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Henry Massawe and Edvan Moyo

Abstract - This paper will outline the technical requirements for Grid integration based on the IEEE standard 1547 "Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems (published June 2003) ". The basis of the standards is mainly to safeguard against hazards, foster quality design and manufacturing of PV systems, grid reliability and performance, increase competitiveness in industry, create and expand markets, facilitate trade and commerce. Assurance is provided when products meet quality standards, then users need not be concerned with further testing or evaluation of the product. I. INTRODUCTION PV (Photovoltaic) systems as an alternative energy resource or an energy-resource complementary in hybrid systems have been becoming feasible due to the increase of research and development work in this area. In order to maximize the success of the PV systems, a high reliability, a reasonable cost, and a user-friendly design must be achieved in the proposed PV topologies. Several standards given by the utility companies must be obeyed in the PV-module connection. These standards deal with issues like power quality, detection of islanding operation, grounding, etc. They define the structure and the features of the present and future PV module. Some of the potential consumer benefits include clean energy, lower cost electricity, reduced price volatility, greater reliability, power quality, energy and load management and combined heat and power. The potential supplier benefits include reduced electric line loss, reduced transmission and distribution congestion, grid investment deferment and improved grid asset utilization, improved grid reliability, ancillary services, e.g., voltage support and stability, VARs, contingency reserves, and black start capability. Proven technologies, customer choice, open market access, and easy interconnection are required to achieve these benefits. Standards have been developed to facilitate for grid integration and to level the playing field. II. GRID INTEGRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR PV SYSTEMS When an interconnecting customer intends to install a PV system on the customers side of the Point of Coupling Connection (PCC) that will be connected electrically to the Utility Electrical Power System (EPS) and operate in parallel, synchronized with the voltage and frequency maintained by the utility during all operating conditions, it is the responsibility of the Interconnecting Customer to design, procure, install, operate, and maintain all necessary equipment on its property for connection to the Utility EPS. The Interconnecting Customer and the utility shall enter into an Interconnection Service Agreement to provide for parallel operation of an Interconnecting Customers PV system with Utility EPS. The interconnection of the PV system with the utility EPS must be reviewed for potential impact on the Utility EPS and meet the technical requirements and must be operated in accordance with agreed requirements. In order to meet these requirements, an upgrade or other modifications to the Utility EPS may be necessary.

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Mini Project in TET4190 The 1547 Standard establishes criteria and requirements for interconnection of Distributed Resources (DR) such as PV systems with EPS. This document provides a uniform standard for interconnection of distributed resources with electric power systems. It provides requirements relevant to the performance, operation, testing, safety considerations, and maintenance of the interconnection. It comprises of eight (8) parts so far:[2] P1547.1(2005) Standard for Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems P1547.2(2008) Application Guide for IEEE Standard 1547 for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems P1547.3(2007) Guide for Monitoring, Information Exchange and Control of Distributed Resources Interconnected with Electric Power Systems P1547.4(2011) Draft Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems P1547.5 Draft Technical Guidelines for Interconnection of Electric Power Sources Greater than 10MVA to the Power Transmission Grid P1547.6 (2011) Draft Recommended Practice For Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems Distribution Secondary Networks P1547.7 Draft Guide to Conducting Distribution Impact Studies for Distributed Resource Interconnection P1547.8 Recommended Practice for Establishing Methods and Procedures that Provide Supplemental Support for Implementation Strategies for Expanded use of IEEE Standard 1547. All draft documents are still under consideration. III INTERCONNECTION TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS The focus of the paper will outline requirement in accordance with P1547.2 and IEEE Standard 929-2000 IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems. These guides provides technical background and application details to support the understanding of IEEE 1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems. The interconnecting customer PV system should be able to meet the following grid integration requirements: [2],[3],[4],[5] and [6] a) Voltage Regulation The interconnecting customer PV system shall not actively regulate the voltage at the PCC unless required by Utility operating procedures. The PV system shall not cause the Area EPS service voltage at other Local EPSs to go outside the requirements of ANSI C84.1-1995, Range A (+/-5%). b) Integration with Area EPS grounding The grounding scheme of the PV system interconnection shall not cause over voltages that exceed the rating of the equipment connected to the Area EPS and shall not disrupt the coordination of the ground fault protection on the Area EPS. c) Synchronization The interconnecting customer PV system unit shall be connected in parallel with the Area EPS without causing a voltage fluctuation at the PCC greater than 5% of the prevailing voltage level of the Area EPS

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Mini Project in TET4190 at the PCC, and meet the voltage flicker requirements. d) Surge withstand performance The interconnection system shall have the capability to withstand voltage and current surges in accordance with the environments defined in IEEE Std C62.41.2-2002 or IEEE C37.90.1-2002 as applicable. e) Response to Area EPS abnormal conditions Abnormal conditions can arise on the Area EPS that require a response from the connected PV System. This response contributes to the safety of utility maintenance personnel and the general public, as well as the avoidance of damage to connected equipment, including the interconnecting customer PV system. All voltage and frequency parameters specified shall be met at the PCC. f) Area EPS faults The PV system unit shall cease to energize the Area EPS for faults on the Area EPS circuit to which it is connected. g) Area EPS reclosing coordination The PV system shall cease to energize the Area EPS circuit to which it is connected prior to reclosure by the Area EPS. h) Voltage The protection functions of the interconnection system shall detect the effective (rms) or fundamental frequency value of each phase-to-phase voltage, except where the transformer connecting the Local EPS to the Area EPS is a grounded wye-wye configuration, or single phase installation, the phase-to-neutral voltage shall be detected. The interconnecting customer PV system is not permitted to perform any voltage control. i) Frequency When the system frequency is in abnormal range, the PV system shall cease to energize the Area EPS within a specified clearing time. j) Loss of synchronism The interconnecting customer PV system should detect island condition and cease to energize within a specified time. k) Reconnection to Area EPS After an Area EPS disturbance, no PV system reconnection shall take place until the Area EPS synchronizing (frequency, voltage, phase angle, phase sequence) requirement are met. l) Limitation of DC injection The PV system and its interconnection system shall not inject dc current greater than 0.5% of the full rated output current at the point of connection. m) Limitation of flicker induced by the PV System The PV system shall not create objectionable flicker for other customers on the Area EPS. n) Harmonics When the PV System is serving balanced linear loads, harmonic current injection into the Area EPS at the PCC shall not exceed the limits. The harmonic current injections shall be exclusive of any harmonic currents due to harmonic voltage distortion present in the Area EPS without the PV system connected. From IEEE 519 the following harmonics limits are specified: <5% THD; <4% below 11th; <2% for 11th 15th, <1.5% for 17th 21st; 0.6% for 23rd 33rd; <0.3% for 33rd and up. o) Unintentional islanding For an unintentional island in which the PV system energizes a portion of the Area EPS through the PCC, the PV system interconnection system shall detect the island and cease to energize the Area EPS within specified time limits (agreed between the utility and the interconnecting PV system) of the formation of an island.

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Mini Project in TET4190 p) Power Factor The output power factor should be 0.85 lead/lag or higher. The PV system equipment should however be typically designed for unity power factor. q) External Disconnect Switch Isolation devices for dedicated switching and protection equipment are required for grid connected systems. r) Interconnection Test Specifications and Requirements The PV system before integration will also be further subjected to design tests, production test, interconnection installation evaluation, commissioning tests and periodic interconnection tests The Inverter for PV-System should meet the requirements of IEEE 929. This requires an inverter that meets the testing requirements of Underwriters Laboratories test standard UL 1741 and has the words UtilityInteractive printed directly on the listing label. s) Operations, Metering, Monitoring and Communication Requirement Interconnecting Customer shall operate and maintain the PV system in accordance with the applicable manufacturers recommended maintenance schedule, in compliance with all aspects of the Utilitys Interconnection Tariff. The Interconnecting Customer will continue to comply with all applicable laws and requirements after interconnection has occurred. The owner of the PV system is responsible for installing equipment for metering, monitoring and communication purpose. For example SCADA/EMS and dedicated protection & synchronization equipment are required, except smaller systems with utility interactive inverters. IV Recommendations The IEEE 929-2000 contains sufficient requirements for PV systems of 10 kW or less. It also contains reasonable guidelines for larger systems up to 500 kW. However for larger systems additional review of the standard given the constraints specific to the section of the utility system that the PV system is connected must be addressed. Harmonization of the standards is important for efficiency and reduction of cost. There is need for improving interface between the utility and distributed resources with regards to the application of power electronics devices for harmonics reduction and power quality improvements. [1] and [5] V Conclusion The IEEE 1547 standard has proved to be the cornerstone for the development of requirements for interconnection of distributed resources to the utility grid. This standard together with IEEE 929-2000 and the UL1747 provides the necessary basis for interconnecting of PV systems. Codes, standards, and implementation have, however, been cited as a major impediment to widespread use of PV on the grid. The IEEE 1547 standard currently addresses requirements primarily for the PCC where the customer electrical facilities connect to the local utility. The IEEE 1547 standard focuses on the technical specifications for, and testing of, the interconnection itself. It is beyond the scope of the standard to address the methods used for performing electric power system impact studies, mitigating limitations of the utility, or for addressing the business or tariff issues associated with interconnection. The technologies and operational concepts to properly integrate distributed resources into the existing utility grid continue to be further developed to fully realize benefits and to avoid negative impacts on system reliability and safety. With IEEE 1547 being a series of standards, additional IEEE 1547 documents are under way to address certain additional topics related to interconnection

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Mini Project in TET4190 VI Reference

[1] Ned Mohan, Tore M. Underland and William P. Robbins, ''POWER ELECTRONICS, Converters, Application and Design, 3rd ed ,John Willey &Sons. [2] IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (IEEE SCC21) ,'' IEEE Std 1547TM (2003) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems'' (published June 2003). [3] Steve Hester Technical Director Solar Electric Power Association,'' IEEE 929 2000 Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems'', January 2000. [4] Abraham Ellis Sandia National Laboratories, ''Interconnection Standards for PV Systems Where are we? Where are we going?'' Cedar Rapids, IA October 2009 [5] Thomas S. Basso, Senior Engineer National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401, ''High-Penetration, GridConnected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards'' [6] Western Massachusetts Electric Company, ''Standards for Interconnecting Distributed Generation'', 2009

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