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12/8/2009

Poultry house ventilation system


Basically consists of exhaust fans and air inlets.
Exhaust fan draw in fresh air

Poultry House Ventilation System Design


Michael Czarick III The University of Georgia

Poultry house ventilation system design


Basically consists of exhaust fans and air inlets.
Exhaust fan draw in fresh air Inlets direct the fresh air to where we want it to go go.

How much exhaust fan capacity should a house have?

Exhaust fan capacity rule of thumb

Example:
60 X 300 broiler house
60 X 300 X 7 = 126,000 cfm (25 24 fans)

Minimum exhaust fan capacity for a power-ventilated broiler/turkey house:


7 cfm per square foot of floor space (130 m3/hr per m2)
This should ensure that there is no more than a 5oF (2.7oC) increase from the inlet to the exhaust fans

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This is minimum
The typical U.S. broiler/turkey house:
8 10 cfm per square foot of floor space. 60 X 300 = 144,000 160,000 cfm

Heat produce by broilers has increased approximately 20% in the last 20 years.
How much has your ventilation system changed over 30 years?

50 years ago

30 years ago

Today

Minimum exhaust fan capacity for a powerventilated broiler-breeder house:

Commercial layer

5 cfm per square foot of floor space (90 m3/hr per m2) For a 40 X 300 broiler-breeder house
40 X 300 X 5 = 60,000 cfm (12 24 fans)

Typically around 7 cfm/bird:


High as 9 cfm/birdLow as 6 cfm/bird

What type of fan should a house be equipped with?

Exhaust fan selection criteria


1.

To obtain desired air exchange rate exhaust fan capacity must be determined at a minimum static pressure of 0.10 (25 Pa).

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Exhaust fan selection criteria


2.

Not only do we want a fan that is energy efficient, we want a powerful fan as well.
3.

Energy efficient
It is not how much power a fan usesit is how many cubic feet per minute it can move with each watt of power:
Cfm/watt The higher the ratingthe lower your operating costs will be.

Exhaust fan air flow ratio


An indicator of how well the fan will hold up to high static pressures caused by:
Dirty fan shutters Clogged inlet screens Winds

Desired energy efficiency rating


Should have an energy efficiency of at least 20 cfm/watt @0.10 (34 cmh/watt)..ideally +20.8 cfm/watt (35 cmh/watt) or better

Fan output vs. static Pressure


(48 fans, between 20,000 and 22,000 cfm)

A fan with a high air flow ratio is less affected by the wind
0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 5 10 Wind speed (mph) 15 20
Wind pressure (in) p

Air flow ratio = air flow (0.20)/ airflow (0.05)


26,000 24,000 22,000 20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 Static Pressure 0.86 0.74 0.76 0.25 0.3 0.35

Cfm

0.84

0.84

0.67

This is a serious problem with variable speed fans!

Air flow ratio


Minimum acceptable Ideal = 0.73 = 0.78 or higher

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Fan performance information is available at


WWW.BESS.UIUC.EDU

Exhaust fan selection criteria


4.

Size
Keep small fans to a minimum Small fans are a very poor investment:
Higher initial cost Higher operating cost Higher maintenance cost

Estimated initial fan cost


60 X 300 house with 126,000 cfm of fan capacity
$12,000 $11,000 $10,000 $9,000 $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 $3,000 $2,000 $1,000 $0 12 24 36 Fan Size () 48 60

Fan size and energy efficiency


(the larger the fan the more energy efficient it tends to be)
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Energy Efficie ency (cfm/watt)

21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 12 24 36 Fan Size () 48 60

Fan Cost ($) C

Fan operating cost


(100,000 cfm for 24 hours @ $0.10 per Kw*hr)
$29.00 $27.00 $25.00 $23.00 $21.00 $19.00 $17.00 $15.00 $13.00 $11.00 $9.00 $7.00 $5.00 12 24 36 Fan Size () 48 60

This does not mean you cant install a few small fans but
The optimal exhaust fan system stages from small to large fans quickly:
Two - four 24 fans minimum ventilation fans Two - four36 fans moderate weather Then 48 fans or larger for the remainder of the required fan capacity h t weather it hot th

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Another advantage of keeping the number of small fans to a minimum


Reduces the potential for shutter air leakage
100.0F 100

Cold spots near exhaust fans

the shutters the cold spots


90

80

70

60.0F

Problems with leaky shutters can be further reduced by placing exhaust fans in groups

Minimizing cold spots

Leakage exits adjacent minimum ventilation fans

The fact is that fans do not have to be evenly spaced down the length of the house

Poultry house with a single fan and four air inlets

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Poultry house with two fans and air four inlets

Poultry house with a single fan and eight air inlets

Poultry house with a single fan and 16 air inlets

Poultry house with a single fan and 16 air inlets

Poultry house with a single fan and 16 air inlets

But you MUST establish a negative pressure if you want to gain control over the environment

.08
950 ft/min

.08
950 ft/min

.08
950 ft/min

.08
950 ft/min

.08
950 ft/min

.08
950 ft/min

.08
950 ft/min

.08
950 ft/min

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Outside

Ventilation system design


It is very important to realize that though fan placement can be of some importance Inlet design/placement is by far, more important when it comes to maintain proper environmental control +80% of ventilation system design is proper inlet design and placement maybe 20% or less is exhaust fan placement

Air inlet system design


How much inlet area should a house have?

Air inlet capacity

General rule of thumb:


1 square foot for every 750 cfm of exhaust fan capacity. or 1 square meter for every 4,800 m3/hr

Air inlet example:


40 X 300 with 84,000 cfm (7 cfm/ft2)

Air inlet system(s)


For optimal control a modern poultry house should have a minimum of two inlet system.ideally three Each inlet system is specifically designed to be used to obtain specific objectives

Inlet area = 84,000 cfm / 750 cfm = 168 square feet (16 m2) If the house had a single continuous inlet

Inlet width = total inlet area/ house length = 168 ft2/300 ft = 0.56 feet or 6 or 15.2 cm

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1) Cold weather inlet system


It is specifically designed to bring in just enough air to maintain air quality during very cold weather:
Maximize heating of incoming cold air Distribute fresh air throughout the house evenly
Without causing drafts Without With t causing excessive f l usage i i fuel

2) Moderate weather inlet system


Designed to control house temperature during moderate weather.

3) Hot weather inlet system


Designed to maximize bird heat removal
Produce high air velocities over the birds to maximize heat removal

Minimum ventilation inlet system

Minimum ventilation inlet system


Specifically designed for use for very cold weather for use with just a few exhaust fansminimum ventilation fans.
1 2 cfm per square foot. 60 X 300 X 1.5 = 27,000 cfm

Minimum ventilation inlet guidelines


1)

Located towards the center of the house


That is where your hottest air tends to accumulate Furthest distance from the birds
99.0F
99.4

Might consist of only 10 to 20 inlets

97.4

95

94.2

90
92.1 89.6 86.1

85 83.6F

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Example of minimum ventilation inlets

Example of minimum ventilation inlets

Desired air flow pattern from minimum ventilation inlet

Desired air flow pattern from minimum ventilation inlet


96.2F 95

90

85

80

75.0F

Minimum ventilation inlet guidelines


2)

Attic vs. outside temperatures


85.0F 85 80
90 85

Draw air out of the attic


Less affected by wind Warmer air for a portion of the day

75

80 75

70

70
Tempe erature (F)

65 60 55 50 45 40

65

60.0F

78.2F 75

35 30 25 20
2-Jan 4-Jan 6-Jan 8-Jan 10-Jan 12-Jan 14-Jan 16-Jan 18-Jan 20-Jan 22-Jan 24-Jan 26-Jan 28-Jan 30-Jan 1-Feb 3-Feb 5-Feb 7-Feb 9-Feb 11-Feb 13-Feb 15-Feb 17-Feb 19-Feb 21-Feb

70

Date

65

attic

60

55 53.1F

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Minimum ventilation inlet guidelines


3)

Minimum ventilation inlets above tube heaters


95.0F 90
71.5 57.9 43.4

Located above a houses heating system to help temper incoming cold air

80

70

60
44.5

55.0F

58.2 73.7

95.0F

90

80

70

60.0F

Minimum ventilation inlets above hot water fin pipes

Minimum ventilation inlets above hot water system


105.0F 100 90 80 70 60 53.4F

A continuous inlet is a very poor minimum ventilation inlet

Very difficult to obtain a uniform small opening

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Side wall or a ceiling continuous inlet


100.0F 100 90

Continuous inlets do not tend to produce adequate tempering of incoming air

80

70

60.0 F 60.0F

100.0F 100

100.0F 100

90

90

80

80

70

70

60.0F

60.0F

To maximize the tempering of the incoming air


We must keep the air away from the birds as long as possible

Little tempering/mixing of incoming air


103.5F 100

95

5C 10 C 15 C 20 C
90

85

80 78.3F

Air dumping to floor during minimum ventilation..

Heating not being utilized on the far side of the house.

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Birds becoming chilled directly under inlet.

Fan side of house birds are significantly warmer.

Air inlet systems


1) 2)

Moderate weather inlets


More needed than minimum ventilation inlets
5 cfm per square foot of floor space
Around three times as much as minimum ventilation inlets If not tunnel ventilated (7+ cfm/ft2)

Cold weather - minimum ventilation Moderate weather temperature control

Located along both side walls pulling air from directly outside th house t id the h

Inlets on both sides of the house maximum temperature and air quality uniformity

Air inlets on one side wall do not work as well for temperature and air quality uniformity (especially in wider houses)

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What makes a good temperature control inlet?


Directs the air where you want it to go.

Air flow directed toward ceiling at an angle

Air flowing out of recessed inlet in 50 wide house

What makes a good temperature control inlet


Directs the air when you want it to go. Recessed inlet

Surface mounted inlet sits on the wall a recessed inlet sits in the wall.

Cold air exiting sides of air inlet

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Air flowing out side of inlet


90.0F 90

Warm air flowing the side of recessed inlet

85

80

75

70.0F

Air focused at top of the inlet which improves throw


85.0F 85

Examples of recessed side wall inlets

80

75

70

65

60.0F

Moderate weather inlets


More needed than minimum ventilation inlets
5 cfm per square foot of floor space
Around three times as much as minimum ventilation inlets If not tunnel ventilated (7+ cfm/ft2)

Air flow along the floor during warmer weather

Located along both side walls pulling air from directly outside th house t id the h Ideally can direct the air up toward the ceiling during cooler weather and down toward the floor during warmer weather

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Side wall inlet capable of directing incoming air downward

Deflector board for hot weather bird cooling

Deflector board for hot weather bird cooling

Air inlets
Cold weather minimum ventilation Moderate weather temperature control Hot weather bird heat removal system
Hot weather is whenever it is warmer outside than you want it inside.

Importance of air movement when it comes to cooling birds

In order to cool a bird we have to get air to move over its body...
100.0F 100

95

90

85

80

More air speed more cooling

75.0F

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Still Air - 25oC

300 ft/min - 25oC

Turkeys
(26oC 150 ft/min)

0.75 m/sec - 26oC


39.0C 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 26.0C

2 m/sec - 26oC
39.0C 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 26.0C

2 m/sec - 26oC

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Air movement in traditional crossventilation during hot weather

Designed to conserve heat and not to produce air movement over the birds

5C 10 C 15 C 20 C

Designed to produce little air movement at bird level

Very little air movement at floor level during cold weather

5 m/sec

3.5 m/sec

2.5 m/sec

1.5 m/sec

less than 0.25 m/sec

During the summer they will tend to conserve heat also

Very little air movement during hot weather as well

2.5 m/sec

1 m/sec

26oC

26.5oC

5 m/sec

27oC

28oC

0.75 m/sec to 0.5 m/sec over limited areas

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Things are improved if you have inlets on both sides of the house

Downward facing hot weather inlet improves the situation even more

2.5 m/sec 5 m/sec

1 m/sec

5 m/sec 2.5 m/sec

0. 5 m/sec <0.25 m/sec

0.75 m/sec to .025 m/sec

Downward inlet on one side of a house


35.0C 35
35.0C 35

Downward facing inlets on both sides of th house even better

30

30

25

25

5 m/sec
20 20.0C
20 20.0C

103.0F 100 95 90 85 80

103.0F 100 95 90 85 80

1.5 m/sec

1 m/sec

75.0F

75.0F

Even with inlets that direct air downward cooling fans may be required.

Using circulation fans for bird cooling

5 m/sec

1.5 m/sec

1 m/sec

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36 circulation fan coverage area

Poor air movement distribution

15

50

50

50

50

40 wide house

36 circulation fans blowing across the house

Limited coverage area


39.0C 38

36

34

32

30 29.0C

Birds directly in front of fan


39.0C 38

Most houses dont have enough circulation fans to provide the necessary air movement.

36

34

32

30 29.0C

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Air inlets
Cold weather minimum ventilation Moderate weather temperature control Hot weather heat removal system
tunnel ventilation is just another inlet system

Best heat removal system is tunnel ventilation

Air exchange and air velocity

Cross ventilation vs. Tunnel ventilation


100.0F 100 95

Air velocity of between 2 and 3 m/sec

90

85

80
100.0F 100

75.0F

Air exchange typically less than every 60 seconds

95

90

85

80

75.0F

Tunnel ventilation is just an additional stage of ventilation


For most of the year the house is no different from what you may already be doing.
Fewer side wall/chimney fans Fewer side wall inlets

Minimum ventilation

+0.5 C

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Moderate ventilation

Moderate ventilation

+1.5 C

+2 C

Low level tunnel ventilation

Medium level tunnel ventilation

+3 C

+4 F

High level tunnel ventilation

mczarick@uga.edu (706) 540-9111

+4.5 C

www.poultryventilation.com

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