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Epitafuri armeneti din Chilia


Rezumat
n acest articol este prezentat un numr relativ mare de izvoare, ce se refer la centrul de imigrare al armenilor din
Chilia (Dunrea de Jos). Locul principal printre acestea l ocup 12 epitafuri databile n anii 1646-1765. Pietrele
funerare, n numr de 12, s-au aflat nuntrul i n afara bisericii Sf. Nicolae, construit n anul 1648 de domnitorul
Moldovei Vasile Lupu. Cinci dintre ele, mpreun cu epitafurile, s-au pstrat pn n zilele noastre: trei la biseric,
iar dou n muzeul local. Trei pietre funerare dintre cele cinci au fost descoperite nu de mult. Restul, apte pietre
funerare i epitafurile lor, sunt cunoscute exclusiv din diferite publicaii.
Analiza materialului prezentat arat c persoanele menionate n epitafuri nu se numr printre urmaii acelor locuitori armeni ai Chiliei, care s-au stabilit aici n secolele XI-XV. Acetia constituiau deja a doua i a treia generaie de
armeni, venii aici din diferite pri ale Armeniei istorice, posibil, din Persia, n primele decenii ale secolului XVII.
Putem constata c armenii nou-venii i nmormntau defuncii lng biserica Sf. Nicolae i n interiorul ei, imediat dup construcia ei n 1648 i, posibil, pn la plecarea lor n Grigoriopol n anul 1792. Epitaful din 1648 ne
d posibilitatea s afirmm despre existena unor nmormntri armeneti chiar i n timpul construciei bisericii.

107

II. Materiale i cercetri

Acest fapt indic anumite relaii ale bisericii cu armenii venii n secolul XVII i confirm afirmaiile lui N. Kleeman
c armenii din Chilia aveau dou biserici.
Lista ilustraiilor:
Tabelul 1. Inscripii armeneti din Chilia, publicate n trecut.
Tabelul 2. Epitafurile armeneti de pe pietrele armeneti pstrate pn astzi.
Foto 1. Piatr funerar de marmur, depistat n partea de nord a bisericii Sf. Nicolae, 1749.
Foto 2. Pietre funerare cu epitafuri cu trei versuri. Muzeul inutului Natal al raionului Chilia.
Foto 3. Al treilea vers din epitaf scris pe cantul pietrei funerare.
Foto 4. Inscripie din patru versuri, tiat pe partea orizontal a pietrei funerare de marmur. Muzeul inutului
Natal al raionului Chilia.
Foto 5. Piatr funerar de marmur cu inscripie din patru versuri. Muzeul inutului Natal al raionului Chilia.
Foto 6. Piatr funerar cu epitaf, amplasat la est de biserica Sf. Nicolae, 1755.
Foto 7. Piatr funerar amplasat la est de biserica Sf. Nicolae, 1653.
Foto 8. Pietre funerare de marmur din jurul bisericii Sf. Nicolae, folosite ca praguri.

Armenian Epitaphs from Kiliya


Abstract
The article uses a rather large number of sources concerning Armenian resettlement center in Kiliya (Danube Delta, in the Bessarabian historic district of Budjak). Most of them are presented by Armenian epitaphs, in total twelve
ones, dated to 1646-1765 years. Twelve tombstones, carrying them, were located inside the church of St. Nicholas
in Kiliya and possibly in its environment as well. Five of them, together with epitaphs are preserved to our times:
three in the church garden and two in the Kiliya museum. Three of these five tombstones were discovered recently,
and their epitaphs are new-found sources. Two others had been published earlier. The remaining seven tombstones
and there epitaphs are known only from various publications.
The analysis of these twelve epitaphs reveals that the persons, mentioned in them, in their vast majority were the
representatives of the second or third generation of the Armenians, who migrated here from various places of Historical Armenia, and even, perhaps, from Persia in the early decades of the XVII century. So they had no relation
to the old Armenian inhabitants of Kiliya, settled here earlier in the course of the XI-XV centuries. The sources
come to prove that the last ones had a church of St. Virgin (now the location is unknown), which existed up to the
very beginning of the XIX century.
So we have to admit that the newly arrived Armenians made burials in the church of St. Nicholas and round it right
after its construction in 1648 by the Moldavian ruler Vasile Lupu and, presumably, until their leaving for Grigoriopol in 1792. The epitaph dated 1646 suggests a burial made even during the construction of the church. The
said indicates a direct relation of the last to the newly arrived Armenians and finds confirmation in N. Kleemans
information (the 60-s of the XVIII century) that the Armenians had two churches in Kiliya.
List of illustrations:
Table 1. Previously published Armenian inscriptions, relating to iliya.
Table 2. Armenian epitaphs of the preserved tombstones.
Photo 1. Marble tombstone with the inscription, dated to 1749. Was found in the churchyard of St. Nicholas on the
north side.
Photo 2. Marble tombstone with the epitaph in three verses. Historical museum of Kiliya district.
Photo 3. The third verse, carved on the butt end of the plate.
Photo 4. Marble gravestone with an epitaph in four verses. Carved decoration of the horizontal surface. Historical
museum of Kiliya district.
Photo 5. Marble tombstone with the inscription in four verses. Historical museum of Kiliya district.
Photo 6. Marble tombstone with the epitaph, dated to 1755. Located east of the church of St. Nicholas, in the garden.
Photo 7. Tombstone with the inscription, dated to 1653. Located east of the church of St. Nicholas, in the garden.
Photo 8. Marble tombstones in the environment of the church of St. Nicholas, used as doorstep stones.

20.12.2011
. , -
, . , 14, 95011, . , , e-mail: statevik@mail.ru

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