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calculus

Differentiation and integration


Independently, Newton and Leibniz established simple rules for finding the formula for the slope of the tangent to a curve at any point on it, given only a formula for the curve. The rate of change of a function f (denoted by f) is known as its derivative. Finding the formula of the derivative function is called differentiation, and the rules for doing so form the basis of differential calculus. Depending on the context, derivatives may be interpreted as slopes of tangent lines, velocities of moving particles, or other quantities, and therein lies the great power ... (100 of 1,141 words)

differentiation
differentiation, in mathematics, process of finding the derivative, or rate of change, of a function. In contrast to the abstract nature of the theory behind it, the practical technique of differentiation can be carried out by purely algebraic manipulations, using three basic derivatives, four rules of operation, and a knowledge of how to manipulate functions. The three basic derivatives (D) are: (1) for algebraic functions, D(xn) = nxn 1, in which n is any real number; (2) for trigonometric functions, D(sin x) = cos x; and (3) for exponential functions,D(ex) = ex. For ... (100 of 298 words)

derivative
derivative, in mathematics, the rate of change of a function with respect to a variable. Derivatives are fundamental to the solution of problems in calculus and differential equations. In general, scientists observe changing systems (dynamical systems) to obtain the rate of change of some variable of interest, incorporate this information into some differential equation, and useintegration techniques to obtain a function that can be used to predict the behaviour of the original system under diverse conditions. Geometrically, the derivative of a function can be interpreted as the slope of the graph of the function or, more precisely, as the ... (100 of 545 words)

function

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function, in mathematics, an expression, rule, or law that defines a relationship between onevariable (the independent variable) and another variable (the dependent variable). Functions are ubiquitous in mathematics and are essential for formulating physical relationships in the sciences. The modern definition of function was first given in 1837 by the German mathematician Peter Dirichlet: If a variable y is so related to a variable x that whenever a numericalvalue is assigned to x, there is a rule according to which a unique value ofy is determined, then y is said to be a function of the independent variable... (100 of 823 words)

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