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A LIST OF PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES 1) Abstraction the process of reducing a subject to a set of distinctive features Idealization the process of reducing

ng a subject to a set of highly valued distinctive features Burlesque the process of reducing a subject to a set of distinctive features that are then distorted or exaggerated for purposes of humor or criticism Polarization the process of reducing a subject to its extremities 2) Catalog a list of related features 3) Innuendo guilt by association/affirmation by association 4) Periodic Development an organizational strategy that places the most important element last 5) Description the use of image-specific details 6) Sarcasm arrogant and disdainful language 7) Vituperation vicious name-calling 8) Arenas of Language Use the use of forms of expressions to distinguish between speakers 9) Begging Sympathy an appeal to emotions rather than to reason 10) Cultural Stereotyping applying generalized impressions to a class or ethnicity 11) Attacks Attacks are a version of playing the man, not the ball. If you can make your opposition seem less credible, you may be more likely to get a reader to agree with your side of the argument. At the least, attention can be taken away from the issue itself and put on to the personality. Attacks can attempt to belittle or embarrass or just plain insult an opponent. The idea is that the weaker you can make your opposition appear, the stronger you and your contention will appear. Example text: Thats the sort of suggestion Id expect from a nose-in-the-air toff like Turnbull. 12) Colloquial Language Colloquial (slang) language can be used in different ways. It can set the writer up as knowledgeable, on the inside of a social group. A writer may also use slang in a sarcastic manner, to attack an opponent or mock an argument. It may also be used to appeal to a readers own sense of cultural identity, or reinforce a writers overall tone. Example text: Shes a top Sheila that Jessica Rowe. Channel Nine are stark having to give her the boot. 13) Emotive Appeals Like many persuasive techniques, emotive appeals aim to engage peoples feelings, not logic or reason. If a writer can manipulate a reader to feel a certain way, that reader should be more likely to agree with the writers overall contention. Often writers will use other forms of persuasive language techniques in order to appeal to peoples emotions.

There is a huge variety of emotions responses that can be aimed at by writers, such as:

Democracy Charity Compassion Environmentalism Fairness

Family Values Fashion sense Fear of change Freedom Group loyalty

Hedonism Hip pocket nerve Morality Nostalgia Patriotism

Reason and logic Safety Self interest Sense of justice Vanity

Example text 1: Soon we will see civilians lying dead in our own streets if we do not act against terrorism. Example text 2: In our society today there are people living without food or adequate shelter. Such basics of life can be provided if those of us who can afford to, give to organizations such as the Salvation Army, to help those unable to help themselves. 14) Inclusive language Inclusive language aims to directly address the reader, either personally or as a member of a shared group. This involves using such words as us, we, you, our. Example text : It is time for us to show our belief in the value of mateship and a fair go, and give generously to the Good Friday Appeal. 15) Rhetorical question A rhetorical question is one in which the answer is so obvious it is not required. The idea here is not to receive an answer, merely to reinforce a point. Example text : Should footballers be treated as above the law? Persuasive Language Techniques 16) Exaggeration A writer may describe a situation in forceful, overblown language in order to make the issue seem more important or urgent than it may otherwise be considered. Exaggerating the scale of an issue can draw an emotional response from a reader. Also known as hyperbole. Example text: Councils are losing the war against vandals. 17) Emphasis There are three types of emphasis that writers use to draw the readers attention to a specific point or idea : Repetition, Cumulation and Alliteration. Repetition Repetition a single word a number of times over is repetition.

Example text : We will all suffer for years to come unless we stop this government, stop them in the workplace, stop them in the polls and stop them on Election Day. Cumulation Using many similar words in a short space is cumulation. Example text: This task requires guts, determination girt and will power. Alliteration Repetition of the first sound in consecutive words is alliteration. Example text: To rip people off so blatantly shows Mr. Craven to be cruel, calculating and crooked. 18) Evidence There are three main types of evidence : Anecdotal , Expert Opinion and Statistical Anecdotal Evidence An anecdote is a tale involving real life events, a true story. Such Stories can be used by writers as evidence to back their claims. To support a contention, and to make themselves appear more credible, writers often use personal anecdotes. Example text: I can tell you that, as a single mother of two, I received very little in the way of financial support during my attempts to return to fulltime work. Expert opinion To make a writers position seem more credible, they may quote the opinions of experts that correspond with their own. As in a court case, experts are often called on to make one side seem stronger and more believable. Example text: My stand on the issue of exposed underwear is supported by fashion designer Ruby Reed, who recently stated : Any one whose underwear is exposed due to low slung jeans should be punished as forcefully possible. Statistical Evidence Like any form of evidence, statistics can be used to make an argument seem more conclusive, a writers opinion more valid. Often statistics are used that are out of context, or form unreliable sources. As the saying goes, There are lies, damned lies, and statistics. Example text: A recent survey found that 90% of students favoured no school uniforms at all.

19) Adjectives 20) Anecdote

Describing word usually connected to a noun, add emphasis. A short account or story of an entertaining incident. Usually makes the reader sympathetic and receptive to the point.

21) Association

Words that create meaning beyond the literal word. Suggests or influences the reader to respond in a certain way.

22) Bias








Subjectively influence the reader by intentionly only presenting one side of the argument. 23) Cliches Worn-out, over used expressions. Are familiar to the reader therefore can offer a shortcut to the meaning. 24) Colourful words and descriptive language Words that are heightened, vivid, full of interest. Produce a picture and or an emotion which engages the reader by grabing their attention. 25) Connotations of Words Implied meanings of words, meanings or associations that words carry beyond their literal meanings. Through careful choice of words different effects are gained and different responses. 26) Emotive Language The deliberate use of strong emotive words to play on readers feelings. This evokes a strong emotional response in order to force agreement from the reader. Such strong language is used to manipulate the readers point of view. 27) Evidence Information, facts or statements used to support the writers point of view. Add weight to backup the readers point of view. 28) Exaggeration/ Hyperbole Overstatement, magnifying the importance. Exaggeration makes a point dramatic to reinforce it. It gains attention and can arouse strong or extream emotional response. 29) Generalisation A general statement that states that the case being discussed is true for a majority of people. This can appeal to our general sense of what is true and so sound authorative may pick up on prejudices in the reader and seem convincing. 30) Inclusive Language Includes the reader by assuming that we all agree or disagree. Engages the reader and may gain sympathy or persuade the reader to reject an idea or individual. 31) Irony Implied or intended meaning is different, often opposite from the literal meaning. A powerful device that can be effective in humiliating the opponent, makes the point obviously.

32) Loaded Language

Words that re loaded with associations. This is a shorthand way of belittling or discrediting someone by suggesting that they are associated with undesirable situations.

33) Metaphor

A comparison that describes one thing in terms of another. Can reinforce a point without mere repetition, can create interest and engage reader.

34) Pun

A play on words to suggest a different meaning. Positions the reader to enjoy a hoke and grabs their attention.

35) Reason and Logic

The use of an argument developed step by step with reasoning and evidence to support each main point. Shows both

viewpoints to help establish the strength of one side. 36) Repitition Repeated words, phrases, sentence patterns, ideas. Gives emphasis and prominence to a point, makes the reader remember this point. 37) Sensationalize To exaggerate abd over-dramatise an issue or point so that it assumes great importance in the publics mind, often evidence in headlines. Grabs the readers attention can invoke a sense of outrage or provke an extreme response. 38) Simile One thing is likened to another using like as..as This clarifies and enhances an idea or situation.