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CENTRIFUGAL blODELING OF THE DYNNIIC IESPONSE OF PILES J e a n H. P r g v o s t and Ahmed fl. Abdel-Ghaffar Department of C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g Princeton University P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y 08544 ABSTRACT The dynamic r e s p o n s e of l a t e r a l l y l o a d e d s i n g l e p i l e s and p i l e groups ( e a c h c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r evenly-spaced p i l e s , and spaced a t d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e s i n e a c h group), embedded i n l o o s e , d e n s e , d r y and s a t u r a t e d s a n d s ,

i s s t u d i e d u s i n g t h e c e n t r i f u g a l modeling t e c h n i q u e .

The r e s p o n s e of

s i n g l e p i l e s and p i l e groups t o f o r c e d v i b r a t i o n s was found t o depend s t r o n g l y on t h e magnitude and f r e q u e n c y of l o a d i n g as w e l l a s t h e d e n s i t y of t h e s o i l s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a s t h e l e v e l of f o r c e i n c r e a s e d :

( 1 ) n o n l i n e a r s o f t e n i n g b e h a v i o r was evidenced by a d e c r e a s e i n t h e r e s o n a n t f r e q u e n c y of t h e s o i l - p i l e system, i n t e r n a l s o i l - p i l e damping, and

( 2 ) t h e r e was a n i n c r e a s e i n

( 3 ) t h e maximum bending moment moved

p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e e p e r below t h e s o i l s u r f a c e and i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n magnitude. Also, s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were observed w i t h F i n a l l y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t i f f n e s s and damping

c l o s e p i l e spacing.

r e s u l t s were compared w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e s a s p r e d i c t e d by Novak's work. INTRODUCTION The p r e d i c t i o n of p i l e r e s p o n s e t o h o r i z o n t a l , time dependent l o a d i n g s s u c h a s caused by e a r t h q u a k e s , machine v i b r a t i o n s , wind o r wave a c t i o n s , i s one of t h e most c h a l l e n g i n g problems i n f o u n d a t i o n e n g i n e e r ing. R e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i o n s a r e made d i f f i c u l t by t h e complex i n t e r a c t i o n A s u b s t a n t i a l number of

between t h e e l a s t i c p i l e and t h e i n e l a s t i c s o i l .

t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s have been conducted i n r e c e n t y e a r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e dynamic r e s p o n s e of p i l e s s u b j e c t e d t o h o r i z o n t a l o r v e r t i c a l l o a d s . Most of t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e l i m i t e d , however, t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a n e l a s t i c s o i l and p e r f e c t bonding between t h e p i l e and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g medium, hypotheses which may be v a l i d f o r srna'll l e v e l s of e x c i t a t i o n . When d e a l -

i n g w i t h l a r g e a m p l i t u d e f o r c e s and d i s p l a c e m e n t s , n o n l i n e a r s o i l b e h a v i o r and n o n l i n e a r e f f e c t s such a s s e p a r a t i o n and gapping must be t a k e n i n t o

account.

D e s p i t e t h e v e r y few n o n l i n e a r s t u d i e s ( s e e , e.g.,

Ref. I ) , i t

seems t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s w i l l b e t h e o n l y s u r e way t o e x p l o r e these nonlinear effects. upon f u l l - s c a l e T r a d i t i o n a l l y , d e s i g n e r s have t h u s had t o r e l y t e s t s a s t h e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e of d e s i g n i n f o r m a t i o n .

~8 .
,

These t e s t s r e q u i r e much t i m e and c a p i t a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l completion. Further, with respect to t h e i r theoretical u t i l i t y , full-scale t e s t s often y i e l d d a t a o f i n s u f f i c i e n t g e n e r a l i t y due t o t h e i n h e r e n t inhomogeneity of i n - s i t u s o i l s t r a t a . I n t h i s p a p e r , t h e dynamic r e s p o n s e of l a t e r a l l y l o a d e d s i n g l e p i l e s and p i l e groups i s s t u d i e d u s i n g t h e c e n t r i f u g a l modeling t e c h n i q u e and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s a r e compared w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l r e s u l t s a n t i c i p a t e d by w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h e o r i e s [ 3 , 4 ] .
A c e n t r i f u g e can simulate gravity-induced s t r e s s e s i n s o i l d e p o s i t s

a t a reduced g e o m e t r i c a l s c a l e through c e n t r i f u g a l modeling.

Conceptual-

l y , t h e t e c h n i q u e c o n s i s t s of i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o n f i n i n g s t r e s s i n t h e model s o i l s o t h a t i t i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e c o n f i n i n g s t r e s s i n t h e p r o t o t y p e s o i l a t homologous p o i n t s . Hence, t h e s t r e s s - s t r a i n b e h a v i o r of any

h o r i z o n t a l s o i l l a y e r i n t h e model i s t h e same a s t h a t of t h e homologous layer i n the prototype. The t e c h n i q u e a l l o w s s o i l - s t r u c t u r e i n t e r a c t i o n F u r t h e r , t h e tests c a n b e performed t e s t s t o b e performed a t a c o n v e n i e n t l y reduced s c a l e , and p r o v i d e s d a t a a p p l i c a b l e t o f u l l - s c a l e problems. uration. on any p a r t i c u l a r s o i l t y p e a n d / o r d e p o s i t , and f o r any s t r u c t u r e c o n f i g The modeling t e c h n i q u e l e a d s t o a s e t of s c a l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r s c a l i n g laws, t h a t a f f e c t time, p h y s i c a l dimensions, and t h e many d e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e s e combinations such a s v e l o c i t y , a c c e l e r a t i o n , f o r c e , etc. e.g., These s c a l i n g r e l a t i o n s have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( s e e 1121 and [ 1 3 ] ) , and t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e q u a n t i t i e s of i n t e r e s t

h e r e have been l i s t e d i n [ 6 ] . The t e c h n i q u e promises t o be a n i n v a l u a b l e a i d f o r s t u d y i n g a v a r i e t y of complex g e o t e c h n i c a l problems ( s e e , e . g . ,

[lo]

and [13] ) and i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r s t u d y i n g dynamic s o i l - s t r u c t u r e [2], [ 6 ] , [7], [ 9 ] , [ l l ] , [12]).

i n t e r a c t i o n problems ( s e e , e . g . , EQUIP!fEST
A.

AXD IXSTRWTATION

Centrifuge The c e n t r i f u g e used i s a Model 1230-1 Genesco "G-accelerator".,

h y d r a u l i c a l l y d r i v e n ; f o r d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s e e Ref. 6 . B. P i l e s and Deformation S e n s o r s The p i l e models used f o r t h e experiments were made from 0.2188 i n c h e s
/'

O.D.,

0.0156 i n c h e s w a l l t h i c k n e s s 3003 H-14 aluminum a l l o y t u b i n g ( y i e l d 3 6 s t r e n g t h = 21 x 1 0 p s i ; modulus of e l a s t i c i t y = 1 0 x 1 0 p s i ) . E i g h t

model p i l e s w i t h t h e same d i a m e t e r b u t d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s t o a c h i e v e v a r i ous embedment d e p t h s were used f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t s a s summarized i n T a b l e

1.

Two p i l e s of t y p e No. 1 were gauged w i t h LO micro-measurement s t r a i n To i n c r e a s e t h e s t r a i n r e a d i n g , two gauges were g l u e d a t e a c h The gauged p i l e s were c o a t e d w i t h micro-measurement

gauges l o c a t e d a t 0.0799, 0.572, 1 . 0 6 , 1.56 and 2.35 i n c h e s below t h e s o i l surface. d e p t h on o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f t h e p i l e and w i r e d i n t o a d j a c e n t p o s i t i o n s i n a common b r i d g e . "M-bound" p r o t e c t i v e c o a t i n g . The p i l e s had a f l e x u r a l r i g i d i t y , E I , o f 2 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 410 l b s - i n (based on a n a v e r a g e o f t h e v a l u e s measured e x p e r i m e n t a l l y from dynamic and s t a t i c c a l i b r a t i o n t e s t s ) . The s i n g l e p i l e s w e r e mounted w i t h a cap which c o n t a i n e d a c o i l and a n a c c e l e r o m e t e r , and weighed 0.0397 l b s . group. Four p i l e s of t y p e No. 1 were r i g i d l y mounted on a 3/16 i n c h t h i c k aluminum mat t o s i m u l a t e a p i l e The m a t , a 5 x 5 i n c h e s s q u a r e , was d e s i g n e d t o c o n v e n i e n t l y accommodate t h r e e s e p a r a t e p i l e groups of d i f f e r e n t p i l e s p a c i n g s as shown i n F i g . 1. The t h r e e p i l e s p a c i n g s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s were 1 . 0 , 2.5 and 4 . 0 i n c h e s t o a c h i e v e S/D r a t i o s ( p i l e s p a c i n g l d i a m e t e r ) o f

4.56,

11.4 and 1 8 . 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . D i s p l a c e m e n t s o f t h e p i l e c a p s were o b t a i n e d by i n t e g r a t i n g t w i c e t h e

reading of t h e Kistler 811 p i c o t r o n miniature accelerometer a t t a c h e d t o the p i l e cap. O c c a s i o n a l l y , t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r o u t p u t was a m p l i f i e d b e f o r e r e c o r d i n g by a S e n s o t e c SA-B t r a n s d u c e r a m p l i f i e r c a l i b r a t e d t o 140 g a i n .
C.

S i g n a l C o n d i t i o n i n g and Data A c q u i s i t i o n
A l l s t r a i n gauges, c o i l and a c c e l e r o m e t e r s i g n a l s were r e c o r d e d on a

4-channel Norland 3001 D i g i t a l O s c i l l o s c o p e w i t h accompanying 3106 Monitor which a c q u i r e s waveform d a t a , s t o r e s t h e d a t a i n i t s d i g i t a l memory and can d i s p l a y t h e waveforms on a CRT s c r e e n . The waveforms were s t o r e d on For e a c h t e s t ,

a Norland 2701-R f l e x i b l e d i s k permanent s t o r a g e system.

t h e time s c a l e and v o l t a g e r a n g e were s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r e a c h waveform i n o r d e r t o o p t i m i z e t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s i g n a l s and t o a s s u r e a minimum of f i v e c y c l e s i n t h e d i s p l a y . p l o t t e d on a Hewlett-Packard


D.

A f t e r p r o c e s s i n g , t h e r e s u l t s were

70458 X-Y p l o t t e r . [ 6 ] w a s used t o v i b r a t e t h e p i l e s , i n The d e v i c e

Forced V i b r a t i o n Device
An e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c "shaker"

t h e l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n , o v e r a b r o a d ' r a n g e of f r e q u e n c i e s .

c o n s i s t s of two s t a t i o n a r y e l e c t r o m a g n e t s mounted on a n aluminum frame


<-

and a s m a l l e r dumbell-shaped c o i l c o a x i a l l y l o c a t e d between t h e two l a r g e r


'l

fl

electromagnet's and mounted t o t h e p i l e cap. reported i n [2,7,9]. p e n d e n t of t h e h i g h

Details a b o u t t h e d e s i g n a r e

The system i s n o t m e c h a n i c a l l y o p e r a t e d and i s indeg's created i n the centrifuge. F u r t h e r , t h e system

h a s h i g h f r e q u e n c y c a p a b i l i t i e s (over 4 kHz), a l l o w i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n of h i g h v i b r a t i o n mode r e s p o n s e s .


E.

Shaker C a l i b r a t i o n
An i m p o r t a n t p a r t of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o develop

a n a d e q u a t e p r o c e d u r e f o r c a l i b r a t i n g t h e c o i l and e s t a b l i s h i n g an a c c u r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o u t p u t v o l t a g e of t h e c o i l and t h e r e s u l t i n g applied f o r c e t o the p i l e cap. The c a l i b r a t i o n was achieved by v i b r a t i n g ( a t 1 g) a c a n t i l e v e r e d p i l e clamped a t t h e bottom end and w i t h i t s upper end (mounted w i t h t h e p i l e cap) h e l d between t h e p o l e s of t h e s t a t i o n a r y magnets.
A c o n s t a n t c u r r e n t of 250 mA was p a s s e d through t h e two e l e c t r o -

magnets and t h e coil-magnet s p a c i n g was m a i n t a i n e d a t 0 . 1 i n c h .

The i n p u t

c u r r e n t t o t h e c o i l was t h e n i n c r e a s e d by 5 0 mA i n c r e m e n t s f o r each f r e quency o f i n t e r e s t . F. S o i l Tested


A f i n e uniform s i l i c a sand (Ottawa s a n d ) w i t h a mean g r a i n d i a m e t e r

The r e s u l t i n g f o r c e a m p l i t u d e v s c o i l o u t p u t v o l t a g e

w a s o b t a i n e d by s i m p l e a n a l y s i s of t h e v i b r a t i n g system.

i l (
<

of 0.008 i n c h e s was used throughout t h e e x p e r i m e n t s .

Various d e n s i t y and

w a t e r c o n t e n t of t h e d e p o s i t ( a b o u t 9 i n c h e s deep) were used:

1. Loose, d r y sand:
2. Dense, d r y s a n d :

p r e p a r e d by p o u r i n g t h e sand i n t o t h e b u c k e t t h e t o p f i v e i n c h e s of t h e d e p o s i t were p l a c e d t h e sand was p r e p a r e d as i n (2)

and smoothing t h e s u r f a c e . i n 0.25 t o 0.5 i n c h l a y e r s which were tamped w i t h a 2 l b w e i g h t .

3.

Medium d e n s e , s a t u r a t e d sand:

above, e x c e p t t h a t t h e w a t e r t a b l e was b r o u g h t t o t h e c u r r e n t s o i l s u r f a c e a f t e r each new l a y e r had been tamped. F i n a l l y , e a c h s o i l d e p o s i t was allowed t o c o n s o l i d a t e a t 100 g ' s f o r a b o u t one hour b e f o r e t h e e x p e r i m e n t s were s t a r t e d . FORCED VIBRATION TEST RESULTS
A.
..

Response Curves:

Single P i l e s

T y p i c a l r e s p o n s e c u r v e s of a c c e l e r a t i o n a m p l i t u d e s ( a b s o l u t e v a l u e s ; peak t o peak) v e r s u s e x c i t i n g f r e q u e n c i e s f o r p i l e s 1 a t t h r e e l o a d l e v e l s ( l o a d l e v e l 3 i s t h e l a r g e s t ) a r e shown i n F i g . 2. F i r s t and second mode

resonances a r e e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e .

The h i g h s h a r p peaks of f i r s t mode

r e s p o n s e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e damping a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t mode. A c c e l e r a t i o n s , f r e q u e n c i e s and damping v a l u e s ( c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e onehalf-power p o i n t s method), a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 2 f o r t h e f i r s t , second, and t h i r d r e s o n a n c e modes. The d a t a show t h a t :

1.

The n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c i e s d e c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l o a d s , which i s a t y p i c a l b e h a v i o r of a s o f t e n i n g dynamical system.

It i s an evi-

dence of s o i l n o n l i n e a r i t y and i s caused by a d e c r e a s e i n p i l e - s o i l s t i f f n e s s w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n dynamic s t r e s s and s t r a i n . 2. The damping a t r e s o n a n c e ' i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l o a d ( a t b o t h t h e f i r s t and second modes), a n o t h e r e v i d e n c e of s o i l n o n l i n e a r i t y , and d e c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y . Further, an important

q u a l i t a t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a b o u t t h e damping mechanism c a n b e made from F i g . 2 . A s c l e a r l y d i s p l a y e d i n F i g . 2, t h e p o s i t i v e s l o p e

of t h e r e s p o n s e c u r v e around t h e f i r s t mode i s f a r s t e e p e r t h a n t h e negative slope. T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t damping i s h i g h e r j u s t above t h e This r e s u l t i s c o n s i s t e n t with

f i r s t n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c y t h a n below. a mechanism proposed by Novak 141.

The s t r a i n d a t a measured a l o n g t h e l e n g t h of t h e p i l e were c o n v e r t e d t o moment v a l u e s and a r e d i s p l a y e d i n F i g . 3 f o r t h e f i r s t and second r e s o n a n c e modes, r e s p e c t i v e l y .


A s t h e l o a d i n c r e a s e s , i t i s observed t h a t

t h e maximum bending moment moves p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e e p e r below t h e s o i l s u r f a c e , and i n c r e a s e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n magnitude


B.

Response Curves:

Group P i l e s

A c c e l e r a t i o n s , f r e q u e n c i e s and damping v a l u e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table

4 f o r t h e f i r s t and second modes a t two l o a d l e v e l s f o r t h r e e p i l e groups


c o n s i s t i n g of 4 p i l e s e a c h a t d i f f e r e n t s p a c i n g s . note that:
I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o

1. The p i l e groups w i t h 4.0 and 2.5 i n c h e s s p a c i n g s d i s p l a y s t i f f n e s s


c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e observed f o r t h e s i n g l e p i l e s , i.e., tude. t h e n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c i e s d e c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l o a d ampliHowever, t h e t h i r d p i l e group w i t h a 1 . 0 i n c h s p a c i n g d i s A s i n d i c a t e d i n Table 4 , a n

p l a y s behavior r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t .

i n c r e a s e i n l o a d l e v e l i n d u c e s a marked i n c r e a s e i n n a t u r a l ' f r e quency i n t h a t c a s e , i . e . , load. t h e system s t i f f e n s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g

T h i s b e h a v i o r i s i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h e b e h a v i o r observed

f o r t h e o t h e r two groups and i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l

r e s u l t s of P o u l o s [ 5 ] which p r e d i c t s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s f o r low S/D r a t i o s .

,,f"

2.

The damping v a l u e s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t t h r e e t r e n d s :

an increase i n

damping w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l o a d l e v e l , a d e c r e a s e i n damping w i t h . d e c r e a s i n g s p a c i n g between t h e p i l e s , and a n i n c r e a s e i n damping w i t h h i g h e r mode r e s p o n s e s .


A l l these observations c l e a r l y suggest

a highly n o n l i n e a r p i l e - s o i l behavior. Bending moments a t f i r s t r e s o n a n c e a l o n g t h e p i l e s f o r v a r i o u s spaci n g a r e shown i n F i g . 4 . P a r a m e t r i c Study:


I t i s observed t h a t t h e maximum moment d e c r e a s e s

sharply with decreasing p i l e spacing.


C.

Single P i l e s L/ro, s o i l density, For con-

I n t h e s e t e s t s t h e e f f e c t s of s l e n d e r n e s s r a t i o

w a t e r c o n t e n t , l o a d l e v e l and e x c i t a t i o n f r e q u e n c y on a s i n g l e p i l e ' s dynamic s t i f f n e s s and damping c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i n v e s t i g a t e d .

v e n i e n c e , t h e t e s t s were performed a t e x c i t a t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s be tween t h e f i r s t and second r e s o n a n c e s (of Fig. 2) of 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 Hz, and a t t h r e e l o a d l e v e l s ( s e e Ref. 2 f o r d e t a i l s ) . (Piles 2 Seven p i l e s How-

8) w i t h d i f f e r e n t s l e n d e r n e s s r a t i o s were t e s t e d a s summarized
These t e s t s were performed i n l o o s e d r y sand d e p o s i t s .

i n T a b l e 1. deposits.

F9r

e v e r , P i l e #4 was a l s o t e s t e d i n d r y d e n s e and s a t u r a t e d medium d e n s e sand T y p i c a l r e s u l t s a r e shown i n Fig. 5 which shows t h e h y s t e r e s i s l o o p s measured a t 900 Hz e x c i t a t i o n f r e q u e n c y a t t h r e e l o a d l e v e l s f o r P i l e #4 embedded i n a d r y dense sand d e p o s i t . From such l o o p s t h e equiva l e n t s t i f f n e s s and damping c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e a c h p i l e , a t e a c h l o a d l e v e l , and f o r e a c h e x c i t a t i o n f r e q u e n c y were determined. The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p a r a m e t r i c s t u d y w a s t o compare t h e experiment a l r e s u l t s w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e s a s p r e d i c t e d by w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d

techniques.

For t h a t purpose Novak's computer program "PILAY" [ 3 ] .was

used t o o b t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e s f o r comparison w i t h t h e t e s t r e s u l t s .

To f a c i l i t a t e t h e comparisons, a l l q u a n t i t i e s i n v o l v e d were non-dimens i o n a l i z e d a s s u g g e s t e d by Novak [ 4 ] , and t h e f o l l o w i n g non-dimensionali z e d form of f r e q u e n c y , s t i f f n e s s and damping were a d o p t e d : a.
=

ur0/vs 3 r, ,

where

E I i s t h e bending s t i f f n e s s of t h e p i l e ; V i s t h e s h e a r wave P P S velocity i n s o i l ; r i s t h e o u t e r r a d i u s of t h e p i l e , C i s t h e equiva0 l e n t v i s c o u s damping, k i s t h e e q u i v a l e n t s t i f f n e s s , and w i s t h e

frequency ( i n r a d / s e c ) . The s h e a r wave v e l o c i t i e s were computed from t h e f o l l o w i n g formula [8]. 0.25 Vs = [170 - ( 7 8 . 2 ) e ] 0 0 i n which where

(4)

a.

KOav

and

v = ysZ
= u n i t weight of t h e s o i l ;

(5)
KO = l a t -

s e r a l s t r e s s c o e f f i c i e n t a t r e s t ; and

z = d e p t h below s u r f a c e ;

e = void r a t i o . The s h e a r wave v e l o c i t y below

The v a l u e s used a r e shown i n Table 6 .

t h e t i p of t h e p i l e was assumed t o be 1 . 5 t i m e s t h e v e l o c i t y a t t h e t i p , and t h e u n i t weight of t h e s o i l was assumed c o n s t a n t throughout t h e d e p t h of t h e d e p o s i t . Typical r e s u l t s a r e presented i n Figs. 6

9.

F i g u r e s 6 , 7 , and 8 ful and damping

fu2 p a r a m e t e r s w i t h f r e q u e n c y i n d r y l o o s e , d e n s e and s a t u r a t e d medium dense sand d e p o s i t s f o r s i m i l a r s l e n d e r n e s s r a t i o s . Also shown i n dashed l i n e s

show t h e v a r i a t i o n s of t h e p i l e dynamic s t i f f n e s s

i n t h o s e f i g u r e s a r e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t h e o r e t i c a l r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by u s i n g PILAY 131. ness fU1 F i g u r e 9 shows t h e v a r i a t i o n s of t h e p i l e dynamic s t i f f fU2 parameters w i t h slenderness r a t i o i n a dry

and damping

l o o s e sand d e p o s i t a t a g i v e n f r e q u e n c y . The e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p i l e s t i f f n e s s i s v e r y much f r e q u e n c y dependent b u t t h a t t h e damping i s n o t . The t h e o r e t i c a l

s t i f f n e s s p r e d i c t i o n s do n o t e x h i b i t t h e s t r o n g f r e q u e n c y dependence observed i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s , b u t t h e damping p r e d i c t i o n s do agree well with the experimental r e s u l t s . order a t t h i s stage: Four words of c a u t i o n a r e i n

(1) i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t t h e c e n t r i f u g e

t e s t s were c a r r i e d w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e d environment of t h e c e n t i f u g e b u c k e t , and t h e r e f o r e may have been a f f e c t e d by r e f l e c t i n g waves from bottom and s i d e s of t h e b u c k e t . s i v e l y a t Princeton University. T h i s problem i s b e i n g r e s e a r c h e d e x t e n (2) The f r e q u e n c y range of t h e e x p e r i Novak's work i s l i m i t e d t o

ments i s r a t h e r s m a l l and l i m i t e d t o f r e q u e n c i e s between t h e f i r s t and second r e s o n a n c e modes of t h e p i l e s .

(3)

t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of an e l a s t i c s o i l and p e r f e c t bonding between t h e p i l e and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g medium, h y p o t h e s e s which may be v a l i d f o r s m a l l l e v e l s


I

,.7
p,

of e x c i t a t i o n .

I t h a s been l o n g r e c o g n i z e d , however, t h a t n o n l i n e a r e f -

f e c t s , s u c h as n o n l i n e a r s o i l b e h a v i o r , s l i p p a g e , and e v e n t u a l gapping, p l a y a fundamental r o l e i n t h e r e s p o n s e of p i l e s t o c y c l i c l o a d s of modera t e t o l a r g e amplitudes. e f f e c t s were e n c o u n t e r e d . Obviously, i n t h e t e s t s most of t h e s e n o n l i n e a r

( 4 ) A d d i t i o n a l work i s needed, b o t h a n a l y t i c a l -

l y and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , t o r e f i n e t h e approximate e x p r e s s i o n s f o r p i l e s t i f f n e s s and damping and t o d e f i n e b e t t e r t h e i r r a n g e of a p p l i c a b i l i t y and a c c u r a c y o f some of t h e s e f o r m u l a s and compare and e v a l u a t e more f u l l y various solutions. CONCLUSIONS The r e s u l t s of t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of performing dynamic s o i l - s t r u c t u r e i n t e r a c t i o n t e s t s a t a reduced scale i n a centrifuge. N o n l i n e a r e f f e c t s , such a s n o n l i n e a r s o i l b e h a v i o r ,

s l i p p a g e , and e v e n t u a l gapping, which p l a y a fundamental r o l e i n t h e dynami c r e s p o n s e of p i l e s t o c y c l i c l o a d s of moderate t o l a r g e a m p l i t u d e s can b e e x p l o r e d v i a t h e c e n t r i f u g a l modeling. I n a relatively limited fre-

quency r a n g e (between t h e f i r s t and second r e s o n a n t modes of s i n g l e p i l e s ) , the experimental r e s u l t s indicated t h a t t h e p i l e s t i f f n e s s is strongly frequency-dependent b u t t h a t t h e damping i s n o t . The t h e o r e t i c a l s t i f f n e s s p r e d i c t i o n s do n o t e x h i b i t t h e f r e q u e n c y dependence observed experi m e n t a l l y , b u t t h e damping p r e d i c t i o n s do a g r e e w e l l w i t h t h e t e s t r e s u l t s . R e f l e c t i o n of waves from t h e w a l l s of t h e c e n t r i f u g e b u c k e t c o u l d a f f e c t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s , and a d d i t i o n a l work i s needed t o s t u d y t h i s effect. Nonetheless, t h e r e s u l t s r e i n f o r c e confidence i n the c e n t r i f u g a l modeling t e c h n i q u e by d e m o n s t r a t i n g i t s v e r s a t i l i t y and a c c u r a c y ; many i m p o r t a n t d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s c a n b e measured a c c u r a t e l y i n t h e c e n t r i f u g e w i t h g r e a t convenience and low c o s t . ACICVOIJLEDGMENTS The c e n t r i f u g e f a c i l i t y i s sponsored by g r a n t s from P r i n c e t o n Univers i t y C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g Department, Woodward-Clyde and Dames and Moore c o n s u l t i n g f i r m s , Exxon, Amoco, Mobil and S h e l l O i l companies. s u p p o r t i s most g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. the t e s t s reported herein. The.ir

n
-

The a u t h o r s a r e most g r a t e f u l

t o J . D. Romano, J . D. Reback, K. Bakhtar and R. Rowland who performed

REFERENCES

1.

A n g e l i d e s , D. C . , a n d R o e s s e t , J . M . , " N o n l i n e a r L a t e r a l Dynamic S t i f f n e s s of P i l e s , " J o u r n a l of t h e Geotechnical Engineering Division, P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e American S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , Vol. 1 0 7 , No. GT11, November 1981, pp. 1443-1460. B a k h t a r , K . , " E v a l u a t i o n o f Dynamic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S i n g l e P i l e s Using C e n t r i f u g e M o d e l l i n g , " C i v i l Engrg. D e p a r t m e n t , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , J u l y 1 9 8 1 , p. 305. Novak, M . , A b o u l - E l l a , F . , and S h e t a , M . , "PILAY2: A Computer Program f o r C a l c u l a t i o n o f S t i f f n e s s and Damping o f P i l e s i n Layered Media," U n i v e r s i t y o f Webstern O n t a r i o , R e p o r t No. SACDA81-10, J a n u a r y 1981. Novak, M., "Dynamic S t i f f n e s s a n d Damping o f P i l e s , " Canadian GeoT e c h n i c a l J o u r n a l , Vol. 11, No. 4 , 1 9 7 4 , p p . 574-598. P o u l o s , H . , " B e h a v i o r o f L a t e r a l l y Loaded P i l e s : V - P i l e Groups," J o u r n a l o f t h e S o i l Mechanics and F o u n d a t i o n D i v i s i o n , ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM5, May 1 9 7 1 , p p . 733-751. P r e v o s t , J . H., Romano, J . D . , A b d e l - G h a f f a r , A . M . , and Rowland, R., 11 Dynamic Response o f L a t e r a l l y - L o a d e d P i l e s i n Centrifuge," P r o c e e d i n g s , ASCE S p e c i a l t y Conf. on Dynamic Response o f S t r u c t u r e s : E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , O b s e r v a t i o n , P r e d i c t i o n a n d C o n t r o l , A l t a n t a , GA, J a n u a r y 1 9 8 1 , pp. 386-400.

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

Reback, J . D . , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d y o f t h e Dynamic B e h a v i o r o f a S i n g l e P i l e a n d P i l e Groups i n Sand: C e n t r i f u g a l M o d e l l i n g , " C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , May 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 5 3 . R i c h a r t , F. E . , H a l l , J . R., a n d Woods, R. D . , V i b r a t i o n o f S o i l and F o u n d a t i o n s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , N J , 1970. Romano, J . D . , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d y o f t h e Dynamic Response o f L a t e r a l l y Loaded P i l e s Using t h e C e n t r i f u g e T e c h n i q u e , " C i v i l Engrg. Department, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , May 1 9 8 0 , p . 8 2 . Roscoe, K. H . , " S o i l s a n d Model T e s t s , " J o u r n a l o f S t r a i n A n a l y s i s , Vol. 3 , 1968, pp. 57-64. S c o t t , R. F . , " L a t e r a l l y - L o a d e d P i l e T e s t s i n a C e n t r i f u g e , " ASCE C o n v e n t i o n and E x p o s i t i o n , P r e p r i n t , A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a , O c t o b e r 1979. S c o t t , R. F., L i u , H . P . , a n d T i n g , J . , "Dynamic P i l e T e s t s by C e n t r i f u g a l ? l o d e l i n g , " P r o c e e d i n g s , 6 t h World Conf. on E a r t h q u a k e E n g i n e e r i n g , P a p e r 4-50, New D e l h i , I n d i a , 1977. S c o t t , R. F . , a n d Morgan, N . R . , " F e a s i b i l i t y and D e s i r a b i l i t y o f C o n s t r u c t i n g a Very L a r g e C e n t r i f u g e f o r G e o t e c h n i c a l Studies.;" R e p o r t 760-170, J e t P r o p u l s i o n L a b o r a t o r y a n d C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, Elarch 1977.

8.
9.

10:

11.

12.

13.

TABLE 1 M D L PILES USED I N THE TESTS OE Wall Thickness = 3.969 1 0 - ~ r n PILE No.
1

TOTAL LENGTH Ll(m-) 0.270 0.252 0.230 0.218 0.218 0.218

EMBEDMENT L (m.1 0.222 0.212 0.190 0.178 0.158 0.163

OUTER SLENDERRADIUS NESS RATIO ro(mw) L/ro 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 74.07 70.67 63.33 59.33 52.67 54.33

2 3 4 4* 4**

**Pile t e s t e d i n s a t u r a t e d medium dense sand.

6.

--

.. -

TABLE 2
ACCELERATIONS,FREQUENCIES AND CORRESPONDING

DAMPING RATIOS AT THE RESONANT PEAKS FOR'EACH

M D OF THE SINGLE PILE OE

- 3 LOAD LEVELS

Load Level
1

FIRST MODE SECOND MODE THIRD MODE Accel Damp- Freq Accel Damp- Freq Accel DampFreq (Hz) (GI (Hz) (G) (Hz) (G) ing ing ing 132.9 15.36 2.56% 1061 11.67 2.13% 2816 2.26 1.59% 127.4 125.4 40.61 54.20 2.96% 1040 3.37% 1040 36.56

2
I

I 46.86

-12.50% -I
1.89%

--

--

-- I --

TABLE 3
LOCATION AND

M~GNITUDE OF

MAXIMUM

BENDING M M N S I N THE SINGLE PILE O ET FIRST MODE Maximum Depth Moment (N-M) (cm) .073 .18 .24 0 .43 .40 SECOND M D OE Maximum Depth Moment (N-M) (cm) ,0016 .0043 .005 7 .21 1.01 1.25

Load Level
1

THIRD M D OE Maximum Depth Moment (N-M) (em) .000031 0

2 3

---

---

TABLE 4 ACCELERATIONS, FREQUENCIES AND CORRESPONDING


DAMPING RATIOS A EACH RESONANT PEAK: T

.Load Level

FOR THREE PILE GROUPS Pile Spacing (in) 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 1.0 1.0

TWO LOAD LEVELS

FIRST M D OE DampAccel Freq ing (GI (Hz) 620.5 619.1 631.9 629.7 666.5 671.1 21.2 55.5 4.35 44.5 1.19 1.79 0.64% 0.89% 0.68% 0.46%

SECOND MODE DampFreq Accel ing (Hz) ( G I 3275. 1.55 0.68%

4
5
4 5 4 5

--

--89

--

0.49% 3246

--0.77%

---

-1.49

0.34% 3218

--

--

TABLE 5 LOCATION AND MAGNITUDE OF THE MAXIMUM BENDING M M N S O ET


I N THE PILE GROUPS

,<--' P
. ,

Pile Spacing (inches) 4.0 4.0 2.5 1.0

FIRST M D OE Load Level 4 Maximum Moment (N-M) 2.57 x 2.75 x


2 .lo

SECOND MODE Depth (cm) 1.10 .86 Maximum Moment (N-M) Depth (cm)

1.93 x 10'~

5 5

--

lo-3

I.1O .49

---

----

.062 x

TABLE 6 SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY DETERMINATION


f

S o i l Type Dry l o o s e s a n d Dry d e n s e sand S a t u r a t e d medium dense sand

Ys kg/m3 1437.308 1743.120 . 1987.767 0.6 0.4 0.4

0.78 0.51 0.68

f ACCELEROMETER

0 PlLE GROUP # l
@
PlLE GROUP r 2

S = 4" ~ ~ 2 . 5 "

PlLE GROUP + 3 S = l .o"

Fig. 1 Layout o f t h e t h r e e p i l e groups used i n t h e tests.

[) I

a,

0'

QJ
[) I

0
a, k

a
[) I

a,
[) I

U
[) I

;=f

FORCED VIBRAT lON TESTSPPILE GROUPS LOOSE SAND LOAD LEVEL 5

,*
$
. .

-. 10

0.0
- -. -

1 . 0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7 0 8.0 .

9.0

1. 00

ABSOLUTE BENDING MmENT IN ( N - M ) x 10Bending moment of t h e p i l e group.

"

Fig, 4

Fig. 5 Hysteretic response of a single pile in dense dry sand.

DISPLACEMENT IN cm x
16

0.012 0.024 0.036 0.048 0.060 DIMENSIONLESS FREQUENCY, o = w r,/V. ,

0.072

Fig. 6

Variations of stiffness parameter, parameter, fU2,

and of damping U1' with dimensionless frequency,

DIMENSIONLESS FREQUENCY, ao=uro/V,

Fig. 7

Variations of Stiffness parameter, parameter, fU2,

and damping fU1' with dimensionless frequency,

SINGLE PILE SATURATED MEDIUM E N S E SAND


.054

.036-

PILE # 3, L / , = 54.33 r LOAD # I -c LOAD# 2 + LOAD # 3 -oTHEORY -4( NOVAK'S )


ow---

.018 -

Q14 -

0.07 -

.a2

.02 4

.036

.048

,060

.072

DIMENSIONLESS FREQUENCY, a,= w ro/ V ,

Fig. 8

Variations of stiffness parameter, parameter, a fu2 '

and damping fU1' with dimensionless frequency,

wr / V 0 s'

.036'
SINGLE PILE LOOSE DRY SAND DMENSJONLESS FREQUENCY, oo=wr0/~, =0.044 LOAD # I + LOAD# 2LOAD# 3* THEORY - * - 0 - - - ( NOVAK'S )
0

.018 -

0
.254

.I27

0-O

0
I0

20

30

40

50.

I -

60

70

SLENDERNESS RATIO, L / ro

Fig. 9

Variations of s t i f f n e s s parameter, parameter,

fU1, and damping

f u 2 , with s l e n d e r n e s s r a t i o , L / r g