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EXPRESSING CONDITIONS, WISHES AND REGRETS

1.- TYPES OF CONDITIONALS:


ZERO CONDITIONAL: Use: facts or true situations e.g. If you are rich, life is usually easier. *Structure:
Conditional clause IF / WHEN + PRESENT SIMPLE Main clause PRESENT SIMPLE

1ST CONDITIONAL: Use: possible or likely present or future situations; promises and warnings e.g. If you watch horror films, you wont sleep. If you dont want to go out, stay at home. If you marry me, Ill love you forever. *Structure:
Conditional clause IF + PRESENT SIMPLE, Main clause WILL/WONT + INFINITIVE / IMPERATIVE

2nd CONDITIONAL: Use: hypothetical/imaginary or unlikely/improbable situations in Present or future. e.g. If I were you, I would buy a new car. They would come if they could. *Structure: *to be: 1st and 3rd person singular: were for conditionals. In spoken language, you can use was
Conditional clause IF+ PAST SIMPLE, Main clause WOULD/COULD/MIGHT + INFINITIVE

- 3rd CONDITIONAL: Use: hypothetical situations in the past. The time for the condition is past so, the result is impossible. e.g. If he had got the job, he would have earned a huge salary.. *Structure:
Conditional clause IF+ PAST PERFECT, Main clause WOULD/COULD/MIGHT + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

2.-OTHER TYPES OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES:


-MIXED CONDITIONALS: to talk about past events or actions that have a result in the present, we can mix second and third conditionals. e.g. If I had saved money, I could travel with you. If Emma wasnt so lazy, shed have done better in the exam *Structure:
Conditional clause IF+ PAST PERFECT or PAST SIMPLE Main clause COULD/ WOULD+ INFINITIVE COULD/WOULD HAVE + PARTICIPLE

- SHOULD: very improbable (si se diera la casualidad de que..., si acaso) e.g. - If you should see my sister, phone me! - If you should find my wallet, let me know! *Structure:,
Conditional clause IF+ SHOULD+INFINITIVE Main clause IMPERATIVE

- INVERSION: e.g. - If I were a rich woman, I would buy a house: Were I a rich woman, I would buy a house. - If he had got up earlier, he wouldnt have missed the bus: Had he got up earlier, he wouldnt have missed the bus. - If you should watch that film, enjoy it! : Should you watch that film, enjoy it!

3.- ALTERNATIVES TO IF: Other conditional conjunctions


1) AS LONG AS: (siempre y cuando, siempre que, slo si)
Conditional clause AS LONG AS+ PRESENT SIMPLE Main clause ZERO CONDIT/1ST CONDITIONAL

e.g.

- I walk to school as long as mum doesnt drive me: - As long as you pay me back, Ill lend you the money.

0 cond 1st conditional

2) PROVIDED THAT/ PROVIDING THAT: (siempre y cuando, siempre que, con tal de que)
Conditional clause PROVIDING (THAT) / PROVIDED (THAT) + PRESENT SIMPLE, Main clause ZERO CONDITIONAL/ 1ST CONDITIONAL

e.g. -You can use my camera providing (that) you handle it carefully: 0 conditional - You wont get sunburnt provided (that) you dont sunbathe for a long time: 1st conditional * 1) and 2) have a very similar meaning. They also mean only if

3) UNLESS + PRESENT SIMPLE: (a no ser que... if ...not):


Conditional clause UNLESS + affirmative simple present, Main clause Future simple

e.g. -We will go to the cinema unless you have to work (= if you dont have to work.) - Unless he tells me the truth ( If he doesnt tell me the truth), I wont forgive him.

4) EVEN IF: (an, incluso si) It is used to give emphasis to the condition in cases where the information in the main clause cannot be changed by any action in the If-Clause: Something will happen whatever the condition is. e.g. -She wouldnt have visited her cousin even if she had had free time. - Even if I was a millionaire, I wouldnt waste so much money on that. *Any conditional clause.

4.- WISHES AND REGRETS: I wish / If only...


- Situations that are unreal, impossible or unlikely. - We use if only and I wish to express wishes, regrets or complains. If only is more emphatic than wish. - There are different types: 1) To talk about desires in present situations, that we would like to be different. e.g. I cant speak French (present situation)----- I wish/ If only I could speak French. (ojal!) If only it werent raining (Ojal no estuviera lloviendo) *Structure: WISH/IF ONLY + SUBJECT+ PAST SIMPLE/PAST CONTINUOUS *to be: were for all the persons. 2) To express regret about past situations that we would like to have been different: e.g. - I wish/If only I had followed your advice! - I wish /If only I had not eaten so much! (Ojal no hubiera comido tanto) *Structure: WISH/IF ONLY+ SUBJECT+ PAST PERFECT 3) To criticize or complain about something in the present or to talk about somebodys present behaviour that we would like to be different: to change something/a behaviour you dont like. e.g. You father smokes too much (present situation)------I wish he would stop smoking (Desire) *Structure: WISH/IF ONLY + SUBJECT+ WOULD INFINITIVE