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Andrukh, Toschev 1995: S.I. Andrukh, G.N. Toschev, Mamai-Gora, a Tumulary Necropolis of Scythian Age in
the Eurasian Area. Tumulary Tombs of Iron Age in the South-Eastern Europe. The 2-nd International Symposium of Funerary Archaeology (Tulcea 1995), Tulcea-Brila-Slobozia-Clrai 1995, 3.
Fialko 2009: E. Fialko, Amazons burials in the lands of Steppe Scythia. Mousaios XIV. The Necropolises and the
Environment (1st mill. BC), Buzu-Brila 2009, 47-59.
Fialko 2010: E. Fialko, Die skythischen Amazonen. In: (Ed. J. Leskovar, M. Reitberger) Goldener Horizont.
40000 Jahre Nomaden der Ukraine (Linz 2010), 106-111.

Femeile narmate din prima epoc a fierului n nordul Mrii Negre: aspecte sociale
Rezumat
n prima epoc a fierului teritoriul actual al Ucrainei a fost populat de comuniti nomade rzboinice. Materialele
arheologice demonstreaz prezena n cadrul acestora a femeilor narmate. Drept indicator al statutului social
al sciilor servesc monumentele lor funerare. Astfel, n rnd cu dimensiunile lor, un rol important are inventarul
funerar al mormintelor. Pe baza acestuia se poate deduce existena unei diferenieri sociale printre amazoane. n

43

I. Studii

cea mai mare parte, amazoanele sunt reprezentante ale clasei mijlocii. Ca urmare a campaniilor militare frecvente
se intensific procesul de difereniere social n rndul amazoanelor, evideniindu-se o serie de nmormntri cu
inventar bogat, care au aparinut unor persoane nstrite.
Lista ilustraiilor:
Fig. 1. Trei tipuri de construcii funerare ale amazoanelor scitice: 1 - groap; 2 - ni; 3 - catacomb.
Fig. 2. Complexul funerar din tumulul 16 al necropolei Akkermen, s. Novo-Filippovka.
Fig. 3. Bice din complexe funerare (1 - tumulul 16 de lng s. Novo-Filippovka; 2 - tumulul 2, necropola Ulandryk
IV; 2 - tumulul doi de la Baadar) i imagini ale lor pe stele din piatr (4, 5).
Fig. 4. Mormnt de femeie cu copil din tumulul 16 de la ertomlyk.
Fig. 5. Grupa I-a: 1 - tumulul 33, necropola ertomlyk; 2 - tumulul 35, necropola ertomlyk; 3 - tumulul 45, necropola Mamaj Gora; 4 - tumulul 45, necropola Mamaj-Gora.
Fig. 6. Grupa I-a. Mormntul 1 din tumulul 2 de lng s. Zelenoe.
Fig. 7. Grupa II-a. Tumulul 3 de lng s. Akimovka.
Fig. 8. Grupa II-a. Mormntul 3 din tumulul 2 de lng s. Zelenoe i obiecte ce au aparinut unei amazoane.
Fig. 9. Grupa III-a. Tumulul 18 de lng s. Lvovo.
Fig. 10. Grupa III-a. Tumulul 5 de lng s. Zelenoe (planul general al tumulului, planul mormntului 3 i piesele
din el).
Fig. 11. Grupa IV-a. Tumulul 16 de la Mamaj-Gora.
Fig. 12. Grupa V-a: A, 1-3 - tumulul 25 de lng s. Grikovka (planul general al tumulului, planul mormntului 2 i
inventarul lui); B, 1-3 - tumulul 9 de lng s. Staryj Merik (planul general al tumulului, planul mormntului 2
i inventarul lui).

The armed women of Early Iron Age in the Northern Pontic: social aspects
Abstract
In the Early Iron Age the territory of modern Ukraine was inhabited by warlike nomads. The archaeological evidence suggests that there were warrior women among the Scythians. The indicators of social status of the Scythians are their funerary monuments. In addition to size, great value had a set of accompanying funeral equipment
and the presence of servants. The social differentiation existed in the environment of the Amazons. The funerary
monuments indicate that the Amazons were the representatives of the middle class. The ordinary combatants were
dominated amongst them, but there were also wealthy women, commanders and free mercenaries. War campaigns
have contributed to the increasing of the social differentiation in a military environment.
List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Three types of the Scythian Amazons funeral constructions: 1 - pit; 2 - undercut; 3 - catacomb.
Fig. 2. Funerary complex of kurgan16 near village Novo-Filippovka.
Fig. 3. Whips from the burial complexes: (1 - kurgana 16 near village Novo-Filippovka; 2 - kurgan 2 of Ulandryk IV
cemetery; 3 - the Second Bashadarsky mound) and their images on stone sculptures (4, 5).
Fig. 4. The grave of a woman with a baby from kurgan 16 of Chertomlyk group.
Fig. 5. First group: 1 - kurgan 33 of Chertomlyk group; 2 - kurgan 35 of Chertomlyk group; 3 - kurgan 45 from
Mamaj-Gora cemetery; 4 - kurgan 45 from Mamaj-Gora cemetery.
Fig. 6. First group. Tomb 1 from kurgan 2 near village Zelenoe.
Fig. 7. The second group. Kurgan 3 near village Akimovka.
Fig. 8. The second group. Tomb 3 from kurgan 2 near village Zelenoe and Amazon set of things.
Fig. 9. The third group. Kurgan 18 near village Lvovo.
Fig. 10. The third group. Kurgan 5 near village Zelenoe (general plan of kurgan, plan of the tomb 3 and set of things
from it).
Fig. 11. The fourth group. Kurgan 16 of Mamaj-Gora cemetery.
Fig. 12. The fifth group: A, 1-3 kurgan 25 near village Grishkovka (general plan of kurgan, plan of the tomb 2 and
set of things from it); B, 1-3 kurgan 9 near village Staryj Merchik (general plan of kurgan, plan of the tomb 2
and set of things from it).

09.12.2011
. , , , .
12, 04210 , , e-mail: ofialka@ukr.net

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