You are on page 1of 56

Through English / Hindi

with my novel scientific way



and

Fully English Transliterated
www.books-india.com
. .-

,-'.

. '.

_ '.
.

This book will make you learn Urdu from grounds up.
by
BOOKS-INDIA.COM

Author :
Dr. Ratnakar Narale
Ph.D. (IIT), Ph.D. (Kalidas Sanskrit Univ.);
Prof. Hindi, University, Toronto
web : www.books-india.com * email : rnarale@yahoo.ca
Technical Assistance :
Dani Friedman, Webmaster
Vijay Vikrant, P. Eng.
Project Funded by :
Dr. Carl Saiphoo
Nephrologist, Prof. of Int. Med. University of Toronto
Monica Arora
IMBA, Business Analyst
Hindu Institute of Learning, Toronto.
Book Title :
Learn Urdu through English / Hindi
With my novel scientific method.
Fonts used in the Book :
Ratnakar-u for Nasta@]leeq typing
Ratnakar-n for Naskh typing
Publisher and Distributor :
PUSTAK BHARATI, (Books-India)
Division of PC Plus Ltd.,
180 Torresdale Ave.,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M2R 3E4
email : rnarale@yahoo.ca www.books-india.com
Publisged for :
Sanskrit Hindi Research Institute, Toronto
Copyright 2009
Learn Urdu through English / Hindi Text Book ISBN 978-1-897416-08-2 Price: $25.00
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be copied, reproduced or utilised in any manner or by any means, computerised, e-mail, scanning,
photocopying or by recording in any information storage and retrieval system, without the permission in writing from the author.
60 of 160 Pages

INDEX
Urdu@ Chart of Alphabet, Nasta@]leeq (Indo-Persian) Script Back Cover
Urdu@ Chart of Alphabet, Naskh (Arabic) Script Inside Back Cover
Hind&-Urdu@ Chart of Alphabet Inside Front Cover
Front Cover Design : Ratnakar Narale
Lesson 1 The Urdu Alphabet (Nasta@]leeq and Naskh) 1
Lesson 2 The Urdu Accent Marks (nuqte) 6
Lesson 3 Joining Urdu Letters : 7
LESSON TITLE : SUBJECT LESSON PAGE
Joining Urdu@ lettaer The 39 Urdu@ Characters 3.0 7
A. The Urdu@ Character Properties 8
B. The Udru@ Character Shapes 9
C. The Urdu@ Character Connectors 13
UDRU LETTERS GROUP 1
The 1st letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : alif ~||~ (English a |==l ~ .
The 2nd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : be -| (English b |==l -| .z
The 3rd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : pe | (English p |==l | . zc
The 4th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : te -| (English t |==l -| .+ zz
The 5th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : t<e (English t> |==l . z+
The 6th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : se | (English s |==l | .o z
UDRU LETTERS GROUP 2
The 7th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : j&m |l-| (English j |==l | . z
The 8th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : che -| (English ch |==l -| . zv
The 9th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : bad>& he -|sl = (English h |==l = .v c
The 10th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : khe | (English kh |==l | .c z

UDRU LETTERS GROUP 3
The 11th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : da@l =|| (English d |==l = .
The 12th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : d<a@l s|| (English d< |==l s .z
The 13th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : za@l ||| (English z |==l | .
The 14th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : re (English r |==l .+ v
The 15th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ad<e ~s (English d< |==l s . +c
The 16th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : jhe | (English jh, z |==l |, | .o +z
The 17th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : zhe | (English z |==l | . ++
UDRU LETTERS GROUP 4
The 18th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : s&n |l-| (English s |==l | . +o
The 19th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : sh&n |l-| (English sh |==l | .v +
The 20th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : sua@d |~|= (English s |==l | .zc +v
The 21st letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : jhua@d |~|= (English jh |==l | .z
UDRU LETTERS GROUP 5
The 22nd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : toe -|| (English t |==l -| .zz
The 23rd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : zoe || (English jh |==l [ | .z
The 24th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ain -| (English e, a |==l , ~ .z+
The 25th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : gain |-| (English gh |==l | .z
The 26th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : fe ~ ( English f |==l ~ .zo oc
The 27th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : qa@f |~ (English q Hindi .z oz
UDRU LETTERS GROUP 6
The 28th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ka@f |~ (English k Hindi .z o
The 29th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ga@f ||~ (English g Hindi | .zv o
The 30th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : la@m ||-| (English l Hindi | .c o
The 31st letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : m&m -|l-| (English m Hindi -| . o

English Hindi -|
UDRU LETTERS GROUP 7
Eng. Hindi -|,
Eng. Hindi =
English Hindi =
Urdu Breath Characters 78
u English Hindi .
English Hindi |, .
English Hindi
English Hindi
Study of multiple letter words 86
Writing Hindi and English Vowels in Urdu
, Present, Past, Future
Making Sentences for Completed Actions
Ratnakars Brain Surgery of Urdu Grammar
Use of the Case Suffixes (post-positions)
Urdu Conversational Road map
BOOKS by Ratnakae Narale 182


LESSON 1
THE URDU ALPHABET
= -|| -||||| = =~ -|=|l urdu@ huru@f tahajj& . _'.

The Urdu alphabet has 39 characters. Following chart shows their alphabetical order and their
Stand-alone shapes. When the Urdu letters are not Stand alone, but joined to other letters, they
may be written differently, as shown in the following lessons.
No.
= -||-|
Urdu@ name Hind&
|==l
equivalent
English
equivalent
Nasta@l&q
,-"
.

script
Naskh

script
1.
~||~
alif
~
a


2.
-|
be
-|
b


3.
|
pe
|
p


4.
-|
te
-|
t


5.

t>e

t>


6.
|
se
|
s


7.
|l-|
j&m
|
j


8.
-|
che
-|
ch


9.
-|sl =
badi he
=
h



32.
-|-|
nu@n
-|
n


33.
-||~|
va@o
-|
v


34.
~|l =
chhot>& he
=
h


35. =|
-|-|l =
do chashm&
he
=
h


36.
=-|||
hamza@
.
i


37.
~|l |
chhot>& ye
|
y

38.
-|sl |
bad<& ye


39.
-|-||t|
nu@ngunna@
~
an


NOTE : Please remember the resembling sounds in Urdu



. .



LESSON 2
THE DOTS / MARKS
-|-| nuqte .'
.

In Urdu@ many letters are recognized simply by looking at the dots (marks) attached to them.
Following are the letters which can be identified with dots and similar looking non-dot letters.








EXERCISE .: -

: The dots (marks) -|-| nuqte


.

Write each of the above letters and remove or add the dots to see how it changes.
PLEASE DO NOT GO TO LESSON 3, WITHOUT DOING PREVIOUS LESSON PROPERLY.

( j
THIS IS THE MOST CRITICAL BUT INTERESTING AS WELL AS UNIQUE ASPECT in learning
urdu language. It is important for English and Hindi knowing people to understand how the letters are
truncated or symbolized when two, three or more letters are joined. I hope you have learned previous
lessons well and you are able to read individual Urdu letters easily, if not, please go back to lesson 1.
THE 39 URDU CHARACTERS
Script : The 39 Urdu Characters
sua@d sh&n s&n zhe jhe ad<e re za@l d{a@l da@l khe he che j&m se t<e te pe be alif
, ,

, .

. .

. .
Table Designed by Ratnakar Narale.
nun gunna ye ye hamza he he va@o nu@n m&m la@m ga@f ka@f qua@f fe ghain ain zoe toe jua@d
. .

. .

,
.
:

: .

. ,

Naskh Script : 39 Urdu Characters : for Side by Side Comparison


sua@d sh&n s&n zhe jhe ad<e re za@l d{a@l da@l khe he che j&m se t<e te pe be alif

Table Designed by Ratnakar Narale.
nun gunna ye ye hamza he he va@o nu@n m&m la@m ga@f ka@f qua@f fe ghain ain zoe toe jua@d







PITFALLS :
In order to understand Urdu clearly and easily, consideration of the following Three things (ppp) is
essential. (A) Character Properties; (B) Character Positions and (C) the Connector Points.
In Hindi and to a certain extent in English, what you right is what you read. In Urdu it is different. In
Urdu the Stand Alone characters change their shapes when they are joined. This is the crux of
learning to read/write Urdu. You will notice that, when a character with any dot/mark comes between
two other characters, only its dot/mark is written. This representation of a character only by its dot/mark
is called Shosha |||| .- ( ). This makes Urdu language very fascinating for a learner.

(A) THE CHARACTER PROPERTIES
Unique for a Language born in India, most of the Urdu characters can be recognized simply by
looking at the placement, number and presence or absence of the dot/dots or a mark (-| ~ -|| nuqta@
.) in them. Some say there are 37 characters in Urdu language, other people say there are 38
characters, I say there are 39 characters. These 39 characters can be grouped into sets, according to
their above mentioned three properties.
(a) According to their shapes, the Urdu lettere may be grouped into the following four sets.
i. 1, 2 or 3 dots : (= ) .

. .

. .
ii. No dots : . . ,:.,..
iii. Presence of . shape : .

iv. Presence of a line :


(b) Again, unique for a Language originated from Sanskrit (Sanskrits grand-daughter, Hindis
daughter), Urdu is not only written Right to Left, but Nasta@]leeq words can be stacked and compacted,
vertically and/or diagonally. Thus best suited for caligraphy. e.g. :
. _

(faj ~|, Mountain pass),

..

(jahannam|=t-|, Hell), . -

` (khanjar ||, Daggar),


_'

-
(haneefee =-|l~l, Religious), ,
.

(hijjeer |=|l, Ones nature), .-
'
(ghar |, House),
_
,
,

(bachpan -|-||-|, Childhood),


-
.

. (kiseese ||l|, To someone), ;

(battakh -|-||,
Duck), .

(Muhammad -|=--|=),.
,

(|l~, Behind), .
, .

(-|l-|, Below), } (-|l-|, Between),


(-|=, Bottom), (||, Head)...etc.

(C) THE URDU CHARACTER CONNECTORS
Again, uncommon for the Languages born in india, the connected ends of Urdu letters are truncated
into joining points or suitable handles in order to make smooth connections with the characters that
comes on its Left and/or Right side, respectively.
Connector Points in STARTING POSITION : Side by side Comparison
39 Urdu STAND ALONE Alone Characters :
sua@d sh&n s&n zhe jhe ad<e re za@l d{a@l da@l khe he che j&m se t<e te pe be alif
, ,

, .

. .

. .
Table Designed by Ratnakar Narale.
nun gunna ye ye hamza he he va@o nu@n m&m la@m ga@f ka@f qua@f fe ghain ain zoe toe jua@d
. .

. .

,
.
:

: .

. ,

28 Urdu Characters at STARTING Position :


sua@d sh&n s&n zhe jhe ad<e re za@l d{a@l da@l khe he che j&m se t<e te pe be alif


Table Designed by Ratnakar Narale.
nun gunna ye ye hamza he he va@o nu@n m&m la@m ga@f ka@f qua@f fe ghain ain zoe toe jua@d

. NOTE : The ELEVEN Urdu Letters, ~||~ alif ( ), =|| da@l (), s|| d<a@l ( ), ||| za@l ( ); re (), ~s
ad<e, ( ), | jhe ( ), | zhe ( ) and -||~| va@o (), -|sl | bad{& ye (.) and -|-| |t| nu@n gunna@ (. )
DO NOT connect with the next letter on their LEFT side, therefore they do not need connector
handles.
Connector Points in STARTING POSITION : Side by side Comparison
39 Urdu STAND ALONE Alone Characters :
sua@d sh&n s&n zhe jhe ad<e re za@l d{a@l da@l khe he che j&m se t<e te pe be alif

1||=n=-iq-=+|,-|-n-|=

THE URDU LETTERS
(Based on Character Shapes)
GROUP 1
LESSON 3.1
The 1st letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : alif ~||~ (English a Hindi ~
Nasta@]leeq style :
a a
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
a a
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
TIP 7 : (i) No letter is connected on the LEFT SIDE of the Letter ~||~ alif (~ a ).
(ii) alif can be connected to the letter on its right side only. Therefore, in the Middle
position and in End position, the shape of alif remains same.
Examples : Urdu@ name : alif .

(Naskh ) (Hindi ~ English a


(for the letters be and pe, please see Lessons 3.2 and 3.3 or the Back Cover of the book)
(i) Letter alif in Stand-alone position ( )
(ii) Letter alif in Starting position ( ) : ~-| ab (now) = Right to Left $ -| b + ~ a = + =
(as Initial letter, alif ~||~ must be written in Stand-alone shape; therefore, be -| also
becomes a Stand-alone letter).


(iii) Letter alif in Middle position () : -||| ba@p (father) = Right to Left $ | p + a ~ + -| b =+
+ =+ + ='.

(Naskh ..) (be is written in Starting shape, alif in Middle


position is attached to be, but it is detached from pe. Letter pe is written detached from alif, in its
Stand-alone shape). See TIP 5
(iv) Letter alif in End position () : ~--|| abba@ = Right to Left $ a ~ + -| b + -| b +a ~
= a ~ + -| b + -| b + a ~ = .

(Naskh ..

) (a|.| .sin Starting shape; the first be is


in Middle position and the second be is represented with a tashdid Marker ( ) ; the second
alif is written in End shape, which is same as its Middle position shape). See TIP 4
** TIP : Whe a consonant is doubled, the second consonant is represented by a tashdid Marker. For
all Urdu Markers, please see LESSON 5. But, generally these Markers are skipped.
NOTE : When ~||~ alif (~ a ) comes after the Urdu@ letters dal (), d<al ( ), zal ( ), re (), ade
(), ze ( ) and zhe ( ) , the alif is written as a Stand-alone letter. eg\
NOTE: PLEASE DO NOT GO TO NEXT LESSONS , WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING CURRENT LESSON PROPERLY.
LESSON 3.2
The 2nd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : be -| (English b |==l -|
Nasta@]leeq style :
b
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin

LESSON 3.5
The 5th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : t<e (English t> |==l
Nasta@]leeq style :
T
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
T
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
NOTE : This the second Urdu -| ( t sound ( see -| te .

Lesson 3.4 and -|| toe . Lesson 3.22)


Examples : Letter te () Urdu name@ t>e .

(Naskh _. ) (Hindi English phonetic t<


(for letters ka@f and la@m please see Lessons 3.28 and 3.30, or see the back cover of the book)
(i) Letter t>e in Stand-alone position ()
(ii) Letter t>e in Starting position : e.g. | t>ap (Tap! sound) Right to Left $ | p - t>> =
+ = + =.

(Naskh .. )(t>e is in Starting position and


pe is in End-position).
(iii) Letter t>e in Middle position : e.g. | pat>ak (to Drop) Right to Left $ k - t> + p | =
+ + =+ + = ..

,
(Naskh ...) (pe is
written in Starting shape, t>e is written in Middle shape and ka@f is written in End shape).
(iv) Letter t>e in End position : e.g. || palat> (To turn. return) Right to Left $ t> - + l | - p | =

URDU LETTERS GROUP 2 (based on Character Shapes)
LESSON 3.7
The 7th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : j&m |l-| (English j |==l |
Nasta@]leeq style :
j
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
j
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
NOTE : This is the first | j sound ( see : ||| ja@l .

Lesson 3.13, | .

je Lesson 3.16, | ze .

Lesson 3.17, |~|= jua@d ,

Lesson 3.21 and || .

joe Lesson 3.23 )


REMEMBER : |l-| j&m (), -| che ( ), = he ( ) and | khe () is second group of
letters which can be identified simply by looking at the dots (nuqte).
Examples : |l-| j&m () Urdu@ name j&m `

. (Naskh ...

) (Hindi | English j
(i) Letter j&m in Stand-alone position ()
(ii) Letter j&m in Starting position () : e.g. |-| jab (When) Right to Left $ -| b - | j =

LESSON 3.8
The 8th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : che -| (English ch |==l -|
Nasta@]leeq style :
c
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
c
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Examples : -| che () : Urdu@ name che .
,
(Naskh _.) (|==l -| English ch
(i) Letter che in Stand-alone position ()
(ii) Letter che in Starting position () : e.g. -|-|| chacha@ (Uncle) Right to Left $ ~ a - -| ch - -|
ch = + + = + + = '.
,
,

(Naskh ..)(|.s:che
is in Starting position, another che is in Middle shape and alif is in End-position).
(iii) Letter che in Middle position () : See the example given above, -|-|| chacha@ (Uncle).
Notice the difference between Starting () and Middle () shapes of che in this example.

LESSON 3.10
The 10th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : khe | (English kh |==l |
Nasta@]leeq style :
{
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
{
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Examples : | khe () : Urdu@ name khe .

(Naskh _.) (Hindi | English kh


(i) Letter khe in Stand-alone position () :
(ii) Letter khe in Starting position () : e.g. |-|| khata@ (Fault) Right to Left $ ~ a - -| t - | kh
= + .+ = + + =

(Naskh ...)(khe is in Starting


position, toe . is in Middle shape and alif is in End-shape).
(iii) Letter khe in Middle position () : e.g. -|-| takhta (Throne) Right to Left $ -| t - | kh - -|
t = + + = + + =

(Naskh :. )

LESSON 3.14
The 14th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : re (English r |==l
Nasta@]leeq style :

Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :

Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Examples : re ( ) : Urdu@ name re (Naskh ) (Hindi English r
(i) Letter re in Stand-alone position ( )
(ii) Letter re in Starting position ( ) : e.g. -| rab (God) Right to Left $ -| b - r = +
= + = (Naskh )(re is in Starting shape, be is in End-shape). See
TIP 2

LESSON 3.17
The 17th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : zhe | (English zh |==l |
Nasta@]leeq style :

Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :

Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
NOTE : This is the fiurth | j sound ( see : |l-| j&m Lesson 3.7, ||| ja@l Lesson 3.13, | je Lesson
3.16, |~|= jua@d Lesson 3.21 and || joe Lesson 3.23 )
NOTE 2 : This | zhe ( ) is the least used j type of sound in Urdu@ language
Examples : | zhe ( ) : Urdu@ name zhe (Naskh ) (Hindi | Eng. zh
(i) Letter zhe in Stand-alone position ( )
(ii) Letter zhe in Starting position ( ) : e.g. ||| (|||: zhal (Hail) Right to Left $ | l - ~ a

URDU LETTERS GROUP 4 (based on Character Shapes)
LESSON 3.18
The 18th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : s&n |l-| (English s |==l |
Nasta@]leeq style :
s
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
s
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
NOTE : This is the second | s sound ( look : | se in Lesson 3.16, |l-| sh&n Lesson 3.19 and
|~|= sua@d Lesson 3.20)
REMEMBER : Letters |l-| s&n () and |l-| sh&n ( ), |~|= sua@d () and |~|= jua@d ()
is the fourth group of letters which can be identified simply by looking at the dots (nuqte).
Examples : |l-| s&n () : Urdu@ name s&n ,

. ~
(Naskh ..

) (|==l | English s
(i) Letter s&n in Stand-alone position ()
(ii) Letter s&n in Starting position ( ) : e.g. |-| sab (All) Right to Left $ -| b - | s =
+ = + = .(Naskh ..)(s&n is in Starting

URDU LETTERS GROUP 5 (based on Character Shapes)
LESSON 3.22
The 22nd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : toe -|| (English t |==l -|
Nasta@]leeq style :
Q
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
Q
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
NOTE : This is the third -| t sound ( see -| te Lesson 3.4 and t>e Lesson 3.25)
REMEMBER :
Letters -|| toe (), || zoe ( ); -| ain (), |-| gain (); and ~ fe (), |~ qa@f ()
are the fifth group of letters which can be identified simply by looking at their dots (nuqte).
Examples : -|| toe (. ) : Urdu@ name toe - (Naskh .u ) (|==l -| Eng. t
(i) Letter toe in Stand-alone position (.) :
(ii) Letter toe in Starting position ( ) : e.g. -||-| talab (Desire, addiction) Right to Left $ -| b -

LESSON 3.24
The 24th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ain -| (English e, a |==l , ~
Nasta@]leeq style :
E
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
E
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Examples : -| ain () : Urdu@ name ain ,

.
(Naskh .c

) (|==l , ~ Eng. e, a
(i) Letter ain in Stand-alone position ()
(ii) Letter ain in Starting position ( ) : e.g. ~|-| ajab (Strange) Right to Left $ -| b - | j - ~
a = + += + + =.

(Naskh .c
)(ain is in Starting shape, j&m is in Middle position and be is in End position).
(iii) Letter ain in Middle position () : e.g. -|~-| ta-ab (Struggle, effort, trouble) Right to Left $
-| b + ~ a + -| t = + += + + =.
.
'


LESSON 3.30
The 30th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : la@m ||-| ( English l Hindi |
Nasta@]leeq style :
l
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
l
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
REMEMBER : Letters ||-| la@m () and -|-| nu@n ( ) and nun gunnah (.see page 12) form the
seventh group of letters which can be identified simply by looking at the dot (nuqte).
Examples : | l ( ) : Urdu@ name la@m : (Naskh ) (|==l | English l
(i) Letter la@m in Stand-alone position ()
(ii) Letter la@m in Starting position ( ) : e.g. |-| lab (Lip), Right to Left $ -| b - | l =
+ = + =.(Naskh .' )(la@m is in Starting
shape, be is in End position)
(iii) Letter la@m in Middle position () : e.g. -||| bala@ (Trouble) Right to Left $ ~ a + | l + -|

URDU LETTERS GROUP 7 (based on Character Shapes)
LESSON 3.33
The 33rd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : va@o -||~| (English v, w Hindi -|, , ~|
Nasta@]leeq style :

Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
v v
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
REMEMBER :
(1) Letter va@o -||~| () is similar to letter =|| da@l ( ) in shape, and thus sometimes confusing.
(2) Letter va@o -||~| () stands for English letters V and W, (Hindi -|. It is many times used as Hind&
vowels , ~| or ~| (u, o, au ) attached to consonants. eg. =|-| (duka@n,Shop ': ,=| (do,Two
,|| (sau,Hundred :
Examples : -| v : Urdu@ name va@o

(Naskh

) (|==l -| English v, w

LESSON 3.35
The 35th letter : do chashm& he =| -|-|l = (English h Hindi =
Nasta@]leeq style :
H
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
Naskh style :
H
Stand Alone End Position Middle Position Starting Positoin
NOTE : This is the third = h sound (see : ~|l = chhot>& he 3.34 and -|sl = bad[& he 3.9)
REMEMBER :
This interesting looking character is very important for writing the Hind&
Breath Characters namely : | kha, | gha, ~ chha, | jha, a t>ha, d<ha,
d<ha, | tha, | dha, ~ pha, and +| bha. See chart given below for actual
details.
Examples : = h : Urdu@ name do chashm& he :, .

-
(Naskh _:_..

) (Hindi =,
English h )
(i) Letter do chashm& he in Stand-alone position ( )
(ii) Letter do chashm& he in Starting position () : e.g. =~-|: haftah< (Week), Right to Left $ = h -

3.36 WRITING HINDI BREATH CHARACTERS IN URDU
( )
+ = ~ e.g. ~ | rakh (keep)
+ = ~ e.g. .-
'
| ghar (home)
+ = ~
,
e.g. ~
,

~-| chhat (roof)


+ = ~ e.g. .~

| jhat> (quick)
+ = ~

e.g. ~

|a lat>h (stick)
+ = e.g. .~ -| d<hab (mode)
+ = e.g.
,
| pad<h (read)
+ = ~
.
e.g. ~
.
| rath (Chariot)

English an Hindi ~
. .
Stand Alone End Position

Stand Alone End Position
Also called -|-| |t| it acts almost same as the signs for Hindi vowels ~| or (-|=|-|=l
-||:||) at the end of a word.
This -|-| |t| character comes at the end of a word. Its shape is almost same as letter -|-|
nu@n, but without the dot.
e.g. -|| ma '. ~|| kyo

. =| kaha@ '.
-|=| vaha@ '.

-| mai _'
.

LESSON 3.40
Study of sentences made up of multiple-letter-words.
=| | ||-| -| =~| -||| |~|| |-||| l -|
}.r:.-. .'.:. .~. .

( .L:'_'.:,....._. :._:.x.._: j
EXAMPLES : |-|||| , .

(... )
A. Words of Two Letters : =| =~l |~| s}.. (l:'_:,.
.. ( a@g ~|| (Fire) 2. . (.: kab -| (When?)
3. - (.. ) bam -|-| (Bomb) 4. - (.. ) bam -|-| (Bomb)
TWO IMPORTANT NOTES :
(1) If Alif ( ) or Lam (,) comes after kaf ( ), the compound letter becomes like this :
: ka@ | (Of), (_:) kal | (Yesterday, Tomorrow)
(2) If Alif ( ) comes after Lam (,), the compound letter becomes like this :
: () la@ || (Please bring), .: (..) la@bh ||+| (Benefit)
Study of sentences TWO-LETTERS words : }.-}. . (:._:.L:'_:,. )
1. Bring two letters. do khat la@. =| |-| || :: . (l.j
Dont count days. din mat gin |=-| -|-| ||-|.. , .

(::..)
sn-i-||=oi-=Ras p& le. | |l |.}, .(_'_.j

LESSON 4
WRITING HINDI AND ENGLISH VOWELS IN URDU
|==l ~| ~| |l -|| | = -| |||-|||
..

.
: '
.
_ '.

'
(1) ~ (a) :
For producing the sound of Short vowel a, as the first A in the English word America ~-|l|,
or Hindi word ~-| ab, please see Urdu@ letter alif in Section 3.1 above. eg. ~-|l| amrika@
(America) .-
.
. J
(2) ~| (a@, aa) :
(i) To write the Long vowel a@ (~|) sound at the begining of a word, like ~| a@ in the word ~|| a@g
(Fire), write the letter alif and put a tilde like sign ( ~ ) above to make it look like e.g. ~|| a@g
(Fire) .(Naskh )
(ii) The Long a@ sound within or at the end of the word : like ~| a@ in the word -||-|| ma@ta@ (Mother)
'.'.
.
(Naskh ....)
(3) . (i) :

or
(i) To write the sound of the Short vowel i (.), like . i in word |=| riha@, please see Urdu@ letter
chhot>& ye in Section 3.37. e.g. |=| riha@ (Free) '.
.
or '.

(Naskh ... or .. );
(ii) Initial letter, . i is written by adding a diacritical French aigue like subscript zer sign (see the next

LESSON 5
URDU DIACRITICAL ACCENT MARKS
-||:|| (|-| .
(1) Zabar |-| . .

(Naskh ,.

) : e.g.

...c:c.
Zabar is always written as SUPERSCRIPT (above). Its shape is like
French acute accent. Appearing initially, Zabar should be placed over letter alif.
It ipmarts a plain sound (like ~ a ) to the consonant below it.
e.g.

= (~ - ~, a + a).

= (-| - ~, b + a).

= (| - ~, p + a)
(2) Zer | .
.
(Naskh ,. ) : e.g.

...c:c.
Zer is always written as SUBSCRIPT (bolow). Its shape is like
French accent aigue.
It adds a sound of . i to the consonant above it.
Appearing initially, Zer should be placed under letter alif.
e.g.

= . i,

= |-| bi, (-| - ., b + i),

= || pi, (| - ., p + i)
(3) Pesh || _
.
,
(Naskh .. ) : e.g.

...c:c.
Pesh is always written as SUPERSCRIPT. Its shape is like English comma.
It adds a sound of u to the consonant below it.
Appearing initially, Pesh should be placed over letter alif.
e.g.

= u,

= -| bu, (-| - , b + u),

= | pi, (| - , p + u)
(4) Mad -|= .. (Naskh ..) : e.g.
Mad is always written as SUPERSCRIPT. Its shape is like Spanish tilde.
It gives a sound of ~| a@ to the letter alif.
mad should be placed over letter alif.
e.g. = ~|| a@p (You).


Nasta@]leeq

~
~| a@ . i u e ai ~| o ~| au
| | | |
(k)
: }

: ,

- -

(q) }

, ' -

| (kh) . } Z

, - -

| (kh)

. ,

, - -

-
| (g) : }

:
:

! -

| (gh) ~ . . ,

- -

-| (ch)

. ,

. ,


-
-
-
~ (chh) . . . Z

, - -

| (j)

. }


, < -
-
| (z) .

. .

| (jh) .

. .

| (zh) .

. .

| (xj) ,

. , ,

.
, - -

=
| (jh) .

.-

, - -

-
| (jh) . . , . Z

, - -

(t>) .

} .

. .

a (t>h) . . } . z

, - -

s (d<) .

. .

s (d<) .

. .

(d<h) ..

. .

. .

: .

, - .

- .
-

(d<h) ..

. .

. .

: .

, - .

- .
-

-| (t) .

} .

, -

| (th) . . .

, - -

= (d) . . . .

. . .

. .

| (dh) . . . . . . .

: . .

-
, - . - .
-
-| (n) .

. ,

- -


(B) CHART OF HINDI / ENGLISH / URDU CONSONANTS +VOWELS
Naskh
~
~| a@ . i u e ai ~| o ~| au
| | | |
(k)
.: _:

_: _:

.: .:

(q)
. _

_ _

. .

| (kh) .:
..: _.: .:

_.: _.:

..: ..:

| (kh)
.. _.

_. _.

..

..

| (g)
.: _:

_: _:

.: .:

| (gh) .:
..: _.: .:

_.: _.:

..: ..:

-| (ch)
.. _.

_. _.

.. ..

~ (chh) ..
... _.. ..

.. _ _..

... ...

| (j)
.. _.

_. _.

.. ..

| (z) .

| (jh) .

| (zh) .

| (xj) ,

.. _.

_. _.

.. ..

| (jh) .

.s _s

_s _s

.s .s

| (jh) ..
... _.. ..

_.. _..

... ...

(t>)
.. _.

_.

.. ..

a (t>h) ..
.... _.. ..

_.. _..

... ...

s (d<)

s (d<)

(d<h)
.: _:

_: _:

.: .:

(d<h)
.: _:

_: _:

.: .:

-| (t)
.. _.

_. _.

.. ..

| (th) ..
... _.. ..

_.. _..

... ...

= (d)

| (dh)
.: _:

_: _:

.: :

.
-| (n)
.. _.

_. _.

.. ..

| (p)
.. _.

_. _.

.. ..

~ (ph) ..
... _.. ..

_.. _..

... ...


SOME URDU LETTERING STYLES
'.

'

.
.

_'
.
( a@o ab ham urdu@ likhna@ s&khte hai )
(~|~| ~-| =-| = |||-|| |l|-| =)
sa ,taLsa \saLl a

.. _.,... ..,. ,.


lla\l )

i _la\ a)
|isI a

. _is qa


LESSON 6
THE URDU NUMERALS
= ~== .> . .

0 sifr ||~
1 ek One book. ek kita@b |-||-|| ..:
(..:.. )
2 do =| Two books. dok kita@be ,. . (....: )
3 t&n -|l-| Three books t&n kita@be ,., (_....:..

)
4 cha@r -||
5 pa@n~ch ||-|
6 chhah ~=
7 sa@t ||-|
8 a@t>h ~|a
9 nau -||
10 das =|
EXERCISE :
(1) Read the numbers in Urdu@ :
v + c z o
(2) Read the following Urdu numerals :

(3) Read and Write the following Urdu@ numerals :
. .~ ..

. : ., .-, .. ( <..~............. )

COUNTING FROM ELEVEN TO ONE HUNDRED
Each Urdu Numeral is written Left to Right, like English
English Transliteration Hind& Nasta@]leeq
n-||
11 gya@rah
||=
. .
..:


URDU NUMERALS 0 to 100 :






LESSON 7
7.1 MAKING YOUR OWN URDU SENTENCES
~|-| ~|| = |-|| -|-||-| l -||
.. _ . '. . .
,

,
1 MAKING SIMPLE SENTENCES - about a Present event, with IS (hai =
NOTE, The sign is a nasal tone added to the vowel under that sign.
Key words :
English Hindi Urdu English Hindi Urdu
I -| (mai) ,(.. am = (hu@) .-


(..

You ~|| (a@p) . ( are = (hai) , (..


He, she, that -|= (vah) () is = (hai) .(_.
This, it |= (yah) . (<. They -|= (vah) (
My -|| (mera@) (,.. your ~||| (a@p-ka@) : (.x.
Our =-||| (hama@ra@) . .-
-
(..: Hisher || (us-ka@) .x. ( .x. )
. ( :. < ) TABLE 1 : Speaking Present Events
Subject am is are
I -| mai ,(.. = (hu@) . -


(..

He, that -|= vah () = (hai) .(_.


She, that -|= vah () = (hai) .(_.
We =-| ham - (.. = (hai) , (..
You ~|| a@p . ( = (hai) , (..
You -|-| tum

(..

=| (ho) (..
You -| tu@ -

(..

= (hai) ,(..
They -|= vah . () = (hai) ,(..
These |= yah . (<. = (hai) ,(..

7.5 USING URDU PLURAL WORDS
RATNAKARS FIRST THREE NOBLE TRUTHS : (Singular to Plural)
FIRST TRUTH : If the word is Masculine ending in a@ (~|, the a@ (~| changes to e ( in plural.
eg\ singular m\ Boy |s| lad<ka@ :. (.:.') # plural m\ Boys |s lad<ke :. (_:.')
SECOND TRUTH : If the word is Feminine ending in a consonant, then e ( is added in plural.
eg\ singular f\ Book |-||-| kita@b . . (..: ) # plural f\ Books |-||-| kita@be ,. (....: )
THIRD TRUTH : If the word is Feminine ending in & (., the & (. changes to iya@ (.|| in plural.
e.g. Singular f\ Girl |sl lad<k& # _:1'

(_:1'

) # plural f\ Girls |s||| ladkiya@ . . .


.
(...:1' )
MORE EXAMPLES : (* = no change)
Dog (m\) -|| (kutta@) .


(..:

) # Dogs -| (kutte) .

.
(_.:

)
Cat (f\) |-||l (bill&)

, ( x.

_ ) # Cats |-||||| (billiya@)

. . ( x.

. . )
Car (f\) ||sl (ga@d<&) .:

(.:) # Cars |||s|| (ga@diya@) : .

. . ( .: .

. )
*House (m\) | (ghar) (,.:) # Houses | (ghar) (,.:)
Thing (f\) -|l| (ch&j)

(,..

) # Things -|l| (ch&je) , (. ,.. )


Cow (f\) ||| (ga@y) .: (_..:) # Cows || (ga@e) (...:)
*Teacher (m\) -||= (usta@d) .. (...

) # Teachers -||= (usta@d) .. (...

)
PLURALS .
We are boys =-| |s = ham lad<ke hai ,:.- (.._:.'..)
You are boys ~|| |s = a@p lad<ke hai ,:.. (.._:.')
They are boys -|= |s = vah lad<ke hai ,:. (.._:.')
These are boys |= |s = ye lad<ke hai ,:.. (.._:.'<.)
We are girls =-| |s||| = ham lad<kiya@ hai ,...- ( ....:.'.. )
You are girls ~|| |s||| = a@p lad<kiya@ hai ,.... ( .' . . . . )
They are girls -|= |s||| = vah lad<kiya@ hai ,... (....:.' )

7.9 SPEAKING A PAST EVENT - WAS (|| . ) ... )
Key words: Here = yaha@ |=|.. (...), There = vaha@ -|=|.. (.., Where = kaha@ =| .. (..:
Rich =am&r ~-|l

(,..

, Poor= gar&b |l-| . ( ,c

. . ), Dont =-|-|.

(:., Up to = tak -|:

(..
. ( :. < ) TABLE 2 : Speaking Past Events
Subject was (m\) was (f\) were (m\) were (f\)
I -| mai ,(.. || tha@ . (...) |l th& ,

(_..

)
He -|= vah () || tha@ . (...)
She -|= vah () |l th& ,

(_..

)
We =-| ham - (.. | the (_..) |l th& ,

. -

(...

)
You ~|| a@p . ( | the (_..) |l th& ,

. -

(...

)
You -|-| tum

(..

| the (_..) |l th& ,

. -

(...

)
You -| tu@ -

(..

|l th& ,

(_..

) || tha@ . (...) |l th& ,

(_..

)
They -|= vah ( ) | the (_..) |l th& ,

. -

(...

)
These |= yah . (<. | the (_..) |l th& ,

. -

(...

)
NOTE : The above table shoes that :
(i) Suffixes for the Past events are tha@, th&, the, th& (|| |l | |l
. (...), ,

(_..

), (_..), ,

.
-

(...

)
(ii) Ending a@ (~| stands for masculine gender, singular subject (I, you, he) See examples below
(iv) Ending & (. shows a feminine singular subject (I, she) See examples below
(v) Ending e ( stands for masculine plural subject (we, you, they) See examples below
(vi) Ending letter & (. stands for feminine plural subject (we, you, they) See examples below
* In Urdu and Hindi there is no Neuter gender, all English Neuter things are Masculine or Feminine.
Masculine :
I was -| || mai tha@ ., (.....
We were =-| | ham the - (_....)
You were ~|| | a@p the . ( _.. )

7.15 USING THE ACTION WORDS
FOR MAKING YOUR OWN SENTENCES
Let us learn how to make our own sentences in the following five ways
1. I normally do (habitual) (you do; he, she, it does; we do, they do) see - Table 3
2. I am doing (you are doing; he, she, it is doing; we, they are doing) Table 4
3. I was doing (you were doing; he, she, it was doing; they were doing) Table 5
5. I had already done (you had done; he, she, it had done; we, they had done) Table 6
6. I used to do (you used to do; he, she, it used to do; they used to do) Table 7
. ( :. < ) TABLE 3 : Making sentences with - I do; you do; he, she, we do; they do.
Doer of the action drink am, is, are, has, have
Subject Verb Masculine Verb Feminine Present tense
I drink -| mai ,(.. |l-|| p&ta@ > ( . . .. ) |l-|l p&t& ( . . . _ ) = hu@ . -


(..

He drinks -|= vah () |l-|| p&ta@ > ( . . .. ) = (hai) L (_..)


She drinks -|= vah () |l-|l p&t& ( . . . _ ) = (hai) L (_..)
We drink =-| ham - (.. |l-| p&te 1( . . . _ ) |l-|l p&t& ( . . . _ ) = (hai) , (..
You drink ~|| a@p . ( |l-| p&te 1( . . . _ ) |l-|l p&t& ( . . . _ ) = (hai) , (..
You drink -|-| tum

(..

|l-| p&te 1( . . . _ ) |l-|l p&t& ( . . . _ ) =| (ho) (..


You drink -| tu@ -

(..

|l-|| p&ta@ > ( . . .. ) |l-|l p&t& ( . . . _ ) = (hai) L (_..)


They drink -|= vah () |l-| p&te 1( . . . _ ) |l-|l p&t& ( . . . _ ) = (hai) , (..
EXERCISE : Present Habitual mode
Translate the English sentences into Urdu (Answers are given for help)
1. I drink tea. mai cha@y p&ta@ (p&t&) hu@ -| -||| |l-|| (|l-|l =|
, .. > . ( . . ._... . .. .. ) , .. . ( . . ._... . . _ .. )
You drink tea. a@p cha@y p&te hai. ~|| -||| |l-| =| ... 1 , ( ._... . _. . . )
He drinks tea. vah cha@y p&ta@ hai. -|= -||| |l-|| =| >.. . ( ._... . .. _. )
2. She eats hot Samosa@s vah garam samose khat& hai -|= |-| |-||| ||-|l =|
}..- . ( ...:_....,: _ _. )
We walk 10 km. hum das km chalte hai. =-| c km.-||-| =|

7.19 MAKING YOUR OWN SENTENCES FOR FUTURE EVENTS
. ( :. < ) -||| TABLE 8 : Future actions : I will do, I will eat, I will go, ...etc.
Doer of the action drink am, is, are, has, have
Subject Verb Masculine : will Verb Feminine : will
I will drink -| mai ,(.. |l~|| p&u@nga@ .. (.x...) |l~|l p&u@ng& ,
.

( _x... )
He will drink -|= vah () |l|| p&ega@ :.
.
(.:_.. )
She will drink -|= vah () |l|l p&eg&

,
.

(_x.. )
We will drink =-| hum - (.. |l| p&enge .

(_x... ) |l| p&enge

. ( . . _x.- ) *
You will drink ~|| a@p . ( |l| p&enge .

(_x... ) |l| p&enge

. ( . . _x.- ) *
You will drink -|-| tum

(..

|l~|| p&oge : (_:... ) |l~||l p&og& } (_:... )


You will drink -| tu@ -

(..

|| p&ega@ ..

(.x.. ) |l|l p&eg& ,


.

(_x.. )
They will drink -|= vah () |l| p&enge .

(_x... ) |l| p&enge

. ( . . _x.- ) *
*NOTE : Masculine plural forms are good enough for Feminine plural tenses also.
EXERCISE : Future Events
Translate the English sentences into Hind& (Answers are given for help)
1. I will eat a mango. mai ek a@m kha@u@n[ga@ (kha@u@n[g&). -| ~|-| ||~|| (||~|l|
: . :, (.x...:...., }.:, (_x.......
2. You will bring the money. a@p paise la@en[ge. ~|| || |||| :. :

. ( . . _. _x.c )
. He (she) will wash clothes tomorrow. vah kal kapd<e dhoega@ (dhoeg&). -|= | |s |||| (|||l|
:.- .. (.:.:..::, -..

.
, (_x.. .:..::
+. We will write two. hum do khat likhenge. =-| =| |-| ||||| . : .-

.-
.
(.x...x'l... )
. Will they drink wine? vah shara@b p&en[ge kya@? -|= ||-| |l| ~||" kya@ vah shara@b p&en[ge? ~||
-|= ||-| |l|"
.. .

(..:_x...,: ), . .


.
.

( _x...,:..: )
o. What will they ask? vah kya@ pu@chhen[ge? -|= ~|| |~|" . -

.-

. ( : . . .... . _x. )
RATNAKARS FOURTH NOBLE TRUTH : (kya@)
Whem kya@ (~|| comes at the beginning or at the end of a sentence, kya@ (~|| = a question mark
(?). But, when kya@ (~|| comes anywhere in the sentence, then this kya@ (~|| = what?

LESSON 8
MAKING YOUR OWN SENTENCES FOR COMPLETED ACTIONS
A perfected or completed action indicates what you did, have done or had done.
(i) suffix (m\) a@ (~| or (f\) & (. is attached to the verb that ends in a consonant or a short vowel.
eg\ verb chal -|| (to walk) # walked chal + a@ = chala@; I walked m\ mai chala@, f\ mai chal&.
-|| - ~| -|||, (m\) -| -|||, (f\) -| -||l| + = ,.
-
,.
-
} ( _. . .. . .. . x. _
(ii) suffix ya@ (y + a@) || or y& (y + &) |l is attached to the verb that ends in a long vowel such as a@, &
or o (~|, ., ~|. eg\ verb (Sleep) : so || # (slept) : m\ so + y + a@ = soya@, I slept : m\ mai soya@,
|| - || ||||, (m\) -| |||| - . (.. ....:, f\ mai soy&. -| |||l| , -

( . . ... _
(iii) If a completed action is Transitive, suffix ne (-| is attached to the subject. verb (Eat) kha@ || #
(ate) kha@ + ya@ = kha@ya@, (I ate) maine kha@ya@. || - || ||||, -|-| ||||| , . . . ( . . . ...:_ . ,
(Drink) p& |l # (drank) p& + ya@ = |l|| p&ya@ . (... ), (I drank maine p&ya@ -|-| |l|| ..,(..._...
(iv) When suffix ne (-| is attached to a subject, the verb changes according to the Object (the thing
on which the action is done). Now the Subject has no effect on the verb. eg\ m\ and f\ subject #
1. I ate a banana. mai ne kela@ kha@ya@ -|-| || |||| , .

. . . ( . . . .:_ : ... . );
2. I ate bananas. mai ne kele kha@ye -|-| | ||| , . : . . ( . . . .:_ x _ : _...
3. I ate a rot>& mai ne rot>& kha@y& -|-| |l |||l , . , .

. ( . . . _._

: _... );
4. I ate rot>&/ mai ne rot>iya@ kha@y& -|-| |||| |||l , . , . . . ( . . . .._ . : _... ).
RATNAKARS FIFTH NOBLE TRUTH : (Perfect tense)
If an action is completed on a transitive verb, suffix ne (-| is attached to the subject.
(a) Completed or perfected action = I did, I have done, I had done ...etc.
(b) Transitive action is where the the action is performed on an object, not on the subject. eg\ I (the
subject) ate (the verb) a mango (the object), I drank tea, I wrote a book ...etc.
(c) Intransitive action is where the action is performed by the doer (subject) on himherself, i.e. the
action is not transferred to any external object. eg\ I (the subject) went, Bob slept, John walked,
dog ran, cat died, they stayed, we came, you lived, baby cried, water leaked, house burnt, Sonia
won, she swam, he sat, monkey jumped, sun rose, rain fell.
The perfect (completed) actions are mainly of three kinds, such as :
1. I did (you did; he, she, it did; we did; they did) see - Table 8
2. I have done (you have done; he, she has done; we have done; they have done )
3. I had done (you had done; he, she had done; we had done; they had done)

From the charts of tenses we studied in previous lessons, :
(1) I drink hot tea = mai garam cha@y p&ta@ hu@ = mai , garam cha@y .. p&ta@ > hu@ . -


Note: #2 t = habitual mode (do), rah = incomplete mode (-ing), chuk = already done mode.
#3 a@ = m\ singular; & = f\ singular, e = m\ plural; & = f\ plural.
#5 u@ = 1st person singular; ai, e = second and third person singular; ai, e = plural.
(2) I was drinking tea = mai cha@y p& raha@ tha@ = mai , cha@,.. p& } raha@ . . tha@ .
Note : #6 th = was, had, *used to
* used to = #2 + #3 and #6 + #3 (t + a@, th + a@)
(8) I saw (have seen, had seen) = mai ne dekha@ (hai, tha@ ) = mai ,ne .dekha@ . J (hai, tha@) L,.
Note : #8 When the action is transitive and perfected (Simple, Present, Past or Future), suffix ne (-| is
attached to the verb.
With suffix ne (-|, the Subject has no effect on the verb. Now, the Object affects the verb. eg\
(1) m\ Ra@m cha@y p&ta@ hai, f\ S&ta@ cha@y p&t& hai.
~

.
.

..
.

.
, L ( .

. .. ._...

. .

_ _.. ) (2). Perfect actions


(Objects f. cha@y m. a@m) Ra@m ne cha@y p&, S&ta@ ne cha@y p&, Ra@m ne a@m kha@ya@, S&ta@ ne a@m kha@ya@.
}... . > }... . . . . > . . . ( ._..._. _ . . .. ._..._. _ ..:_. . . . . .. ..:_. . . )
subject
object
verb and its mode
tense &
person
subject
verb
object
#1
verb
#2
mode
#3
gender and number
#4
present tense #5
person
#6
past tense
tense
#3
gender, number
#3
gender, number
#2
mode
adjective
adjective
#3
perfect tense suffix,
ya@ for a long vowel
#8
transitive
perfect action
suffix
present
tense
perfect,
transitive
action
#6
past
tense
past tense

LESSON 10
USE OF THE CASE SUFFIXES
ko (| - ( .: = to; se (| . ( . _ = with, by, from;
me (-| , ( .. = in; par (| , ( ,. = on, at
RATNAKARS EIGHTH NOBLE TRUTH : (attaching Case suffixes)
(i) When ANY SUFFIX (ko | - (.: se | . ( . _ me -| , (.. par | , (,. or any other
suffix comes after a MASCULINE SINGULAR noun ending in a@ (~|, this a@ (~| is changed to e (.
e.g. m\ boy lad< ka@ |s| - ko | lad< ke ko |s || . -: ( ' .:_:.
(ii) When ANY SUFFIX comes after ANY PLURAL NOUN, particle o (~| must be added to that noun,
before attaching that suffix. e.g.
m\ boys lad< ka@ + o + ko lad<ko ko |s| - ~| - | |s| || . -.- (.:.:.')
m\ Houses ghar + o + ko = gharo ko | - ~| - | || || -. ( : .:,. )
f\ books kita@ b + o + ko = kita@ no ko |-||-| - ~| - | |-||-|| || -.-. (.:....: )
f\ Girls lad<k& + o + ko = lad<kiyo ko |sl - ~| - | |s||| || . - . - ( :.' . . .: )
RATNAKARS NINTH NOBLE TRUTH (see pronouns Table^) :
I = mai -| ,( . . ); He, she, that = vah -|= ( It, this = yah |= . ( . < )
They, those = vah -|= ( These = ye |= . (<.).
When any suffix is attached to these pronouns :
(i) mai -| , ( . . ) changes to # muz -|| . (..
(ii) vah -|= ( changes to # us | , (

(iii) yah |= . ( . < ) changes to # is .| ,

(iv) vah (plural) -|= ( changes to # un -| .

(v) yah (plural) |= . ( . < ) changes to # in .-| .

)

THE PRONOUNS
DEFINITIONS :
(1)The word used in place of a noun (in order to avoid its repetition) is called a
Pronoun.
(2) If a pronoun qualifies a noun, then the pronoun is called a Pronominal or Possessive
Adjective.
EXPLANATION :
(i) See this sentence :
Al& is going to Al&s school to see Al&s teacher and to return Al&'s teacher Al&'s teacher's
books.
Al& Al& ke guruj& ko milne aur Al& ke guruj& k& kita@be Al& ke guruj& ko laut>a@ne Al& ke
skool ja@ raha@ hai.
~|l ~|l | |l | |-||-| ~| ~|l ||l l |-||-| ~|l ||l | |||-| ~|l
| | || =| =|
}:}} }:} . 1- } ,. }:} .. ..-,-:}:-
( :_.,:_:_xc_.x..:_.,:_:_xc_xc _xc_...'.:_.,:_:_xc....:_
_......:.x._::
It sounds improper and confusing.
(ii) Now see this one
(Same sentence can be re-written properly with the use of pronouns) :
Al& Al& is going to his school to see his teacher and to return himhis books.
Al& apane guruj& ko milane aur un k& kita@be un ko laut>a@ne apane skool ja@ raha@ hai.
~|l ~|-| ||l | |-||-| ~| -|l |-||-| -|| |||-| ~|-| | || =| =|
}: } . 1-
.

, ,. ,-: : .. ..
(_......x._.._...'....:_x._.x..:_.,:_.._xc )
Now, with the use of pronouns, it reads proper.

LESSON 11
THE ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS
Definition : The word that describes, qualifies or adds something to a noun is an ADJECTIVE.
1. Good boy (achchha@ lad< ka@ ) ~-~| |s | 2. Good boys (achchhe lad< ke) ~-~ |s

:. .-

( . .:.'..

:..

(_:.'_..

)
3. Good girl (achchh& lad< k&) ~-~l |s l 4. Good girls (achchh& lad< kiya@ ) ~-~l |s|||

.
. } ( . _.

' _:.

, .. . ( ..

_ :.' . . )
The word that qualifies a verb or an adjective, is an ADVERB.
1. Eat slowly. (dh&re kha@ o) .
-
. . ( :

. , ..: )
2. Walk fast. (tej chalo) -| | -|||| r? (.x.,.. )
3. Very good. (bahut achchha@ ) . . (...:.. )
4. It is heavy. (yah bha@ r& hai) . . . L ( . < ...

_.. )
11.1 THE ADJECTIVES
RULE : In HUrdu@, the adjectives have same gender and number as the nouns they qualify.
EXERCISE : Use of Adjectives
Translate the English sentences into Hind& (Answers are given for help)
1. Ra@n& does good work. (Ra@n& achchha@ ka@m kart& hai)
.

}: .-

. ( . _ .,:.:...

_ _. )
2. The oranges are sweet. (santare m&t>he hai) (Sweet = m\ m&t>ha@)
,.(.._....,... )
3. We saw yellow rose. (hum ne p&la@ gula@b dekha@)

11.2 THE ADVERBS
DEFINITION : The word that qualifies a verb or an adjective is an Adverb.
RULE :
Adverbs do not have any gender, number, person, tense or case. They do not change with the verb or
adjective they qualify, therefore, they are called INDECLINABLES.
EXERCISE : Use of Adverbs
Translate the English sentences into Hind& (Answers are given for help)
1. Ra@n& walks fast. (Ra@n& tez chalt& hai) |-|l -|| -||-|l =|
. ? . ( . _ . . , .x. _ _. )
2. He always helps. (vah hamesha@ madad karta@ hai) -|= =-||| -|== -|| =|
. . . ..

(_...,:..<... )
3. Please move backward. (bara@he karam p&chhe hat>o) -||= -| |l~ =||
-r . .

(..._...,:.. )
4. I came before he did. (mai us se pahale a@ya@) -| || |=| ~||||
, ., : . ( . . _x.._.

. . )
5. He wants money right now. (us ko paise abh& cha@hiye) || || ~+|l -|||=||
.., :- (_...._.._....x. )
6. Sun&l came here twice. (Sun&l yaha@ do ba@r a@ya@) |-|l| |=| =| -|| ~||||

.. . . .

. ( ..

. _ . .. .. . . )
7. She knows me well. (vah mujhe achchh& tarah se ja@nat& hai) -|= -|| ~-~l -|= | ||-|-|l =|
.. . (_._...._.,u_.._.. )
8. This is better than that one. (yah us se behatar hai) |= || -|=-| =|
.. . (_.,..._.<. )
9. Kindly give me ten dollars. (bara@he karam mujhe das da@lar do) -||= -| -|| =| s|| =||
.. ., . . .

(,'_..,:.. )

LESSON 12
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND VOCABULARY
12.1 ANIMALS, Domastic || ||-|-| Gharelu janvar

-
.
.-. ( : ,. . .x

.... )
Buffalo +|| bhains ( .... ) Bull ||s sa@nd> .~

(1...)
Calf -|~s| bachad>a@ (...) Camel ~ u@nt>

(..

)
Cat |-||l bill&

, ( x.

_ ) Cow ||| ga@y .:(_..:)


Dog -|| kutta@ .

(..:

) Donkey ||| gadha@ . . ( .: .: )
Goat -|l bakr& ( ,x. ) Horse ||s| ghod>a@ - .

(..:)
Mouse -|=| chu@ha@ -
-
. (....

) Mule |--| khacchar .

(,.

)
Ox -|| bail ,( . . _ ) Pig |~ su@ar . -

(..

)
Pony t>at>t>u -

(...

) Rabbit |||| khargosh ,!.

(.:,.)
Ram -|| mend>ha@ > . ( . . .:1. ) Sheep +|s bhed> ( .. . . )
12.2 ANIMALS, Wild |||l ||-|-| Jungli Janwar

.-
, .-. ( xx..

_ .... )
Bear +||| bha@lu@ . -

(.'...

) Crab s| kekd[a@ . ( : . .x )
Deer |=-| hiran .

(,. ) Elephant =||l ha@th& , .

( ....

_ )
Fish -|~|l machhl&

.-
( x..

_ ) Jackal |l=s g&dad>

. .

( :

. . )
Jackal |||| siya@r (,.. ) Lion | sher ( : . , )
Mongoose -|-||| neola@ < : ( . . . ) Monkey -|= bandar ..(...)
Panther |-|-|| chitta@ ( . . .. ) Porcupine |=l seh& ( . . . _ )
Rhino |s| gend>a@ . ( : . 1. ) Squirrel |||=l gilhar& (,.x: )
Stag -||=|||| ba@rahsinga@@ . . . (..x.... ) Tiger | sher ( : . , )
Turtle ~~| kachhua@ ~ ( : .. ) Wolf +||s|| bhediya@ . ( .. . . . . )

12.29 WARFARE ||l ||-||-| Jungi Saman } .. .~

( x.. _ .... )
Ankle |-|| t>akhna@ .

(<..) Army ~|| fauj '

(.:)
Attack =-||| hamla@ . (<x..) Battle |s|. lad>a@& . ( ..' _ )
Bomb -|-| bam - (..) Bullet |||l gol& !

, ( '.:

_ )
Cannon -||| top . (..) Cartridge |-| | ka@rtus , .: (...:)
Defence -|-||-| bacha@o . (.. ) Enemy =-|-| dushman , . (.:)
Gunpowder -||= ba@ru@d . . .

(..

) Ship |=|| jahaz@ . .

(...)
Submarine |-|=-|l pandu@b& > } ( . 1.. _ ) Treaty ||= sulah .- (<'.. )
Trench |= khandaq (...)
12.30 WORMS, INSECTS ls -||s kide Makode . ! . .

( : . . .x. )
Alligator -||-|~ magarmachh - (~.,x.) Bee -|~|l makkh&
.
,

.
( .x.

_ )
Butterfly |-|-||l titlI

, ( x..

_ ) Crab ~~| kachhua@ ~ (..:)
Cricket ||| jhingur r . ( .. . .x. ) Flea ||| pisu@

.
-

( . . ..

)
Fly -|~|l makkh&
.
,

.
( .x.

_ ) Frog -| mend>hak .>(1...)


Glow worm ||-| jugnu - (..x. ) Leech || jonk ..

(....)
Lice | ju < . (..) Lizard |~||l chhipkal&

,
. .-
( xx...

_ )
Lobster |||| jhinga@ : ( .. . .x. ) Locust |ssl t>id>d>& .

(1. )
Poison |= tzahar .

(,.) Scorpion |-|-~ bichhu@

-
( . . ..

)
Snake ||| sa@np . .~

(....) Termite |=-| dimak . . ( . .. )



COMMON URDU VERBS
* = Transitive verb, (The actions that need an Object)
agree ..

(..) ma@n
arrange* .

() rach
become (..)
bother* . (...) sata@
break . -

(..

) t>u@t>
break* .

(..) tod<
bring* : () la@
burn , (_.) jal
burn* :- (..) jala@
call* .

(.

) bula@
can . (..)
carry - .

(.:) d>ho
celebrate* : (...) mana@
come () a@
cook* : (.x.) paka@
cry () ro
cut* .:

(.:) ka@t>
die (,.) mar
dig* .- (..:) khod
do* (,:)
drink*

, ( .

_ ) p&
drive .
-
(.) chala@
drop* .

(,:

) gira@
eat* . (..:) kha@
fall ~ ( : . , ) gir
fear ..

() dar
fly .

) ud<
fly* .

) ud<a@
forget* , -

(...

) bh>u@l
fry* (_.) tal
get

(_.

) mil
give* . . () de
go . (..) ja@
hear ,

(.

) sun
hide .(...) chhip
hide* . (.... ) chhipa@
kill* .. (..) ma@r
know* . (<. ) ja@n
leak -
-
(..

) bah
lick* ..

(..) cha@t>
like* . (..) cha@h
live (be alive)


, ( .

_ ) j&
loose* - (..:) kho
make* . (...) bana@
meet

(_.

) mil
mix* .

(.

) mila@
move , ( . _) hil
move*
. (. ) hila@
open (_.: ) khul
open* (..:) khol
peel* . ( .. . _ ) chh&l
read* .: (.. ) pad<h
rip* ( . . , ) ch&r
rob* .

(.') l>u@t>
rub* , (_.) mal
run :. (...) bha@g
say* . (<:) kah
scare* . .

() dara@
sell* } ( . . ~ ) bech
sew* ( . _ ) s&@
sieve* ..

(...)chha@n
sing* : (.:) ga@
sleep - (..) so
sow* - (..) bo
speak ,- (..)| bol
spread . (...) chha@
stay, live () rah
steal* . (,.) chura@
sulk . .

(..

) ru@t>h
take* . (_') le
teach* .: (.:.. ) padha@
tell* : (...) bata@
touch* -

(...

) chhoo
walk (_.) chal
want* . (..)
wash* - . (.:) dho
weigh* , (..) tol
win*
-
.
.

( .

. : ) j&t
write* .

(.x'

) likh
: The underlined four are
most important action words
required for making sentences.

LESSON 13
URDU CONVERSATIONAL ROADMAP
(A) ASKING, ANSWERING and EXPRESSING
13.1 Begin with Greetings
How to say hello! Interjection: aadaab, namaste ji, namaste, kya hal hai?...etc.
* Hello! (a@ dab!) . . (..) * Hello! Goodmorning (a@ dab arj hai!) ,. .

. (_.,c)
* How are you (a@ p kaise hai ?) :. , ( : . _. . . ) (tum kaise ho?) :

( :..

. _. .. )
Replying the greeting Adj.: achha; 1st Person Pronoun: mai; Verb: hoon
* I am fine (mai t>h&k@ hu) , . . -

( . . .. . . ..

)(mai achha@ hu) ,

. - .-

( . . .....

)
Appreciation Interjection: shukriya. Goodnight, Good bye etc.
* Thank you! (shukriya@!) .

~
. ( ,x:


. < ) * Good night! (shab-b-khair!) ( . . , )
* Good bye! (ija@zat d&jiye) .. ..

( ..

. _.

) (alvida@!) . (.' ) (khuda@ haif[ij[) : . .

(l:....


)

13.2 Introducing yourself
Asking ones name Interrogative: kya? Possessive Pronoun: aap ka
* What is your name? (a@ paka@ na@ m kya@ hai?) . .:.

. ( :...: . . _. )
* My name is Paul (mera@ na@m Pa@l hai) , . .

. ( . . , .... _.
Giving compliment Expression : bahut achha; Nouns : naam; Verb: hai
* Your name is very nice. (a@pa ka na@m bahut achha hai) .. . .:.

(_....:.....: )
13.3 Learning by asking
Asking where one lives? Adv.: kahaan; Habitual Present Tense verb: rahnaa
* Where do you live? (a@ p kaha@ rahate hai ?) .. ,z .. ( ._....: . )
Telling where you live Listening their reply and remembering it to form your answer.
* I live in Kanpur. (mai Ka@ npur me rahata@ hu@ ) M\ , , .-: . . - .

( . . .....: . .....

)
F\ , , .-: . . ( . . .....: . .. _ .. )
Request them to say it again Modal adverb.: fir se; Imperative: kahiye
* Please say it again! barahe karam fir se kahiye.-||= -| |~ | |=| ... .

(_..:_.,..,:_.,. )
* I am a new Urdu learner! mai naya@ urdu@ s&khne wa@la@ hu. a..,, .: (.._..x....... )
mai nay&@ urdu@ s&khne wa@l& hu. .}a.., ,
.

(.._'_..x.._.... )
* Please speak slowly. (barahe karam dh@re bolo) -. .. .

(.'..,:,:_.,. )
* What does it (the word) mean? is ka@ matlab? ..:, (.xL...:.:
Asking, what time is it Adv.: ab; Cardinal numerals: 1-12; Phrase: O Clock = baje
* What time is it now? ab kitne baje hai? z.. , ( .. .._._ )

13.19 CHILDRENS POEMS
1. A BLIND PERSON
.. (.:..)
: ..
.

.
. .. .. ..: . . . (..... ,:..........:.....:....

)
. }: -


, .- . , }.. . -

( ..x. ._. . ..x .....

_ .. .x. . . . '.._...

_ )
, }. ... }:,

.-, . } ( .. . :.'_..._. _ ..._:.

_ ..:_.

. ... _ )
. }.`. .-,.:

.
.

}, .. ..<

(:'...._:_._..._..c:.....::_......:



)
. , - :. . .

- . :: ..

. . . - ..

( . . ..._:...

. . _:.._..

. < ..,..,.

)
.. , ..- . .~ . }:

, . ( ..... _ .:.: _ .. . . ..:.. _ ..,L. . . . )

-. .. -
.

. . .

}, ... -

( ..

..:_x.,:.:...:

_ . . . :,:...._.

_ )
: . . .. -,

. . . .. ....
.

( <.. .. . . ...:

. . ...._.......... )
1. THE WATERMILL
,
.
-
, ( x..

_ )
~ ., ,. ,
.-
. },

-
.- }:.
.

,
. , } . :,
.

.
. - . ..

-
}:: .:.

- . , ,:, /:/ .

. . .

. . }c., . ...

..

.
-
-
-: : . . - ,

: .

r . -

. _._.,.,. _x.._.

_::

,.

_:.:_. x.

_
. _... <. . .. .: _. . ..._:,'..

. _ .: ,x..._.

. ,. : _._ . .:_. . . . :.. .._:,.:_:,. ...

... _ ...,. ... . x. _:.._ .

_:_.x._ ,: _:...._.

URDU LITERATURE
The notable Urdu literary activity begins with the Su@f& mystic musician Ab'ul Hasan Yamn al-Dn
Khusrau (1253-1325) _ _
.
.

,- _.)

` .
( ....'.. ,....' ) better known as Amr Khusrow Dehlaw
' ,- ,
.

` .
( .x. ,.. ,.. j. Born at Badaun, he flourished during the reign of Sultan Ghias-ud-d&n
Balban (r. 1266-1287). Following Khusraus Urdu Diwa@n, Ghazal, Masnavi, Qata, Qqwwa@l&, Rubai,
Do-Beti and Tarkibhand writings, the next Urdu literary milestone is the Doha@ compositions of Sant
Kabir (1440-1518). Then the chronology of the Urdy poetry contunues through our great Muslim as
well as Hindu forefathers manely, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah (1565-1611), Wali Muhammad Wali,
Deccani (1667-1707), Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan (1699-1781), Mirza Mohammed Rafi Sauda (1713-
1781), Khwaja Mir Dard, (1721-1785), Mir Taqi Mir (1722-1808), Nazeer Akbarabadi, (1740-1830),
Daya Shankar Kaul Nasim, (1811-1845), Khwaja Haidar Ali Atish, (1778-1846), Hakim Momin Khan
Momin, (1801-1852), Muhammad Ibrahim Khan, Zauq (1789-1854), Bahadur Shah Zafar (1775-
1862), Mufti Sadr-Uddin Azurda (1788-1869), Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869), Mir Babbar Ali Anis (1803-
1874), Mirza Salaamat Ali Dabeer (1803-1875), Wajid Ali Shah Akhtar (1827-1887), Amir Meenai
(1826-1900), Nawab Mirza Khan Dagh Dehlawi, (1831-1905), Durga Sahay Saroor (1873-1910),
Bekhud Badayuni (1857-1912), Altaf Hussain (1837-1914), Khwaja Altaf Hussain Hali (1837-1914),
Shibli Nomani (1857-1914), Maulana Shibli Numani (1857-1914), Akbar Allahabadi (1846-1921), Brij
Narayan Chakbast (1882-1926), Ram Parshad Bismil (1867-1927), Ashfaq Allah Khan (1900-1927),
Muhammed Ali Jauhar (1878-1931), Munshi Premchand (1880-1936), Muhammed Iqbal (1873-1938),
Akhtar Sheerani (1905-1948), Hasrat Mohani (1875-1951), Syed Ghulam Bhik Nairang (1875-1952),
Asrar-Ul-Haq Majaz (1911-1955), Maulana Zafar Ali Khan (1873-1956), Jigar Muradabadi, (1890-
1960), Tilok Chand Mehroom (1885-1966), Shakeb Jalali (1932-1966), Makhdoom Mahiuddin (1908-
1969), Shakeel Badayuni (1916-1970), Mustafa Zaidi (1930-1970), Nasir Kazmi, (1925-1972), Ravish
Siddiqui (1909-1971), Majeed Amjad (1914-1974), Noon Meem Rashid (1910-1975), Jan Nisar Akhtar
(1914-1976), Krishan Chander (1914-1977), Saeeda Urooj Mazhar, (1916-1978), Ibn-e-Insha, (1927-
1978), Sahir Ludhianvi, (1921-1980), Nushoor Wahidi (1911-1981), Firaq Gorakhpuri, Raghupati
Sahay (1896-1982), Shabir Hasan Josh Malihabadi (1898-1982), Hafeez Jullundhry (1900-1982),
Saghir Nizami (1905-1982), Ihsan Danish (1914-1982), Josh Malihabadi, (1898-1982), Faiz Ahmed
Faiz (1911-1984), Ayyub Sabir (1923-1989), Yazdani Jalandhari (1915-1990), Gopal Mittal (1906-
1993), Habib Jalib (1928-1993), Waheed Akhtar (1934-1996), Obaidullah Aleem (1939-1997),
Dilawar Figar (1928-1998), Zamir Jafri, Zamir (1916-1999), Khumar Barabankvi, (1919-1999), Iqbal

MUHAMMAD IQBAL
,..

(.....

)
Tara@na@
; (<.,.... )
.... . .- .... . .~

(............_......


)
-
.

.
, , },

. .

.. ( x.x...

. . . :

_ .x:

.. ... )
. . . . .,

. :.. ( ......_...:. ,.

. . .:... )
... - . .. ( ,... .......... )
,. .

,, . .-

. ~
_ : . ( ....,. . ......x.

. . . , ..: . )
.


, .... . ., -


( ...

. . ........._.u..

)
- . .

...1. . . .-


( . ... _...._.:......,..

)
} ..:.

... . .

( .._.,x... _ .......

)
... ..

, , .. (......_..._...<:_....:


)
. , ..... . ., ... .

( ... .......:_...

)
-,.

,. ,.. ( ..:..

_ .....,.

. .... . )
. -

, . .- . . . . . .-
-

( :.x-.

. . .:

_ ..:....:

)
|| |=| | ~-~| |==-|| =-|||| sa@re jaha se achha hindusta hma@ra@,
=-| -||-|| = |l -|| ||||-|| =-||||| hum bulbule hai qsa k& vo gulsita hama@ra@.

BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR
..

.~.

(,:s.:...

)
caza|
,

(,c

)
,. , .. . ..

. . , ( ...x' .. .._.

, .

.. . . . )
,

} , . .. . .:..

( :

: _ .. _ .._....._.'.c_. )
;... .-
.

. . , ( _.'

..c...: ..<._. , . . . . )

.
.

.
.
, .
.

,
.
.

, ... ( . :.. . . . . . _. x'

_. x.: ....._ )
,... ..

.. . ( <:

..:_...,.: .... _ )
}

, . > .. ..... ( .

.. _ x. ...:< .c_'_

. . )
. . ...::.. . . .

( ,.c

.. .._.._._:.

)
. , . .

: , .. .1

( .

. : ...L.._.:.

)
. : .. :, . r ( _. : ... .... . . ::,:s .'_ . _ )
. . , .

, ; ,
.

. -

. . , ( .,: . . _. . _x.<

..:

._ . . . )