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do

c
GSI

H
do
Po

Pi

Tunnel Radius
Angle of Internal friction Cohesive Strength
Unit weight of Rock mass Height of over burden
Tunnel radius
In-situ Stress
H
2.6 Mpa
Internal Support Pressure
1.2 Mpa
(Figure-1)

3.5
30
0.1
60
26
100
5

m
Degree
Mpa
kN / cu m
m
m

ci

cm

dp
i

Lab Uniaxial compressive strength

0.019 e 0.05 GSI/ cm


1.1017 Mpa
Rock mass Strength/In situ Uniaxial compressive strength
2c cos /(1-sin)
0.35 Mpa
Plastic zone radius
Tunnel Sidewall deformation/Tunnel closure
1/ 3
(1+sin )/(1-sin ) or

k
cm/Po Rock mass Strength/In situ Stress
0.13
Pi/Po
0.46
dp/do
1.20
i/do
0.005
Strain of the tunnel
i /do

dp
i

4.19
0.02

m
m

Definitions of Dimensions:
b
t
b1
b2
t2
d1
d2

Cover
hg
bg
Lo
d3

1500
150
780
330
95
16
20
30
30
195
180
2000
6

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
Degree
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

150

mm c/c

Rock Bolts

Lo

ELEV
b
b1
d1
t
t2

d3
d2
b2
PLAN

195

180

Lattice Girder

t+t2
225 mm
dg
h g - 0.5(d 1 + d 2)
167 mm
Definitions of Material Properties:
f cd
fyd

A
A
A
A

st 1
st 2
st 3
c

b eff

20
435
0.85

Mpa
Mpa

402 Sq mm
314 Sq mm
28
Sq mm
b t + 0.5 t 2 b 2 - A st 1 - A st 2
221110 Sq mm
0.2 (b-b 2) + 0.24 L o+b 2
1044 mm

A s11

599
Sq mm (only in tension)
h cm
84.71 mm
(Calculation of center of mass)
Eight Strain conditions to derive M-N envelope:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Pure axial force


Zero strain in tensioned bars (positive Moment)
Equilibrium (Max strain in shotcrete and yielding in rebars at the same time - Positive Momen
Pure moment (Positive)
Pure tension
Pure Moment (Negative)
Equilibrium (Max strain in shotcrete and yielding in rebars at the same time - Negative Mome
Zero strain in tensioned bars (Negative Moment)

Nd

f cd A c + f yd (A st1 + A st2)
4070 kN

N tog

f yd (A s11 +A st2)
397
kN

cu
syd
d

0
0
hg - 0.5 d 2
185
mm

X bal

0.8 X bal < t


0.8 X bal<

fc
f s1
f s2
N ud
M ud

h c3

A c3

cu
cu + syd
116
mm
93
150

mm
mm

f cd 0.8 X bal b eff


###
N
f yd A st1
174835
N
f yd A st2
136590
N
f c + f s1 - f s2
1680
kN
f c (h cm -0.4 X bal) + f s1 (h cm - 0.5 d1) + f s2 (d - h cm)
62.84
kN m
0.8 d 148
mm
t b eff
+
(0.5 b 2 t -2(h - h c3)2 / tan )
162006 sq mm

Center mass of compression zone


90

Mu

f yd A st2
f cd 0.8 b eff
9.62 mm
f yd A st2 (d -0.4 x)
24.74 kN m

d1

h -0.5 d 1
217
mm

hc

Sqrt ((A s11 f yd tan )/ f cd)


94.04 mm
f yd A s 11 (d 1 - 0.67 hc)
40.10 kN m
cu
d
cu + syd
136
mm
0.8 X bal2
109
mm

5
6

M u2
7

X bal2

h c2

f c2
f s11
f s2
N ud2
M ud

f cd (h c2)2/tan f yd A s 11
f yd A st2
f c2 + f s2 - f s11
f c2 (h-h cm -0.67 h c2) + f
17
kN m

346632
260395
136590
223
s1 (d-h cm

N
N
N
kN
) + f s2 (h cm - 0.5d1)

Moment =

0
M ud3
M ud
Mu
0
-M u2
-M ud3
-M ud4
0
Nd
N ud3
N ud
0

Nforce

-N tog
0
N ud2
N ud4
Nd

=
0

e time - Positive Moment)

e time - Negative Moment)

Beam
L/C
Node
3 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 2
39
34 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 15
25
35 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 25
26
36 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 26
27
37 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 27
28
38 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 28
29
39 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 29
30
40 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 30
31
41 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 31
32
42 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 32
33
43 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 33
4
49 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 39
40
50 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 40
41
51 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 41
42
52 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 42
43
53 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK LOAD 43
4

Max Fx
Min Fx
Max Fy
Min Fy
Max Fz
Min Fz
Max Mx
Min Mx
Max My
Min My

Beam
3 3
34 3
43 3
38 3
43 3
53 3
40 3
43 3
42 3
43 3

SELF
SELF
SELF
SELF
SELF
SELF
SELF
SELF
SELF
SELF

Fx kN
941.45
-937.7
199.74
-207.5
213.39
-236.46
246.88
-284.72
299.78
-351.43
370.61
-434.81
456.35
-531.52
552.26
-636.55
651.99
-743.32
748.18
-844.31
833.28
-931.83
937.7
-933.95
933.95
-930.2
930.2
-926.45
926.45
-922.7
922.7
-918.95

Fy kN
103.39
-52.77
15.72
82.83
-30.56
126.68
-72.47
163.8
-105.74
190.03
-125.42
200.59
-126.28
190.48
-103.44
155.09
-53.2
91.03
26.43
-3.35
135.39
-127.64
52.77
-2.14
2.14
48.48
-48.48
99.11
-99.11
149.73
-149.73
200.36

Mz kNm
0
48.8
-262.21
242.46
-242.46
196.2
-196.2
126.68
-126.68
39.66
-39.66
-56.26
56.26
-149.45
149.45
-225.52
225.52
-267.95
267.95
-259.2
259.2
-181.81
-48.8
65.96
-65.96
51.48
-51.48
5.36
-5.36
-72.4
72.4
-181.81

L/C
Node
Fx kN
WEIGHT+ROCK2LOAD941.45
WEIGHT+ROCK15
LOAD199.74
WEIGHT+ROCK33
LOAD833.28
WEIGHT+ROCK29
LOAD434.81
WEIGHT+ROCK33
LOAD833.28
WEIGHT+ROCK43
LOAD 922.7
WEIGHT+ROCK30
LOAD552.26
WEIGHT+ROCK33
LOAD833.28
WEIGHT+ROCK32
LOAD748.18
WEIGHT+ROCK33
LOAD833.28

Fy kN
103.39
15.72
135.39
-200.59
135.39
-149.73
-103.44
135.39
26.43
135.39

Mz kNm
0
-262.21
259.2
56.26
259.2
72.4
149.45
259.2
267.95
259.2

Max Mz
Min Mz

41 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK32
LOAD743.32
34 3 SELF WEIGHT+ROCK15
LOAD199.74

-91.03 267.95
15.72 -262.21

1.00 m
0.03

0.15 m
0.03

0.10 m

0.15 m
Compression Load @ Moderate eccentricity

from book
b=
D=
m=
dc=
dt=
d=
Bending moment = M
Tensile force = T
let us assume, x = position of N.A from top of compr face=
therefore, k = x/d
No. of bars = n_c=
dia of bolts = dia_c = dc =
No. of bars = n_t=
dia of bolts = dia_t = dt=
Eccentricity (e) = M/P =
Asc = n_c * pie * (dia_c) * (dia_c)/4 =
Ast = n_t * pie * (dia_t) * (dia_t)/4 =
taking the moments of internal and external forces about the centre of tensile steel, we have
bxc'(d-x/3)/2 + (mc-1)Asc.c'(x-dc)(d-dc)/x = P(e+D/2 -dt)
-------> (A)
i.e.,
53100000
thus,
again, equating the sum of internal forces to the external forces, we have
bxc'/2 + (mc-1)Asc.c'/x(x-dc) Ast.t =P
----------------> (B)
i.e.,
299975.08
thus,
hence, from stress diagram, x=1*d/(1+t/(m.c')) =
Now assume an intermediate value between (1) and (2) for x, say x=
substituting in eqn (A), we get
i.e., bxc'(d-x/3)/2 + (mc-1)Asc.c'(x-dc)(d-dc)/x = P(e+D/2 -dt)
51854933.33
Page 19

from book
i.e.,

c' =

substituting in eqn.(B), we get


i.e., bxc'/2 + (mc-1)Asc.c'/x(x-dc) Ast.t =P
294975.33
thus,
hence, from stress diagram, x=1*d/(1+t/(m.c')) =
thus,
and,

Page 20

from book
400
800
19
60
60
740
200
400

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
kN-m per metre width
kN

450
0.61

mm

6
25

mm

6
25

mm

500

mm

2943.75
2943.75

mm2
mm2

-------> (1)

of tensile steel, we have

-------> (A)
*c'

47708375 *c'

c' =

###

3.33 N/sq.mm

-------> (B)
+

233845.15 +

t=

-2943.75 *t

400000

45.46 N/sq.mm
430.77 mm

------> (2)

436 mm (say)

*c'

### *c'
Page 21

###

from book
3.38 N/sq.mm

236158.83 +

t=

-2943.75 *t

44.55 N/sq.mm
437.07 mm

c' =
t=
tc =

3.38 N/sq.mm (compressive)


44.55 N/sq.mm (tensile)
83.14 N/sq.mm (compressive)

Page 22

400000

Sheet6
b=
D=
m=
dc=
dt=
d=
Bending moment = M
Tensile force = T

1000
mm
225
mm
19
30
mm
30
mm
195
mm
200
kN-m per metre width
400
kN

-------> (1)
let us assume, x = position of N.A from top of compr face=
135
mm
therefore, k = x/d
(k should be0.69
so assumed to be between 0.4 to 0.7)
No. of bars = n_c=
dia of bolts = dia_c =

2
20

mm

No. of bars = n_t=


dia of bolts = dia_t =

2
32

mm

500

mm

628
1607.68

mm2
mm2

Eccentricity (e) = M/P =


Asc = n_c * pie * (dia_c) * (dia_c)/4 =
Ast = n_t * pie * (dia_t) * (dia_t)/4 =

taking the moments of internal and external forces about the centre of tensile steel, we have
bxc'(d-x/3)/2 + (mc-1)Asc.c'(x-dc)(d-dc)/x = P(e+D/2 -dt)
-------> (A)
i.e.,
10125000 *c'
thus,

c' =

###
18.88 N/sq.mm

again, equating the sum of internal forces to the external forces, we have
bxc'/2 + (mc-1)Asc.c'/x(x-dc) Ast.t =P
----------------> (B)
i.e.,
1274377.8 +
thus,

253595.94 +

t=

hence, from stress diagram, x=1*d/(1+t/(m.c')) =

701.62 N/sq.mm
65.97 mm

------> (2)

Now assume an intermediate value between (1) and (2) for x,90say
mm
x=
(say)
substituting in eqn (A), we get
i.e., bxc'(d-x/3)/2 + (mc-1)Asc.c'(x-dc)(d-dc)/x = P(e+D/2 -dt)
7425000.00 *c'
+
Page 23

###

Sheet6
i.e.,

c' =

24.99 N/sq.mm

substituting in eqn.(B), we get


i.e., bxc'/2 + (mc-1)Asc.c'/x(x-dc) Ast.t =P
1124432.96 +
thus,

287688.25 +

t=

hence, from stress diagram, x=1*d/(1+t/(m.c')) =

83.83 mm

c' =
t=
tc =

thus,
and,

Page 24

629.55 N/sq.mm

24.99 N/sq.mm (compressiv


629.55 N/sq.mm (tensile)
474.76 N/sq.mm (compressiv

Sheet6

------> (1)

etween 0.4 to 0.7)

ile steel, we have

------> (A)
*c'

-1607.68 *t

###

400000

-----> (2)

*c'

###
Page 25

Sheet6

-1607.68 *t

400000

N/sq.mm (compressive)
N/sq.mm (tensile)
N/sq.mm (compressive)

Page 26