
is

and tough they may

more than
rice.

hours to cook.
always served with boiled

In Syria this stew


or steamed

Serves six or eight persons.

LAMB AND MUTTON


Okra Stew
2 cups raw mutton
2 tablespoons fat 2 cups tomatoes
2 cups okra

in

J cup

flour

ij teaspoons

salt

2 onions

J teaspoon pepper

Water

Wipe
cubes.
it

the meat with a

damp

cloth, cut

it

into

Wash and

cut the okra in pieces, dredge

till

and the meat with the flour and fry them, brown, in the fat. Put all the ingredients
them,
boil

into a cooker-pail,

cover

them

add enough water to barely for five minutes, and

put them into a cooker for four hours, or more.


Serves six or eight persons.

Syrian Stuffed Cabbage


1

cup raw chopped meat

2 teaspoons salt

2 tablespoons fat

^ cup raw

rice

J teaspoon pepper head cabbage

i lemon

Strip off the leaves

from a head of cabbage,


let

throw them into boiling water, and


stand
till

them
meat

they are wilted.

Mix

the remaining

ingredients, except the lemon, using for the


either

on a

Lay a cabbage leaf or beef. remove the thickest part of the midSpread on it a rounded rib, so that it will roll. teaspoonful of the mixture and roll it like a Do the same with the other leaves, cigarette. packing each one, as it is finished, into a pan
mutton
plate,

112

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


will
fit

which

over a cooker-pail, unless a pail


filled

is

used which will be nearly

by the cabbage.
will
is

The
float

rolls

must be

carefully

packed or they
added.
all

and unroll when the water


boiling water, bring
it

Cover

them with
boil

to a boil,
it

and

for five minutes, then put


if

directly into

a cooker,
if

the pail
it

is full,

or over boiling water


six hours.

not,

and leave
the
rolls

for

from four to

Take

out carefully with a cake turner

or skimmer, lay

the juice

in a platter, and squeeze lemon over them. They are usually served as the meat dish for luncheon.

them

of half a

Serves six or eight persons.

Casserole of Rice and Meat


4 cups cooked
teaspoon
rice (i

cup raw)

teaspoon grated onion


tablespoon chopped parsley

2 cups cooked mutton


I

salt

i teaspoon pepper

J cup breadcrumbs i egg


Stock or water

Line a greased mould of one and one-half


quarts'

capacity
all

with three

cups

of the
it

rice. fine,

Remove
and mix

the fat from the meat, chop

it with the other ingredients, adding enough stock or water to barely keep it from crumbling. Pack the meat into the mould and

cover

it

with

the

remaining
put
it

cupful
on.

of

rice.

Grease the cover and

Stand the

mould

in a large cooker-pail of

water to two-thirds

LAMB AND MUTTON


of
so
boil
its

113

depth, or,

if it is

shallow, prop

it

on a rack,
its
it

that
it

the water will

reach

half

depth;
for

for fifteen minutes,


in the cooker.
platter,
it.

and cook

one

hour or more
fully

Turn

it

out care-

on to a hot

and pour tomato sauce

around, but not over

Serves six or eight persons.

Ragout of Cold Mutton


2 cups cold mutton
I 1

^ can peas
i

onion, sliced

teaspoon

salt

cup mutton stock

J teaspoon pepper
i

2 tablespoons butter

head of lettuce

Farina balls

Cut the mutton


all

into

one-inch

cubes.

Put

the ingredients except the lettuce and farina


it

balls into a cooker-pail together, cover

closely,

and when boiling put it into a cooker for one Serve it on a platter garnished with lettuce leaves and farina balls.
hour.

Serves four to six persons.

XIV

VEAL

VEAL
calf

varies

greatly
it

with
is

the

age of the
It

from which

taken.

should

be pink, with

firm, white fat.

Pale, flabby veal


killed

comes from calves which have been


young, or bled before death, and
tasteless
is

too

likely to

be

veal grows, the

and stringy when cooked. The older more like beef it appears. The cuts are larger and the colour is darker and

Figure No.

9.

Diagram

of the cuts of veal.

more

like the red of beef.

Veal can be purchased


it

the year round,


spring

but the best season for

is

and summer.

Almost

all

parts

of the

calf are tender, but the cheaper cuts correspond

with the cheaper cuts of beef, except the cutlets


I4

VEAL
or steaks, which are taken from the

115

same

part

of the animal as the round of beef, and


a

command
meats,

good

price.

Veal,

like

other
Its
it

white

should be thoroughly cooked.

dehcacy comoften requires

mends
it

it

for

many

purposes, but

the addition of pork, or high seasoning, to give


flavour.

TABLE SHOWING THE WAYS IN WHICH THE VARIOUS CUTS OF VEAL MAY BE COOKED IN THE

HAY-BOX OR COOKER.
1.

Head,

Jelly, soups,

and broths,
pie.

calf's

head a

la terrapin.

2. 3.

Neck, Stews, soup, veal

Chuck, Veal

loaf, stews,

soup, veal pie.

4.

Shoulder, Braised, stuffed and braised.

5.
6. 7.

Shanks, Soups.
Ribs, Braised or breaded as veal cutlets.
Breast, Soups, stews, veal loaf.

8.

Loin, Braised or breaded as veal cutlets.

9.

Flank, Soups or stews.

10.

Leg, Breaded cutlets or plain cutlets.

OTHER PARTS OF THE CALF, USED FOR FOOD, WHICH MAY BE COOKED IN THE HAY-BOX OR
COOKER.
Brains, Stewed and creamed.

Heart, Braised, plain or stuffed.


Liver, Braised, or stewed.

Tongues, Boiled.
Sweetbreads, Stewed or creamed.

Kidneys, Stewed or creamed.

ii6

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Breaded Veal Cutlets
2 lbs. veal cutlets
Fine, dry breadcrumbs
Salt
i

pt.

water or stock

^ cup butter or drippings

Pepper
I

J cup flour I tablespoon chopped parsley i teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce

egg

Wipe

the cutlets with a clean, wet cloth.

them them with


slightly

into pieces suitable for serving,


salt

Cut and sprinkle


into sifted

and pepper.

Dip them

crumbs, then into the egg, which has been beaten


water.

and mixed with one tablespoonful of Dip the cutlets again into the crumbs and fry them until they are a rich brown, in onePut them into half the butter or drippings. Make Brown Sauce, a small cooker-pail or pan.
using the remaining ingredients.

Pour the sauce


Put

over the cutlets and,

when

boiling, stand the pail


it

in a large cooker-pail of boiling water.

from two to four hours, depending upon the age and toughness of the veal. Reheat them before serving.
into a cooker for

Serves six or eight persons.

Plain Veal Cutlets

Wipe
able for

the cutlets with a wet cloth, trim off any


suit-

tough membranes, and cut them into pieces


serving.

Brown them
butter

in

very hot
fat,

frying-pan with

or

rendered

being

VEAL
careful

117

Sprinkle them let them scorch. and pepper and put them into a small Pour a little boiling water cooker-pail or pan. into the frying-pan and, when all the brown juice which has hardened on the pan has been disAdd enough solved, pour this over the cutlets. boiling water to barely cover them and, when
not to
well with salt
boiling, stand the pail or
pail of boiling water.

pan
it

in a

large cooker-

Put
veal.

into the cooker for

from two to four hours, depending upon the age

and toughness of the


serving,
if

Reheat them before

necessary.

Veal Loaf
2 cups minced veal
2 eggs

ij teaspoons salt

2 tablespoons chopped parsley


2 tablespoons chopped onion

i cup melted butter I cup soft bread crumbs


J teaspoon pepper

J inch slice fat salt pork teaspoon ground sage

Wipe meat from the cheaper cuts of veal, remove the fat and toughest membranes, and put it through a fine food-chopper. Mix the seasonings
with the crumbs, add the melted butter, mix these with the veal, add the pork and,
lastly,

the eggs.

Put the mixture

in a well-buttered

one-quart brown

bread mould or water-tight can.


but do not pack
it

Spread
Stand

it

level

in the

mould.

it

in

large cooker-pail with

come

at

enough boiling water to least two-thirds of the way up the mould.

ii8
Boil
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


for

twenty minutes and put


Serve
it

it

into the cooker

for four hours.

either hot or cold.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Sweetbreads

Wash and
one hour.

soak the sweetbreads in cold water for

Plunge them into boiling salted water


salt for

(one teaspoonful of

each quart of water).

Boil them two minutes and put them into the cooker for two hours. Plunge them into cold water, remove the membrane which covers them, and they are then ready to be broken in pieces for creamed sweetbreads or rolled in crumbs and egg and fried.

Creamed Sweetbreads

Make
cream,

a white sauce, using part milk and part


if

desired.

To

each

cupful

of

sauce

add two cupfuls of prepared sweetbreads broken into small pieces, let them come to a boil and serve them at once, or put them into a cooker
to keep

warm

until they are needed.

Calfs Heart

CalPs heart
except that
it

may

be cooked as beePs

heart,

will
is

not require so long to cook.

Ten minutes

sufficient to allow for

cooking over

the flame, and ten hours in the hay-box.


Calf's Liver

Prepare and cook

it

in the

same manner
it

as
to

beefs

liver,

allowing only four hours for

cook in the hay-box.

VEAL
Veal Kidney

119

These are almost

as delicate as sweetbreads.

They may be cooked for two hours in the same manner as beef kidney, or creamed or fried as
sweetbreads.

Calfs Head a
1 calf's

la

Terrapin
2 tablespoons flour

head

Salt

Water
2 tablespoons butter

J teaspoon pepper J cup cream


4 egg yolks

Madeira Wine

Carefully clean a calf's head and put


cooker-pail.

it

into a

Cover

it

with boiling water, add

one teaspoonful of
let
it

salt to

each quart of water and

boil

for twenty

minutes.

Put
Cool

it
it

into

cooker for nine hours or more.


the
face

and cut
a cupful

meat

into small dice.

Make

of sauce using the butter, flour, pepper, one-half

teaspoonful of salt and one cupful of the water


in

which the head was

boiled.

and,

when
for

boiling,

the

Add the cream raw yolks of two eggs


beaten.
Stir
it

which have been


stantly

slightly

coneggs

about two

minutes

until

the

have cooked.

Then add two tablespoonfuls of Madeira wine and the yolks of two hard-cooked
Serves five or six persons.

eggs cut into quarters.

XV
PORK

WHATEVER
some for no doubt
either

may

be true of the extent to can

which pork and pork products are wholeparticular


individuals,

there

be
its

that

its

delicious flavour will insure

being eaten by a large number of people


agrees with

who
it

do not know or do not care whether

them or

not.

Experiments under-

taken under the management of the Department


of Agriculture* have resulted in the conclusion
that pork
is

as thoroughly

and

easily digested,

under normal conditions of health, as any meat,


although personal experience would indicate that

pork does not agree with some people as well as


other kinds of meat.
It
is

specially important,

however, that pork be very well cooked or well


cured, in order to insure against the danger from
trichinosis.
it

is

We are told by B. H. Ransom f that only by eating raw or insufficiently cooked


is

or cured pork that there


*

thought to be any

Office of Experiment Stations, Bulletin 193, 1907.


of Agriculture,

* U. S. Dept.

Bureau of Animal Industry, Circular 108, 1907.

PORK
danger of
smoking,
this disease.

121

salting, or

Curing is the process of combined salting and smoking


it.

of meat, which acts as a preservative for

We

thus see that, not only because


as

it is

a white meat,

mentioned

in the chapter

on
all

veal,

pork and pork


suitable

products should be cooked until very well done.

As pork

is

the fattest of
diet

meats,
will

it is

for a cold-weather

and

probably be

found to agree better


ever reason
it

at that season.

For whatless

may

be, fresh

pork seems to be

Figure No. lo.

Diagram

of the cuts of pork.

wholesome than when cured, bacon having the reputation of being one of the most easily digested
of
all

fats.

Young
dressed

pigs (four weeks old) are frequently and roasted whole.

Pork

is

usually cut for market in the

manner

illustrated in figure

No.

lo.

The back is fat and is used for salt pork or lard. The ribs are used for spare-ribs, and the loin or

122
chine,

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


which
is

is

the backbone with

its

adhering
legs are

meat,

used for roasts or chops.


if fresh,

The

roasted,

or they are cured, by salting and

smoking, for hams, sugar being used in the salting

name "sugar-cured hams"; the shoulders are treated in the same way and may be used very much as hams, although
process,

which

gives

the

the flesh
is

is

not so thick and the proportion of bone

greater.
feet are

The

belly

is

cured for bacon, the head

and

soused or pickled, and the trimmings


sausage, or combined with

of fat and lean are chopped, highly seasoned,

and used and made

for

meal

into scrapple.

To

select fresh pork.

The meat

should be firm

and of

a pale red colour, the fat hard

and white

with kernels in

Yellowish fat, and the skin white and clear. it, and soft, flabby flesh are an

indication of inferior pork.

Boiled

Ham

or Shoulder

Put a

ham or

shoulder in a large enough cooker-

pail to allow of its being covered with eight or

ten quarts of water.

special oblong or extra

deep utensil

may

be required for cooking hams

and such very large cuts of meat. Put in the ham, add cold water to fill the utensil, and bring This will serve to draw out a good it to a boil. deal of the salt from the meat and will not extract

much

of the meat flavour,

if

the

ham

be whole.

PORK
cut

123

ham may
to

be covered with boiling water which

will seal the pores

on the surface of the meat and


juices.

help

retain
for

its

Allow the
or, if

ham

to

simmer

twenty minutes,
it

very large, for

one-half hour, then put

into a cooker for seven

hours or more.

The much

larger the

ham

the greater

the quantity of water must be, a

fifteen-pound

ham

taking as

as fifteen quarts of

water.

Success in cooking large cuts of meat will depend


to a great extent

upon using

sufficient water.

Fresh Pork with Sauerkraut Wash and gash a two-pound piece of fresh, lean pork into slices. Put it with one quart of
sauerkraut into a cooker-pail of boiling
water.
salted

Let

it

boil
it

for

fifteen

minutes, tightly

covered.
hours.

Place

in

a cooker for eight or ten

Reheat

till

boiling,

drain

it,

and serve

the pork in a platter, with the sauerkraut arranged


as a border; or put the sauerkraut into a vegetable
dish.
It

grows cold quickly and must be served

promptly and on hot dishes.


Serves six or eight persons.

Head Cheese
Cut a hog's head
into four pieces.

Remove
Cut
ofF

the brain, ears, skin, snout, and eyes.


the fat to try out for lard.

Put the lean and


water over night
to

bony parts

to soak in cold

extract the blood.

Clean the head thoroughly,

124
put
boil
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


into a cooker-pail, cover
for fifteen for
it

with cold water,


it

it

minutes and put


or

into the

cooker
will not
it
it

ten

hours

more.

If

the

meat

then

slip

readily

from the bones, bring


it

again to a boil and put


will

into the cooker until

(perhaps six hours more).

Remove
the

the

bones
a

and hard
it

gristle,

drain

off

liquor,

reserving

for future use.

Put the meat through


it

food-chopper,

return

to

the

cooker-pail
it,

with enough of the liquor to cover


pepper,
boil,

and

salt,
it

and
it

powdered

sage

to

taste.

Let

put

into a cooker for an


it

then pour
it

into a shallow

hour or more, pan or dish; cover


will

with cheese-cloth and a board with a weight,


it

to hold

in place.

When

cold

it

be

solid,

and

is

ready to serve, thinly

sliced.

Souse Treat a hog's head in the same manner as for head cheese, adding a little vinegar with the
other seasonings.

Scrapple

Treat a hog's head

in the

head cheese, up
is

to the point

same manner where the

as for

liquor

chopped meat. The heart and liver may also be cooked with the head, and any scraps or bloody parts of the meat may be soaked and cooked with it. When the meat is freed from bone, gristle, and skin, and chopped finely,
added
to the

PORK
and
with
all

125

the liquor

is

salt,

pepper,
to

added to it, it is seasoned sage, thyme or marjoram,


boil.

and

brought

Enough

corn-meal,

or corn-meal and buckwheat flour in the pro-

portion of one-third cupful of buckwheat to twothirds of a cupful of corn-meal,


is

added, to

make
be

the mixture of the consistency of corn-meal mush.

About one cupful of the two combined


ture.

will

required for each three pints of the pork mix-

Let this come to a


it

boil, stirring
it

it

constantly;

boil

five

minutes, and put

into a cooker for

four hours or more.

Pour

it

into a

mould or bread
it

pan and, when

cold, slice

and fry

like sausage.

Pickled Pigs' Feet

Wash

the pigs' feet, soak

them

for one-half hour, then scrub

in warm water and scrape them

well; soak

them again

for twelve hours in cold,

salted water,
sary,

and clean them again.


toes,

If neces-

singe

them; remove the

them
them.

to a boil in salted water to

Boil

for ten hours or

them five more in


till

and bring more than cover minutes, and cook them


a cooker.
If not tender,

reheat

them

boiling,

and cook them again.

Remove them from


a cleaver, unless this

the water, split

them with

them

in

a jar,

is done before cooking, pack and cover them with hot, spiced

vinegar, preferably

made from white

wine.

They

are eaten cold, or dipped in batter

and

fried.

XVI

POULTRY
buying poultry IN clean, unbroken
possible.
select

that
is

which
as
fat

has
as

skin

and
to

Young
less fat

chickens have often a darker

appearance than old,


there
is is

owing

the

fact

that

under the skin or that the skin


hairs,

thinner.

They have few


limber

many
In

pin-

feathers,

and the end of the breast-bone, toward


is

the

tail,

and

cartilaginous.
is stiff,

old

chickens (fowl) this bone


hairs,

there are
scales

many
is

few pin-feathers, and the


are

on the
joint

legs

hard and horny.


is

The wing
make

firm in old chickens, but

sometimes broken by
the purchaser

poultry dealers in order to

think the poultry younger than

it is.

Chickens are frequently kept


for

in

cold storage

months, or even years,


changes
during

and they undergo


periods.
is still

decided

these

The
under
as

effect of eating

such storage poultry


there
is

debate;

but,

while

uncertainty

to

whether they

may

not be responsible for some

obscure intestinal disorders or other disturbances,


126

POULTRY
it

127

is

well to
birds.

know how
In

to tell

killed

an

article

them from freshentitled "Changes

Taking Place in Chickens in Cold Storage/' in the Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture,
for

1907,

we read

that the fresh

chicken

is

pale,

soft yellow,

without any tinge or sugges-

tion of green in the colour of the skin, while there


is

enough translucency
pink
of the

to

show through
tint is

it

the
It

delicate

muscles

underneath.

can be plainly seen that the pink


the skin
itself.

not of

While the skin


by the

is

perfectly flexible,
it

and
is

is

not adherent over any part of the body,


filled

well

tissues below, so that areas


fluids

distended
ing.
tinct,

by either
feather

or gases
are

are

wantdis-

The
plainly

papillae

perfectly

and, though of the same tint as the skin,


visible

are

because

of their
papillae

elevation.

In those

regions

where the

are

most
they

numerous,
lend a

or

support

heavier

feathers,

much

brighter yellow hue to the skin.

The neck

is smooth and well rounded, the comb and gills red, and the eye full. With storage birds the skin becomes somewhat dried, and finally quite leathery and stretched in

appearance;
fresh,

is

less

translucent than that of the


papillae

and the feather

tend to flatten and

disappear.

In time the colour of the skin alters in

places to browns, reds, purples, or greenish tints.

128

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

Care of poultry. Poultry should be drawn as soon as purchased, if it has not been already done; it should be wiped out with a dry cloth,
if

not to be cooked immediately, and kept in


cold
place.

tender as

Old chickens can be made as young chickens in a cooker, and will


flavour.

have more

To draw

poultry.

Cut

off the head, turn

back

the skin of the neck and cut off the neck close
to the body.
it

If the crop has food in


it

it,

remove

from the neck, otherwise

will

come out with

the other organs.

Cut

off the windpipe.

Make

an opening above the vent with a small sharp


knife, cut

around the vent, being careful not to


Put the hand just inside
it

cut into the intestine.

the wall of the body and work


the whole ing the

carefully over

inner

surface
in

of the

body,

detach-

organs

one mass.

When

the hand
all

can pass freely


out together.

all

around them, draw them

The

lungs and kidneys, imbedded

in the bones, will

remain behind and must be

removed separately.
on the back of the
liver,

Cut out the


tail.

little

oil

bag

Singe the

chicken,

and wash it well inside and outside. The heart, and gizzard are the giblets, and are boiled and often used in the gravy.
chicken.
for

To cut up a may be cut

After

it is

drawn, a chicken
into
thir-

stew

or

fricassee,

POULTRY
teen
pieces.

129

remove the neck, then the legs, by cutting the skin, etc., that holds them to the body; then cut on either side down to the
First

joint

which lies almost at the back. Bend the leg out from the body and this will break the ligaments that hold it. Separate the two joints

of the leg in large chickens.

Remove

the wings

by cutting around the joints and bending them Next cut off the wishout as the leg was done.
bone by placing the knife across the breast and

Figure No. 11.

Method

of cutting chicken for stew or fricassee.

cutting close to the end of the breast-bone toward

the neck.

If desired,
fillets,

remove the meat from the

breast in two

beginning to cut at the top and

following the bone closely, separating the meat

from the breast-bone and sides of the chicken.

Next cut from the back


ribs.

to the front, through the

Separate the "side bone" from one side,


in

and break the back

two where the

ribs end.

To

truss poultry.

Stuff the poultry two-thirds

130
full,

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


from the
tail

opening.

It

into shape, but the quickest

and

may be skewered easiest way is

to tie

it. The slight mark left by the string on the breast may be covered with a garnish of

parsley

or

fine

celery

leaves.

Fold

the

neck

skin under the body, putting the loop end of a

doubled piece of string under

it;

bring the ends

of string up and cross them over the breast so


as to hold the wings in place; carry the string

down over

the thighs to the under side of the

Figure No. 12.

Chicken, trussed for roasting or braising.

tail

to hold the thighs in place,


tail

around the

^nd

tie it

and bring it up and the ends of the drumsticks, This will hold the leg bones securely.
tail.

down
or

to the

If this

is

not sufficient to hold

in the stuffing, close the

opening with a skewer,


before
trussing

sew

it

with

heavy thread
chickens,

the

bird.

Old

turkeys,

and tough

ducks or geese can be stuffed, trussed, and cooked


for

some hours in a cooker then be removed and browned in an oven.

POULTRY
Stuffing for Poultry
I I I

131

cup

soft

breadcrumbs

teaspoon powdered thyme or


sage

tablespoon butter

teaspoon

salt

teaspoon grated onion

^ teaspoon pepper

2 tablespoons water

Stewed Chicken

Draw and
giblets,

cut

up a fowl.
boiling
to

Put
sahed

it,

with the
(one

in

enough
salt
it

water

teaspoonful of

each quart of water) to


for ten

cover
it

it.

Let

boil

minutes and put


If not

into a cooker for ten hours or more.


it

quite tender, bring


it

again to a boil and cook

for

from

six to eight hours,

depending upon
as possible of

its

toughness.

Skim
it

off as

much

the fat from the liquor, pour off some of the


liquor

and save

to use as soup or stock,

and

thicken the remainder with two tablespoonfuls


of flour for each cup of liquid, mixed to a paste

with

an

equal

quantity

of

water.

beaten

egg or two, stirred into the gravy just before


serving,
to taste,

improves

it.

Add

pepper

and

salt

and serve the chicken on a hot


it.

platter

with the gravy poured around

The

platter

may

be garnished with boiled

rice

piled about

the chicken.

Chicken Fricassee

Draw
directed

a fowl and cut


for

it

in pieces,

cook

it

as

stewed chicken, dredge the cooked

132

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


and pepper,
in
fat
roll

pieces with salt

them

in flour

and saute them


chicken.

taken from the stewed

When

richly

browned, place the pieces

on a hot platter and pour around them a brown


sauce,

made with
chicken.

the fat and the stock from the

stewed

Chicken

fricassee

is

often

served on a platter of hot toast.

Chicken Pie
Prepare and cook the chicken as for stewed
chicken; cut the meat from the bones, put
a baking-dish, cover
it

it

into

with chicken

gravy, and
for

put over the top a crust

made

as directed

meat pie on page 102. Bake utes in a moderate oven.

this for thirty

min-

Curried Chicken

Prepare and cook one fowl as for stewed chicken,

adding two onions, pared and cut into

slices.

Add one tablespoonful of curry powder to the flour when thickening the gravy. Or the chicken may
be rolled in flour and browned in butter, and the
curry powder added before putting
cooker.
It is
it

into

the
rice.

served with a border of boiled

Creamed Chicken
Prepare
stewed

and cook

fowl

as

directed

for

chicken.

Make White
onion

Sauce,

using

half chicken stock and half cream for the liquid.

little

grated

and one-fourth

can

of

mushrooms may be added.

POULTRY
Braised Chicken

133

Draw,
in a hot

stuff,

truss
until

oven

and roast a young chicken it is brown; put it into a hot


about

cooker-pail
in the pan.

with

water
it

one

inch
it

deep

Cover

quickly, bring

to a boil,

and put

it

into a cooker for

two and one-half

hours or more.

Make
The
is

brown sauce of the

liquor in the pan.

giblets

may

be added

when
be

the chicken

put into the water, and


to

may
Only^

chopped
tough bird

and

added

the

gravy,
in this

young, tender chicken can be treated

way.

may
stuffed

be trussed and cooked in


it

water to half cover


before
it

for ten or twelve hours

is

and
fat

browned.

Baste

it

when

in the

oven with

taken from the broth.

Jellied

Chicken

and cut up a fowl of about four or five pounds. Put it into a cooker-pail^ add one teaspoonful of salt, two or three slices of onion, and cover the fowl with boiling water.
clean,

Draw,

Boil

it

for ten minutes, then put

it it

in the

cooker

for ten or twelve hours.

Boil
six

up again and

replace

it

in the

cooker for

hours or more.

Repeat

this if the
fall

meat

is

not found to be ten-

der enough to

readily

from the bones. Remove

the meat from the bones; take off the skin and

season the

off all possible fat

meat with salt and pepper. Skim from the liquor and boil it down

134

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


fat.

to about one cupful; strain

remaining

and take ofF the Decorate the bottom of a mould


it,

or bread pan with parsley and slices of hard-

cooked egg, pack


the
stock.
it

in the

Place

the

meat and pour over it meat under a weight,


till

and leave

in a cold place

firm.

Braised Duck

same manIf the duck is tough ner as braised chicken. it may be cooked for eight or more hours in water in the cooker, then stuffed and browned in the oven, basting it with fat from the broth.
Prepare and cook the duck
in the

Braised Goose
Prepare
it

as braised chicken; or, if

it is

tough,

cook
until

it

in

water in a cooker as old braised chicken,


nearly tender.

it

is

Remove

it, it

stuff

it,

and brown it in from the broth.


Clean,
stuff,

a hot oven, basting

with fat

Potted Pigeons and truss six pigeons, place them upright in a cooker-pail and pour over them one quart of water in which celery has been cooked. If the water was not salted for the
celery,

add
boil

one
the

teaspoonful
birds
for

of
five five

salt.

the

pail,

minutes,

Cover and

put them into a cooker for


or
till

or six hours,

tender.

Remove them from


salt

the water,

sprinkle

them with

and

pepper,

dredge

POULTRY
them with
in
flour,

135
entire surface

and brown the

pork

fat.

Make two

cups of Brown Sauce,

using butter and stock from the pigeons; heat


the birds in this, place each one on a piece of

dry toast,
nish
it

and pour the gravy over

it.

Gar-

with parsley.

XVII

VEGETABLES
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING VEGETABLES

THE
be salted

flavour of vegetables

is

best preserved

if

they are put on to cook in boiling water.

For cooking

in

a fireless cooker the water must the vegetables are started.

when
to

The

expression "salted water," as used in this book,

means water
spoonful of
tables
as

each quart of which one teahas been


peas,

salt

added.

Such vegebeans,
etc.,

asparagus,

lima

which have a delicate flavour, must be cooked


with very
little

water; usually in a smaller pail

or pan set into a larger cooker-pail of water.


All vegetables should be

washed before cooking,

and such
for

as potatoes, beets, turnips, etc., should

be scrubbed with a small scrubbing-brush, kept


that

purpose.

Few

vegetables

are

injured

by overcooking

in a fireless cooker.

Asparagus

Wash, and
pieces,

if

desired,

break

into

two-inch

as

much

of the asparagus as will snap


136

VEGETABLES
easily.

137

That which
eat.

will not snap, if fresh, will

be too tough to

Cook

it

in

enough

salted

water to barely cover the asparagus, setting the

pan
It

in

large
in

cooker-pail

of

boiling water.

may

be tender

one hour.

Cabbage Cut a head of cabbage into two pieces; soak it in a large bowl of salted water for one-half hour or more. Cut it in quarters or smaller pieces, discarding the tough central stalk and any leaves which may not be perfect. Put it into four quarts of salted water to which one-fourth of
a teaspoonful of baking soda has been added.

Bring

it

to a boil

and put

it

into a

hay-box for

from one and one-half to twelve hours. Winter cabbage will require three or four hours of cooking
at the least.
it

Drain
If

it

into a colander

and serve

with White Sauce or with butter, pepper, and


to taste.

salt

cooked many hours, reheat


Cauliflower

it

before serving.

Soak the whole head in a large bowl of salted water for one-half hour or more. If insects are
in
it

it

this will cause

them

to crawl out.

Bring

to a boil in four quarts of boiling salted


it

water

and cook
will

in

hay-box from one and oneIf

quarter to four hours.

be

difficult to

remove the head whole.

much overcooked it Take

138
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

out with a skimmer and serve


it

on a

platter,

pouring over
large

one cupful of White Sauce.

head

will require

more

sauce.
is

Cauliflower a la Hollandaise
the

prepared in

same way, White Sauce.

substituting Hollandaise Sauce for

Cauliflower au Gratin

is

prepared by removing
it

the cooked head to a baking dish, covering

with buttered crumbs and baking

it

until

the

crumbs

by covering it with grated cheese before the crumbs are added.


Carrots

are brown, or

Scrub and scrape carrots.


need not be scraped.)
salted water, bring

(Very young carrots

Cover them with boiling

them to a boil and put them from one to three hours, according to the age and condition of the carrots. They will not be injured by cooking twelve hours. If old and wilted they should be soaked
into a cooker for

several hours in cold water before being prepared


for cooking.

When
strips,

done, cut young carrots in


serve
into

rounds
carrots
ing.

or

or cut

them whole.
slices

Old
cook-

may

be

before

Drain away most of the water and make


using the

Sauce for Vegetables,


the water.

remainder of
be drained off
salt,

Or
taste.

all

the water

may

and the carrots served with


pepper to

butter,

and

VEGETABLES
Corn

139

Husk fresh green corn, using a clean whiskbroom to remove the silk that clings to the ear.
Put
it

into a cooker-pail, cover


it

it

with salted water,


for

bring

to a boil

and put

it

into the cooker

from
serve

fifty
it

minutes to two hours.


platter, covering
it

Drain

it

and

on a hot

with a napkin.

Beets Scrub new beets, that is, those freshly pulled.

Cut off the stalks three inches from the beets, put them into four quarts or more of boiling, salted water, boil five minutes, and put them into a cooker for five hours or more. Old beets, if
wilted, should be soaked
till

firm,

and cooked

as

new

beets.

They
to

will require six or

more hours

according
sufficiently
off.

their

age

and

condition.

When

cooked the skin of beets


them.

will easily slip

Remove them from


and
slice
salt.

the water one by one,

peel

Serve them with butter,

pepper, and
reheat

If they cool while slicing

them,

them before

serving.

Fresh Shelled Beans Wash from one pint to one quart of fresh
shelled beans, put
salted

them

into three quarts of boiling

water, to which

one-fourth
boil,

teaspoonful

of soda has been added,


a hay-box for two
are not injured

and put them into

and one-half hours.

They
Drain

by several hours' cooking.

140

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


salt,

them and add

pepper, and butter to taste.

The
large

exact quantity of water in which the beans


is

are cooked

not material.

They
is

will

bear a

amount, as their flavour


String
2 qts. string beans 3 qts. water

strong.

Beans

3 teaspoons salt

J teaspoon baking soda

Wash

the beans, cut

them

into small pieces,


salt,

put them on to boil with the water,

and and soda.


will

Put them into a cooker for


If fewer

six hours.

They

not be injured by cooking for ten or twelve hours.

beans are to be cooked, the water must


is full

not be decreased, unless the pail of beans


or set into a larger pail of boiling water.

Serves six or eight persons.

Lima Beans

Wash

the beans and put

them on

to

cook

in

boiling salted water, to each quart of

which one-

eighth of a teaspoonful of soda has been added.


If the quantity
is

small, put

them
it

into a small
If the

pail set into a larger pail of water.


will
fill

whole

a two-quart cooker-pail

will

cook without

the larger pail.

Put them into a cooker for one

and one-half hours or more.


Dried Lima Beans Soak the beans over night, put them to boil
in at least twice their

bulk of salted water.

Add

VEGETABLES
water.
Boil,

141

one-fourth teaspoonful of soda to each quart of

and put them into a cooker for


Drain, add butter, and reheat them before serving,

three or four hours or more.

pepper, and
if

salt,

necessary.

Dried

Navy Beans

Soak one cupful of beans over night. In the morning drain off the water, add three quarts of boiling salted water and one teaspoonful of soda. Boil, and put them into the cooker for eight hours When soft, drain them and add butter, or more.
pepper, and
salt

to taste.

Or make pork and

beans of them.
Serves five or six persons.

Put a pint

Chard of water and a teaspoonful of

salt

into a cooker-pail.
little,

When

boiling add,
If,

little

by

the well-washed

chard.

after boiling

two or three minutes, there is not enough water If to cover the chard, add more boiling water.
a small

amount of chard
into
a

is

cooked the pail or pan


of boiling water.

must be
Put
it

set into a cooker-pail

cooker for three hours or more.

Drain

in

a colander

and add

salt,

pepper, and

butter to taste.

Serve with

slices

of hard-cooked

eggs as a garnish.

One dozen
persons.

stalks

and leaves serve four or

five

Many persons

cook the stalks separately

142

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

and serve them with a white sauce, using only


the leaves for greens.

Spinach

Cook in the same manner as chard, allowing two hours or more in the xooker.

One peck

serves six or eight persons.

Beet Greens

Cook in the same manner as chard, allowing two and one-half hours or more in the cooker. Do not remove the little beets. When cooked,
cut through the greens frequently with a knife,
to

make them

less

awkward

for serving.

Stewed Celery
3 cups prepared celery
I i

teaspoon

salt

qt.

water

Scrub the celery with a small brush, remove the


strings,
it

cut

it

in one-half-inch

pieces and drop

into

the
set

boiling

salted

water.
into

When

it

is

boiling,

the

pail or

pan
it

a cooker-pail

of boiling water and put

into the cooker for

from two to four hours or longer, depending upon the toughness of the stalks. It will not be When tender, drain injured by long cooking.
it,

saving one-half cupful of the water to use in


sauce.

making the

Serve with one cupful of

Sauce for Vegetables.


Serves six or eight persons.

VEGETABLES
Macaroni
J
lb.

143

macaroni

(i

cup broken

i
i

qt.

water
salt

in pieces)

teaspoon

Break

the

macaroni

into

one-inch

pieces.
it;

Soak

it

in cold
it

water for one hour, then drain

or cook

without soaking.
let it boil,

Drop
it

it

into the

boiling water,

and put
if

into the hay-

box

for
if

one and one-half hours


not soaked.

soaked, or two
in a

hours

Stand the pail or pan

cooker-pail of boiling water while in the hay-box.

Macaroni

will

break to pieces
it

if

cooked too long.


it

When

tender, drain

in a

colander and serve

plain, seasoned to taste with salt

make it and Ham.


Serves

and pepper, or into Macaroni and Cheese or Macaroni


five

or six persons.

Macaroni Italienne
I

cup macaroni
pieces

in

one-inch

4 cloves
i

small bay leaf

pt.

stewed

and

strained

teaspoon

salt

tomatoes
I
I

2 teaspoons sugar

cup stock or water


medium-sized onion

J teaspoon pepper cup cheese, grated or shaved

Soak the macaroni


aroni,

in cold

water for one hour;

stick the cloves into the onion.

Drain the mac-

put

it

into a

pan or

pail,

add the other

ingredients, except the cheese, and,


set

when

boiling,

the pan or pail into a cooker-pail of boiling


it

water and put

into a cooker for

two hours.

144

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the onion
If
is
it

Remove
cheese.

and bay
slip

leaf

and add the

cannot be served as soon as the


the
pail

cheese
cooker.

melted,

back into the

Serves five or six persons.

Macaroni Milanaise
I
1

cup macaroni
small onion

cup water
tablespoon butter

2 cloves
I

pt.

tomatoes,
strained

stewed and

J cup grated cheese 6 sliced mushrooms J cup smoked tongue or ham,


cut in strips

Break the macaroni, soak it for one hour, then drain it, and put it, with the other ingredients^ When except the last three, into a pan or pail.
boiling, set the

pan
it

into a cooker-pail of boiling

water and put

into a cooker for

two hours.
melted
at
it

Remove

the onion and cloves, add the last three

ingredients,

and when the cheese


If
it

is

is

ready to serve.
replace
it

cannot be served

once

in the cooker.

Serves six or seven persons.

Spaghetti
Spaghetti
as macaroni.
into

may be
It

'treated

in

the

same way
is

is

similar

paste moulded
also

different

form.

Vermicelli
still

the
It

same
is

paste,

moulded

into

finer threads.

frequently used in soups, and should be broken

VEGETABLES
into short pieces

145

and added not more than two hours before it is served, or it will become so soft as to break to pieces and lose its attractive
appearance.

Noodles
Noodles are made from a richer paste than
macaroni, having eggs in place of water to supply
the
moisture.

macaroni and

similar pastes.

They may be used exactly as They should not

be soaked before cooking.

Wash
they are
salted

the

Creamed Mushrooms mushrooms, cut them in slices if large, bring them to a boil in enough
It

water to nearly cover them.

should

take about a pint for each quart of mushrooms.


Set the

pan or

pail
it

in

a cooker-pail of boiling

water and put


to six hours.

into the cooker for


it

from two

When

is

nearly time to serve


reserving three-fourths

them, drain the water

off,

of a cupful to use in making one and one-half


cupfuls of Sauce for Vegetables, or White Sauce.

Fricasseed

Mushrooms

Wash

the

oughly on a

mushrooms and dry them thorLet them stand on the towel towel.

some time before cooking them, so that they may drain dry. Fry them in butter till they are brown in a cooker-pail or pan, and make one and one-half cupfuls of Brown Sauce for

146
each
that

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


quart
of

mushrooms,

using

any

liquor
for

may have come from them, and water


Pour
this

the liquid of the sauce. the mushrooms.


If a

sauce over

small quantity of

rooms
in

is

being cooked, stand the pail


cooker-pail

mushor pan
Put

a large

of boiling

water.

them

into a cooker for

two hours or more.

Onions Pare onions under water, to avoid their irritating effect on the eyes. They are so strong
in flavour that they will bear
in

an excess of water

cooking.

Salt

the water as directed in the

Directions for Cooking Vegetables. Four quarts of water may be used for cooking one quart of onions. Bring them to a boil in a cooker-pail, and put them into a hay-box for from two hours, for very tender, fresh onions,

General

to eight hours or more.

When

done, drain them

and salt to taste cream of milk. If the onions are very large let them boil live minutes before putting them into the hay-box.
butter,

dry and add

pepper,

and,

if desired,

little

Boiled Potatoes

Scrub potatoes well with a small scrubbingbrush.

Pare them, and

if

they are inclined to

or

be black when cooked, let them stand an hour more in cold water before cooking them.
in a large

Cook them

amount of

boiling salted

VEGETABLES
water
in a cooker-pail.

147

When

they have boiled

one minute put them into the cooker for from one and one-half to three hours, depending upon their quantity, size, and age. New potatoes
will not require so

long to cook as old.


pieces will cook in one

Large
hour.

potatoes

cut into

Creamy Potatoes
1

qt. sliced

potatoes

'

2 teaspoons salt

2 tablespoons butter

J teaspoon pepper
pt.

milk

Wash and
thin
slices.

pare the potatoes and cut them into

Four

medium-sized
sliced.

potatoes

will

make
in

a quart

when

Put

all

the ingredients

together in a small cooker-pail or pan, set this


a

large
it

cooker-pail

of boiling

water,

and

when
it

is

steaming hot, put the small utensil


until
it

directly

over the heat

boils.

Replace
it

in the pail of boiling

water and

set

in the

cooker for one hour.


Serves four or five persons.

Stewed Potatoes
1

qt. cold,

diced potatoes

2 tablespoons flour

2 cups milk

2 teaspoons salt

4 tablespoons butter

J teaspoon pepper

2 tablespoons chopped parsley

Melt the butter in a small cooker-pail or pan, add the flour and blend the two evenly, then add the milk, one-third at a time; when it boils,
put
in

the

salt,

pepper,

and

potatoes.

Let

148

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

the whole reach boiling point and set


large
fills

in

a
it

cooker-pail

of
full,

boiling
in

water,

unless
it

a small pail

which case

can be

placed directly in
fits it,

cooker nest which exactly

and

left for

one hour or more.

Serves six or eight persons.

Peas
Shell young, green peas
boil,

and bring them


Put the
pail or

to a

using about one cupful of salted water for

each quart of shelled peas.


inside of another

pan

cooker-pail of boiling

water

and day

set all in a

cooker for from one to two hours


left all

or more.

Old peas may be


Rice, No.

night or

all

in the cooker.
I

cup

rice

3 qts water 3 teaspoons


salt

Look over the


undesirable

and remove any husks or Wash it by allowing substances.


rice
it,

cold water to run through a strainer containing

the

rice.

Sprinkle

gradually, into the boiling

salted water in a cooker-pail.

When

it

is

boil-

ing put
is

it

into a

hay-box for one hour.

There

a considerable difference in rice, and the time


it

for cooking

will vary;

but one hour will usually


is is

be found
cooking.

sufficient.

Rice

injured

by overit

When

the rice

soft,

drain

in a

colander and set this in the oven, with the door

VEGETABLES
open, for
five

149
Rice,

minutes.

Serve at once.
its

when cooked,

swells to four times

original bulk.

Serves six or eight persons.


Rice, No. 2
I

cup

rice
I

2 to 2| cups

water

teaspoon

salt

Look over and wash the


recipe for Rice,
salted water,

rice as directed in the


it

No.

i.
it

Bring
into a

to a boil in the

and put

hay-box for one hour.

Serves six or eight persons.

Savoury Rice
I

cup

rice

4^ cups highly seasoned stock


2 tablespoons butter

Look over and wash


previous recipes, bring
it

rice as

directed in the

to a boil in the stock,


it

with the butter, and cook

in a

hay-box for one


it

hour, standing the pail or pan that contains


in a larger pail of water, unless

cupful of rice
pail

is

more than one being cooked and the cookerleast

would be
a

at

two-thirds
peanuts.

full.

Serve
rice

with

border

of

salted

should be moist but not sticky


Serves eight or ten persons.

The when cooked.

Turkish Pilaf
J cop
rice
I
i

teaspoon sugar

2 tablespoons chopped green

sweet pepper or onion


I

J cups stock or water tablespoon butter


teaspoon
salt

cup tomatoes

150

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


rice,

Pick over and wash the


the
recipe
for

as
i.

directed in

boiled

rice,

No.
the

Chop the
seeds,

onion
if

or

pepper,

discarding

and,

raw tomatoes are used, remove the


the

skins

and
in

cut

tomatoes

in

pieces

before

measuring
a
boiling,

them.
small
set
it

Put
in

all

the
or

ingredients

together

cooker-pail

pan,

and,

when

a larger cooker-pail of boiling water.

Put

it

into a cooker for one hour.


it,

When
till

ready
all

to serve

stir it lightly

with a fork
Pilaf

the

ingredients

are evenly mixed.

is

injured

by much overcooking.
Serves five or six persons.

Samp
i cup samp I cup cold water

(Coarse Hominy)
I

teaspoon

salt

3 cups boiling water

Soak the samp


hours or more.
boil
it

in

the cold water for eight


the salt and boiling water;
it

Add

hard for one hour, and put

into a cooker

for

from six to twelve hours. It is improved by the longer cooking. The pail or pan in which it is cooked should be stood in a large cooker-pail

of boiling water.

tablespoonful of butter
if it is

may

be added before serving

used as a vegetable.

Serves five or six persons.

Summer Squash
Scrub young,
tender
in

summer squashes and


enough

cook them whole,

the cooker, with

VEGETABLES
salted

151
for

boiling water

to

fully

cover them,

from one to three hours.

If they are not

young

enough to have a

soft rind,

they must be pared

and the seeds removed.

It will

then be better to

cook them as winter squash.


tender, drain off the water
in a colander.

When

they are

and mash the squashes

This

will allow a little of the juice

to

drain

Season them highly with

away and leave the squashes drier. salt and pepper, and
of butter to each pint
If not very hot

add two tablespoonfuls


of squash. before
serving.

when mashed,

reheat

Stewed Tomatoes
1

qt.

tomatoes
salt

onion, sliced

2 teaspoons

i cup buttered crumbt


2 teaspoons sugar

J teaspoon pepper

Scald and peel the tomatoes, remove the cores,

and
them.

cut

them

into

pieces

before

measuring
to a

Add

the other ingredients, omitting the


if

sugar and crumbs,


boil,

preferred; bring

all

to

and put them into a cooker for from one two hours or more. They will not be injured

by indefinite cooking.
Serves five or six persons.

Hubbard or Winter Squash


Scrub, pare and cut the squash into pieces,

removing the
will
fit

seeds.

Put

it

into a strainer that

into the cooker-pail, placing a rack under

152
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

to raise

above the water

in the pail.

Fill

the pail below the strainer with boiling water.

Steam the squash


minutes, then put

directly over the fire for ten


it

into the cooker for

from
pail

five to eight hours,

depending upon the age of

the

squash

and the amount cooked.

of not less than six quarts' capacity should be


used, so that there

may be

at least three quarts

of water under the squash.


it

When
it

tender,
in

mash
it

through the strainer, or drain


squeezing
it

a cheese
If
is

cloth,

as dry

as possible.
it

to be served as a vegetable, season


salt

highly with

and pepper, and add two or three tablespooneach pint of squash.


If
it

fuls of butter to

is

to be

made

into pies, omit these ingredients.

Pumpkin pumpkin with a soft rind, if possible. Prepare and cook it in the same manner as
Select a

winter squash.
or

It

may

be used as a vegetable

made

into pies.

Scrub, pare,

Creamed Turnips and cut turnips into half-inch


of prepared
turnips

dice. at

Cook each

pint

with

least one quart of boiling

salted water, in the

cooker, for from one and one-half to three hours

or more.

When

tender,

drain them, reserving

enough of the water to make one cupful of Sauce


for Vegetables for each pint of turnips.

VEGETABLES
Mashed Turnip

153

Scrub and pare the turnips and cut them into


pieces.

Cook each

pint of turnip with at least one

quart of boihng salted water in the cooker for

from one and one-half hours to three hours or more.

When

tender, drain and


to

mash them

in a colander

and add

each pint one teaspoonful

of

salt,

one-fourth teaspoonful of pepper, and two table-

spoonfuls or more of butter.


qt.

Serve very hot.


ij qts. water

Italian Chestnuts
I

chestnuts
2 teaspoons salt

and blanch the nuts by the directions Bring them to a boil with given on page 189. salted water, put them in a cooker for from
Shell

two to four hours.


ricer or serve
if

Press

them through
a

a potato

them whole, adding

little

butter

desired.

One

quart of nuts will

make about

one pint when shelled and blanched.


Serves four or five persons.

Brussels Sprouts
1

qt.

sprouts

Salt

2 or more qts. water Butter

Pepper

Wash

the sprouts, bring them to a boil in salted

water; put

them

into the cooker for

from one to
salt,

two hours, drain them and add and butter to taste.


Serves six or seven persons.

pepper,

XVIII

STEAMED BREADS AND PUDDINGS


GENERAL DIRECTIONS

A
will
It
is

DEEP
be
less

mould

is

best

for cooking

steamed

breads and raised

puddings, since there

risk of the water's boiling over into

the food,

and a larger amount may be used. important to have one that is the right
it is

size for the recipe, for if

filled

too

full,

the

mixture might

rise
its

be heavy from
full,
it

pressure,

and push and


in

off the
if

cover or

not sufficiently

would be unsteady
in the pail

the water.

The
should

water

should come to two-thirds of

the height

of the

mould.

The mould
If a small

be not
or a

less

than half-full of dough, and, generally


full.

not more than two-thirds

mould

number

of small moulds are to be used in a

large cooker-pail,

stand

similar device to raise

them upon a rack or them until there may be


the
cooker-pail at least

no

difficulty

in

filling

two-thirds

full

of water.

The

cover as well as

the mould should be greased on the inside with


154

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


the

155

same

fat as that

used in the dough or with


is

butter.

If a

bread mould

not available, an

empty
tin

baking-powder can, coffee can, or


cover
trial

any

can or box with straight sides which has a

tight-fitting

may

be used, providing
If
it

it

is

found by
it

to

be water-tight.

leaks,

may be
tightly

soldered at small expense, and

may

then be kept for cooking purposes only.


a

Where

covered

can or box cannot be pro-

cured, an uncovered utensil could be used by tying

on securely a cover of heavy, well-greased paper.

Boston Brown Bread


I I I I

cup rye meal


cup graham
flour

f tablespoon soda
} cup molasses
2 cups sour milk or

cup corn-meal
teaspoon
salt

if cups sweet milk or


buttermilk

Mix and

sift

the dry ingredients together.

Mix

the liquid ingredients and add them, gradually,


to the dry mixture.

Put the dough into a well-

brown bread mould or waterStand the tight can of the same capacity. mould in a six-quart cooker-pail in enough warm water to come two-thirds of the way up the mould. Bring it quickly to a boil and boil it half an hour.
buttered, one-quart

Put

it

into a

hay-box for

five

hours.

It will

not

be spoiled by six hours in the cooker, but will not

have quite such a dry

crust.

If sweet milk is

156

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


use,

used add one tablespoonful of cream of tartar;


or omit the soda and
instead,

two

table-

spoonfuls of baking powder.

Serves six or eight persons.

Graham Pudding
i cup butter i cup molasses
J cup sweet milk I egg
I

ij cups graham flour

J teaspoon baking-powder J teaspoon soda


I

teaspoon

salt

cup

raisins,

seeded and cut in pieces

Melt the butter, add the egg, well beaten,


molasses and milk.

Mix

the dry ingredients and

add

to

them

the liquid mixture.

Pour

it

into a

well-buttered, one-quart mould or into several

smaller moulds.
thirds
full.

Do

not

fill

them more than twoin

Place the

moulds on a rack

six-quart cooker-pail of
to a boil

warm water,
minutes
if

bring quickly
if

and
Put
milk

boil thirty

the larger

cans are used; fifteen minutes,


are used.
If sour
it

the small cans

into the cooker for five hours.


available,

is

omit

the

baking

powder and add an extra one-fourth teaspoonful


of soda.
Serves six persons.

Steamed Apple or Berry Pudding


1

cup flour

tablespoon butter

2 teaspoons baking powder

J cup milk (sweet)


4 apples cut in eighths

J teaspoon

salt

2 tablespoons sugar

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


Mix and
sift

157

the dry ingredients, cut the butter


it

into them, or rub

in

with the fingers, add the


with a knife.

milk, cutting

it

in, Hghtly^,

When

the dough
is left,
it

is
it

barely mixed, so that no loose flour

toss

lightly

till
it

on a floured board and pat or roll one-half inch thick. Spread the
roll it like a jelly roll.

apples on
place
it

and
a

Carefully

in

well-buttered,
can.

one-quart
it

bread

mould or water-tight
stand
it

Cover

tightly

and
with

in at least a six-quart cooker-pail

enough warm water up


its sides.

to
it

come two-thirds of the way


quickly to a boil, boil thirty

Bring

minutes and place

it

in a

cooker for three hours.

Serve immediately with

warm

apple sauce and

Hard Sauce.
to the

If berries are used

add one cupful

dough, serve with berry sauce and omit the

apple-sauce.

Serves five or six persons.

Suet Pudding
J cup chopped suet i cup molasses J cup sour milk I J cups flour
J teaspoon salt J teaspoon ginger J teaspoon grated nutmeg J teaspoon ground cloves i teaspoon ground cinnamon

J teaspoon soda

Mix and Mix suet.

sift

the dry ingredients and add the

the milk and molasses and add

them

to the dry mixture.

Put the dough into a buttered,


or water-tight covered

one-quart bread mould

158

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

can, and stand

in

a six-quart

cooker-pail of

warm

water which reaches two-thirds of the way


Boil
it

up the can.

one-half hour and put into

the cooker for five hours.

Serves six or eight persons.

Rich Plum Pudding


i
J
lb. raisins lb.

J cup
J
lb.

flour

currants

brown sugar

2 oz. candied orange peel


2 oz. citron

J nutmeg, grated ^tablespoon powdered cinnamon


J teaspoon ground allspice

J
J

lb.

chopped suet
breadcrumbs

lb. stale, soft

J pint brandy
4 eggs

(2J cups)

Wash and
with a

seed the raisins; rub the currants

little flour,

then

sift

out the flour and allow


in the sieve until

water to run over the currants


they are
clean.

Spread them on a towel and


etc.,

remove

any stems, stones,

that

may

be

among them.

Let them stand, covered with a

towel to keep out dust, until they are dry.


the orange peel and citron very fine, or put

Cut them

through a food-chopper.
it

Chop

the suet or put

and the
trifle

raisins

through a coarse food-chopper;

of the flour
it

may
to

be mixed with the suet


help to keep
it

before

is

chopped
all

from
till

sticking to the chopping-knife.

Beat the eggs

blended.
ly,

Mix

the dry ingredients very thorough-

Put the pudding into a covered, greased mould, chopping

add the eggs and then the brandy.

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


down through
it

159

a few
it

times with the end of a


fills

knife, to be sure that

the

mould without
it

hollow spaces, and to avoid packing

firmly.

Stand
in
till

it

in at least three quarts of

warm
hour

water,

a cooker-pail.

Heat
let
it

it

slowly
boil

but steadily
if

the water boils;


is

one

the

pudding
in

in

one mould, or one-half hour

if it is

two smaller moulds.


five

Put
it

it

into the cooker

for

hours.
If
it is

Remove

at

once from the

mould.
it

not to be used

when

first

made,

may
in

be kept several weeks, replaced in the


serving,

mould and reheated before


it

by putting
Serve
it

warm

water, heating
it

it

to the boiling point

and boiling

one-half hour or more.

with brandy sauce.


Serves ten or twelve persons.

Steamed Cranberry Pudding


J cup butter cup sugar
2 eggs
I

2j cups flour
i

tablespoon baking powder

J cup milk

cup berries
soft

Rub

the butter

till it is

and add the sugar

gradually.

Separate the eggs and add the beaten

yolks to the butter and sugar.

Mix and

sift

the
a

baking powder and


little

flour together

and add

flour,

alternately with a part of the milk,

to

the dough.

When

all

is

in,

add the

stiflly

beaten whites and the berries.

Put the mixture

i6o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

into a buttered, one-quart mould, stand

in hot

water and bring


boil.

it,

gradually, but steadily, to a

Let

it

boil one-half

hour and put


it

it

into

a cooker for five hours.

Serve

with sweetened

cream or hard sauce.


Serves six or eight persons.

Ginger Pudding
J cup butter J cup sugar
I

3J teaspoons baking powder i teaspoon salt


2 teaspoons ginger

egg
flour

aj cups

cup milk

add the sugar gradually, and the well-beaten egg. Mix and sift the dry
the butter,
ingredients and add a
little

Cream

of the mixture alter-

nately with part of the milk.

When

all

is

in,
it,

put the dough into a buttered mould, cover

and

boil

it

one-half hour
it

in a large cooker-pail of

water, then put

into a cooker for five hours.

Serve

it

with Vanilla Sauce or

Nutmeg

Sauce.

Serves six or eight persons.


St.

James Pudding
i teaspoon salt i teaspoon cloves J teaspoon allspice 1 teaspoon nutmeg

3 tablespoons butter } cup molasses

J cuo thick, sour milk i cups flour

} teaspoon soda

lb. dates,

stoned and

cut in pieces

Mix

the molasses, melted butter, and milk and


to

add them

the

dry ingredients, which have

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


been mixed and
the
Boil
sifted.

i6i

Add

the dates and turn

dough
it

into

buttered,

one-quart

mould.

in

a large cooker-pail of water for oneit

half hour and put

into a cooker for five hours.

Serve with Hard Sauce.


Serves five or six persons.

Harvard Pudding
J cup butter i cup sugar
I

3i teaspoons baking powder


J teaspoon salt li cups flour cup milk

egg
I

Mix

the butter and sugar, add the egg,

then

the dry ingredients, previously mixed and sifted


together, alternating part of the dry ingredients

and the milk


pail of

until

all

are in.

Turn

it

into a

buttered, one-quart mould, boil in a large cooker

water for one-half hour and put


five

it

into a

cooker for

hours.

Serve

it

with

warm

apple

sauce and Hard Sauce.


Serves six or eight persons.
Sw^iss
J cup butter
|-

Pudding
Grated rind of one lemon
5 eggs J cup powdered sugar

cup flour

2 cups milk

Cream
first

the

butter,

add the

flour,

gradually;
it

scald the milk with the

lemon
it

rind,

add

to the

mixture and cook

five

minutes over hot

water.

Beat the yolks of eggs until they are

i62
thick,

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


add the sugar, gradually, and combine these it and cut and fold in
beaten whites of eggs.
it

with the cooked mixture; cool


the
stiffly

Turn

it

into a

buttered, one-quart mould, boil


pail of

in a large cookerit

water for twenty minutes, then put

into

a cooker for three hours.

Serves six or seven persons.

Rice Pudding
I I

qt.

milk

J teaspoon grated nutmeg J teaspoon


J cup sugar
salt

tablespoon butter
rice

J cup

Heat the milk and other ingredients in a pudding pan over a cooker-pail of water. When the water boils, remove the pan and bring the pudding also to a boil. When it is boiling replace the pudding in the large pail of boiling water, cover and put it into the cooker for three or
four hours.
It

may

then be put into the oven


this

for fifteen minutes


is

and browned, although


This pudding

not necessary.
night,
is

may

be cooked

all
it

but

if

cooked more than four hours


Serve either hot or

not quite so creamy.

cold.

One-half cupful of small, unbroken seed-

less raisins

may

be added to this recipe. Indian Pudding

Serves six or eight persons.


2 cups water
I I

2 teaspoons ginger j cup corn-meal

cup molasses
teaspoon
salt

3 cups milk

BREADS AND PUDDINGS

163

Boil the water, molasses, salt, ginger, and meal

together for ten minutes in a pail or pudding

pan.
boil

Add
and
Put

the

scalding

milk.

Bring

it

to

set the
it

pan

in a cooker-pail of boiling

water.

into

a cooker for twelve hours.

When

done, brown in a hot oven.

Serve with

plain or

If fresh
is

whipped cream. ground or coarse Southern corn-meal

used

it

may

first

be sifted with a coarse sieve


particles,

remove the grow soft with


to

largest
this

which

will

not

amount of cooking.

Granu-

lated corn-meal will not require sifting.

Serves eight or ten persons.

Tapioca or Rice Custard


J cup pearl tapioca { cup water
3 cups milk 2 eggs
i

tablespoon butter

J teaspoon

salt

J cup sugar J teaspoon vanilla

Soak the tapioca

in the

water for one hour.


salt.

Add
pan
the

the milk, sugar, butter, and


in

Set the

cooker-pail of boiling water.


is

When
let
it

milk

scalding

remove the pan and


Replace

the pudding
boiling water

come

to a boil.

in the

and put it into the cooker for one and one-half hours. Take it from the cooker, add the beaten eggs, replace it in the pail of hot
water and
stir
it

over the

fire

till

it

registers

165 degrees Fahrenheit, using a dairy or chemist's

i64

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Put
it

thermometer.
for

again

into

the

cooker

one hour.

When

cold,

add the

vanilla.

Rice

may

be used instead of tapioca.

Serves six or eight persons.

Tapioca Fruit Pudding


J cup pearl tapioca I qt. water
6 apples,

} cup sugar
J teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons butter
it

pared and cored

Soak the tapioca one hour, bring


if

to a boil
pail,

with the other ingredients in a two-quart


that will
fill

the cooker "nest,'' or in a pudset

ding pan to be
into a

over boiling water.

Put

it

cooker for one hour.


If
it

Serve cold with

cream.

is

preferred to serve the pudding


three cups of water.

warm, use only

Serves six or eight persons.

Chocolate Bread Pudding


I
1

qt.

milk

2 or 3 eggs

pt. soft

breadcrumbs

2 oz. or squares chocolate


cup granulated sugar

J teaspoon salt I teaspoon vanilla


2 tablespoons powdered sugar

Scald

the

milk,

add the crumbs, and soak


hour.

them

for

one-half

Separate

the

eggs,

reserving

two of the whites for a meringue. Beat the three yolks and one white of egg together and mix them with half the granulated sugar. Melt the chocolate in a pudding pan set in a

cooker-pail of boiling water, add the remaining

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


half

165

of the

granulated
milk,

sugar, and,
it

gradually,
well

the
still

bread and

stirring

in

while

over the boiling water.


salt,
it

Then add
Stir
it

the yolks

of eggs,

and

vanilla.

constantly,
is

and cook

over the water until the pudding

160 degrees Fahrenheit.

Set the pail containfor

ing the pudding pan in a cooker two hours. When done, put it
dish
suitable for serving,

from one

to

into a baking-

and cover the top with

a meringue
till stiff,

made by
in
it

beating the whites of eggs

and adding the powdered sugar.

Brown
it

the

meringue

a very hot oven, watching

carefully that

may

not scorch.

Serve warm,

with cream.

be used in

two whole eggs may the pudding, and in place of the


If preferred,

meringue use sweetened, whipped cream.


Serves six or eight persons.

Queen
I
I

of Puddings
3 eggs

qt.

hot milk

pt. soft

breadcrumbs

J cup sugar J cup melted butter

J teaspoon salt I teaspoon vanilla, or

J teaspoon spice
J glass jelly

Melt the butter


in

in the milk;

soak the crumbs


mixed,

the milk for one-half hour; beat the yolks


till

of three eggs and the white of one

add the sugar,


all

salt,

and spice to them.


it

Mix

together

and pour

into

pudding pan

i66
to
till
fit

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


in a cooker-pail of boiling water.
is

Stir

it

the pudding

i6o degrees Fahrenheit, then

cover
to

it and put it into a cooker for from one two hours. Make a meringue as directed

in the recipe for chocolate

bread pudding, using

the whites of two eggs and two tablespoonfuls


of powdered

Pour the pudding into a baking-dish for serving, spread the jelly on top and the meringue over this, and brown it in a
sugar.

hot oven.
Serves six or eight persons.

Steamed Cup Custard


I

qt.

milk

4 eggs

J cup sugar i teaspoon vanilla, or

J teaspoon grated nutmeg

Heat the milk, beat the eggs, add the sugar and flavouring. Strain the mixture into hot custard cups, set them on a wire rack or inverted strainer or perforated pan, which is arranged
in

a large cooker-pail of rapidly boiling water

in such a

way

that several quarts of water

may

be below the custards but not touch the cups.

Cover

tightly at

once and

set

it

into a cooker

for one-half hour.

Serves six or eight persons.

Compote
} cup
rice

of Rice and Fruit


3 tablespoons sugar

3J cups milk

J teaspoon

salt

BREADS AND PUDDINGS


Heat
all

167
set into a

together in a pan which

is

cooker-pail of boiling water.

When
Replace

the

water
in the

in the kettle boils, take out the

pan and bring


it

the mixture in

it

to

a boil.

and put

it

into the cooker for

from one

to

Figure No. 13.

Wire rack arranged

for steaming, with perforated tin


it

can as a

stand to raise

above the water.

three

hours.

Put

it

into a

mould, and, when


it

shaped, but while


a serving dish.
top,

still

warm, turn
it.

out on to
fruit

Put stewed or canned

on

and pour the juice around

Serves six or eight persons.

XIX
FRUITS
Apple Sauce
l)
qts.

sour apples
I

pt.

water

cup sugar

Wash, pare, core, and cut the apples into pieces, add the water and sugar and bring them to a boil. Put them into the cooker for from one to three hours or more, depending upon the ripeness of the apples.
If they

are not very tart


w^ill

or high-flavoured the juice of half a lemon

improve them.

Apple sauce
or,
if

will not

be harmed

by
well

indefinite

cooking in the

cooker.
it

Beat

it

when cooked,

preferred,

may be

strained.

Serves six or eight persons.

Stewed Apples
I qt.

in

Syrup
lo cups sugar
i8 cloves

water

J lemon

10 qts. prepared apples

Pare, core, and cut tart apples in halves, unless

they are small.

Crab-apples

should not be pared nor

may be used, but cored. Wash and slice

i68

FRUITS
the lemon.
pail

169

Put
let

all

the ingredients into a cookerto

and
a

them come

boil.

Put them
the

into

cooker for three hours.

If

apples

are not very ripe they

may cook

as long as twelve

hours without becoming too

soft.

Serves twenty-five to thirty persons.

Apple Jelly
6 quarts prepared apples
7 cups water

Wash
pieces

the apples carefully, cut

them

into small

and remove any decayed parts. Put the apples and water into a cooker-pail and let them

come

to a boil, then set

them
very

in a
soft,

cooker for four

hours or more.

When

pour them into


juice,

a jelly bag and hang this over a large bowl for


several hours or over night.
boil
it

Measure the

add three quarters as much sugar as the measure of juice, boil the
for fifteen minutes,

mixture for
will jelly

five

minutes more, or
if left

until

a drop

on a cold plate
jelly carefully

for a

few minutes.
Fruit

Skim the
that
is

while
is

it is

boiling.

slightly under-ripe
it

best for jelly.

When

cold, seal

manner: For each glass cut a small piece of white paper to fit inside This is to be dipped into it, lying on the jelly.
in the following

alcohol or brandy and laid in place.

Cover the

top of the glass with another paper cut threefourths of an inch larger than the top of the glass,

and paste

it

down on

the sides of the glass, using

170

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


seal jelly glasses

white of egg or any paste without a strong odor.

Or

with melted paraffin poure4


is

over the top until the jelly

completely covered.
it

Do

not

let

the paraffin get very hot or


jelly.

may

give

a bad flavour to the

Blackberry and Apple Jelly


5 qts. blackberries

2 cups water

Apple juice

Look over
a boil.

the berries carefully; put them, with


let

the water, into a cooker-pail and

them come
bag and

to

Put them in a cooker for three hours or


jelly
let

more, then pour them into a

them

drip for a least six hours.

To

each cupful

of juice add half a cupful of apple juice prepared


as for apple jelly. Boil these juices for fifteen

minutes, then add five cups of sugar to each six

cups of juice and


a few minutes.

boil

it

for five minutes longer


if left

or until a drop will jelly on a cold plate

for
it

Pour

it

into glasses

and

seal

when

cold, as directed for apple jelly.

Stewed Blackberries Pick over two quarts of berries, put them, with
one cupful of sugar, into a cooker-pail and
let

them slowly come


a flame or very hot

to a boil, stirring
if

them occacooked over

sionally as they are likely to scorch


fire.

When

boiling, put

them

into a cooker for

two hours or more. If cooked a very long time the juice comes out and leaves

FRUITS
no amount of cooking hurts them.
Serves twelve or fifteen persons.

171

the berries rather small and seedy, but otherwise

Currant Jelly

Wash

twelve quarts of currants, add one cupful


boil.

of water and put them on to

Stir

them

occasionally so that they will not scorch.


boiling, put

When
them

them

into a cooker for four hours or into a jelly

more.

Pour them
it

bag and

let

drip for at least six hours.

and when
five

has boiled

fifteen

Measure the juice, minutes add an


mixture for

equal measure of sugar.

Boil the

minutes, or until a few drops will jelly on a


plate
if

cold

allowed to stand a few minutes.

Skim

the jelly several times during the boiling.


it is

When
when

done, pour

it

into glasses,

and

seal

it,

cold,

as directed for apple jelly.

Cranberry Jelly
IJ

qts. berries

cup water

Sugar

Wash

the berries

and remove any

soft

and

decayed ones.
hours
or

Bring them to a boil with the

water and put them into a cooker for one or two


more.

Mash them through


amount

fine

strainer or sieve,

measure the pulp and add equal


in sugar.

parts or three-quarters of the Boil five minutes, or


till

a few drops will jelly


it

on a cold

plate.

Pour

into

moulds which

172

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


When
cold,
it is

have been wet with cold water.


ready to serve.
Serves eight or ten persons.

Cranberry Sauce
l}
qts. cranberries
I

2^ cups sugar

cup water

Wash

the berries and remove any that are soft

and decayed.

Put the

berries, water,

and sugar

into a cooker-pail

and bring them to a

boil, stirring

them
in a

frequently.

When

boiling,

place the pail

cooker for two and one-half hours or more.

Serve cold.
Serves eight or ten persons.

Dried Fruits

Wash
clean

the fruit very thoroughly.


five

If

it

is
it

first

soaked for

minutes and then washed,

will
fruit

more thoroughly.

To

each cupful of
let it

add two cupfuls of water and


least six hours.
It is better if
all

soak for at

soaked ten hours.


to a boil.

Add

the sugar and bring

Put

it

into a cooker for

from two

to twelve hours,

depend-

ing upon the

fruit.

Prunes are improved by long


it,

cooking, apples are not injured by

but peaches
if

or apricots, which are more attractive

they are

not broken to pieces, will be better


as soon as they are perfectly soft.

if

removed
apricots,

The amount
about

of

sugar

varies

for

different

fruits;

prunelles,

and such sour

fruits requiring

FRUITS
one cupful of sugar for each pint of dried
fourth to one-half as much.

173
fruit;

prunes, peaches, and apples requiring from one-

Stewed Rhubarb
IJ

qts.

prepared rhubarb
2 cups sugar

f cup water

Wash

the stalks, pare

them

if old,

cut

them

into one-inch pieces

and put them, with the sugar

and water, into a two quart cooker-pail. When from one to three hours or more, depending upon the character
boiling, set the pail in a cooker for

of the rhubarb.

Some people

prefer to use

brown

sugar with rhubarb.


Serves eight or ten persons.

Stewed Figs
I lb. figs I J cups sugar

Juice of one lemon Water to cover figs

Use pulled
crack open
attractive

figs; those which come in boxes when they are pressed and are not so when stewed. The natural form is
figs,

preserved in pulled

and they have,

besides,

the advantage of being cheaper.

Wash

the figs

and put them, with the other ingredients, into a pan which fits the cooker-pail. Boil them, set the pan in the pail of boiling water and put it into
a cooker for seven hours or more.
serve the figs with

When

cold,

whipped

crean*-

Serves eight or ten persons.

174

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Sweet Pickles
8 lbs. fruit (prepared)

lbs.

brown sugar
vinegar

f cup stick cinnamon f cup whole allspice


J cup cloves

I qt.

Prepare the
spices
in

fruit as directed below.

Tie the

several

cheese-cloth

bags,

and bring
barely
it

them

to the boiling point in a cooker-pail, with the

sugar and vinegar.

Add
it

the fruit,

let it

come

to a boil, stirring

carefully, so that
it

will

not break to pieces.

Set

in a

cooker for the

time directed below for each particular kind of


fruit.

When

it

is

sufficiently cooked,
it

remove

it

from the syrup and put


Boil the syrup until
sistency,
it it

into cans or crocks.


its

loses

thin,

watery conIf this

and pour

over the

fruit.

occupies more than one receptacle, put one spice

bag
hot.

in each.

Cover or

seal the cans while

still

Sweet pickles should not be eaten

until

they have stood for several weeks.

Peaches
Select

firm,

ripe peaches, rub

them well with

Cook a woolen cloth, but do not pare them. them whole, as directed above, for from one to two hours or more, depending upon the hardness and size of the peaches.

Pears

Wash, pare and,


half,

if

desired, cut the pears in

removing the

cores.

Cook them,

as directed

FRUITS

175

above, for from one to two hours or more, depending upon the hardness and size of the pears.

Crab Apples:

Wash and
blossom.
the sugar
is

dry the

apples

and cut out the

Drop them
dissolved.

into the syrup as soon as

Let them boil and cook


for

them,

as

directed

above,

from

two

to

three hours.

Watermelon Rind
into

or Citron:
it

Pare the rind and cut


a

cooker-pail
in

mixed

Put it and water, the proportion of one-half cup of salt


into pieces.
salt

of boiling

to one gallon of water.

Slip the pail at

once into

a cooker for ten hours or over night.


rind
is

When

the

soft drain
it

it

and wash
above,

it

in cold water.

Drain

in a

colander and add


directed

it

to the syrup,

prepared

as

and

cook

it,

as

other sweet pickles, for from four to six hours.

The

fruit shrinks to

about one-half

its

bulk after

cooking in the brine.

Prunes:

Soak the prunes


well,

for five minutes,

wash them
pits,

then soak them for six hours in enough

water to cover them.

them, and chop the kernels.

Remove the Cook

crack

the prunes

and kernels
for ten

in

spiced syrup as directed

above

hours or over night.

Weigh

the fruit

176
after
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


has been soaked in order to estimate the

amount of syrup needed.


Plums:

Wipe

the fruit, prick


it

it

and put

it

into the
it

syrup, bring

slowly to a boil and cook

as
If

directed above, for from one to

two hours.

each plum

is

pricked once with a sharp-pointed


it

fork or nut-pick

will not burst.

Quinces:

Wash
and core

the
it

fruit

and wipe
it

it.

Peel, quarter,

and bring
it;

to a boil in

enough water
hours
cooker
it

to half cover

cook

it
it

in a cooker for ten


in a wire

or over night or steam

rack over boiling


it

water for ten minutes and place


for three hours; put
it

in a

over the

fire
it

and bring
in the

again to a hard boil and replace


for

cooker
unless

another three hours.

The

quinces,

very hard, will then be ready to cook in the syrup


as directed above, for ten hours or over night.
If

they are
ing, the

first

cooked

in

water instead of by steamfor other purposes.

water

may

be used for making a syrup

to use as a

pudding sauce or

Orange Marmalade
1

large grape-fruit

large

lemon

2 large oranges

Sugar

Water

Wash
cut
it,

the fruit with a brush, wipe

it

dry and
seeds.

in very thin slices,

removing only the

FRUITS
Discard the
first

177

of nothing but skin.

and

to

water.

last slices, which consist Measure the sliced fruit, every quart of fruit add three cups of Bring it to a boil and put it into a cooker

and

for ten hours or over night.


boil

Bring

it

again to a

and cook

it

again for ten hours.


of

Add

the

equivalent

measure
it

both

fruit
it

and
If
it

water
not

in sugar, bring

to a boil,

and put

again into
is

the cooker for ten hours or more.


sufficiently

thick

in

consistency,

boil

it

slowly

until a

drop will
left

jelly slightly if

put on a cold
is

plate

and

a few minutes.

As marmalade
it

not usually sealed with air-tight covers

will

evaporate

somewhat,

and

become thicker by
longer
it is

long standing, and will therefore not need to be


boiled until very
stiff.

The
or

boiled the

less delicate the flavour

becomes.

This recipe

should

make

five pints

more of marmalade.

Candied Orange or Grape-Fruit Peel


Peel of 6 oranges or 2 grapefruit

3 cups sugar
I

J cups water in which peel was cooked

Carefully scrub the fruit

till

very clean, remove


it

the peel in quarters and soak

in

water for a
into very

few hours.

If

it

is

to be used as candy, scrape


it

away
poses,

little

of the white part, and cut


If to be

narrow
it

strips.

used for cooking pur-

need not be scraped or cut small.

Put

178
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


a cooker-pail

into

and cover
set
it
it

it

with boiling

water.

Let

it

boil

and

in a

cooker for ten

hours or more.

Reheat

to boiling point

and
will

cook

it

again for ten hours or more.

This

be enough for grape-fruit, but orange-peel


require one

may

more such period of cooking. When and nearly transparent, drain the peel, saving one and one-half cups of the water. Add to
soft
it

three cups of sugar, and,


Boil
it,

when

this

is

dissolved,
last,

the peel.

slowly toward the

until

most of the water has boiled away.


strips

Remove

the

and lay them

in a

bed of granulated sugar,


Let them stand

covering them also with sugar.


until cold, then

shake off the loose sugar, which

can be used for cooking purposes, and put the


candied peel into covered boxes or cans.

Canned Quinces
6
qts.

quinces (prepared)

qts.

water

4j

lbs.

sugar

Wash,

peel, quarter,

and core the quinces before

measuring them.
boiling hard put

Bring them to the boiling point

with the water in a cooker-pail.

When

they are

them

into a cooker for ten hours

or more.

If they are not then very soft to the

centre of the pieces, bring

them again
ten or

cook them for from


according
to
their

six to

to a boil and more hours,

condition.

When
all

perfectly

tender add the sugar and bring

again to the

FRUITS
boiling point.

179
a

Set

hours or more.

them in Bring them

cooker for four

to a boil

and put

them

at

once into clean, sterilized cans.


full, seal

When

overflowing

the cans at once.

This recipe makes about eleven quarts.


Preserved Quinces
8
lbs.

prepared quinces
2 qts. water

8 lbs. sugar

Wash,
pail,

peel,

quarter,

and

core

the

quinces

before measuring them.

Put them into a cooker-

add the

w^ater,

and v^hen they are boiling

hard, put them into a cooker for ten hours or

more.

If not perfectly tender, heat

them again
cooker

to the boiling point


for as

and

set

them

in the

many more hours


upon
v^ill

as they require,

ing

their

ripeness.

dependThoroughly ripe
this

quinces

probably not require

second

period of cooking.
to

Add
them

the sugar, bring


in the

them

a boil, and set

cooker for four

hours or more.

If they are not rich

enough, boil
boiling

them
what

slow^ly,

uncovered, until they are of the

desired

consistency.
gives

Long,
the red

slov^

is

quinces

colour so

much

admired.
Citron and Ginger Preserves
6
lbs. fruit

(prepared)

J
i

lb.

green ginger

4 lemons
6
lbs.

qts.

water

sugar

i8o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

Pare the citron and cut

into thick

slices.

Remove

the seeds, cut the sHces across into cubes,

strips, or

fancy shapes, and weigh them.


slice

Wash
seeds.
citron,

the lemons,

them and remove


the
ginger.

the

Wash and

peel

Put
a

the

lemon, ginger,

and water

into

cooker-pail.

Bring them to a boil and put them into a cooker


for

eight

hours or more, depending upon the

hardness of the citron.

When

this

is

soft
it,

and

nearly transparent, add the sugar,

boil

and
the
the
at

cook again for four hours or more.


fruit,

put

it

into cans
it

or jars,

Remove and boil down


Pour

syrup until

will just cover the fruit.

it

once over

the fruit

and

close the cans

when

cooled.

Caver them with a clean towel while cooling. Watermelon rind may be preserved in the

same manner.
Grape Jam

Remove
in

the grapes from the stems,- wash them

colander,

then

press

the

pulp from the


it it

skins.
will

Boil the pulp for a few minutes, until

easily

separate
sieve,

from the
skins,

seeds.

Rub

through a

add the

and weigh or
equal quantity
fire until it is

measure the mixture.


of sugar, heat
it

Add an

over a moderate
it

simmering,
it

stirring

frequently.
will

Do

not

let

boil
it

hard or the skins

be toughened.

Set

in a cooker for three

hours or more.

Put

FRUITS
it

i8i
it

into sterilized glasses or jars, cover


it

with a

towel until

is

cold,

and

seal

it

as directed for

apple jelly on page 169.

Remove
wash them

ripe
in

Grape Juice Concord grapes from the stems,


a

colander,

bring them just to


fire,

the boiling point over a moderate

stirring

them
five

frequently.

Put them into a cooker for

hours or more.
at

Drain them
about

in a jelly

bag

for

least

eight hours.

Each quart of
one pint of

loose
juice.

grapes should yield

Add one cup


bring
it

of sugar to every quart of juice;

just to the boiling point

and pour

it

at

once into sterilized bottles, not


quite
full.

filling

the bottles

Cork them at once. When cold, press the corks down more firmly, cut them off level with the top of the bottle, and dip the inverted
bottles, for

an instant, into

Wax

for Sealing.

If

bubbles appear in the


cork, break

wax around

or over the

them and dip the 'Wax

bottle again.

for Sealing Bottles

Melt together equal

parts
liquid

of
it

beeswax and
it

As soon as it is or drawn back on the


rosin.

should be used
will

stove

where

not

burn.

It will

keep
green

indefinitely.

Preserved Ginger

Buy
quality.

fresh,

ginger,
it

of good
it

size

and

Peel or scrape

and cut

into lengths

i82

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cook
it

for serving.

in a

cooker for ten hours

or

more
salt

in boiling salted

water (one-half cupful

of

to

one gallon of water).

Drain away

the brine and add fresh boiling water to

more

than cover
the

it.

When
ten
it

boiling put

it

again into

cooker

for

hours

or

more.

Change

the water and cook


cess until the ginger

again, repeating this pro-

is

very tender.

It

may

take

several days.

Make
this

a syrup, using

two cupfuls
for

of sugar to each cupful of water, bring the ginger


to
five

a boil

in

syrup, set

it

in

a cooker

or six

hours; remove the ginger, boil


to a rich consistency,

the
it

syrup

down

and pour

over the ginger.

XX
MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
White Sauce
2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour
I

cup milk
salt

Few

J teaspoon grains of white pepper

Melt the butter over moderate heat, add the Heat the flour, and blend the two thoroughly.
milk over hot water, add
to the butter
it,

one-third at a time,

and

flour,

stirring constantly

and

allowing the mixture to become perfectly smooth

and glossy before adding more milk.

Season
If

it

and allow

it

to

come

to the boiling point.


it

it is

not to be served immediately, cover


it

and

slip

into the cooker to keep hot.

Sauce
2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour

for

Vegetables
J cup milk J teaspoon salt

J cup of vegetable stock

Few
in

grains of white pepper

Make
white

the

sauce

the

same
cooked,

manner
which

as
in
is

sauce,

blending the

milk and water

which the vegetables were


called vegetable stock.
x83

84

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Brown Sauce
2 tablespoons butter or clarified fat
I

cup brown stock

3 tablespoons flour

J teaspoon salt y^ teaspoon pepper

Brown
stir

the butter slightly, add the flour and


is

constantly until the flour

a rich brown.

Add

the seasoning and stock, one-third at a time,


it

stirring

until

smooth.

If butter

is

not used,
melted, as
if

add the
to

flour as

soon as the fat

is

other fats will acquire a strong flavour

allowed

brown before the flour is added. Mutton or lamb fat, or that from smoked or salted meats, is not suitable for brown sauce.

Drawn Butter Sauce


J cup butter
2 tablespoons flour
i

cup boiling water


salt

J teaspoon teaspoon white pepper Y^

Melt the butter, add the flour and seasoning, and mix them well. Add the water, onethird
at

a time, stirring

until

the sauce grows


to

smooth.
point
it

When
is

it

has

come

the

boiling

done.

Caper Sauce Drain one-half cup of capers, and add them to one cupful of drawn-butter sauce.

Egg Sauce

To

one cupful of drawn-butter sauce add two


dice.

hard-cooked eggs, cut in one-fourth- inch

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
To

185

Sauce for Fish one cupful of drawn-butter sauce add one-

half tablespoonful of

lemon

juice

and one-half

tablespoonful of chopped parsley.

HoUandaise Sauce
J cup butter Yolks of two eggs
1

J teaspoon

salt

Cayenne pepper
J cup boiling water

tablespoon lemon juice

Rub

the

butter

until

soft

the egg yolks,

lemon

juice,

and creamy, add and seasoning, and

rub them

till

blended, then pour on the boiling

water and stand the covered bowl, containing


the sauce, on a rack over a cooker pail of boiling water and put
utes; or
it

into a cooker for three min-

cook

it

on the stove over hot water as


it

soft custard, stirring

constantly.

Tomato Sauce
J can tomatoes, or 2 cups raw tomatoes
I i

teaspoon

salt

J teaspoon pepper
3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour

slice

onion

J bay leaf

J cup water or stock

Cook
flour in

all

the ingredients but the butter and

a cooker for one hour or more.


a strainer

Rub

them through

to the blended butter

and add and flour.

this, gradually,

Hard Sauce
I cup butter
i

cup powdered sugar

Nutmeg

86

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the butter
till

Rub

soft

and creamy, add the


blended, pile
it

sugar gradually.

When

perfectly

the sauce on a small dish or plate and put


a refrigerating box or other cold place
for serving, then grate

into

till

time

nutmeg over the

top.

Fruit Sauce
I

glass of jelly, or

J pint grape juice

f cup boiling water Sugar to taste

Cut the jelly into small pieces, add the water, and bring the mixture to a boil. Let it stand in a cooker for one-half hour or more, or leave it
on the stove till melted. If very sour jelly is used, some sugar may be required to make it With grape juice about one-half sweet enough.
cupful of sugar

may

be used.

The

sugar and

water should be brought to a

boil,

the grape juice

added, and the sauce immediately

set aside to cool.

Brandy Sauce
} cup butter I cup sugar
Yolks of two eggs
2 tablespoons brandy

J cup milk or cream

Whites of 2 eggs
it;

Warm

the butter to soften, but not melt

add the sugar gradually, and rub the two together; add the beaten yolks and, when mixed, the brandy and the milk or cream. Heat the sauce
over
ters

warm
i6o

water in a cooker-pail until


degrees

it it

regis-

Fahrenheit,

stirring

con-

stantly.

Cover

it,

and

set the pail into

a cooker

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
for twenty

187

minutes.

When
stiff
it

it

is

nearly ready,

beat the whites of eggs

and pour the hot


until
it

sauce over them, beating Serve immediately.

is

smooth.

Serves six or eight persons.

Vanilla Sauce
2 tablespoons butter
I i

cup boiling water

tablespoon flour
I

} cup sugar
teaspoon vanilla

Rub

together the butter and flour in a sauceit

pan, add the water and cook until

thickens.

Add

the sugar, and,

when

dissolved, the vanilla.

Serve hot.

Make

it

in

Nutmeg Sauce the same way as


of

vanilla

sauce,

substituting

brown sugar
teaspoonful

for white,

and using

one-eighth

grated

nutmeg

in

place of the vanilla.

Buttered Crumbs
I I

tablespoon butter

J teaspoon

salt

cup

soft, stale

breadcrumbs
is

Few

grains pepper

Use bread that


not
sufficiently

at least

one day
hard.
;

old,

and
the
it

stale
it

to
in

be

Grate

bread, or crumble
into

the fingers

or cut

one-inch

slices,

and these

into

quarters,

and rub two quarters together. If any large pieces break off, crumble them fine with the If bread is being crumbled for scalloped fingers.

i88
dishes,
ing,
it

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

should be carefully done;

if

for stuff-

bread puddings, and such uses where becomes moistened and softened it may be
slices,

cut into very thin

then across into strips


in
size.

and small dice one-eighth inch


to the melted butter.

Mix
them
a

the seasoning with the crumbs, then add

When

first

mixed
if

few

crumbs absorb
stirred

all

of the butter, but

lightly

with a fork for several minutes they will


If richer

become evenly buttered.

crumbs are

needed, the quantity of butter

may
i I

be doubled.

Salted Nuts
I pt.

water
salt

cup blanched nuts


teaspoon butter

J cup

Blanch the nuts according to directions given


below.
eight

Boil

them

in

the

salt

and water for


into

minutes,

drain

them and put them

a roasting-pan or pie plate with the butter.

When

them well that the butter may coat each nut. Bake them in a moderate oven until they are a very light brown, stirring them freWhen they are done, spread them quently. out to cool and allow them to stand until crisp before putting them into a covered receptacle. If peanuts are used, take raw nuts.
warm,
stir

To Blanch Nuts
Pour boiling water on to shelled nuts, let ihem stand two or three minutes, drain them

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
and pour cold water over them.
from
their skins.

189

Press

them

To
Cut them
a
slit

Shell Italian Chestnuts

in

each nut with a sharp knife; put


or roasting

into

frying

pan with one


the
butter
is

teaspoonful of butter for each pint of nuts. Shake

them over moderate heat melted, and put them into


five
fire

until

a moderate oven for

minutes; or continue to shake them over the


for that length of time.
it

This

loosens the

shell so that

may be removed
Sterilize Jars or
jars

with a knife.

To

Wash

cans,

or bottles

Cans and their covers

and put them


water, which

into a large
is

deep enough to

pan of cold or tepid fill and cover

them.
Bring the water to a boil over moderate heat,
unless a rack in the

pan prevents contact of the


used.

glassware with the bottom of the pan, in which


case a

hot

fire

may be

Let them

boil

for five minutes or more,

and remove them, one

by one,
or long

as they are to be filled.

clean stick

wooden spoon-handle thrust into them may be used to take them out. Rubbers for
cans should not be
injure them.
sterilized,

as the heat will


boil-

Corks may be dipped into


allowed
unless
to

ing

water or
but

remain
stiff

in

it

for

minute;

very

and

shrunken.

190

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


much
to
fit

they will swell too

the bottles

if left

long in the water.

Boiled Dressing
I

teaspoon

salt

i i

teaspoon sugar

J teaspoon mustard

egg

Cayenne
2^ teaspoons butter

J cup milk
J cup vinegar

Mix

the dry ingredients, add the beaten egg

and milk; heat them over a cooker-pail of warm


water until
constantly.

i6o degrees Fahrenheit,

stirring

it

Put

it

into

cooker
it is

for

twenty

minutes.
it

Add
is

the vinegar

when

cold, unless

is

to be used for cole-slaw, in

hot vinegar

added

at

which case the once and the dressing

poured over the cut cabbage.


Soft-Cooked Eggs, No.
Into a cooker-pail put as
to
i

many

eggs as are
pint

be

cooked.

Pour over them one


egg.
into

of

boiling water for one egg


for

and one cup extra


Without heating
at
it

each

additional

further,

put

the

pail

the cooker for ten


the

minutes.

Remove them promptly


them

end

of that time and place


to keep

in a folded

napkin

warm.

Soft-Cooked Eggs, No. 2 Put the eggs and cold water to more than cover Heat them over the them into a cooker-pail.
fire until

165 degrees Fahrenheit, then put

them

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
into

191

a cooker for ten minutes.

Remove them

immediately and serve them in a folded napkin.

Hard-Cooked Eggs and enough cold water to more than cover them into a cooker-pail. Heat them till simmering, then put them into a cooker for twenty or thirty minutes, depending upon their size.
Put the eggs
Chocolate
2 squares chocolate
i

cup hot water

J cup sugar

3 cups hot milk

J teaspoon vanilla

Melt the chocolate


pail of boiling water;

in a

pan

to

fit

over a cooker-

add the

salt

and sugar and,


the pan from

when mixed,
the pail and

the water.
let
it

Remove

the chocolate cook directly on

the stove until


gradually, and

has thickened, add the milk,


scalding hot, but not boiling,

when

put the pan back into the cooker-pail of boiling


water.
Set
all

in a cooker

and leave

it

until
it

it

is

to be served.

Just before serving beat

well

with
It will

an

egg-beater

and

add

the

vanilla.

keep hot without injury for a number of


can be prepared before going out and

hours and makes a good drink for a late evening


supper.
It

on

returning

from

concert,

theatre, or

other

entertainment, will be found ready to serve.


tablespoonful or two of cream improves
it.

Serves four or

five

persons.

192

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cocoa
I J tablespoons cocoa

2 cups boiling water

2 tablespoons sugar

2 cups hot milk


grains salt
salt.

Few

Mix
ing

the cocoa, sugar and


boiling

Mix
the

it

to a

paste with

water, add
it

to

remain-

water,

and

let

boil

one
it it

minute.
well

Add
an

the

scalding

milk and
it;
it

beat
or put
is

with

egg-beater and serve


to keep

into a cooker
It

warm

until

to be

used.

will

keep for several

hours

and

should

be
is

beaten

upon

removal.

Reception

cocoa

generally
is

made with double


served with

the quantity of cocoa and

a spoonful of whipped cream laid

on

top.

Serves

four

or

five

persons.

For reception

serves eight

persons.

Cocoa Shells
I

J cups

shells

3 cups milk

3 cups water

Sugar to

taste

Bring the

shells

and water to a
off,
it

boil,

put

them
the

into a cooker for eight hours or more.

Add

hot milk, strain the liquid

pressing the shells

with a spoon to squeeze

out.

Add

the sugar

and heat
is

all

until boiling.

By adding

one-third

of a cup of cocoa nibs a more satisfactory drink


obtained.

This recipe makes one quart.


five

Serves four or

persons.

MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES
Coffee
J cup
J egg
coffee

193

Cold water
I

qt. boiling

water

Mix
pan.

the

coffee,

egg and washed


it,

shell

with

enough water to moisten

in a cooker-pail or
let it just

Add

the boiling water and

come

to a boil.

Put the

pail or
it

pan

into a large pail

of boiling water and set


or more.
If a larger
fill

in a

cooker for one hour


is

quantity of coffee

made

and

it

will nearly

the cooker-pail, the outside

pail of

water

may be

omitted.

Cereal Coffee
} cup
cereal coffee

ij

qts.

water

Put the coffee into a cheese-cloth bag and drop


it

into cold water.

Bring

it

to a boil

and put

it

into a cooker for five hours or more.

It is best

cooked over night and


brands of cereal coffee
Serve,
if

is

a different thing

from
All

ordinary cereal coffee prepared by boiling.

may be

treated in this way.

possible, with cream.

Croustades

Cut stale bread into slices one and one-half Cut off the crusts, making or two inches thick.
rectangular blocks of the bread, or cutting
it

with
fork,

a large biscuit cutter, into rounds.


carefully

With a
leaving

scoop

out

the

centres,

cases

with walls about one-fourth of an inch thick.

Brush them

lightly

with melted butter and brown

194

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


in

them

a
fish

moderate oven.
or

lobster,

Creamed oysters, meat and some vegetables are


Farina Balls

served in croustades.

J cup farina
2 cups milk

Dash of cayenne
5 drops of lemon juice

i teaspoon

salt

Yolk of one egg

Cook
liquid

the milk and farina in a cooker for two


all

hours or more, over boiling water, until


ingredients while
well
cool.

the

has been absorbed, then add the other


still
it

over the water, and

when

mixed remove

and spread
it

it

When
roll

cold, roll

into balls

on a dish to one inch in


in

diameter,
to

them

in sifted

crumbs, then

egg

and

which one tablespoon of water has been added slightly beaten, and again in crumbs, and fry

them in hot, deep fat until a golden brown. Drain them on soft brown paper laid on a plate in the
open door of an oven. be used in this way.

Any

cold cereals

may

XXI

RECIPES FOR THE SICK


Flaxseed Lemonade
2 tablespoons whole
seed
I qt.

flax-

J cup lemon juice i cup sugar

boiling water

little

grated lemon rind

Pick over and wash the flaxseed in a strainer, put


it

into a cooker-pail
it

When
to

boils

put

it

into a cooker for

and add the boiling water. from two


Strain
it

two and one-half hours.

and add the

sugar and lemon.

Farina Gruel
1

tablespoon farina

I I

cup milk
egg
salt

2 cups boiling water


I

tablespoon cold water

f teaspoon

Mix
it

the farina and cold water, add

them
for

to
set

the boiling, salted


in

water and when boiling


over boiling
water,

the cooker,

one

and one-half hours. Then scald the milk in a double boiler and add it and the beaten The egg may be ^gg ^o the cooked farina. omitted, in which case only one cup of water
should be used.
195

196

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Imperial
I I

Granum
J cup boiling water
J teaspoon
salt

tablespoon Imperial

Granum

tablespoon cold water

i cup milk

Mix
add
it

the Imperial

Granum

with the cold water,

to the boiling water.


it

Add

the salt and

milk and cook


over the
fire
it

in a small cooker-pail or
it

pan
in a

until

boils,

stirring occasionally.

Then put
milk

into a pail of water

and

set

it

cooker for one hour or more.

If preferred,

more

may
I

be added.

Cracker Gruel
tablespoon
plain

cracker

cup milk
salt

crumbs

J teaspoon

Scald the milk in a small double cooker-pail,

with boiling water in the under


cracker, and put
it

pail.

Add

the

into a cooker for

one hour or
It
is

more.

Add

the salt just before

serving.

often convenient to keep such gruels hot for use


in the night, being

improved rather than harmed

that they are hot, not merely

Care must then be taken warm. Milk is considered scalding hot when a thick skin forms on the top and bubbles appear next the pan, or

by the long cooking.

when

it

registers i8o degrees Fahrenheit.

Oatmeal Gruel
i cup
rolled oats
I

teaspoon

salt

3 cups boiling water

Milk

to taste

RECIPES FOR THE SICK

197

pan, boil

Put the oatmeal, salt and water into a cookerit five minutes and set it in a cooker

for eight or ten hours over a cooker-pail of boiling

water.

Rub

it

through
it

strainer,

dilute

it

with hot milk and pour

again through a strainer.

Barley Flour Gruel


1

cup water

3 tablespoons cold water

3 tablespoons barley flour

J cup milk
salt

i teaspoon

Mix
cook
heat
it

the barley and cold water to a paste, add


salt,

the boiling water and

bring

it

to a boil

and

over boiling water for one hour or more


Strain
it,

in a cooker.
it

dilute

it

with the milk and

over hot water.

Indian Gruel
2 tablespoons meal
I

2 tablespoons cold water

tablespoon flour
salt

3 cups boiling water

i teaspoon

Milk or cream

Mix
add
Boil
it

the flour and meal, add the cold water and

this

mixture to the boiling,


let
it

salted

water.
in a

and

cook over boiling water


it,

cooker for ten hours; strain

add the milk or


it.

cream, heat
less

it

over hot water and serve

Or

water

may be

used for the long cooking and


serving.

more milk or cream be added before


Arrowroot Gruel
1

cup boiling water

tablespoon cold water


salt

2 teaspoons

Bermuda arrow-

J teaspoon

root

198

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the arrowroot and cold water, add

Mix

them

to the boiling, salted water, let the mixture boil

and cook

it

over boiling water in a cooker for one

hour or more.
Pasteurized Milk

There

is

certain

degree of heat which,

if

maintained for a

sufficient

period of time, will

destroy disease germs and certain other harmful germs which tend to spoil milk, while at the same time it is not high enough to cause the delicate flavour of

raw milk

to disappear.
is

Bringing

milk to this exact condition


it.

called

*'

pasteurizing"

Into feeding bottles put the amount of milk


is

that

to be used at one time.

Plug them with

sterilized

(baked)

cotton.

Stand

them

on

rack in a cooker-pail, surrounded, to the depth of


the
milk,

with

warm
till

water.

Gradually

raise

the temperature

the milk in the bottles registers

Cover the pail, and set it in a cooker for from twenty minutes to half an hour or more. Remove the bottles, cool
150
degrees
Fahrenheit.
quickly and keep the milk in a cold place, but not
freezing,
till

needed.
if it is

Do

not remove the milk

from the
be used.

bottles

used for feeding infants.


it

If used for adults

do not remove

until

it

is

to

Pasteurized milk will keep for a long


is

time without souring, but

dangerous unless

continuously kept very cold.

Milk

"to

be kept

RECIPES FOR THE SICK

199

hot in a cooker for use in the night, should be put


in

while scalding hot, not merely pasteurized,

since

"any

device

for

keeping

milk

[merely]

warm

should never be used." *

Rice and Milk


I cup
rice

ij cups milk
} teaspoon
salt

Bring the ingredients to a boil in a cookerpan, set


it

over boiling water and put

it

into a

cooker for

one hour or more.


Peptonized Beef Broth

lb.

lean beef

cup water

J tube Fairchild's peptogenic powder

Remove
heat
it

all fat

from the meat, chop


it

it

fine

and
it

with the water until

boils,

stirring

constantly.

meat
it,

to

and grind the a paste with a mortar and pestle. Put


off the liquid
its
it

Drain

with the liquid and Fairchild's powder, or


into

equivalent,

a sterilized glass can, close

and shake all together vigorously till it is well mixed. Stand the jar with the cover laid on it, but not fastened securely, on a low rack in a
cooker-pail of

warm
it

water.
is

Place

it

over moder-

ate heat until the water

115 degrees Fahrenheit.

Cover

it

and put

into a cooker for three hours.

Warm

the cooker-nest, previously, with a pail of


Yearbook
of the

"

Bacteria in Milk," by L. A. Rogers.

Department of

Agriculture, 1907, p. 194.

200

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

boiling water set into

for half "an hour.

Take

out the broth, put


bring
it it

it

into a saucepan
it is

and quickly
it

to a boil.

If

for a very sick patient


it

should be strained.

Keep
it.

cold unless

is

used immediately.
of
salt

Add

one-fourth teaspoonful

before serving

Peptonized Milk
i
pt. fresh

milk

J cup water

i tube Fairchild's peptogenic powder

Put the powder with the water, which has been


boiled

and cooled, into a

sterilised pint glass can,

and shake them until the powder is dissolved. Add the milk and shake it slightly again. Put
the can into a cooker-pail of
it

warm
into

water and heat water


a
is

over a moderate
Fahrenheit.
for

fire

until the
it

115

degrees

Set

previously

warmed cooker
If
it

from ten to
it it

thirty minutes.

remains too long

will develop

an unpleasant
saucepan
in a cold

flavour.

When
it

done, remove

to a
it

and bring
place

quickly to a boil.

Keep

if it is

not used immediately.

Apple W^ater
I

large sour apple


I

2 teaspoons sugar

cup boiling water


it

Wash
to

the apple thoroughly; cut

into pieces,

removing the core but not the skin.


a
boil
in

Bring

it

the water; cook

it

over boiling
Strain

water in a cooker for

two hours or more.

RECIPES FOR THE SICK


It

201

through a wire strainer and add the sugar.


it

Serve

cold.

Barley Water
3 tablespoons barley 2 cups cold water
Salt

Lemon juice
Sugar

Pick over the barley and soak


or for several hours.
it

it

over night

Bring

it

to a boil

and put
it,

into a cooker for eight hours.

Strain

add
hot.

salt,

sugar and lemon juice to taste.

Serve

it

XXII

RECIPES

FOR COOKING IN LARGE


QUANTITIES
cookers are specially adapted to
it

FIRELESS
cooking
in fuel,
is

use on a large scale, as

is

in cases

where

done on a business basis that economy


intelli-

range space, and labour form such an

important factor, and because there some


the

gent person will generally oversee the work of

ignorant

and
not,

careless.

In

their

present

form
large

they are

perhaps, adapted to very

institutions,

where

many
is

hundreds
a
limit

of
the

persons
size

are

fed, since

there

to
in

of

utensils

which

can
box.

be

lifted

and
small

out of

the

insulating

But
cooker
as

for

institutions, hotels, boarding-houses, restaurants,

and lunch rooms the


ably,

fireless

will, inevit-

become

indispensable

soon

as

it

is

understood.

The United

States

Army

has used the


its

fireless

cooker and, owing partly to

demand, some

of the manufacturers of commercial cookers

make
large

them

in

sizes

appropriate for use on

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


scale.

203

For those who wish to try them without


outlay of

much money the home-made way satisfactory. As an encouragement to those who wish to use them for such purposes, it may be said that
an
initial

cooker will be found in every

there

is

less

chance of failure in cooking large

quantities of food than with small.

In the main, the directions for making and

using cookers are the same no matter what the


size,

but a few points

may

be suggested as more

necessary for large than small cookers.

In

many

kitchens there will be no space near

the range for a cooker or a

number of

cookers,

and it will be a matter of necessity to have one which can easily be moved. Instead of ordinary
castors, use,

for these,

such small iron wheels

as are put

on hand trucks.
easily

They
fit

will be

found

to run
less.

more

and

to injure a floor
will

much
table,

box which when loaded, and then it


Select a

under a

will not

seem

to
it

make
with

the kitchen any fuller than before.

Fit

two strong handles, preferably on the front of the


box, so that
it

may

be guided

when

pulled out

from under the

table.

The
useful
tral

portable
for

insulating

pail

may

be found

transporting

hot

food

from a cenis

kitchen to outlying dining-rooms, as

so

often done in large institutions,

aluminum

utensils

204

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


lightest

and the

packing material that

is

prac-

ticable being advisable for these.

The temperature maintained by


rapid cooking than with
this

a large

mass

of food in a well-made box, will result in more


small quantities,

and

must be taken
is

into

account

with

foods,

such as potatoes, which are easily overcooked.

There

always

difficulty

in

stating

the

number of persons that may be served by any recipe, since the amount served to each varies
to

such

an

extent

with
in
this

circumstances.

number
a
la

indicated

between the
carte

small
portions,
at

table

d'hote

and
an

book is a and the large is based upon the


family
table.
is

The mean

amount

served

ordinary

Three-quarters of a cupful
portion of soup.

allowed for each

Rolled Oats
7J
qts.

water
3

4 tablespoons
qts. rolled oats

salt

Boil the water, add the salt and sprinkle in the oats gradually.
for

When

boiling put
It
is

it

into a cooker

two hours or more.


fifty

improved

by

twelve hours' cooking.


Serves forty or
persons.

Cornmeal Mush
8
qts.

water

2^ tablespoons
7 cups cornmeal

salt

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Mix
and
bring the
stir

205

the meal with one quart of the water,

remainder to
in

boil,

add the
it

salt

the meal
it

paste.

Let

boil four

minutes and put


or more.

into the cooker for five hours

Serves thirty-five or forty persons.

Hominy
7jqts. water
I

Grits
3 tablespoons salt

qts.

hominy

grits

Add
let
it

the

hominy

to the boiling, salted water;

boil for ten

minutes and put


persons.

it

into the

cooker for eight hours or more.


Serves forty or
fifty

Samp
1

qt.

samp

3 tablespoons salt 6
qts. boiling

2 qts. cold water

water

Soak the samp


or more.
let
it

in the cold

water for eight hours water and


salt,
it

Add

it

to the boiling

boil

uncovered for one hour and put

into

a cooker for six hours or more.


it,

little
is

butter added before serving improves

if it

used as a vegetable.
Serves forty or
fifty

persons.

Cracked
5 cups wheat

Wheat
zj tablespoons
5
qts. boiling
salt

2i

qts. cold

water

water

Soak the cracked wheat


\iine

in the cold
it

water for

hours or more.

Add

to the boiling water

2o6

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


salt, let
it

and
into
it

boil for ten


at

minutes and put


again

it

a cooker for

least

nine hours; reheat


it

to the boiling

point

and cook

for

nine hours or more.


Serves forty or
fifty

persons.

Steel-cut Oatmeal
5 cups oats

2} tablespoons
water
5 qts. boiling

salt

ij

qts. cold
it

water

Cook

in the

same manner
fifty

as

cracked wheat.

Serves forty or

persons.

Petty ohn's Breakfast Food


7J
qts.

water
3
qts. Pettijohn's

4 tablespoons salt
Breakfast food

Cook

it

as directed

on page

56.

Serves forty or

fifty

persons.

Cream
8^
qts.

of

Wheat
3 tablespoons salt

water

5 cups cream of wheat

Cook

it

as directed

on page

56.

Serves forty or

fifty

persons.

Cook

it

in the

Wheatlet same way as cream of wheat.


Farina

Cook
3 to

it

in the

same way
Rice

as

cream of wheat.

qts.

water
I

J cup

salt

qts. rice

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Wash
water;
the
rice,

207
salted

add

it

to the
it

boiling

let it boil

and put
fifty

into

a cooker for

one hour.
Serves forty or
persons.

Brown Stock
10
lbs.

meat and bone

tablespoon sweet marjoram

10 qts. water

3 tablespoons chopped parsley 2 cups carrot 2 cups turnip 2 cups celery


i

ij teaspoons peppercorns
I

teaspoon cloves

3 bay leaves
I

tablespoon chopped thyme

cup onion
salt

J cup

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

60.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

White Stock
10 lbs. knuckle of veal
10 qts. water
2 teaspoons peppercorns

J cup onion
2 cups celery, or
I

J cup

salt

tablespoon celery seed

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

62.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Mutton Broth
15 lbs neck of mutton
10 qts. cold water
i

teaspoon pepper

i I

cup

rice,

or

I cup salt

cup barley

Make

it

as directed

on page 63.
fifty

Serves forty-five or

persons.

2o8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Mock
5 lambs' livers
5 calves' hearts 5 knuckles of veal

Turtle Soup
i

teaspoon cloves

ij tablespoons peppercorns J cup salt 5 bay leaves i} doz. yolks of hard-cooked


eggs

10 qts. water

2 cups onions 2 cups turnip

2 cups celery

2j lemons Madeira wine

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

66.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Creole Soup
6
qts.

brown stock

2 cups flour
I

3 qts. tomatoes
I

J tablespoons

salt

cup chopped green sweet


pepper

J teaspoon cayenne J cup grated horseradish


2 tablespoons vinegar
li^

} cup chopped onion


li cups butter

cups macaroni rings

Make

it

as directed

on page

69.

Serves forty or forty-five persons.

Cream
3 qts.

of Celery
i

Soup
cup
qts. qts.

white stock

flour

4J
I

qts. celery, cut small qts.

hot milk
hot cream

water

li

1} cups sliced onion

2 tablespoons salt

} cup butter

f teaspoon pepper

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

68.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Asparagus Soup
5 qts. white stock, or
5 qts. water in which aspara-

209

i} cups butter if cups flour

gus has cooked


7 cans asparagus, or

3^
i

qts.

hot milk
salt

tablespoon

7 pts. of cooked asparagus


I

f teaspoon white pepper

large onion

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

68.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Macaroni Soup
10 qts. brown stock

2J cups macaroni rings

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

70.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Vegetable Soup with Stock


10 qts. brown stock

2J cups cabbage
ij cups onion
i

ij cups turnip

2^ cups carrot
2J cups celery

tablespoon

salt

| cup

rice or barley

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

67.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Ox
6 ox
9
tails

Tail

Soup
li cups Madeira wine
2 tablespoons Worcestershire

qts.

brown

stock

2 teaspoons salt

sauce
2 tablespoons lemon juice

J teaspoon cayenne i cup butter

Flour

Make

it

as directed

on page

70.

Serves forty or forty-five persons.

210

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Julienne Soup
10 qts. brown stock
2 J cups carrot

ij cups peas
ij cups string beans
i

2j cups turnip

teaspoon

salt

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

70.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Tomato Soup with Stock


5 qts.

brown stock

ij cups butter
i cups flour

5 cans or 5 qts. tomatoes


I

cup chopped onion


it

2^ tablespoons

salt

Make

as directed

on page
fifty

69.

Serves forty-five to

persons.

Vegetable Soup without Stock


2 cups carrots
2 cups turnips 3 cups celery
3 qts. tomatoes
i

cup butter

J cup chopped parsley J cup salt ij teaspoons pepper 6


qts.

3 cups onion
2 qts. potatoes

water
71.

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Bean Soup
5 pt8.

beans

cup chopped celery

10 qts. water or stock


1

cup Chili sauce

cup chopped onion


lbs.

cup butter

2i

lean,
is

raw

beef,

if

cup flour
salt

stock

not used
I

i cup J teaspoons pepper

Make
Serves

it

as directed

on page

72.

fifty

or

fifty-five

persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Black Bean Soup
2J
I I I

211

qts.

black beans

10 qts. water

f teaspoon pepper i^ teaspoons mustard


i teaspoon cayenne
I

cup chopped onion


cup chopped
celery, or
salt

cup butter
flour

J teaspoons celery
salt

^ cup

J cup

10 hard-cooked eggs

5 lemons

Make
Serves

it

as directed

on page

72.

fifty

or

fifty-five

persons.

Tomato Soup
7 cans or quarts of tomatoes

2 large onions J cup salt


i

3J
1

qts.

water

tablespoon peppercorns

teaspoon soda

4 large bay leaves


2 teaspoons cloves

J cup sugar J cup butter

ij cups flour

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

73.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Potato Soup
24 medium-sized potatoes 4
4
qts.
qts.
i

cup

flour
salt

milk

i cup

water

2 teaspoons celery salt


I

f cup chopped onion


2 cups butter

teaspoon pepper

i teaspoon cayenne i cup chopped parsley

Make

it

at directed

on page
fifty

75.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

212

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Puree of Lima Beans
5 cups dried lima beans
7 J qts.
5

cups cream or milk

water

ij cups butter
cup flour
salt

i cup chopped onion f cup chopped turnip

J cup J teaspoons pepper I

Make

it

as directed

on page

73.

Serves forty- five or fifty persons.

Baked Bean Soup


3 qts. cold, baked beans 6 qts. water

i cup butter
J cup flour

J cup chopped onion I cup chopped celery


I

J cup Chili sauce 4 teaspoons salt

qts.
it

tomatoes

J teaspoon peppei

Make

as directed

on page
fifty

74.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Green Pea Soup


8 cans marrowfat peas, or

J cup chopped onion


i i

qts. shelled

peas

cup butter
cup
flour

5 tablespoons sugar

qts.

water milk
it

3 tablespoons salt

qts.

ij teaspoons pepper

Make

as directed

on page
fifty

74.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Split-Pea Soup
2 qts. split peas 8 qts. water

lbs.

soup bones, beef


I

J cup

salt

teaspoon pepper

Make
Serves

it

as directed

on page

77.

fifty

persons

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Fish Chowder
12
lbs.

213

cod

or

other

firm,

3 qts. scalded milk

white

fish

lb. fat salt

pork

qts. potatoes, in J-inch dice

3 tablespoons salt

f cup sliced onion J cup butter

J teaspoon white pepper


2 cups oyster crackers

Make

it

as directed

on page
fifty

75.

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Connecticut Chowder

Make
stituting

this as directed for fish

chowder, sub-

two quarts of stewed fresh or canned tomatoes for the milk, which may be added to the chowder before putting it into the cooker.
Serves forty-five or
fifty

persons.

Creamed
6
lbs. codfish

Salt Codfish
2 doz. eggs 3 cups milk

12 qts. water
I

J cups butter
it

f teaspoon pepper

Cook

as directed for

Creamed

Salt Codfish,

No. 2 on page 84.


Serves forty or
fifty

persons.

Codfish Balls
2 qts.
in

raw, salt codfish,


small pieces
potatoes,
in
"

About 12 qts. cold water


8 eggs

qts.

l-inch

pieces

J cup butter i teaspoon pepper

Cook

it

as directed

on page 85.
persons.

Serves forty or

fifty

214

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Pot Roast
12
lbs.

beef from round or

rump
I

J teaspoon pepper I cup carrot


i

oz.

beef

drippings

cup turnip

(3 tablespoons)

cup onion cup celery

Flour
I

tablespoon

salt

4 bay leaves
3 qts. water

the butcher bone and roll the meat, from the rump. Wipe it with a damp if cloth, dredge it with flour and brown it on all Wash, pare, and cut the sides in the drippings. Put all the ingredients vegetables into pieces.
it

Have
is

with the hot, browned meat, into a cooker-pail,

add the water, boiling hot, let it minutes and put it into a cooker
or more.
boil,

boil for thirty

for nine hours

Before serving bring the meat to a


it,

remove

put

it

in

warm
sauce.

place,

and
If
it

make
there

three quarts of

brown
it

Strain the

liquor in the pail


is

and use

for the sauce.

fat
it

and use
Serves

in

on the top of the liquor remove making the sauce.


persons.

fifty

Brown Sauce
^ cup
J cup
butter or fat
flour
I

2 teaspoons salt

i teaspoon pepper
qt.

stock or water

Make

it

as directed

on page

184.

Serves sixteen or twenty persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Beef a
12
lbs.

215

la

Mode
i

round of beef
pork

cup

sliced

onion

i Flour

lb. fat salt

i teaspoon allspice i teaspoon grated nutmeg


i teaspoon whole clovc$ J cup rendered beef fat

3 tablespoons salt
I

teaspoon pepper

About 3

qts.

water

Cook
Serves

it

as directed

on page 95, except that there

need not be an outer pail of boiling water.


fifty

persons.
Irish

Stew
2^ cups
celery, in pieces

5 lbs clear

meat

li

qts. potatoes, in dice

3 tablespoons salt
i

2 J cups turnips, in dice

teaspoon pepper
flour
fat

2J cups carrots, sliced I J cups onions, sliced

2^ cups

4J

qts.

J cup clear water

Cook

it

as directed
fifty

on page 100.
persons.
la
i

Serves forty or

Beef Stew k
10
lbs.

Mode

beef brisket

teaspoon pepper

Flour
I
I

teaspoon ground allspice


teaspoon grated nutmeg
teaspoon whole cloves

cup rendered

fat

i
I I

J cups sliced onion

J cup salt

lemon, sliced

Water

to cover

Buy

twenty-five

or thirty

pounds of brisket

to get ten

pounds of
fifty

clear, lean meat.

Cook

it

as directed on page 97.

Serves forty or

persons.

2i6

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Boiled Dinner
8
lbs. lean, salt

pork

5 heads cabbage

1 pk. turnips
J pk. beets
I
'

ij pks. potatoes
2 teaspoons pepper

qt. carrots
it

Water to cover

Cook

as directed
fifty

on page 96.
persons.

Serves forty or

Cannelon of Beef
6
lbs.

lean meat, chopped

cup clear fat or butter

Grated rind ij lemons


J cup chopped parsley
1

f teaspoon nutmeg 3 tablespoons salt

doz. eggs

2 tablespoons grated onion

f teaspoon pepper i J qts. soft breadcrumbs


loi.

Cook

it

as directed

on page

Serves forty or

fifty

persons.

Okra Stew
6
lbs. clear,

lean mutton
fat

cup clear beef


I

3 qts. tomatoes 3 qts. okra, in pieces


3 tablespoons salt
i

J cups

flour

2 cups sliced onion

teaspoon pepper

3 qts.

water

Cook

it

as directed on page ill.


fifty

Serves forty or

persons.

Creamy Potatoes
I

pk. potatoes
qts.

milk
I

J cup salt i tablespoon pepper


J cups butter

One peck of potatoes quarts when prepared

will

maKe about
creamy

ten

for

potatoes.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Melt the butter
and, while
it

217

in the cooker-pail,

is

heating, slice

add the milk, the potatoes which


of potatoes

have been pared and soaked, for two hours or


more, in cold water.
is

As each quart

sliced

put

it

into the hot milk.

The

potatoes

will

thus be heated to boiling point, quart by

quart.

Add

the seasoning.

When

boiling, after
all

the last quart of potatoes has been added, put


into the cooker for

one hour or more.


persons.

Serves forty or

fifty

Veal Loaf
5 lbs.

minced veal

2^ tablespoons

salt

10 eggs

ij cups melted butter 5 cups soft breadcrumbs

f cup chopped parsley f cup chopped onion


J
lb. fat salt

pork

} teaspoon pepper
.

2J teaspoons ground sage

Cook
Serves

it

as directed

on page 117.
persons.

forty

or

fifty

Macaroni Italienne
2
qts.

macaroni, in one-inch

32 cloves
4 large bay leaves

pieces

qts.

stewed

and strained

3 tablespoons salt J cup sugar


I

tomatoes
2 qts. stock or water
8 medium-sized onions

teaspoon pepper

2 qts. grated or shaved cheese

Cook

it

as directed
fifty

on page 143.
persons.

Serves forty or

21 8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Turkish Pilaf
I

qt. rice

2j tablespoons
i^
qts.

salt

8 green sweet peppers (2 cups)

2 tablespoons sugar

qts.

tomatoes

water

i cup butter

Cook

it

as directed

on page 149, without the


fifty

lower pail of water.


Serves forty-five or
persons.

Pork and Beans


2 qts. dried beans
I

2 lbs. salt pork


i
I

tablespoon soda
qts.

cup molasses
tablespoon mustard

9 3 tablespoons

water

salt

f teaspoon pepper
to half cover

Water

Soak the beans, drain them, cook them for seven hours or more, as directed on page 141, with the nine quarts of water, soda, and salt. Drain them, add the other ingredients, and
bake them
till

browned.
fifty

Serves forty-five or

persons.

Boston Brown Bread


2 qts. rye meal

qts.

granulated

commeal

J cup soda i cup salt


ij
qts.

2 qts.

graham

flour

molasses

qts. thick,

sour milk, or 3^
it

qts.

buttermilk

Mix and cook


it

as directed

on page

155.

t^ut

into seven or eight moulds.

Serves

fifty

persons.

COOKING LARGE QUANTITIES


Suet Pudding
3 cups chopped suet
3 cups molasses
i

219

J tablespoons

salt

li teaspoons ginger
ij teaspoons nutmeg

3 cups thick, sour milk

2i I J tablespoons soda

qts. flour

I teaspoon cloves i tablespoon cinnamon

Mix and cook


liquid

it

as directed

on page 157.
Serve
it

Put

the pudding into six moulds.


sauce.
fifty

with a

Serves forty or

persons.

Rice Pudding
6
qts.

milk

li cups

rice

3 cups sugar
I

teaspoon nutmeg
it

f teaspoon salt J cup butter

Cook

as directed

on page 162, except that the


be omitted.
If served

outer pail of water

may

cold and not browned, omit the butter.

Serves thirty or thirty-five persons.

Indian Pudding
3
qts.

water
milk (scalding hot)

2 tablespoons salt

4j
I

qts.

J cup ginger
li
qts.

qt.

cornmeal

molasses

Mix

the dry ingredients with one pint of the

water, add

and molasses, add the milk. Let all come to a boil and put it Put it into into a cooker for ten hours or more.
to the boiling water
it,

them

baking dishes and brown


Serves forty or

or serve

it

without

browning, either plain or with cream.


fifty

persons.

220

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Chocolate Bread Pudding
6
3
I

qts. milk,

2 cups sugar
i8 eggs

qts. soft

breadcrumbs
salt

tablespoon

lb.

chocolate

2 tablespoons vanilla

Cook

it

as directed

on page 164,
persons.

in three pud-

ding pans, set over cooker-pails of water.


Serves forty or
fifty

Stewed Apples
15 qts. 7
lbs.

prepared apples

} teaspoon whole cloves


2 lemons

sugar
I

qts.

water

Cook them

as directed

on page

168.

Serves thirty-five to forty-five persons.

Apple Sauce
I

pk. sour apples 3 lbs. sugar

ij qts. water

Cook

it

as directed

on page

168.

Serves forty-five to

fifty

persons.

XXIII

THE INSULATED OVEN

MANY
to

women
to

in

these

days will find


that
it

it

difficult

believe

is

possible

bake without the constant presence of fire, but our great-grandmothers were well aware

that foods continued to cook in the brick ovens

Insulated oven with stones and pan in place.

long after the

fire

in

them had burned out or


insulated oven represents
ideas
to

was raked
an

out.

The
of

adaptation

old-fashioned

new

and

modern

conditions.

Although we

cannot

go back to the days of brick ovens, superior as

222

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


its

they were, in certain respects, to the portable

range with

quickly fluctuating heat and great

waste from radiation, yet the insulated oven will


not be found impossible or very difficult to set
up, and the adventurous

woman

will,

perhaps,

not be content until she has tried this develop-

ment of the

fireless

cooker.
lie in
it

The advantages
the development
is

of an insulated oven

the

even brown and thorough baking which

gives;

and retention of

flavours,

which

greater than with ordinary baking; the


fuel

economy

where food requires long cooking; the absence of heat in the kitchen; and the possibility of baking where only a camp-fire is obtainable. The principle is the same whether a portable oven is insulated or a cooker-pail is utilized. There must be hot stone slabs, iron plates, firein

brick, or

some such heat-radiators, which can be made very hot and which will retain their heat
Stones
or
fire-brick

well.

are

preferable

to

iron in this respect.


for the

oven or

utensil,

proceed,

although

There must be insulation and cooking will then somewhat differently from
a
fire.

the familiar

method of baking with


TO INSULATE AN OVEN

Choose

as small a portable

oven as

will hold

the food to be cooked, since the larger the oven

THE INSULATED OVEN


the larger or
to

223

heat

it.

awkward
oven
is

to

more numerous the stones must be Very large stones are heavy and manage, and with their number

the cost of using the oven increases.

portable

on the market which is about thirteen inches in each dimension. This is a good size Cut six pieces of for a family of four or five.
heavy sheet asbestos,
bottom.
is

fitting

one to each surface

of the oven, except the door, and two to the

One
it

of the two pieces for the bottom

to

go inside the oven.

Place the

asbestos

These pieces may be tied on temporarily to hold them in Select a box which is at place during packing. least two or three inches larger in every dimenso that
entirely covers the oven.

sion

than the corresponding dimension of the


It

oven.
just as

should be

fitted

with cover and hasp


while packing, with

any cooker.
sufficient
is

Lay
layer

it,

the

cover opening upward.


a

Pack

in

the

bot-

tom

of insulating

material,

such as

used for other cookers, to raise the

oven to within a couple of inches of the top. Place the oven, lying upon its back, on this

and opening in Pack the same direction as the cover of the box. with the door. on all sides around it till level
layer with the door uppermost,
If desired,

a facing

may

be

made

to

cover

the packing material, from a piece of cloth cut

224

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Draw on
it

a few inches larger, in each direction, than the

top of the box.


the oven.

a square the size of

In the centre of this cut a small hole

to insert the blade of scissors.

From
of the

this hole

cut

diagonally
the
cloth

to
is

the

corners

square.

When

put in place over the pack-

ing the triangular flaps thus

made may be tucked

between the asbestos and the packing, while the


edges of the cloth

may

be tucked between the


Fit a cushion
it

packing and the sides of the box.


that will
fill

the space

left at

the top and nail


this

to the cover of the box.

Face

with a piece
It will
little

of the sheet asbestos nailed into place.

be well to reinforce the nail-heads with

rounds of

tin,

in

order to prevent them from


soft asbestos.

pushing through the

The box

is

then ready for use and should be stood up on

end so that the cover


of asbestos

will

open

like a door,

and

the oven will be right side up.

The

extra piece

may
of

be laid in the bottom, the stones


oven.

heated, and the food put in to cook.

Method
It will

using the
first

Heat the slabs

very gradually the

time that they are used.

be best to put an asbestos mat or piece

of the sheet asbestos between a hot gas flame and


the stones for a few minutes, noi turning the gas

on
the

full
first

force for the

first

five

minutes.

After

using

it

will

be safe to heat the stones

THE INSULATED OVEN


directly over the flame, providing
it is

225
not burn-

ing with

'

full

force

for

the

first

few minutes.

The

degree of heat in the stones will regulate

the heat of the oven.

For most baking, the centre


This
is

of the top side of the stones should be about as


hot as a flatiron for ironing.
that the
hotter,
test
is

side

toward the flame


red
hot.

mean very much


will

perhaps
laid

Another and

better

the browning of a piece of white tissue

paper

on the centre of the stones when they When this grows a shade are put on to heat. darker than manila paper, or a golden brown,
potatoes,
dings,

the stones are right for loaf cakes, pastry, apples,

beans,

scalloped

dishes,

most

pud-

and bread.

For a hot oven the paper


This
is

should be a rich brown.


biscuits,

suitable for

small cakes, roasting meat, etc.


is

Although gas
ed a hot enough
stones may,

the fuel here mentioned any

other fuel will serve to heat the stones, provid-

flame can be procured.

The

hot coal or

when warmed, be set directly on a wood fire to complete the heating,

and, for out-of-doors use, a crude fireplace might

be built up of rough stones to support the soapstones, or they


coals.

may

be buried directly in the hot


it

In such a case
to

will

probably be necesperhaps
the
ice-tongs,

sary
for

have some

device,
as

removing the stones,

metal handles

226
might

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


in time

become burned

off,

bent, or

weak-

ened so as to be unsafe.
Small soapstone griddles or foot-warmers make
excellent slabs for the

home-made
and

insulated oven.

Griddles are on the market that are as small as


twelve
inches
in

diameter,

foot-warmers
eight

come

in

many

sizes.

Those measuring

by

ten inches will be about as large as most

women
their

can easily handle, since they are thicker than


the
size.

griddles,
It

and
to

are

very

heavy

for

will

not be difficult to get an


these,

extra

which will make them For baking many less awkward to manage. of bread and cake, and for foods to loaves cook over night, or for many hours, more than two stones may be necessary to maintain enough heat. The oven should not be opened during the baking, but if the food is not found to be cooked
handle
fitted

when
and

it is

opened,

it

may
is

be quickly closed again,


done.

left till

the food

succession of

baked in an already heated articles may oven by quickly removing the finished article and one or two stones to be reheated and tested,
be

and slipped again into place. In this case the door of the oven should be instantly closed
after

removing anything from

it.

This method

of baking a

number of

things in quick succession

THE INSULATED OVEN


is

227

very economical as a few minutes will reheat the

already

warm

stones.

Lay one hot stone on the asbestos at the bottom of the oven with the hotter side down; put
a wire oven shelf on this, and the food on the

wire

shelf.

If

the

food

will

not

rise

higher

than the top of the pan, a hot stone


directly across the pan, but if this
is

may

be laid

not possible

place the second wire shelf as close over the food


as the cleats at the side of the

oven

will permit,

side

and the stone on this shelf, also with the hot down. In case more than one pan is to go
and two stones
It

in at once,

will not

supply enough

heat,

hot flatirons or stove lids


is

may

be used

to

supplement them.
the oven
is

often

convenient,
article,

when

heated for baking one

to put other things in to cook at the

same time,
browning.
be cook-

even though they

may

not

require

For instance:
ing

chicken or roast

may

between two stones, while on top of the

upper stone the giblets


or
in

may

be stewing in water,
It will
till

some vegetables be

boiling.

be best
boiling

such cases to heat these foods

before putting
cool
it

them

in

the oven, or they will


as

too much.

Such foods,

do not require

browning, will not need another stone on top.


It

may

not be wise to put so

much watery food


so' critical

in the

oven when baking anything

as

228

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

bread or loaves of cake, as

cools the oven to

some

extent.

No
given

matter

how

carefully

the

directions

are
will

and followed some experimentation

probably be required before a novice, or even an experienced cook, will feel at ease with this

new method of cookery, since the conditions may be so variable. But there is no reason why
,

a careful observation of results and their causes

should
of her

not soon lead one to

become mistress
it

own

insulated oven, and

is

likely that
it

she will then

become

sufficiently attached to

to justify her perseverance.

In case a cooker-pail
ing
it

is

to be utilized for
it,

bak-

will

be well to surround

on top, bottom,

and
for

sides,

with the heavy sheet asbestos described

insulating the oven. A wire rack will be needed for separating the food from too direct

contact with the hot stones,

and some device,

such, perhaps, as an inverted wire frying-basket


for supporting the

upper stone.

LIST OF ARTICLES

REQUIRED FOR MAKING AND

USING AN INSULATED OVEN


Box.
Hinges.

Hasp.

Packing material, hay, excelsior,


Portable oven.

etc.

THE INSULATED OVEN


Two
or more stone slabs, or iron plates.
etc.

229

Cooking utensils, baking pans, Cloth for facing and cushion.


Nails and screws.

One dozen One and


(price

small

rounds of
yards

tin

about one
asbestos

inch in diameter.

one-quarter

sheet

about 20 cents a yard).

Roast Beef

Weigh
will not

the

meat,

trim off

all

parts

which

be good to serve, and save them for soups

or stews.
cloth.
flour,

Wipe
it it

the

Dredge
put

into a

meat clean with a damp with salt, pepper, and dripping pan, and cook it in
well

an insulated oven heated as directed for roasts of

Heat the pan and meat a them into the oven. The time for roasting beef depends upon the size and shape of the roasts. Thick pieces weighing under ten pounds will roast rare in twelve minutes to a pound, medium rare in from fifteen to eighteen minutes, and well done in twentyfive or thirty minutes a pound. Thin pieces will take a few minutes less to each pound.
meat on page 225.
little

before putting

Roast Mutton or

Lamb

Prepare the meat for roasting as directed for


roast beef.

Cook

it

in

an insulated oven heated

230

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


on page 225, allowing twentyminutes to each pound for lamb, and from
minutes for mutton.

as directed for roasts


five

fifteen to eighteen

Roast Veal Prepare the meat for roasting as directed for roast beef. Cook it in an insulated oven, heated
as
for

roast beef, allowing

from twenty-five

to

thirty

minutes for each pound.


Spareribs
the
it it

Wipe
sprinkle

meat clean with a damp cloth; with pepper and salt, put it in a pan,
in

and roast

an insulated oven, heated as directed

for roasts

on page 225, allowing twenty minutes or more to each pound. Heat the pan and

meat a

little

before putting

it

in the oven.

Brown Gravy
Drain away
all fat

for

Roasts

brown
to

from the pan, leaving the to this enough water make the desired amount of gravy. Using
sediment.

Add

this in the place of stock or

water make Brown

Sauce, using a measured quantity of the fat from


the
roast.

Various
sauce,

seasonings

may

be

added
etc.,

to this sauce to
cestershire

make

a variety.

Wine, Worjelly,

ketchup,

currant

are used in this way.

Draw,
on page

stuff,

Roast Chicken and truss a chicken


it

as directed

130.

Put

on

its

back

in a baking-pan.

THE INSULATED OVEN


breast, legs,

231

lay strips of fat salt pork on the breast, or rub

and wings with butter or

clarified

Dredge it well with salt and pepper. Heat the pan and chicken over the fire for a few minutes, and put it into an insulated oven heated Allow twentyas directed for roasts on page 225. five minutes a pound for roasting chicken. Remove the string and skewers and serve it with Brown Gravy for Roasts to which the chopped giblets have been added. The giblets may be
veal fat.

cooked, with salted water to cover them, in the


insulated oven at the
is

same time that the chicken

roasting; but in this case the stones should

be hotter than otherwise.

Singe
goose.

and

Roast Goose remove the pin-feathers from


it

a
it

Wash
it

in

hot,

soapy water.
Fill
it

Draw

and
full

rinse

in

cold water.

two-thirds

with Stuffing for Poultry, or Potato Stuffing.


it,

Truss
salt

lay fat salt pork

and rub the surface with butter, or on the breast. Dredge it with
it

and pepper, heat


it

to

warm

the pan, and

roast

in

an insulated oven heated as directed


fifteen or

for roasts

on page 225, allowing

twenty

minutes a pound.
Prepare and cook

Roast Leg of Venison it as roast mutton, allowing

from twelve

to fifteen minutes a

pound

for

it

to

232
roast.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Venison
should
for

be

served

rare,

with

Brown Gravy

Roasts, to one pint of which

one-half tumbler of currant jelly and two tablespoonfuls of sherry wine have been added.

Potato Stuffing
2 cups hot potato, mashed
1

J cup melted butter


J cup milk
2 teaspoons salt

cup

soft,

stale

bread-

crumbs
i cup chopped
salt

pork

i i

teaspoon powdered sage

2 tablespoons chopped onion

egg

Mix

the ingredients in the order given.

Roast Wild Duck Draw, clean, and truss a wild duck

in the

same

manner
fill

as a goose.

If

it

is

to be stuffed, use

Stuffing for Poultry, omitting the herbs; or merely

the cavity with pared and quartered apples,

or

pared, whole onions. These should be removed before serving, but Stuffing for Poultry

should be served with the duck.

Roast

it

for

from twenty
other
roast

to thirty

minutes in an insulated
little
it

oven, the stones heated a


meats.

hotter than for

Serve
jelly.

with

mashed

potato and currant

Grouse

Draw and

clean a grouse, remove the feathers

and the tough skin of the breast. and legs. Truss it, and lay fat
breast.

Dredge

it

with

salt

Lard the breast pork on the and flour, put it


salt

THE INSULATED OVEN


into

233
fat
salt

the

roasting-pan with

scraps

of

pork.

Roast
in

it

for

twenty

or

twenty-five
as for

minutes
wild
sprinkle

an
with

insulated

oven

heated
or

duck.
it

Remove

the

strings

skewers,

browned

breadcrumbs,

and

garnish

it

with parsley.

Roast Quail
Prepare the quail in the same way as grouse.

Roast

it

for

fifteen

or

twenty minutes in an

insulated oven heated as for duck.

Roast Plover Prepare and cook it the same as


Potted Fish
3 shad or 6 small mackerel

quail.

J cup

salt

J cup peppercorns J cup whole allspice


i

J teaspoon cayenne pepper J cup whole cloves

onion, sliced

Vinegar to cover

Clean the
skin,

fish,

remove

the

head,

tail,

fins,

and large bones.

The
salt,

small bones will be


fish into pieces

dissolved in the vinegar.


for serving.

Cut the

Mix
in

the

pepper, and spices.

Pack the
or deep

fish

layers in a small stone crock


salt

agate-ware utensil, sprinkling the


vinegar

and adding pieces of onion between the

layers.
it.

Pour over

it

to

completely

cover

In the absence of a tight-fitting cover, use heavy,


buttered paper tied on.

Bake

it

for five or six

hours in an insulated oven, the stones heated

234
until

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


the paper test
fish will

shows
if

delicate

brown.
a

Potted

keep well
lunch or

put into a cold place


It

and kept covered with


good
relish for

vinegar.
tea.

makes

Pork and Beans


I I
I

cup beans
teaspoon
salt

teaspoon molasses
tablespoon butter, or
lb. salt

teaspoon sugar

pork

Water

to cover

Cook
directed

the
in

beans for four or more hours, as


the
recipe
for

Put

navy beans. them into a baking-dish, add the other


dried

ingredients,

gashing

the

pork
it

frequently

and
tissue

laying

it

on

top.

Put
that

into

an insulated
white

oven

with

stones

will turn

paper a golden
hours or more.

brown.

Bake them

for eight

Baked Potatoes
Select
will all

potatoes

of equal

size,

so

that

they

bake in the same length of time; wash them and bake them in an insulated oven with the stones heated till the paper is a
golden brown
as

explained

in

the

test

on

Good-sized potatoes (eight ounces) page 225. should bake about forty-five minutes. Lay them on a rack to prevent them from touching the
hot stone.

They

will

bake better than

in

an

ordinary oven.

THE INSULATED OVEN


Macaroni and
I

235

Ham

cup macaroni,
pieces

in one-inch

tablespoon flour

J teaspoon pepper
J teaspoon salt ij cups minced, cooked
2 cups buttered

small onion, grated

li cups milk
2 tablespoons butter

ham

crumbs

Cook
for

the macaroni as directed in the recipe

macaroni.
flour,

Make
and

white sauce of the milk,


the
a

butter,

seasoning, add

onion,

ham, and
bake
it

macaroni.

Put

it

into

buttered

baking-dish, cover the top with the crumbs, and


until the

crumbs

are brown, heating the

stones until the paper test shows a golden brown.

Serves six or eight persons.

Scalloped Oysters
I

pt.

or 30 oysters

J cup oyster juice


i

3 cups buttered

crumbs

tablespoon

finely

chopped

i teaspoon

salt

celery leaves

Few

grains pepper

Wash

the

oysters,

strain

the

juice

through

cheese-cloth.

Put one-fourth of the crumbs in

the bottom of a baking dish, add half the oysters,

half the salt and pepper and celery leaves; repeat


these layers, pour over
it

the oyster juice, and

put the remaining crumbs on top.


insulated oven
till

Bake

it

in

an

brown, as directed for scalloped


If

dishes, page 225.

double this recipe

is

used

allow three-quarters of an hour for the

baking,

and do not heat the stones quite so

hot.

236

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Macaroni and Cheese
1

cup macaroni
pieces

in

one-inch

J teaspoon

salt

cup grated or shaved cheese

J teaspoon pepper 2 cups buttered crumbs

Cook
it

the macaroni in salted water as directed

in the recipe for macaroni.

When

tender, drain

and add the

salt,

pepper, and cheese.

Turn

it

into a buttered baking-dish

and cover the top

with the crumbs.

Bake

it

until the until

crumbs are

brown, heating the stones

the paper test

shows a golden brown.


Serves six or seven persons.

Scalloped Chicken and


2 cups buttered
I

Mushrooms
cup White Sauce
salt

crumbs

J cups cold, cooked chicken


or fowl

J teaspoon celery i cup mushrooms


slice

Cut the chicken


the

in small pieces,

or cut

mushrooms small. Put one-fourth of the Mix the crumbs into a buttered baking-dish. other ingredients and pour them into the dish.
Spread the remaining crumbs on top and bake it in an insulated oven till brown, as directed
for scalloped dishes,

page 225.

Scalloped Tomatoes
I

can of whole tomatoes, or

3 tablespoons butter
i

8 good-sized

raw tomatoes

tablespoon

salt

3 cups soft breadcrumbs


I

J teaspoon pepper small onion

THE INSULATED OVEN


If canned tomatoes are used, drain
liquid
If

237

away
in

the

from them, using only the


tomatoes are used, scald

solid tomatoes.

raw

them

boiling

water and

remove the skins and hard core. Melt the butter, add the crumbs, and stir them Put are evenly buttered. until they lightly
one cupful in the bottom of a baking dish, lay the tomatoes over them, sprinkle the salt, pepper

and grated onion over these and cover the top Bake them for one with the remaining crumbs.
hour
light
in

an insulated oven, heating the stones

until the

paper

test,

given on page 225, shows a

brown

colour.

Serves six or eight persons.

Scalloped Apples
3 cups chopped sour apples 2 cups soft breadcrumbs

(Brown Betty)
J teaspoon cinnamon J teaspoon nutmeg J lemon, juice and rind

4 tablespoons butter

J cup brown sugar

J cup water

Melt the

butter,

add the crumbs, and


evenly
buttered.

stir

them

till

they

are

Mix

the

spice and grated rind with the sugar.

Divide

the buttered crumbs in quarters.

Into a but-

tered baking dish put one-fourth of the crumbs.

On

this layer spread one-half the apples,

then one-

half

juice

of the lemon Repeat these layers with one-fourth the crumbs and the remaining
the
sugar.

Sprinkle
this.

half

and water over

238

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


left.

apple, sugar, etc.

that are
in

Cover the top with the crumbs Bake it for one hour and a half

an insulated oven.
till

The
brown
and
it

stones

should
v^ill

be

heated

the test given on page 225


colour.

the papers a delicate

show Look at

the apples at the end of one hour, closing the

oven

after a quick glance,


if

alter the heat of

the oven,

necessary.

Serve

with Hard Sauce.

Serves five or six persons.

Rice Pudding
I

qt.

milk
rice

i cup sugar
} teaspoon J teaspoon nutmeg
salt

} cup

Put
dish.

all

the ingredients together in a bakingit

Bake

for three hours in

an insulated

oven.

The
test,

stones

should be heated until the

paper
will

given on page 225, will show a light

brown shade.
on
top.

The pudding,

if

correctly baked,

be creamy, with a golden brown, soft crust

Serves five or six persons.

Pastry for
ij cups pastry flour J teaspoon baking-powder

Two

Crusts

J teaspoon salt J or J cup butter or lard

Water

Mix and
cut

sift

the

dry
in

ingredients

together;

the

butter or lard
to

with
paste

fork.

Add
moist

enough water

make

barely

IHE INSULATED OVEN


enough
it

239

to hold together, using a knife

and cutas

ting through the

dough
is

to

mix

it.

Roll half of
rolling-pin

with as

little
it

pressure of the

possible, until
thick.
this

about one-eighth of an inch


is

If a

two-crust pie

to

be made, lay

crust

plate,

trim the

on the inside of an unbuttered pie edge, and put the trimmings


roll it

with the remaining paste and

out for the


is

upper

crust.

If a

single

under crust
the

to

be

used, as for

lemon
crust

pie, lay the paste

side of a pie plate, trim

edge

on the outand prick

through the

in

several

places.

Bake

it

for about fifteen minutes in a

moderate insulated

oven, with the pie plate upside

down
it.

in the oven.

Remove

the baked crust and

fill

Apple Pie
Sour apples

} lemon, juice and rind


J tablespoon butter teaspoon cinnamon J

J cup sugar

Make
half of

pie crust
it

by the preceding recipe, put

in

the
to

bottom
fill

of

the

plate.
full,

Pare

enough apples cored and cut


grated
crust,

the pie heaping


eighths.
Fill

when

into

the pie with

the apples, spread the sugar and


rind
cut

cinnamon and
the

over them.

Roll
it

out
to

upper

several

gashes in

allow steam

to escape;

lay

it

over the pie, trim the edges


a
fork.

and press them together with

Bind

240

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

the edge of the pie by laying around


strip

a wet
it

of cloth

about one inch wide.


in

Bake

for

one-half hour
stones

an

insulated

oven with
test

the

heated

until

the

paper

shows

a golden

brown

colour.

Apple and berry pies are better made without an under crust in an extra deep pie plate.

Berry Pie
Pick over the berries.
crust, or

Line a deep plate with


fill

omit the lower crust;


of berries,

the pie heap-

ing full

cover them with

one-half

cupful or more of sugar mixed with one-fourth

cupful of flour.

Add

the upper crust, bind

it,

and bake
will

it

as apple pie.

The amount

of sugar

depend upon the

acidity of the fruit.

Cherry or Plum Pie Wash the fruit, remove the stones, and make
the pie in the

same manner

as berry pie.

Pumpkin Pie
li cups cooked pumpkin
I
I

cup boiling milk


egg

i cup sugar J teaspoon salt


J teaspoon cinnamon

Cook
Put
it

the

pumpkin

as directed
it

on page

152.

into a cloth

and press

with the back

of a strong spoon to

squeeze out the water.


it

Mix
it is

all

the ingredients, put

into

pan

set

over a cooker-pail of boiling water;

stir it

until

165 degrees Fahrenheit, then put the whole

THE INSULATED OVEN


into a cooker for

241

one hour.

Fill

the baked crust

with the mixture.

Cover the top thickly with

whipped cream.
Lrexnon Pie
J cup I cup sugar, granulated
flour
I

Rind of one lemon


4 teaspoons butter

cup

boiling water

J cup powdered sugar


2 eggs

3 tablespoons lemon juice

Mix
boiling

the

sugar and

flour

together,
it

add the
the
time.
it

water slowly,
gently
for

stirring

all

Boil

it

twenty

minutes,

stirring

frequently.

Mix

the lemon with the yolks, pour


it

the hot mixture slowly on the yolks, return the


fire

to

and cook
filling

it

below boiling point


before putting

until

the eggs have thickened; then add the butter.

Cool the

little

it

into a

baked
stiff,

crust.

Beat the whites of eggs until very


over the pie for a

add the sugar, and when barely mixed


it it till
it

with the whites, spread

meringue; bake
insulated

a delicate
for a

brown

in a very

hot oven, or put

few minutes into an


hot.

oven with one very hot stone close


pie.

over the

Serve

it

warm, but not

Serves five or six persons.

Baked Apples

Wash and
sugar,

core sour apples of uniform size.


dish,
fill

Put them into a pudding

the cores with


it

and

if

more

is

desired

put

into the

242

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

in

bottom of the dish, not over the apples. Pour enough boiHng water to fill the dish one-fourth Bake them in an insulated oven for onefull.
half to
three-quarters
size

of an

hour,

depending

(Upon the
stones

and ripeness of the apples.


be heated
until

The
test

should

the

paper

shows a golden brown colour.

Baked Spiced Apples


6 apples
2 cups water

30 cloves
6
slices

cup sugar

lemon
five

Pare the apples, remove the cores and stick

whole cloves into each apple.


the water and sugar.

Make

a syrup of

Put the apples into a pud-

ding dish, pour the syrup over them, and place a


slice

of lemon over the top of each.


for

Bake them
light

in

a slow insulated oven

one hour with the stones

heated until the paper

test

shows a

brown.

Baked Pears and cook the pears Prepare


baked sweet
the size
apples.

as

directed for

If desired, a bit of butter

of a bean

may

be put on each pear before

baking.

Baked Quinces
Prepare

and

cook

the

quinces

as

directed

in the recipe for

baked sweet apples.

Twice

as

much sugar and water will


and,
perhaps,

be required for quinces,


for

more

time

baking.

This

THE INSULATED OVEN


will
fruit.

243

depend upon the


It is

size

and ripeness of the

usually cut in halves before baking.

Baked Sweet Apples


8 sweet apples
I

J cup sugar

cup boiling water

Prepare the apples as for baked apples.

Cook

them
hours.

in a

slow insulated oven, for about three


stones should be heated until the
colour,
as

The

paper barely changes

explained

in

the test given on page 225.

Bread
I
1

pt.

water or milk

i cake compressed or } cake dry


yeast and
i

tablespoon butter or lard

2 teaspoons salt

cup

warm

water, or

2 teaspoons sugar

Flour to

J cup liquid yeast make a dough

Soak the yeast


cupful of
water,

for a

few minutes
cool

in the half

warm

water.
fat,

Scald the milk or boil the


let
it till

add the
If

lukewarm,

then add the remaining ingredients, except the


flour.

compressed

yeast

is

used,

add

as

much flour as is needed to make a dough that may be kneaded. If dry yeast or Hquid yeast
is

used, add only one and one-half pints of flour;


let
it

beat the mixture well, and

rise

till

full

of

bubbles, usually over night; then add the remaining flour.

The

rest of the process


is

is

the same,

no matter what yeast

used.

Knead

the dough

244
until

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it is

smooth and

elastic, return

it it

to the bowl,

set it in a

warm
Knead

place to rise until


it

has doubled

in size.

again until

all

large bubbles

mould it into two loaves, put it into greased pans and let it again rise until it has doubled in size. Heat the insulated oven
are pressed out,

stones until the paper test, given

shows a golden brown.

Put the bread

on page 225, in and


If

bake

it

from

fifty

minutes to one hour.


a hot

two

stones will not

make

oven for a large amount


stove

of bread to be baked, use hot flatirons or


lids to

supplement them.
Rolls

Add one
just

tablespoon of butter to the recipe

for bread, or

knead the butter into the dough it. Shape it into rolls, put them into a buttered pan, and when risen to a little more than double their size, bake them for twenty minutes in an insulated oven with stones that will turn the paper a rich brown, as explained in the test on page 225.
before

moulding

Baking Powder Biscuits


4 teaspoons baking-powder, or
I
i

pt. flour

teaspoon soda and two

tea-

spoons cream of tartar

J teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons butter or lard

J to

cup milk or water

Mix and
fat

sift

the dry ingredients,


it

work

in the

with the fingers, or mash

in

with a fork.

THE INSULATED OVEN


Add

245

the liquid, one-third at a time, mixing the

dough in three separate portions in the bowl. Cut through these three masses until they are barely mixed, then roll the dough to about onehalf inch thickness; cut it into biscuits, lay them on a greased pan, brush the tops with milk or melted butter, and bake them for fifteen or twenty
minutes
in

an insulated oven with stones heated

so as to turn the paper a rich, dark brown, as

explained in the test on page 225.

Cup Cake
i cup butter 1 cup sugar
I

J cups flour

i cup milk i teaspoon nutmeg, or I teaspoon vanilla


I

2 eggs

J teaspoons baking-powder
salt

J teaspoon

Cream the

butter,

add the sugar, then the beaten


sift

yolks of eggs.

Mix and
at

the dry ingredients,


time,
to

add them, one-third


mixture,
alternating
stiff,
till

the

butter

with

the

milk.

Beat the
into a

whites
the

till

add them and the


should not
it

vanilla, beat
it

dough

barely mixed, and pour

greased pan.

The dough
the pan.

much more
on

than half
in

fill

Bake

for forty minutes

an insulated oven, tested

as

explained

page 225, for loaves of cake. This recipe may be varied by adding one-half
cupful

of raisins,

currants,

chopped citron or

246
nuts.

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Or two ounces
of
chocolate

may

be

melted and added to the dough.


If baked in layers or in gem pans the stones must be heated somewhat hotter than for a loaf cake. Allow fifteen or twenty minutes in the oven.

Sour Cream Cake


3 large eggs
I

^ teaspoon baking powder

cup sugar

ij cups flour

} cup thick sour cream J teaspoon soda

J teaspoon nutmeg i cup raisins

Beat the yolks of the eggs, add the sugar,


then the cream.

Mix and
liquid

sift

the dry ingredients,

add them
raisins,

to the

mixture, then add the


little

which have been floured with a

of the

measured

flour,

and,

lastly,
it

the
a

stiflBy

beaten whites of eggs.

Put

into

greased

pan and bake


test

it

for forty minutes in

an insulated

oven, heated for loaf cake, as explained in the

on page 225.
Apple Sauce Cake
(Made without
butter, milk or eggs)

'

^ cup white
pings
I I

veal or beef drip-

^ teaspoon
I i

cloves

teaspoon nutmeg

cup sugar

cup

raisins

cup sour apple sauce

teaspoon soda

li teaspoons cinnamon

2 cups flour

Mix

the ingredients in the order given, beat


it

the dough well, put

into a greased pan, and

THE INSULATED OVEN


bake
it

247

for forty minutes in

an insulated oven,

heated for loaf cakes, as explained on page 225.

This cake seems, when baked, very much

like

any spice cake.

Sponge Cake
6 eggs
I

Juice and rind of J lemon


i

cup sugar

cup
salt

flour

J teaspoon

Beat the yolks of the eggs,

add the sugar


till

and lemon; beat the whites of eggs

stiff,

add

them
Put
it it

to

the
flour

mixture,

and when barely mixed


folding

add the
fifty

and

salt,

them
tin,

in

lightly.

into

bright,

ungreased

and bake

minutes or an hour in an oven heated

not quite so hot as for butter cakes.

The paper

should turn light brown

when

tested as explained

on page 225. Let the cake stand


ing
it

five

minutes before remov-

from the pan.

Plum Cake
i cup butter 2 cups sugar
4 eggs i cup chopped nuts ^ cup candied orange peel
I

cup currants
fruit

f cup pickled
molasses
2 cups flour

syrup

or

^ teaspoon soda

cup

raisins

J teaspoon cream of tartar


2 teaspoons mixed spices

Mix and
and
spices.

sift

the flour, soda, cream of tartar,


all

Put

the

ingredients

together

248

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Put
with
it

in the order given, flouring the fruit with a little

of the measured flour.

into

greased

pan and bake


in

it

for

one and one-quarter hours


stones
is

an

insulated

oven,

heated

as

explained on page 225, till the paper

a light brown.

Rich Fruit Cake


J
lb.

butter (i cup)

lb. lb.

citron

J lb. sugar (i cup) 6 eggs

}
I

candied orange peel

teaspoon nutmeg

J cup brandy J cup lemon juice

J teaspoon cloves i teaspoon cinnamon


J teaspoon allspice
i i

Rind of
2 cups

lemon, grated

blanched,

chopped

lb. raisins lb.

almonds
i
lb. flour

currants

(if cups)

Line the pan with three thicknesses of paper,


buttering the top layer.

Mix

the flour and spices.

Flour

all

the fruit except the citron.

Mix

the

ingredients in the order in which they are given.

The pan may be


rises

filled
it

nearly

full,

as this cake

but

little.

Bake

for three hours or

more

in

very moderate insulated oven.

Test the

stones as explained on page 225, until the paper


will

barely

change colour.
is

If,

at

the

end of
all,

two hours, the cake


heat

not browned at

take

out one or both of the stones very quickly and

them again

till

they will slightly brown the

tissue paper.

The oven must

be promptly closed

when

the stones are removed, or the cake will be

THE INSULATED OVEN


injured.

249
needle or
a
little

Test

it

with a

steel knitting

straw.

greasy

The when
it

needle will
the cake
is

come out only


done.
five

Let the cake stand

at least

minutes

after

removing

from the oven before taking out of


it

the pans, or

is

likely

to

break.

Fruit cake

should be kept for at least a week in a tightly


covered tin box or a crock, before
use.
It
it

is

ready for

will

keep

for

months,

and improves

with time.

XXIV

MENUS

THE Only
taste

planning of a
a

menu

is

an art in

itself.

knowledge of the food value of

different dishes,

and

fitness,

combined with a good sense of and some idea of the com-

parative wholesomeness of different methods of

cooking, can produce a meal that

is

scientifically

correct as well as pleasing to the palate.

And

now

the

conditions

under which

menus must

be planned will be further modified in order to


ISO

MENUS
obtain the freedom from the kitchen that
less

251
fire-

cookery

makes
book,

possible.

It

is

thought
of time

that a classified time-table of the various dishes

given

in

the

giving the

length

will

which they require or may be allowed to cook, be of assistance in grouping dishes that can
be started at one time, put on to cook, perhaps,
in

one cooker, and

left

for the

same period of

time.

The illustration at the head of this chapter, shows a cooker-pail so arranged as to cook more than one article at once. With this arrangement
compartments would accommodate a number of different foods at one time. The fireless cooker makes it possible to plan a breakfast which would be ready to serve at once, or would take only a few minutes to prepare*
a cooker with several
If started in the evening, cereals
night,

may cook
night.

all

and be

entirely

ready in the
all

morning;
Coffee,

some meat dishes may cook


although better

when made

fresh,

may

be put
being

into the cooker over night, cereal coffees


at their best after all-night cooking.

for a basis,

With these the menu may be varied by dishes

which would cook quickly, such as eggs; or which might cook through the night and be completed
in a

few minutes

in the

morning, such as creamed


before,

codfish; or

which might be cooked the day

252
if

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


But
little

served cold, such as stewed fruits; or by fresh

fruits.

of the precious early morning

time would thus be required.

BREAKFASTS
No.
I

All dishes cooked over night, or served cold.

Ready

to

serve

at

once

Apple Sauce

Oatmeal
Beef or mutton stew

Postum

No.

Ready

to serve in fifteen minutes.


Stewed
rhubarb (served cold)
all

Cream of Wheat (cooked


in the already

night)

Soft-cooked eggs (cooked in the morning

warm

water over which

the cereal was cooked)

Coffee (cooked in the morning or over night)

No.

Ready

to serve in ten minutes.


Stewed prunes (served cold)

Cornmeal mush (cooked


Stewed kidney (cooked
all

all

night)

night, finished in the

morning)

Cocoa (cooked

in the

morning or

all

night)

For a midday dinner the cooker may often


be
filled

in

the morning, after breakfast, with

MENUS
foods
requiring

253

about three or four hours to

cook, such as vegetable soup, beef stew, spinach,


etc.
filled

Where
in

a late dinner

is

served,

it

may

be
all

the morning and allowed

to stand

day, provided foods are chosen

that need or will


it

not be

harmed by the long cooking; or


after lunch.

may

be

partly filled after breakfast

added

and other dishes be Even where the entire meal is


cooker,
it

not cooked in a

fireless

may

be conve-

nient to have one or two dishes so prepared, and the

remainder served cold or cooked on the

stove.

DINNERS

No.

To

be

left in

the cooker three or four hours.


Creole soup

Veal cutlets

Mashed

potatoes

Carrots

Stewed celery
Rice pudding

No.
Put into the cooker
all

in the

morning and cooked

day.

Cream of

celery soup

Pot roast
Beets

Dried lima beans

Tapioca

fruit

pudding (previously cooked and


served cold)

254

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


No.
3 in the

Put into the cooker


all

morning and cooked

day.
Mutton broth
Stuffed heart

Cabbage
String beans

Compote of

rice

and

fruit

(previously cooked

and

served cold)

No. 4
Part cooked
the afternoon.
all

day, and part cooked through

Consomme
Fricasseed chicken

Samp
Winter squash

Creamed
Stewed
figs

turnips

with

cream

SUPPERS OR LUNCHES

No.

Hot dishes

in the

cooker two hours.


cutlets

Breaded veal

Creamy

potatoes

Stewed apricots
Cookies

Cocoa

MENUS
No. 2

255

Hot

dishes requiring only one hour to cook.


Turkish pilaf

Salmon loaf
Lettuce salad

Canned quinces Cake Tea

MIDNIGHT SUPPERS
Served
after

theatre

or

entertainment,

the

hot dish to be put into the cooker before going


out.

Ready

to serve at once.

No.

Stewed oysters
Saltines

Celery

Bonbons

No.
Salad

Cocoa
Bread and butter sandwiches
Olives

APPENDIX
Reading references and experiments illustrating the principles upon which fireless cookery
is

based.
J.

test

of the insulating powers of different

materials.

Apparatus:
One One
rial,

or more boxes and or more


pails

fittings,

described on pages 9 to II.


size,

of the same

shape and mate-

preferably

of from two to four quarts' capacity, with

close fitting covers.

Cooking thermometer

Sawdust

Wool
Mineral wool

Newspapers

Ground cork
Southern mosi
Pencil

Cotton batting or waste


Excelsior

Hay

Notebook
as

Pack the box successively with

many

of

the different packing materials given

above as

are to be tested, following the directions given

on page 15; or have several exactly similar boxes packed at the same time. For all tests fill the
cooker-pail with water,

bring

it

to the

boiling

57

258

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

point, let

boil

one minute, to permit


its

all

parts

of the utensil and

contents to reach the sayne


it

temperature; then put

at

once into the cooker-

box and leave

it

for

an equal length of time,

not less than one hour.

Record the temperature


full

of the contents of the pail at the expiration of


this

period.

In order to get a
it

record and

a fair comparison

would be well

to repeat this

experiment with varying periods of time, taking


the temperature, for instance, at the end of one,
three,
six,

nine,

and twelve hours.


pail,

In taking

temperatures do not wholly remove the cushion

and cover of the

but

slip

them

to

one

side,
is,

enough

to insert the thermometer.

This

of

course, a crude

method of taking temperatures,


If
it is

but answers for purposes of comparison.


desired to

make more

accurate records this can

be done by boring the cover of the box, the

cushion and the pail cover, and inserting a thermometer through corks which are used to
close the

bored
read

holes.

The temperature
the

can
done,

then

be

while
first

apparatus
if

is

closed.

However, the
will

method,

carefully

give

probably within

one

degree
the

of the
in

correct

temperature.

Record
find

results

tabular form.

Which
insulation

material
?

do you

gives the best

APPENDIX
Winkelman,*
DufF,t

259
other
writers

and

on
felt,

physics give tables of the

conductivity of

and other materials; but as different figures are shown, from different sources, for the same material, it is likely that the insulating power of any material used for packing a cooker will depend as much or more upon the way it is packed as upon
asbestos paper, paper, cotton, flannel,

the

material used.

Experiment:

Conductivity of different materials.

Take

a piece of copper wire about six inches

long in one hand, and a piece of steel wire of the

same length and thickness in the other. Put one end of each piece in a flame, holding the Notice which first wire by the extreme end. becomes too hot to hold at the end farthest from
the
flame.

This

illustrates

the

different

con-

ductivity of the

two materials,

steel

and copper.
but
metals

There

is

not a great deal of difference in the


of different
materials,

conductivity
are relatively

good conductors, and

air is a very

poor conductor.
2.

Heat

is

carried from the pail partly by con-

vection,

except where solid insulating material,

such as

wood

or indurated fibre,

is

used; and

" Handbuch der Physik."

t" Textbook

of Physics."^

26o
that

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


manner of packing which
air

best

entangles

the
fore,

and prevents air currents will, theremost increase the effectiveness of the

insulation.

Experiment:

Convection.

Into a glass flask of cold water drop a few


crystals

of

potassium

permanganate,

being

careful not to agitate the flask.


to

the

bottom of the

flask.

rises,

becomes heated its density is forming convection currents by


the

Apply a flame As the water reduced and it


which
are

coloured
distinctly

permanganate

and may

be

seen.

Convection currents
liquid

may

be formed in
air.

any
of

or gas; for instance,


will

By means
air

them heat
contact
to

be carried from one part of the

liquid or gas to another.

Thus
heat

heated by
allowed

with

kettle

of food
the

will, if

flow freely, carry

away from the


This takes

food.
3.

Heat

is

also lost by radiation.

place less rapidly from a bright, highly polished


surface,

and for

this

reason
in

"Thermos" and
polished
outside
nickle.

similar bottles

are encased

cooker-pail

with

polished

surface

retains heat better than one with a dull finish.

In those cookers made

with

metal

outside

APPENDIX
retainer,

261
not

the

surface

should

be

painted

or roughened or dulled by any means.

Experiment:

Radiation.
tin

Take two empty


shape.

cans of the same size and

Wash

off the

paper

labels.

Keep one

of them bright and shining, but move the other

through a candle flame until the entire outer surface


is

smoked.

Into each pour exactly the

same

quantity of water at the same temperature. Note carefully the temperature and the time. At the end of any given period, say one hour,

again

take

the

temperature

of

each.

Which
can or

has

lost the

most heat, that


}

in the bright

that in the dull can


^.

The

effect

of different degrees or thicknesses of

insulation.

Materials:

The same
section
sizes,
i,

as

those used in the experiment,

with the addition of boxes of various


smaller,
first

some

some

larger,

than the one

used in the
various

experiment.

Pack the boxes with one or


insulating

more
in

of
the

the
first

materials

used

experiment, so as to allow varying thicknesses


of
insulation

around
Fill

the

cooker-pail.

This
with

should
in

be the same or an exactly similar pail


the pail for
all

each case.

tests

262

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


equal
quantity
it

an

of

water, boil

it

for

one

minute, and leave


length of time.

in the

boxes for an equal


the record in tab-

Record the temperature maintest.

tained in
ular form.

each

Keep

What
your

thickness

of insulation

do

you
to

find

gives the best result with the materials used in

experiment

.?

Is

it

necessary
will

assume
with

that the
all

same thickness
?

be

required

insulating materials

5.

The

effect

of the density of foods upon the

temperature maintained.
Materials:

One

cooker or hay-box

Cooking thermometer
Scales Litre or quart measure

Starch

Water
Salt

Notebook and
litres

pencil

Bring one or more


a boil, boil
it

or quarts of water to

for one minute,

and put

it

into the

cooker for one hour or more.


using,
successively,
five

Repeat the test, grams of salt to each litre, or one teaspoonful to each quart, and 5, and 20 per cent, mixtures of starch 10, with water. Record the temperatures in tabular What would form, and compare the results. you gather to be the effect of density upon the
temperatures maintained
?

APPENDIX
6.

263
of
filling

The

effect

on

temperature
one-halfy

the

cooker-pails

one-fourthy

three-quarters^

and

entirely full.

Materials
Cooker or hay-box
pail of

"Space adjuster"

eight quarts' capacity


Pail of two quarts' capacity

Water Thermometer
pencil

Notebook and
Fill

the

large
it

cooker-pail
to

one-fourth
it

full

of

water.

Bring

a boil

and put

into the
less

cooker for a definite period of time, not

than one hour.


If desired to

make

Record the resulting temperature. the test more comprehensive,

leave the water in the cooker for six, nine, or twelve

hours, being careful to allow the cooker to


cold

between

each
the

test.

Perform
pail
full,

become the same


full,

experiment with
again

same

one-half

when

it

is

three-fourths

and again
tests
is

when

entirely full.

Record the

results in tabular

form and
the

compare them.

Repeat these

with a pail of two quarts' capacity.


influence
partially, or completely, filled

What

on temperature of having
?

pails

The

explanation

is

that evaporation takes place

in partially filled pails.


7.
(salty

Chemistry of the action of food materials soday acidsy water, etc.) upon cooking

264
utensils

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


made of
tin,

or

aluminum, when used

in a cooker or hay-box.

The amount

of tin dissolved by foods

is

indi-

cated by the corrosion of the utensil, which can


often be seen by the

naked eye

to be altered in

appearance.
or other tin

The

exact

quantity

of

tin

salts

compounds which may be formed


determined

can

only

be
It

by careful

chemical

analysis.

has been found that


inert,

many canned
tin.

goods supposed to be
with a

such as squash and

pumpkin, have a marked


tests

effect

upon

Crude
can be
copper

number of
tin,

different foods

made with
utensils,

iron,

aluminum,
is

and
It

as in

many

cases there

evidence to

the eye of action

upon the metals.


however,
that

must be
tests

borne in

mind,

such

are

crude and not decisive of the fact of there being

no action in case no action is plainly visible. Only chemical analysis can prove this. The action of foods upon tin cans bears a close relation to their action upon the utensils when
used in
fireless

cookery, since there

is

time with

the long cooking involved for similar reactions


to take place in the cooker. *

Tin

utensils

rust badly

after

short use in a

cooker, and thus affect the flavour of food cooked


* See
**

Food Inspection and Analysis," by Leach, published by John

Wiley Sons,

New York,

1904, page 694.

APPENDIX
in them.

265

This

is

due to the action of acids and


is

water on the iron which forms the basis of sheet


tin.

When

the thin plating of tin

worn

off,

the iron

is left

exposed to the action of water,

etc.

aluminum, and leaves a black surface on aluminum utensils. This black substance is iron, which is present with the aluminum

Soda

dissolves

in

the utensils.

To remove

the black appear-

ance, clean the utensil with acid.


to

Do

not try

remove
well,

it

work

by scouring, as this will not do the and is laborious and injurious to

the pail.

Detection of poisonous metals that dissolved from the cooker utensils.

may

be

Experiment A.
boil

Tin,

In

tin

cooker-pail

such foods as apple sauce, tomatoes, squash,

or others that act on tin, and put

them

into a

cooker for twelve hours.


over steam until they
lain
this

Transfer them to an

agate ware or porcelain utensil, evaporate

them

may

be burned in a porcebrittle.
it

dish

until

charred

and

Pulverize

charred mass, and extract


Filter

with hydroSaturate the

chloric- acid.
filtrate

and wash

it.

with hydrogen sulphide gas; add a satu-

rated solution of potassium acetate to neutralize


the hydrochloric acid present and assist in the

coagulation of sulphide of
filter

tin.

Warm

it

slightly,
it

and wash out the stannic sulphide, dry

266

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


it

and weight
tin dissolved

as stannic oxide,

from which the

may

be calculated.

Experiment B.

Aluminum.
litre

To

simplify the

experiment a weak solution of malic acid


be used (seven grams per
average amount found in apples).
a boil in

may

being about the

Bring this to
it

an aluminum cooker-pail and put


Transfer
it

into a cooker for twelve hours.

to

a porcelain vessel and add


tate

ammonia
and wash

to precipithis,

the

alumina.

Filter

dry

and weigh the aluminum oxide.


that a smaller quantity of

It is

probable

dissolved by foods of a would be found in this clear


8.

aluminum would be mushy consistency than


solution.

The

efficiency

of home-made
other

refrigerating

boxes

compared with

means

of

keeping

foods cold. Materials:

One box
as directed

fitted

as for fireless cooking, with

two or three

covered crocks of at least one-half gallon capacity, packed

on page 37, with either sawdust, hay, straw, excelsior or paper. Sawdust is specially recommended.

Thermometer
Ice

Notebook and
Fill

pencil

the central crock with a weighed quanice.

tity

of

Fill

one or both of the other crocks


the crocks

with water

at

room temperature. Cover

APPENDIX
and
close the box.

267

Record the temperature of


six,

the water at the end of

twelve, twenty-four,

and forty-eight hours.

Make

repeated observations of the tempera-

tures found in ordinary household refrigerators,


cellars, cold storage

rooms, and any other places


cold.

used

for

keeping foods

Compare
a

these

with the temperatures obtained with

made

refrigerating box.

Is

homethere any economy

in using these

boxes

Bacteriology of Insulating Boxes


p.

Temperatures which

kill

disease

and putre-

factive
It is

germs y or check their growth.


taken for granted that the student of this

subject will be

more or

less

familiar with the

nature of bacteria and the elements of bacteriology.


It

will

be recalled that bacteria are a


life;

vegetable form of

that, like all plants, they

have,

under certain
is

conditions,
largely,

the

power of

growth which
are killed.

shown,
their

by

their repro-

duction; and that under other

conditions they

When

growth

is

merely checked,

they are in a dormant state, or perhaps form


spores, in either of
to develop as

which cases they are ready soon as their environment permits.


to

Temperature has much


bacteria.

do with the

state of

If the temperature

and other conditions

268

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


they will multiply with enormous rapidity.
in food stuffs they effect certain

are such that they are in an active or growing


state,

When

changes
as a

by reason of the products which they form


the

result of their life processes, or of the alteration in

food

materials,

owing

to

their

abstraction

of some chemical elements or compounds used


for
their
nutrition.

When
or
tasting

bacteria

form

unpleasant

smelling

substances

we

speak of them as "putrefactive bacteria."


which,
if

Those

introduced into the bodies of

humans

or animals, will cause diseases, are called "disease


bacteria."

Foods are
it is,

liable to contain

both kinds;
all

and, therefore,
is

obviously, wise to do

that

possible to

kill

them or prevent
occurring
in

their growth.

Most forms
at

foods

grow

best

from 80 degrees to 98 degrees Fahrenheit. Few bacteria grow at above 100 degrees, and, if kept at 125 degrees, the weaker ones soon die.
After subjection to a temperature of 150 degrees
to

160 degrees Fahrenheit, for ten minutes,


is

if

water

present,

almost

all

kinds

are

killed

unless they are in the

spore state.

Prolonged

boiling will often be resisted by spores.


is

Dry heat

not as effective in killing bacteria as moist, and

a higher temperature must, therefore, be reached

Below 70 degrees Fahrenheit the growth of bacteria is more and more retarded,
to
effect this end.

APPENDIX
reached.
relied

269
is

but not entirely checked until freezing point

The popular

idea that freezing


is

may be
subject

upon

to destroy bacteria

not true.

The
is

bearing of these facts upon the

of bacteria in foods cooked in insulating boxes


evident.

cold, care
is

Whether foods are cooked or kept must be taken that such a temperature

reached that bacteria

may

not grow.

In application of these principles


foods must be heated sufficiently to
before
it

we
kill

see that

bacteria

will

be safe to subject them to the com-

paratively

low temperature of the cooker for


This
is

the long period necessary.

one reason

why

foods in large pieces, such as roasts of meat,

whole vegetables, and moulds containing a mass


of food, must be boiled for a considerable time
before being put into the cooker.

Heat

will not

penetrate at once to the centre of such foods,

and they would be

likely to

ferment or putrefy

unless boiled long enough to heat the centre beyond the point where bacteria thrive. The fact that meats, cereals, and other foods have

been known to sour or ferment, even after such


boiling, if left in the cooker for a very long time,

may

be explained by the fact that, though


bacteria

all

growing
resisted

were

killed,

spores,

which
present

the

boihng,

might have
it

been

in the food,

and when

cooled to a point con-

270

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


at this

ducive to the germination of these spores, and

remained

temperature for long, they might


active,

have developed, become

and produced the

objectionable changes characteristic. of their kind.

In the case of foods to be kept in refrigerating


boxes,
a

temperature
Fahrenheit

considerably

below

70

degrees

must

be

maintained.

50

degrees Fahrenheit, or lower, will be found an


excellent preventive of

germ growth.
a clear

Mr. L. A. Rogers has written


concise
description of the

and

nature,

growth, and

conditions necessary to combat bacteria such as


are found in food, in his paper entitled " Bacteria

Milk," published in the Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture, 1907, pages 180 to 196. Other books which give information on this subject are "Bacteria Yeasts and Molds in the Home," by Conn, and "Household Bacteriology," by S. Maria Elliott. Yeasts and moulds also may take part in the changes which spoil foods; but the temperature conditions which control bacteria would be practically the same for them.
in

10.

Cooking temperatures of

different starches.

Experiment:

Cooking

starch.

Pare and grate one or more potatoes.


the gratings by placing

Wash

them

in

cheesecloth

APPENDIX
bag and immersing them
in cold water.

271

Squeeze

and press the contents of the bag starch seems to pass through the
settle,

until
cloth.

no more
Let
it

pour

off the water;


settle

add clear water and

let

the

starch

again.

Pour

off

the

second
starch,

water.

Take one

tablespoonful of the

mix
and

it

with one cupful of cold water.


fire,

Heat

it

slowly over a moderate

stirring

it

constantly,

recording

the

temperature
with

at

which the
corn-starch;

mixture becomes noticeably clearer and thickens.

Repeat

this

experiment
potato;

wheat
with

starch,

washed from wheat


with

flour, as is

done

the

grated

starch

washed

from rye flour; and, if desired, with rice, bean, pea, oat and tapioca starches, also. "Food and the Principles of Dietetics," by Hutchison, gives, on page 378, a Hst of different
starches
gelatinize.

and the temperatures

at

which they

In a bulletin entitled "Digestibility of Starch


of
Different
Sorts
as

Affected
S.

by

Cooking,"
Bulletin

by Edna D. Day, Ph.D. (U. culture, Ofiice of Experiment

Dept. of Agri-

Stations,

No. 202, page 40), we read that starch takes up water at 60 degrees to 80 degrees Centigrade (140 degrees to 176 degrees Fahrenheit) and
forms
a
sticky,

colloidal

substance

known

as

starch paste, in

which form it is very easily digested.

272

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


boiling,
at

Long

least

to

the

extent

of three

make it more quickly digestible. There is something to be considered besides the mere starch in cooking starchy foods, and
hours, does not

the fact that

potato starch will form paste at

149 degrees while rice starch requires 176 degrees does not mean that less cooking will be needed
for

potatoes

than for

rice.

The woody

fibre

or other constituents of foods, as well as their


density and
into account.
II.

difference

in

size,

must be taken

Cooking temperatures of

proteids.

Egg Albumen
In the bulletin entitled "Eggs and Their Uses as Food,'' by C. F. Langworthy, Ph.D.,
published
as

Farmers'
that

Bulletin,

No.

128,

by

the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the state-

"egg white begins to coagulate at 134 degrees Fahrenheit. White fibres appear which become more numerous until at about 1 60 degrees Fahrenheit the whole mass is coaguis

ment

made

lated, the white almost

opaque, yet

it

is

tender

and
212

jelly-like.

If the temperature

is

raised to

degrees

Fahrenheit,

and

continued,

the

coagulated albumen becomes

much harder and


it

eventually more or less tough and horn-like;


also

undergoes

shrinkage.

It

has been found

APPENDIX

273

by experiment that the yolk of egg coagulates


firmly at a lower temperature than the white.*'
It also

says that these changes in the


it

suggest the idea that

eggs in boiling water in


desirable result.

albumen is not advisable to cook order to secure the most


that

Experiment

A: To show the changes

take place in egg white at various temperatures.

Materials
Test-tube and holder

Thermometer

Beaker or saucepan of water

Egg white
Insert

Put the white of egg into the test-tube.


the thermometer.

Hold the

test-tube in the

pan

of cold water to the depth of the egg white.

Gradually heat the water and observe the temperature at which the
first

change

in

the egg

albumen takes

place.

Notice also the tempera-

ture of the water at this point.

Continue the

experiment until the water in the outer vessel


has boiled ten or twenty minutes, noting the
temperatures at which the various changes occur.

Experiment B:

To show

the

temperatures

obtained in the proper cooking of eggs.


Materials
Fireless cooker

Eggs

Water Thermometer

Cook eggs

as directed for soft-cooked eggs

on

page 190, observing the temperature of the water

274

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


are

after the eggs

added

to

it,

and when they

are

removed from the cooker;

also the condition,

flavour, etc., of the eggs.

Cereal Proteids
Professor Harcourt, in his bulletin,
fast

"Breaksays that

Foods," published by the Ontario Depart29,

ment of Agriculture, pp. 20 and


digestible.

long cooking of cereals renders the protein more

The cooking which he


in

describes

was

carried

on

double boiler, and, therefore,


in

below boiling temperature, and


is

this

respect

similar

to

fireless

cookery.

He

says

that

while short cooking, which was done at boiling

temperature,

seemed

to

make

cereal

proteids

less digestible, the

long cooking at below boiling

temperature, which followed, somewhat changed

them and made them more


While
little

digestible.

study appears to have been

made
prob-

of the digestibility of cereal proteids when cooked


for a long time at a

low temperature,
that,
like

it

is

ably

fair, in

the absence of further definite infor-

mation, to
it

assume
to

animal proteids,

is

better

cook them

at a

low temperature

such as that of the

fireless

cooker, than at the

temperature of boiling water or higher.

Meat Proteids
In the bulletin entitled
of Roasting Meat/'

"A

Precise

Method

by Elizabeth A. Sprague

APPENDIX
and H.
sity S.

275

Grindley, published by the Univera study


is

of

Illinois,

made of the tempera-

tures

at which the changes take place from raw meat to "rare**; from "rare" to "medium rare," and from this to "well done" meat. The authors found that if the centre of the meat is between 130 degrees and 148 degrees Fahrenheit

(55 degrees and


rare; if
it is

65

degrees

Centigrade),

it

is

Fahrenheit
grade),
it

between 148 degrees and 158 degrees (65 degrees and 70 degrees Centi-

is

medium
and

rare;

and

if it

is

between
(70

158

degrees

176

degrees

Fahrenheit
it

degrees and 80 degrees Centigrade), done.

is

well

They found no advantage


in a very hot

in

cooking

meat

oven (385 degrees Fahrenheit,

or 195 degrees Centigrade), but rather a difficulty to keep it from burning; that in an oven

which was about 350 degrees Fahrenheit (175 degrees Centigrade), the meat cooked better;
and that
in

an Aladdin oven which kept the

meat

at

about 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degree


it

Centigrade),
of more
juicy,

cooked best of

all;
all

uniform character

was through, more


that
is,
it

and and

more high
practical

flavoured.

This
bears

seems
out.

to point to an advantage in fireless

cookery for
it

meats,

experience

The
to

initial

heat of the insulated oven serves


this

sear

and brown the meat, and when

276
heat
is

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


reduced by the cooling of the stones, the
obtained.

low temperature found to be best for completing


the roasting
is

With regard

to meats

cooked

in

water in the cooker, experience has


are

shown that they become well done and


tender than
peratures

more
of

when

boiled,

showing that the temthat

necessary

to

reach

degree

cooking are obtained even in the centre of a large


piece of meat, without toughening or hardening

the outside of the meat, as


intense heat
is

is

done when more


cooking at
a

applied.
effect

The hardening
monstrated
until
it is

of long

high temperature on meat proteids

can be de-

by broiling a tender piece of steak

rare, cutting off a small piece, continuing

the broiling for a few minutes, cutting off another


piece

and

comparing

these

pieces

with
until

the

remainder, which should be broiled


well done.

very

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

17

278

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

279

28o

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

281

282

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

283

284

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

285

286

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

287

288

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

289

290

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

291

292

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

293

294

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK

ADDITIONAL RECIPES

295

296

THE FIRELESS COOK B06k

CLASSIFIED INDEX OF RECIPES AND TIME TABLE FOR THE FIRELESS COOKER
CEREALS
Boil

on Stove Minute r
5
5

In Cooker

Hours
Rolled Oats
2 -12
. .
1;

PAGX
.

54.

204

Corn-Meal Mush

-10 or more
10 or

54. >4
.

lO

60
10
10
5

Hominy Samp
Steel-cut

Grits

more

55.

>5

6 -12
.

150, 205

Cracked Wheat
Oats

20

55.^5
56,

20
2 -12
I
I

206

Pettijohn's Breakfast
.

Food
. .

56,206
56, 206

BoU
Boil Bofl

Cream
Farina

of

Wheat

-12
-12

Wheatlet

56,206
56,206
149, 206

-12

Boa

Rice

1-2
SOXJPS

Boil

on Stove
.

In Cooker

MinuUs
10

Hows
White Stock
. .

PAGE
62, 207

9 -12

2
10 10 10

To Clear Stock

^ or ic more
.

59
60, 207 61

Brown Stock, No. Brown Stock, No.


Bouillon

9 -12
9 -12

....
...
. .

9-12
9 -12 9 -12

62
63

Warm
Boil
.

Beef Broth

Mutton Broth

63,207
64
65

10

Consomme
.

aoand5

Mock-Turtle Soup No.

9-12

297

298
Boil

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


In Cooker

on Stove Minutes
10
I
.

Hours
Mock-Turtle Soup No. 2
Vegetable Soup with Stock

PAGE
or or

9
3 3

more

66. 208

more more
.

67,209 68,208
68, 209 69, 210
.

Boa BoU
Bofl

Cream

of Celery

Soup
.
.

or

Asparagus Soup

Tomato Soup with Stock


Creole Soup

2| or more 1 or more
I

Boa
Bofl
Bofl Bofl

.
.

....
...
. . .
. .

or

more
more
.

69, 208

OxTaflSoup
Julienne Soup

2 or more
2
2
3
.

70,209
70, 210

or

Macaroni Soup
Vegetable Soup

70,209
71, 210

2
Bofl
Bofl Boil
Bofl
.

or
.

more
.

Bean Soup

....
.
.

Black Bean Soup

9-12 8-12
I

72, 210
72, 211
.

Tomato Soup Puree of Lima Beans


Baked Bean Soup
Pea Soup
Split-Pea
.

or

more more more

73>

i"
73

4 or more
3

Bofl

or
or

74, 212

Bofl

74,212
77,212
75,211
75

10
Bofl Bofl Bofl
Bofl
.
.

Soup

5
I

Potato Soup
Fish Chowder
. .
.
.

^ or more

and^
.
.

^n
76

Clam Chowder
Oyster Stew

1-2
I

Connecticut Chowder

Bofl Bofl

....
FISH

and J J or more
J or more
,

76, 213

77

Clam Stew

77

Boil

on Stove
.

In Cooker

Minutei
Bofl
.

Hours
BofledFish

....
No.
i

VAOK
.
.
.

I 1

83

Bofl Bofl Bofl Bofl

Creamed Creamed

Salt Codfish
Salt Codfish

No. 2

i or more I J or more
.

84
84, 213

Codfish Balls

Salt Fish Souffl6

.... Salmon Loaf ....


. .

li li

85,213
86 86

1-2
f-2
.

'^
Bofl
.

Casserole of Fish

87
.

Cape Cod Turkey

li- 3

87
88

Bofl*".

Creamed Oysters
Lobster

or more
3
.
. .

83 83

Crabs

1-3

INDEX AND TIME TABLE


VEGETABLES
Boil

299

on Stove Minutes
.

In Cooker

Hours
Asparagus
.

PAGE
. .

Boil
Boil

i
.

136
137
37
137

Cabbage, Summer

iJrii
3 or

Boa
Boil

Cabbage, Winter
Cauliflower

4-12
1 3
1

Boil Boil

Carrots

li*4^ I

or
.

Com
Beets,

....
new
.

more
.

,38

h
. .

z
or

139 139 139 139

5 S

5 6

more

Beets, old

or more

Boa

Fresh Shelled Beans


String Beans
.

2 J or more

Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa


Boil

6-12
.

...
more
more more

140 140

Lima Beans Dried Lima Beans


.

J or more
or or or

140
141
141

Dried

Navy Beans

8
I

Chard

....
.

Spinach
.

2 or more
.
.

142
142

Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa
Boil

Beet Greens

2^ or more

Stewed Celery
Macaroni, soaked

2-4
I i
1 1

142

i, or

if
if if if
if

not soaked
not soaked

H3
236

Macaroni and Cheese,

sc)aked

J, or 2
J,

Macaroni and Ham, soa ied


Macaroni
Italienne,soali ed
soiked
.

or 2

not soaked not soaked not soaked


not soaked

^35
143

i, or 2 ^,

Macaroni Maanaise,
Spaghetti, soaked

I I

or 2

144 144
78 i4S

Noodles

....

^, or 2

if

Creamed Mushrooms
Fricasseed

Boa

Onions
.

Potatoes

.... ....
.
.

Mushrooms

2-6 2-6 2-8


ii-3

... ...
.

'45 4S 146
146
147 216

. .

Boa Boa
Boil

Creamy Potatoes
Stewed Potatoes
Peas

i-3i ' -3

147
,

1-2

or more

Boa Boa

Old Peas
Rice, No.

....
I
.

148

2 -la 148
.
.

Boa Boa Boa

Rice No. 1

. .

.
^

I I

149

206 149

Savoury Rice
.

Paaf

....

1494 218

300
Boil

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


^In Cooker

on Stove Minutes
60

Boil Boil

Samp Summer Squash


Tomatoes

......
.

Hours
6
I

PAGE
or

more
.

150 ,ao5 150


151

3
I

or
.

more
.

10 10

Hubbard

or Winter Squash

Pumpkin
Creamed Turnips

5-8 5-8
ii-3 ii~3
i r 4

151

i5
152
153 53

10
10

or or
.

more

Mashed Turnips
.

more
.

Bon
Boil

Chestnuts
Brussels Sprouts
.

1-2
BEEF

>53

Boil on Store

In Cooker

Minutes

30
30 30
30-40
10 10 2
5 Boil
.

Roast Beef
Pot Roast
Beef a la

....
..
.
,

Hours
2 9
or

JAOE

more

229
.

or
.

more
.

94,214

Mode

9-12
10 -12

Corned Beef
Boiled Dinner

....
.

95"5
96
96, 216

6 or more
5 5 or 6 or
.

Beef Stew a

la

Mode

more
. .

97,215
98

Stuffed Rolled Steak

'

Beef Stew with Dumplings


Irish

Stew

....
. . . .

li
5

or more

99 100,215
loi, 216

30
5
5 5
.

Cannelon

of Beef

4
2

Meat

Pie

or

more more

lOI

Braised Beef Liver

10 or more
10 10
or

102
103

Beef Kidney
Stuffed Heart

....
.
.

or more
.
.

104
105

ao-30
20-30

Corned Tongue
Fresh Tongue
Braised Beef

10-12
xo
.

or

more

105
93

30

4 or more

MUTTON AND LAMB


Boil

on Store Minutes
. .

In Cooker

Hours
Boiled

PAGB
.
.

20-30

20-30
s

Leg or Shoulder Braised Mutton


. .

6 or more
6
4 or or

loS
108

more
more

Stew

109

INDEX AND TIME TABLE


Boil

301

on Store Minutes
S 5 5
>S
5

In Cooker

Hours
Chestnut Stew
Syrian Stew

PAGE
109

....

...
.

4 or more
4 or more

no
III

Syrian Stuffed Cabbage


Casserole of Rice and

5-6
I

Meat

to 3

112
I,

OkraStew
.

4 or more

216
113

BoU

Ragout

of Boiled

Mutton

or

more

VEAL
Boil

on Stove Minutes
.

In Cooker

Boa
Boil

Breaded Cutlets
Plain Cutlets

....

Hours

2-4 i~4
4
2
.

.... ....
.

yAOB
116 116

20
2
10
10
Boil
.

Veal Loaf
Sweetbreads

117,217
.

ri8 118
118

CalPs Heart
Calf's Liver

10 or more

Veal Kidney

4 or more 2 or more
la

119

20

CalPs Head a

Terrapin

9 or more

119

PORK
Boil

on Stove Minutes
.
.

In Cooker

Hours
Boiled

PAGE
or or
i

20-30
15 15

Ham or Shoulder

7
8 -10

more
more

122
123 123

Fresh Pork with Sauerkraut

Headcheese
Scrapple

10 and

or

more
more

15 and 5

10 and 4 or more
10 and
i

124
124 I2S

15

Souse
Pickled Pigs* Feet

or

...

10

or more

POULTRY
Boil

on Stove Minutts
10
. .

In Cooker

Hours
Stewed Chicken
.
.

PAGE
or

10
.

more

131
131

10 10
10 10

Fricasseed Chicken

10 or more

Chicken Pie
Curried Chicken
.

10 or more
.

'3*
.

10 or more

132
132

Creamed Chicken

5 -10 or more

302
Boil

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


In Cooker

on Store Minutes
30 in oven
10
. .

Hours
Braised Chicken
Jellied
. .

PAO8
.

2^ or more
.

Chicken

10 and 6 or more
2 J or

30 in oven

Braised

Duck
.

more

30
5

in

oven

Braised Goose

2^ or more
.

Potted Pigeons

s-6

'

'

'

STEAMED BREADS AND PUDDINGS


Boil on Store
In Cooker

Minutes

Hours
.

PAGE
15s, 218

30
15-30

Boston Brown Bread

5-6 5-6

Graham Pudding
Apple or Berry Pudding
Suet Pudding
. .
, .

156 156
157, 219

30 30 30-60

Rich Plum Pudding


Cranberry Pudding

158

30 30 30 30 20
Boil
.

'59
.

Ginger Pudding
St.

160
160
161 161
3

James Pudding

Harvard Pudding
Swiss Pudding
.

.
.

Rice Pudding

-4
12

or

162, 219

10

Indian Pudding

162, 219
I I

Boa Boa Boa

Tapioca Custard
Rice Custard

I I

....
.
.

^ and
J and

163
163

Tapioca Fruit Pudding

Warm Warm
BoO
.

Chocolate Bread Pudding

Queen

of

Puddings

1-2 1-2 1-2


h
1

164
164, 220

i6s
.

Steamed Cup Custard


.

166

Compote

of Rice

and Fruit

-3

166

FRUITS
Boil on Store

In Cooker

Minutes

Hours
.

PAGE
or

Boa Boa Boa Boa

Apple Sauce

more

168, 220

Stewed Apple in Syrup

12

...
.

168, 220

Apple

Jelly

4 or more
3

169
170

Blackberry and Apple Jelly

or

more

INDEX AND TIME TABLE


Boil

303
PAGE
170
171
171

on Stove Minutei
. .

In Cooker

Hours
Stewed Blackberries
Currant Jelly
. .

Boil Boil

2-3
I

....
more

4 or more
. .

Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa


Boa Boa Boa
Boil

Cranberry Jelly Cranberry Sauce

or 2 or

2^ or more
2 -12
I
. .

172 172
173

Dried Fruits (soaked)

Rhubarb

....
. .

- 3
7

or or

more more more

Stewed Figs
.

173

Sweet Pickled Peaches


Sweet Pickled Pears
.

- 2 - 2

or
or
.

174

more
.

174
175
175

Sweet Pickled Crab Apples Sweet Pickled Melon Rind

Sweet Pickled Plums


Sweet Pickled Quinces
.

2-3 4-6 1-2


12

176
176

10

or

more

Boa

Orange Marmalade

30 or more 20 or more 20 or more 20 or more


12
3
.

176
177
178

About 30

Candied Orange Peel]

Boa Boa Boa Boa BoQ

Canned Quinces

Preserved Quinces

179
179

Citron and Ginger Preserve

or

more

5or nlore
.
.

Grape Jam Graoe Juice

.... ....

or or

more

180
.

more
.

181

Preserved Ginger

Several days

181

MISCELLANEOUS
Boil

on St ove Minutes
8
.

In Cooker

Hours
HoUandaise Sauce
i
I
. . .
.

PAGE
185
185 or more

Boa Boa

Tomato Sauce
Fruit Sauce
.

\ or more
20
10

186 186
190
191 191

Warm Warm
Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa Boa
. .

Brandy Sauce
Soft-Cooked Eggs

minutes minutes

Hard-Cooked Eggs
Chocolate
. .

20 minutes .\
5 min. to 5 hrs.
5 min. to 5 hrs.
8

Cocoa
Shells
CoflFee

.... .... ....


.

192
192
193

or

more

Cereal Coffee

5 -10

or
or

more
more

193

Farina BaUs

194

304

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


RECIPES FOR THE SICK
In Cooker

Hours
Boil Bofl Boil
. .

Flaxseed

Lemonade
. .

195
I

Farina Gruel
Imperial

Granum
.

^ or more or more I
I

19s

196 196 196


197

Scald
5

Cracker Gruel

or
.

more
.

Oatmeal Gruel

-lo
I

Boil
Bofl Boil

Barley Flour Gruel

or

more
more

Indian Gruel

lo or more
I

197

Arrowroot Gruel
Pasteurized Milk

or

197
198

Warm
BoU
Boil
.
.

2o -30 minutes
.

Rice and Milk

1-3
3

199

Peptonized Beef Bro Peptonized Milk


.

Boa

10 -30

minutes

199 200

RECIPES FOR THE INSULATED OVEN


In the Oven Minutes
12 to 30 min. per pound
12 to 25 min. per
.

VAOB
Roast Beef
Roast Mutton or Roast Veal
Spareribs

pound

Lamb

....

229

229
230

25 to 30 min. per pound

20 min. per pound

Brown Gravy for Roasts


15 min. per

....

230 230

pound

Roast Chicken

230
231

15 to 20 min. per pound

Roast Goose
Potato Stuffing

232
23

12 to 18 min. per

pound

Roast Leg of Venison


Roast Wild

20 to 30 minutes 20 to 25 min

Duck

232 232
233

Grouse
Roast Quail
Roast Plover
Potted Fish

i5to2ommutes
15 to 20 minutes
5 or

233

6 hours

233

8 hours or

more

Pork and Beans

234
234

45 minutes

Baked Potatoes
Macaroni and

30 minutes
30 minutes

Ham

Macaroni and Cheese

30 minutes

Scalloped Chicken and


Scalloped Oysters

30 to 45 minutes

..... ......
Mushrooms
.

235

236 236
235

INDEX AND TIME TABLE


I
I

305
PACK
236
137
238
,
.

hour

Scalloped Tomatoei
Scalloped Apple

i hours 3 hours

Rice Pudding
Pastry

15 minutes

238

30 minutes 30 minutes 30 minutes


I
. . .
>

Apple Pie
Berry Pie
.
. .

239

Cherry or Plum Pic

.....

240
240 240
241
241

hour

Pumpkin Pie

Lemon Pie
30 to 45 minutes I hour
3 hours

Baked Apples Baked Spiced Apples

242
243

Baked Sweet Apples Baked Pears


more

3 hours 3 hours or

242

Baked Quinces
Bread
Rolls

242
243

50 to 60 minutes

20 minutes
15 to 20 minutes

Baking-Powder Biscuits

....

244 244
245 245 246 246
247
247

40 minutes
15 to 20 minutes

Cup Cake, loaf Cup Cake, layers


Sour-Cream Cake
Apple-Sauce Cake

......

40 minutes 40 minutes
50 to 60 minutes

Sponge Cake

l^ hours

Plum Cake

3 hours or more

...

Rich Fruit Cake

248

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Advantages of Fireless Cooker, 6 to 9. Albumen, Temperature of Cooking,
272.

Beans, continued

Lima, 140. Puree of Lima, 73.


String, 140.

Aluminum, Detection
Utensils, 14.

of, 266.

Bean Soup,

72, 210.

Appendix, 257 to 276. Apple Jelly, 169. or Berry Pudding Steamed, 156.
Pie, 239.

Soup, Black, 72, 211. Soup, Baked, 74. Beef, 89

A la

Mode,

95, 215.

Sauce, 168, 220.

Cake, 246. Water, 2cx). Apples, Baked, 241.


Scalloped, 237.

Broth, 63. Broth, Peptonized, 1 99. Braised, 93.

Stewed, 168,220. Articles Required for

Making

Insul-

ated Oven, 228.

Care of, 92. Cannelon of, Cooking, 92. Corned, 96. Cuts of, 91.

1 01,

216.

Arrowroot Gruel, 197. Asparagus, 136. Soup, 68, 209.


Bacteriology of Insulating Boxes, 267 Baked Apples, 241.
Spiced, 242. Sweet, 243.

Diagram

of Cuts, 90.

Kidney, 103.
Liver, Braised, 102.

Other Parts Used for Food, 91. Roast, 229.

Stew a la Mode, 97, 215. Stew with Dumplings, 99.

To

Select, 89.

Bean Soup,

74.

Pears, 242. Potatoes, 234.

Uses of Different Cuts, 89. Beet Greens, 142.


Beets, 139. Berry Pie, 240.

Quinces, 242.

Baking Powder
Egg, 79-

Biscuits, 244.

Balls, Codfish, 85, 213

Pudding, Steamed Apple or, Bind Soup, To, 59. Biscuits, Baking Powder, 244.
Bisques, 58. Blackberries, Stewed, 170. Blackberry and Apple Jelly, 170.

156.

Farina, 194.

Forcemeat, 79. Barley Flour Grud, 197. Water, 201. Barrel Used for a Cookeri 10. Beans, Dried Lima, 140.

Black Bean Soup, 74. Blanch Nuts, To, 188. Boiled Dinner, 96, a 1 6.
Dressing, 190. Fish, 83.

Navy,

141.

Fresh Shelled, 139.

307

3o8

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Cauliflower, 137.
a la HoUandaise, 138. au Gratin, 138. Celery, Stewed, 142. Soup, Cream of, 68, 208. Cereal Coffee, 193.

Bouillon, 57, 62.

Boston Brown Bread, 155, 218. Box for Making Cookers, 9.


Braised Beef, 93.
Beef's Liver, 102.

Chicken, 133.

Duck,

134.
186.

Cereals, Breakfast, 52.

Goose, 134.

Chard, 141.
Cheese, Macaroni and, 236. Cherry Pie, 240. Chemistry of Utensils, 263. Chestnuts, Italian, 153.

Brandy Sauce,

Bread, 243. Boston Brown, 155, 218. Breads and Puddings, Steamed, 154. Breakfast Cereals, 52. Breakfast Food, Pettijohn's, 56, 206. Broth, Beef, 63. Peptonized, 199.

To

Shell, 109.

Chestnut Stew, 109. Chicken, Braised, 133.

Creamed,

132.

Mutton, 63, 207.


Broths, 57. Brown Betty, 237. Bread, Boston,

Curried, 132. Fricasseed, 131.


55, 218.
Jellied, 133. Pie, 132.

Gravy for Roasts, 230.


Sauce, 184,214. Stock, 57,60, 207. Brussels Sprouts, 153.

Roast, 230. Stewed, 131.

Buttered Crumbs, 187.

To Cut Up, 129. To Draw, 128. To Truss, 130.


Chocolate, 191.

Cabbage, 137.
Stuffed, Syrian, iii.

Cake, Apple Sauce, 246.

Bread Pudding, 164, 220. Cup Cake, 245. Chowder, Clam, 76.
Connecticut, 76, 213. Fish, 75, 213. Citron and Ginger Preserve, 179,

Cup, 245. Plum, 247. Rich Fruit, 248. Sour Cream, 246.
Sponge,247. Calf's Head a la Terrapin, 119. Heart, 118.
Liver, ii8.

Sweet Pickle, 175.

Clam Chowder, 76.


or Oyster Stew, 77. Cloth Lining for Cooker, 18. Cocoa, 192.

Candied Orange
Peel, 177.

or
178.

Grape

Fruit

Shells, 192.

Codfish Balls, 85, 213.

Canned Quinces,

Cannelon of Beef, 1 01, 216. Cans, to Sterilize, 189. Cape Cod Turkey, 87. Caper Sauce, 184. Caramel, 51.
Carrots, 138. Careof Poultry, 128.

No. 1,84. No. 2, 84, 213. Cold Foods, To Keep, 35.


Salt,
Salt,

Creamed, Creamed,

Coffee, 193. Cereal, 193. Compote of Rice

and Fruit,

166.

Connecticut Chowder, 76, 213. Conductivity, 259.

Casserole of Fish, 87.


of Rice

Consomm^, 57, 64.


112.

and Meat,

Convection, 259.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Cooking Temperatures, 6.
of Starches, 6, 270. of

309

Diagram

of Cuts, continued

Lamb

or Mutton, 107.

Proteids, 272.

Pork, 121.

Cereal, 274.

Egg, 272. Meat, 274.

To Cut up a Chicken, 1 29 To Truss a Chicken, 131


Digestibility of Fireless Cooking, 9.

Cooking for Two, 40.


Corn, 139.

Dinner, Boiled, 96, 216.


Directions
for

Making

Fireless

Corned Beef, 96. Tongue, 105. Corn Meal Mush, 54, 204. Covers Fastened on Utensils, 33. Crab Apple Sweet Pickle, 175.
Crabs, 298. Cracker Gruel, 196. Crackers, Crisp, 80.

Cracked Wheat, 55, 205. Cranberry Jelly, 171. Pudding, Steamed, 159.
Sauce, 172. Creamed Chicken, 132.

Cookers, 9. Drawn Butter Sauce, 184. Dressing, Boiled, 190. Dried Fruits, 172. Beans, Lima, 140. Beans, Navy, 141. Duck, Braised, 134. Roast, Wild, 232. Dumplings for Stew, 99.

Egg Balls, 79.


Sauce, 184. Eggs, Hard-Cooked, 191. Soft-Cooked, No. i, 190. Soft-Cooked, No. 2, 190.
Excelsior, 5.

Mushrooms,

145. Salt Codfish, No. 1,84.

Salt Codfish, No. 2, 84, 213.

Turnips, 152. Cream of Celery Soup, 68, 208.

Experiment on Bacteriology of Fireless Cookers, 267-270. Chemistry of Utensils, 263.

Wheat, 56, 206. Creams, Frozen, to Keep, 35.


147, 216. Creole Soups, 69, 208. Crisp Crackers, 80. Crocks for Refrigerating Box, 37. Croustades, 193.

Cream Soups, 57. Creamy Potatoes,

Conductivity, 259. Convection, 259.

Cooking Temperatures, 270.


Proteids, 272.

Cereal, 274. Egg, 272.

Croutons, 80. Crust for Meat Pie, 102. Crumbs, Buttered, 188.

Meat, 274. Starches, 270.


Density of Foods, 262. Detection of Poisonous Metals, Tin, 265.

Cup Cake, 245. Cup Custard, Steamed, 166.


Currant Jelly, 171. Cushions for Fireless Cookers, ii. Custard, Steamed Cup, 166. Tapioca or Rice, 163. Cutlets, Breaded Veal, 1 16.
Plain, Veal, 116.

Aluminum, 266.
Effect of Evaporation

on Tem-

perature, 263. Efficiency of Refrigerating Boxes, 266.


Insulation, 257, 261. Radiation, 260.

Cylinder, 17.

Farina, 56, 206.

Density of Foods, Experiment, 26a. Diagram of Cuts of Beef. 90.

Balls, 194.

Gruel, 195.

310

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Graham Pudding,
156.

Fastening Covers on Utensils, 33. Figs, Stewed, 173. Fireless Cooker, the, 3.

Grape Fruit Peel, Candied, Jam, 180.


Juice, 181.

177.

Advantages of, 6.

Army Use of, 202.


Barrel Used for, 10.

Gravy for Roasts, Brown, 230. Green Pea Soup, 74, 212.
Greens, Beet, 142.
Grits,

Box Used for, 9.


Directions for Making, 9.

Hominy,

55, 205.

For Large Quantities, 203. Ice Box Used for, 10.


Possibilities of, 3, 4.

Practical Suggestions for Using,

Grouse, 232. Gruel, Arrowroot, 197. Barley Flour, 197. Cracker, 196.
Farina, 195.

Principle of, 5.

Trunk Used for,


Fish, 81.

10.

Indian Meal, 197. Oatmeal, 196.

Balls, Codfish, 85, 213.

Ham or Shoulder, Boiled, 122.


Hard-Cooked Eggs, 191. Hard Sauce, 185. Harvard Pudding, i6i. Hasp, II. Hay, 6. Hay-Box, 3.
Head-Cheese, 123.
Heart, Beef's
StuflFed, 104.

Boiled, 83.

Care

of, 81.

Casserole of, 87.

Chowder, 75, 213. Cooking of, 82. Salt Cod, Creamed, No. i, 84. Creamed, No. 2, 84, 213. Sauce for, 185.
Seasons, etc.

Calf's, 1 18.

Fresh Water, 82. Salt Water, 83.


Souffle, Salt, 86.

Hinges, II.

HoUandaise Sauce, 185.

To Clean, 8 1. To Skin, 82. To Tell Fresh, 8 1.


Flavouring Materials, 49~5i* Flaxseed Lemonade, 195.

Hominy

Hubbard Squash,

Grits, 55, 205. 151.

Forcemeat Balls, 79. Fresh Shelled Beans, 139. Fresh Tongue, 105.
Fricasseed Chicken, 131.

Ice Cream, to Keep, 35. Imperial Granum, 196. Indian Gruel, 197.

Pudding, 162,219.
Insulate an Oven, To, 222.

Insulated Oven, The, 221.


Insulation, Experiments,
EflFect of DiflFerent

Mushrooms,
Sauce, 186.
IVuiti, 168.
Eh-ied, 172.

145.

Fruit Cake, Rich, i^.

Thicknesses,

261.

Test of Materials for, 257.


Irish Stew, 100. 215.

Gamiihef, Soup, 78.


Ginger, Preserved, 18 1. Pudding, 160.

Jam, Grape, 180.


Jars, to Sterilize, 189.
Jellied

Chicken, 133.

Goose, Braised, 134. Roast, 231.

Jelly, Apple, 169.

Blackbeny aad Apple, I7eb

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Jelly, continued

3"

Cranberry, 171. Currant, 171.


Juice,

Grape, 181.

Julienne Soup, 70,

no.

Kidney, Beef, 103.


Veal, 119.

Milk, Pasteurized, 198. Peptonized, 200. Rice and, 199. Mineral Wool, 5, 1 1,21. Mock Turtle Soup, No. i, 65. No. 2,66,208. Mush, Corn Meal, 54, 204.

Mushrooms, Creamed,
106.

Lamb and Mutton,


Cuts

of, 106.

145. Fricasseed, 145. Scalloped Chicken and, 236. Mutton, Cuts, 106.

Diagram of Cuts,
Roast, 229.

107.

Diagram of Cuts,

107.

Lamb and,

106. 108.

Table of Cuts and Uses, 107. Other Parts Used for Food, 107. Leg of Mutton, Boiled, 108.
Braised, 108.

Leg of. Boiled,

Braised, 108.

Ragoutof Cold, 113.


Roast, 229. Stew, 109.
^

Lemonade, Flaxseed,

195.

Table

of 107.

Uses

of

Cuts,

Lemon Pie, 241.


Lima Beans,
140.

Other parts Used, 107.

Dried, 140.

Purdeof,73,2i2.
Liver, Braised Beef's, io2
Calf's, 118.

Navy Beans, Dried,

141.

Loaf, Salmon, 86. Veal, 117,217. Lobster, 298.

Noodles, 78, 145. Nutmeg Sauce, 187. Nuts, Salted, 188. To Blanch, 188.

Oatmeal Gruel,
Macaroni, 143. and Cheese, 236. and Ham, 235.
Italienne, 143,217.

196.

Steel Cut, 56, 206.

Oats, Rolled, 54, 204. Okra Stew, 111,216. Onions, 146.

Milanaise, 144. Soup, 70, 209.

Orange Marmalade, 176. Orange or Grape Fruit Peel, Can176.


died, 177.

Marmalade, Orange,

Mashed Turnip,
257.

153.

Oven,

Articles

Requhred for

Mak-

Materials for Packing Cookers, 11,


for Utensils, 14.

ing, 228.

Method of Using, 224. The Insulated, 221.

Needed for Home-made Cookers,


25.

To Insulate, 222.
Ox-Tail Soup, 70, 209.
Oysters, Creamed, 88.
Scalloped, 235.

Measures, Table of Weights and, 45. Measuring, 43.

Meat Pie,

101

Stew, 77.

Crust for, 102.

Menus, 250-255. Method of Packing a Hay-Box, Using the Oven, 224.

Packing Materials, 5,
15.

1 1.

Pail, Portable Insulating, 32.

Pails, 13.

312

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Poultry, 126.

Paper Insulation, 5,11. Lining for Cooker, 19. Test for Oven, 225. Pasteurized Milk, 198.
Pastry for Two Crusts, 238. Peaches, Sweet Pickled, 174. Pears, Baked, 242. Sweet Pickled, 174.
Peas, 148.

Care of, 128.


Stuffing for, 131.

To Cut up, 129. To Draw, 129. To Truss, 130.


Practical Suggestions for Using the

Cooker, 25. Preserved Citron


179.

and

Ginger,

Pea Soup, Green, 74, 212.


Split, 77, 212.

Quinces, 179.
Proportions, Table of, 47. Prunes, Sweet Pickled, 175.
56,

Peptonized, Beef Broth, 199. Milk, 200. Breakfast Food, Pettijohn's


206.

Pudding, Chocolate Bread, 164. Cranberry, Steamed, 159.


Ginger, 160.

Pickled Pig's Feet, 125. Pickles, Sweet, 174. Pie, Apple, 239. Berry, 240.
Pie, Cherry or

Graham,

56.

Harvard, 161.
Indian, 162,219.

Plum, 240.

Pan,

13

Chicken, 132.

Puddings, Queen, of 165.


Rice, 162, 219, 238.

Lemon, 241.
Meat, loi. Pumpkin, 240.
Pigeons, Potted, 134. Pilaf, Turkish, 149,218.
Plover, Roast, 233. Plum Cake, 247, Pie, 240.

Rich Plum, 158. Steamed Apple or Berry, 156. St. James, 160.
Suet, 157,219. Swiss, 161.

Tapioca Fruit, 164. Puddings, Steamed Breads


154-

and,

Pudding, Rich, 158. Plums, Sweet Pickled, 176. Metals, Experiment, Poisonous
265.

Pumpkin,
Purees, 58.

152.

Pie, 240.

Pork, 120. and Beans, 149,218,234.

Diagram of Cuts,

121.

Fresh, with Sauerkraut, 123.

To Select, 122.
Uses of Cuts, 121.
Portable Insulating Pail, 32. Potatoes, Baked, 234. Boiled, 146.

Quail, Roast, 233. Quantity of Food Cooked, 26. Queen of Puddings, 165. Quinces, Baked, 242.

Canned,

178.

Preserved, 179. Sweet Pickled, 176.

Creamy, 147, 21 6.
Soup, 75, 211. Stewed, 147,
StuflBng, 232.

Radiation, Experiment, 260.

Ragout of Cold Mutton, 1 13. Ready-made Cookers, 23.

To Select, 24.
Recipes
for

Pot Roast, 94, 214.


Potted Fish, 233. Pigeons, 134.

Large
195.

Quantities,

202.

For the Sick,

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Refrigerating Box, 36.
Efficiency, Experiment, 261.

3'i

Scalloped Apple, 237.

Chicken and Mushrooms, 236.


Oysters, 235.

Made with Bread Box, 39.


Crocks, 37.
Pail, 39.

Tomatoes, 236.
Scrapple, 124 Sealing Wax for Bottles, 181.

Rice, No.

1,
1

148.

No.

2,

49, 206.

and Milk, 199. Custard, Tapioca or, 163. Pudding, 162, 219, 238.
Savoury, 149.

Rich Plum Pudding, 158. Rhubarb, Stewed, 173. Roast Beef, 229. Chicken, 230. Duck, Wild, 232. Goose, 231. Grouse, 232.

Seasoning Materials, 49-5 1 Sick, Recipes for the, 195. Shell, Italian Chestnuts, to, 189. Shelled Beans, Fresh, 139. Shells Cocoa, 192. Shoulder of Pork, Boiled, 122. Slate for Recording Time, 30. Soft-Cooked Eggs, No. i, 190.

No.

2, 190.

Souffle, Salt Fish, 86.

Mutton

or

Lamb, 229.

Soup, Asparagus, 68, 209. Baked Bean, 74, 212. Bean, 72, 210.

Plover, 233.

BlackBean,

72, 211.

Quail, 233. Veal, 230. Venison, Leg

Cream
of, 231.

of Celery, 68, 208.

Creole, 69, 208.

Wild Duck, 232.


Rolled Oats, 54, 204. Steak, Stuffed, 98.
Rolls, 244.

Garnishes, 78-80. Green Pea, 74, 212.


Julienne, 70, 210.

Macaroni, 70, 209.

Making,

58.
i, 65.

Mock
Salmon Loaf, 86.
Salt Fish Souffle, 86.

Turtle, No.
2,

No,

66,208.

Salted Nuts, 188.

Samp, 150,205. Sauce, Brown, 184, 214.


,

Ox-Tail, 70, 209. Potato, 75, 211. Split Pea, 77, 212.
Sticks, 80.

Brandy, 186, Caper, 184.

Stock, Brown, 57.


184.

Drawn Butter,
Egg, 184.
for Fish, 185.

Brown, No. No. 2,61.

i,

60, 207.

for Vegetables, 183.

To Clear, 59. To Make, 58. To Remove Fat from, 59.


White, 57.

Fruit, 186.

Hard, 185. HoUandaise, 185.

Nutmeg, 187. Tomato, 185.


Vanilla, 187.

No. 1,61. No. 2, 62, 207. Tomato, with Stock,

69, 210.

White, 183. Savoury Rice, 149. Sawdust, 5, 22, 37.


Sauerkraut, 123.

without Stock, 73, 211. Vegetable, with Stock, 67, 209. without Stock, 71, 210.

Cream,

57.

To Bind, 58.
Sour Cream Cake, 246.

314

THE FIRELESS COOK BOOK


Sweetbreads, 118.

Souse, 124.

Space Adjuster, 22.


Spaghetti, 144. Spare Ribs, 230.

Creamed,

18.

Spiced Apples, Baked, 242. Spinach, 142. Split-Pea Soup, 77, 212.

Sweet Pickles, 174. Crabapples, 175. Peaches, 174.


Pears, 174.

Plums, 176.
Prunes, 175. Quinces, 176.

Sponge Cake, 247. Squash, Hubbard, or Winter, 151.

Summer,

150.

Watermelon Rind, or
Swiss Pudding, 161. Syrian Stew (Yakhni),

Citron,

Starch, Cooking Temperature, 6, 270. Steak, Stuffed, Rolled, 98.

Steamed Breads and Puddings, 41,


154. General Directions, 154. Steamed Apple or Berry Pudding, 156

10.
1 1 1.

Syrian Stuffed Cabbage,

Cranberry Pudding, 159.

Table of Cuts of Beef, 91. Mutton and Lamb, 107.


Veal, 115. flavourings for Sweet
SO-

Cup Custard,
Steel
Sterilize Jars or

166.
50, 206.

Cut Oatmeal,

Dishes,

Cans, To, 189.

Stew, Beef a la Mode, 97, 215. Beef, with Dumplings, 99. Chestnut, 109.
Irish, 100,215.

Materials

for

Home - made

Cooker, 25.
Seasonings, 50. Seasons of Fresh Water Fish,
82.
Salt

Mutton, 109. Okra, 111,216. Oyster or Clam, 77.


Stewed Apples
Syrian (Yakhni), 1 10. in Syrup, 168, 220.
Blackberries, 170.

Water Fish,

83.

Proportions, 47.

Weights and Measures, 45. Tapioca or Rice Custard, 163. Temperatures of Cooking Starches,
6,270. Proteids, 6, 272. Cereal, 274.

Celery, 142.

Chicken, 131.
Cranberries, 172. Figs, 173.
Potatoes, 147.

Terrapin, Calf's

Head
in

a la, 119.

St.

Rhubarb, 173. Tomatoes, 151. James Pudding, 160.


1 1 1.

Time

for

Cooking

Cooker, 29, 41.

On Stove, 28.
Tin, Detection of, 265.

String Beans, 140. Stuffed Cabbage, Syrian,

Thermos Bottle, 5, 260.

To Insulate

Heart, 104. Rolled Steak, 98. StuflSng for Poultry, 131, Potato, 232. Suet Pudding, 157, 219. Suggestions for Using a Cooker, 25. Summer Squash, 1 50. Sweet Apples, Baked, 243.

an Oven, 222. Tomatoes, Scalloped, 236.


Stewed, 151.

Tomato Sauce,

185.

Firdeti

Soup, with Stock, 69, iio. Without Stock, 73, III. Tongue, Corned, 105.
Fresh, 105.

To Tie Cover on Utensil, 33. To Truss a Chicken, 130.

ALPHABETICAL INDEX
Turkish
Pilaf, 149, 218.

315

Veal, continued

Turnips, Creamed, 152.

Mashed,
Turtle Soup,

153.

Table of Cuts, 115. Other Parts used, 115.


i, 65.

Mock, No. No.

2, 66, 208.

Vegetables, 136. Directions for Cooking, 136.

Using Insulated Oven, Method


224.
Utensils, Material for, 14.

of,

Sauce for, 183. Vegetable Soup with Stock, 67, 209. without Stock, 71, 210. Venison, Roast Leg of, 23 1

Shape, 13.
Sire, 14, 40.

Water, Apple, 200.


Barley, 201.

Vacuum Insulation, 5.
Vanilla Sauce, 187. Veal, 114.

Watermelon Rind Sweet


Wheat, Cracked, 55, 205.

Pickle, 175.

Wax for Sealing Bottles, 181.


Cream
of, 56, 206.

Age, 114. Cooking of, 115. Cutlets, Breaded, 116.


Plain, 116.

Wheatlet, 56, 206. White Sauce, 183. Stock, No. 1, 61.

Diagram of Cuts, 1 15.


Kidney, 119. Loaf, 117,217.
Roast, 2^0. Season for, 1 14.

No. 2, 62, 207. Wild Duck, Roast, 232.


Winter Squash, 151. Wool, 5, 11,21. Mineral 5, 11,21.

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