Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

Smoking itself is a bad habit, but if you can't give it up, you can at least cut back on some

of your bad smoking habits. Do you smoke in bed for example? That's not only a bad habit but also a dangerous one, as many house fires start because someone fell asleep with a lit cigarette still between his fingers. Reaching for a cigarette first thing in the morning is another habit which you should try to get out of. Try doing some deep breathing exercises instead. Smoking in the kitchen, especially when you are cooking is also something which should be avoided, as ash can easily fall into the food. Not paying attention to when and how often you smoke is another bad habit and one which can mean you are smoking a lot more than you think. So make a note of every cigarette you smoke for a week and notice when you smoke unconsciously, that is without noticing you're doing it. Once you are fully aware of your bad smoking habits, you can start to do something to change them and you should be able to cut down substantially in the process. If you smoke when talking on the phone, keep your cigarettes and ashtray out of reach. If you go out drinking with friends, make a conscious effort to smoke less - the pub is the place you are most likely to smoke too much. Smoking around babies or children is another bad habit and one which could have serious consequences for their health, as passive smoking has now been proved to cause the same illnesses as active smoking. If you smoke in public places, then you need to be careful not to blow smoke in the faces of non-smokers around you as this is putting them at risk and is also extremely unpleasant as it can irritate the eyes and nose, as well as making their clothes smell. If you can't give up completely at least give up some of your bad smoking habits Waller Jamison 2007 Have you tried to stop smoking, only to fail over and over again? Discover an innovative and simple way to quit smoking quickly Worried that youll gain weight if you quit smoking? Get our free weight loss tips to make sure you dont! Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/540892

Smoking habits 2010


Less than one in five smoke daily
For the first time since the measurements of smoking habits started in 1973, the proportion of daily smokers amongst the 16-74 years olds is less than 20 per cent. The share of snuff users was 7 per cent in 2010.

Nineteen per cent of the respondents aged 16-74 years stated that they smoked daily in 2010, and the proportion was the same among women and men. The change last year falls in line with the pattern we have seen for a while, with a continuous decline in the proportion of smokers. The smoking habits of men and women differed from 1973 towards the end of the millennium, but have since then had a common falling curve. About one in three women smoked daily during the last decades before 2000. Among men, the trend has been declining throughout the period since 1973, when more than half of the men were smoking. Over the years, the authorities have taken measures to reduce the number of smokers. Among these efforts are a prohibition of tobacco advertising, health warnings on cigarette packets and a special smoking act that prohibits smoking in public areas indoors.

Less smoking and more use of snuff among youngsters


The declining smoking tendency among young people in the age 16-24 years continued in 2010. Ten per cent of young men and 14 per cent of young women are daily smokers. On the other hand, occasional smoking is more common among young men. When it comes to using snuff, the number of young users is rising. One in four young men now use snuff on a daily basis, and eight per cent of the women. For the age group 16-74 years as a whole, the level of snuff users is relatively stable. Seven per cent used snuff daily 12 per cent among men and two for women. The proportion of occasional snuffers is unaltered at four per cent. About the surveys Statistics Norway has conducted surveys on smoking habits since 1973, now as a part of Statistics Norways Travel and holiday survey. In the course of a year, four surveys with a total sample of 5 000 are carried out. Since 2008 the survey also includes questions about Norwegians use of snuff. From 1973 to 2008, three-year moving averages were estimated. A moving average is calculated as the average of results from three consecutive years, and this represents the middle of the three years. From 2009, Statistics Norway has decided to use the figures for each year.

Published 18 February 2011 Statistics Norway

s people who become used to lighting up a cigarette whenever they enter their car or are at the phone, the sheer act of driving or talking on the phone can produce a desire to smoke. This accounts one reason to smoke, and smokers acquire many such triggers which spread through their lives. Similarly, smokers who resort to smoking while encountering stressful situations frequently lose their self-belief in their capability to tackle such situations without smoking. In reality, these individuals are under the impression that it would simply be impossible for them to act if they gave up the habit of smoking cigarettes. This is a major case of the psychological aspect of smoking conduct employing smoking as a means to stay away from the challenges of life. When smokers become conscious of their triggers which may vary from individual to individual and try to adopt suitable strategies to tackle the situation, they face a certain degree of difficulty in doing so. Basic Tactics The ideal way to get rid of ones smoking habit is to employ some basic tactics to effectively deal with the situation. Some of these tactics can be utilized to check smoking urges from

happening while others can assist in reducing or getting rid of urges as they arise. Anyway, most of the techniques employed to cope with the problems of smoking entail acquiring new ways of thinking and behaving. Dealing With Triggers Many people who attempt to quit smoking move away to another place to inhale a few fresh and deep breaths and mentally assess their reasons to relinquish smoking. Though these techniques are simple and straightforward they are quite effective in helping people todeal with the problem of smoking. Techniques to quit smoking must be premeditated, observed and used constantly for gaining the desired result. It is important to bear in mind that the only means of shunning the habit of smoking cigarettes is to acquire the ability todeal with triggers and cravings to smoke. Course of Action The procedure of relinquishing the habit of smoking begins well in advance from the actual day an individual puts an end to his smoking habit. It commences when the smoker tries to assess the

consequences that his action can have. This course of action persists even after the quit day, as the individual who has given up smoking encounters unforeseen challenges and enticement along the road to permanent abstinence. Know Which Technique Suits You This happens due to the fact that numerous triggers for smoking are concealed or veiled, and reveal themselves to the smoker only after he or she tries to confront life without cigarettes. In this regard trigger consciousness is necessary. Additionally, coping methods that are suitable for one may not be helpful for another. For a large number of individuals quitting entails a greatdeal of trial-and-error, and hence persistence and determination is crucial.

Cigarette
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Cig" redirects here. For other uses, see Cig (disambiguation). For the United States Navy patrol vessel, see USS Cigarette (SP-1234). The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (December 2010)

Two unlit, filtered f6 brand cigarettes from Germany.

A cigarette (French: "small cigar", from cigare + -ette) is a small roll of finely cut tobacco leaves wrapped in a cylinder of thin paper for smoking. The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smoulder; its smoke is inhaled from the other end, which is held in or to the mouth

and in some cases a cigarette holder may be used as well. Most modern manufactured cigarettes are filtered and include reconstituted tobacco and other additives.[1] The term cigarette, as commonly used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but can apply to similar devices containing other herbs, such as cloves or cannabis. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, and paper wrapping, which is normally white, though other colors are occasionally available. Cigars are typically composed entirely of wholeleaf tobacco. Rates of cigarette smoking vary widely, and have changed considerably over the course of history since cigarettes were first widely used in the mid-19th century. While rates of smoking have over time leveled off or declined in the developed world, they continue to rise in developing nations.[2][3] Nicotine, the primary psychoactive chemical in tobacco and therefore cigarettes, is believed to be psychologically addictive, although it does not engender a physiological dependency (e.g. discontinuation does not evoke somatic withdrawal syndromes as do drugs such as alcohol or opioids). Cigarette use by pregnant women has also been shown to cause birth defects, including mental and physical disabilities.[4] Secondhand smoke from cigarettes has been shown to be injurious to bystanders,[5][6][7][8] which has led to legislation that has banned their smoking in many workplaces and public areas. New research has shown that thirdhand smoke, which are caused when tobacco traces are transmitted through a secondhand smoker to a third person, increases the probability of lung-related diseases. Cigarettes are the most frequent source of fires in private homes, which has prompted the European Union and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not fire standard compliant by 2011.[9][10]

Contents
[hide]

1 History 2 Manufacturing o 2.1 Paper o 2.2 Tobacco blend o 2.3 Additives 3 Taxation 4 Sales o 4.1 Cigarette advertising o 4.2 Purchase restrictions 5 Consumption 6 Health issues 7 Warning messages in packages 8 Smoking bans 9 Cigarette butt 10 Cigarette litter 11 Electronic cigarettes 12 Notable cigarette brands 13 See also

14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

[edit] History

A reproduction of a carving from the temple at Palenque, Mexico, depicting a Mayan priest smoking from a smoking tube.

The earliest forms of cigarettes were largely indistinguishable from their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes have been attested in Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes. The Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and various psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico and Central and South America until recent times.[11] The South and Central American cigarette used various plant wrappers; when it was brought back to Spain, maize wrappers were introduced, and by the 17th century, fine paper. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya's paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, and El juego de la pelota a pala (18th century).[12]

By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France, where it received the name cigarette; and in 1845, the French state tobacco monopoly began manufacturing them.[12] In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became increasingly popular during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish comrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of old newspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf.[12] This was helped by the development of tobaccos that are suitable for cigarette use, and by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry.

Francisco Goya's La Cometa, depicting a man smoking an early quasi-cigarette.

Cigarettes may have been initially used in a manner similar to pipes and cigars and not inhaled; for evidence, see the Lucky Strike ad campaign asking consumers "Do You Inhale?" from the 30's. As cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic inhaling may have become more agreeable. The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is largely a 20th century phenomenon at the start of the century the per capita annual consumption in the USA was 54 cigarettes (with less than 0.5% of the population smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year), and consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked (defined as smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year).[13] By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, and by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691;[14] implying that about 21% of the population smoked 100 cigarettes or more per year. German Doctors were the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer which led to the first anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany.[15] During World War I and World War II,

cigarettes were rationed to soldiers. During the Vietnam War, cigarettes were included with Cration meals. It was only in 1975 that the government quit putting cigarettes in military rations. During the second half of the 20th century, the adverse health effects of cigarettes started to become widely known and text-only health warnings became commonplace on cigarette packets. Warnings became prevalent but unpopular, mainly due to the political influences held by tobacco growers. The United States has not yet implemented graphical cigarette warning labels, which are considered a more effective method to communicate to the public the dangers of cigarette smoking.[16] Canada, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Romania and Singapore however, have both textual warnings and graphic visual images displaying, among other things, the damaging effects tobacco use has on the human body. The cigarette has evolved much since its conception; for example, the thin bands that travel transverse to the "axis of smoking" (thus forming circles along the length of the cigarette) are alternate sections of thin and thick paper to facilitate effective burning when being drawn, and retard burning when at rest. Synthetic particulate filters remove some of the tar before it reaches the smoker.

[edit] Manufacturing

Diagram of a cigarette. 1. Filter made of 95% cellulose acetate. 2. Tipping paper to cover the filter. 3. Rolling paper to cover the tobacco. 4. Tobacco blend.

Commercially manufactured cigarettes are seemingly simple objects consisting mainly of a tobacco blend, paper, PVA glue to bond the outer layer of paper together, and often also a cellulose acetatebased filter.[17] While the assembly of cigarettes is straightforward, much focus is given to the creation of each of the components, in particular the tobacco blend, which may contain over 600 ingredients,[18] many of them flavoring for the tobacco. A key ingredient that makes cigarettes more addictive is the inclusion of reconstituted tobacco, which has additives to make nicotine more volatile as the cigarette burns.[1]

[edit] Paper
Main article: Cigarette paper

The paper for holding the tobacco blend may vary in porosity to allow ventilation of the burning ember or contain materials that control the burning rate of the cigarette and stability of the produced ash. The papers used in tipping the cigarette (forming the mouthpiece) and surrounding the filter stabilize the mouthpiece from saliva and moderate the burning of the cigarette as well as the delivery of smoke with the presence of one or two rows of small laser-drilled air holes.[19] According to Simon Chapman, a professor of public health at the University of Sydney, the burning agents in cigarette paper are responsible for fires and reducing them would be a simple and effective means of dramatically reducing the ignition propensity of cigarettes.[20] Since the 1980s, prominent cigarette manufacturers such as Philip Morris and R.J. Reynolds developed fire-safe cigarettes but did not market them.[citation needed] The burn rate of cigarette paper is regulated through the application of different forms of micro crystalline cellulose to the paper.[21] Cigarette paper has been specially engineered by creating bands of different porosity to create "fire-safe" cigarettes. These cigarettes have a reduced idle burning speed which allows them to self-extinguish.[22] This fire-safe paper is manufactured by mechanically altering the setting of the paper slurry.[23] New York was the first U.S. state to mandate that all cigarettes manufactured or sold within the state comply with a fire safe standard. Canada has passed a similar nation-wide mandate based on the same standard. All U.S. states are gradually passing fire-safe mandates.[24] European Union wishes to ban in 2011 cigarettes that are not fire-safe. According to a study made by European Union in 16 European countries, 11,000 fires were due to people carelessly handling cigarettes between 2005 and 2007. This caused 520 deaths and 1600 people injured.[25]

[edit] Tobacco blend

The tobacco end of a cigarette

The process of blending gives the end product a consistent taste from batches of tobacco grown in different areas of a country that may change in flavor profile from year to year due to different environmental conditions.[26]

Modern cigarettes produced after the 1950s, although composed mainly of shredded tobacco leaf, use a significant quantity of tobacco processing by-products in the blend. Each cigarette's tobacco blend is made mainly from the leaves of flue-cured brightleaf, burley tobacco, and oriental tobacco. These leaves are selected, processed, and aged prior to blending and filling. The processing of brightleaf and burley tobaccos for tobacco leaf "strips" produces several byproducts such as leaf stems, tobacco dust, and tobacco leaf pieces ("small laminate").[26] To improve the economics of producing cigarettes, these by-products are processed separately into forms where they can then be possibly added back into the cigarette blend without an apparent or marked change in the cigarette's quality. The most common tobacco by-products include:

Blended leaf (BL) sheet: a thin, dry sheet cast from a paste made with tobacco dust collected from tobacco stemming, finely milled burley-leaf stem, and pectin.[27] Reconstituted leaf (RL) sheet: a paper-like material made from recycled tobacco fines, tobacco stems and "class tobacco", which consists of tobacco particles less than 30 mesh in size (~0.599 mm) that are collected at any stage of tobacco processing.[28] RL is made by extracting the soluble chemicals in the tobacco by-products, processing the leftover tobacco fibers from the extraction into a paper, and then reapplying the extracted materials in concentrated form onto the paper in a fashion similar to what is done in paper sizing. At this stage ammonium additives are applied to make reconstituted tobacco an effective nicotine delivery system.[1] Expanded (ES) or improved stems (IS): ES are rolled, flattened, and shredded leaf stems that are expanded by being soaked in water and rapidly heated. Improved stems follow the same process but are simply steamed after shredding. Both products are then dried. These two products look similar in appearance but are different in taste.[26]

According to a decision on a lawsuit brought by the USA against Philip Morris, and Philip Morris own documents, the only difference between regular cigarettes and a "light" cigarette is tiny holes placed on the paper that increase the air flow. This increase in air flow increases the mutability of the smoke, i.e. making so-called "light" cigarettes even more likely to cause cancer and tumors than regular cigarettes. Philip Morris has been banned from using the term "light" in the USA.[29] A recipe-specified combination of brightleaf, burley-leaf and oriental-leaf tobacco will be mixed with humectants such as propylene glycol or glycerol, as well as flavouring products and enhancers such as cocoa solids, licorice, tobacco extracts, and various sugars, which are known collectively as "casings". The leaf tobacco will then be shredded, along with a specified amount of small laminate, expanded tobacco, BL, RL, ES and IS. A perfume-like flavour/fragrance, called the "topping" or "toppings", which is most often formulated by flavor companies, will then be blended into the tobacco mixture to improve the consistency in flavour and taste of the cigarettes associated with a certain brand name.[26] As well, they replace lost flavours due to the repeated wetting and drying used in processing the tobacco. Finally the tobacco mixture will be filled into cigarettes tubes and packaged. In recent years, the manufacturers' pursuit of maximum profits has led to the practice of using not just the leaves, but also recycled tobacco offal[1] and the plant stem.[30] The stem is first crushed and cut to resemble the leaf before being merged or blended into the cut leaf.[31] According to data from the World Health Organization [32], the amount of tobacco per 1000

cigarettes fell from 2.28 pounds in 1960 to 0.91 pounds in 1999, largely as a result of reconstituting tobacco, fluffing and additives.

[edit] Additives
Chemicals are added by cigarette manufactures for organoleptic purposes.[33] 599 additives have been approved by the Dept. of Health and Human Services in April 1994 for use in the manufacture of cigarettes. None of these additives need to be listed as ingredients on the cigarette pack. The list of legal cigarette additives was created by the five major American cigarette companies. All of the ingredients are also approved as additives for foods,[34] but not all of them have been tested for what they become in smoke during burning.[citation needed] A caustic and hazardous chemical called ammonia is on the list and is particularly useful because it helps convert bound nicotine molecules in tobacco smoke into free nicotine molecules. This process is known as freebasing which enhances the effect of the nicotine on the smoker.[35]

[edit] Taxation
See also: Cigarette taxes in the United States

Cigarettes are a significant source of tax revenue in many localities. This fact has historically been an impediment for health groups seeking to discourage cigarette smoking, since governments seek to maximize tax revenues. Furthermore, some countries have made cigarettes a state monopoly, which has the same effect on the attitude of government officials outside the health field.[36] In the United States, cigarettes are taxed substantially, but the states are a primary determinant of the total tax rate. Generally, states that rely on tobacco as a significant farm product tend to tax cigarettes at a low rate.[37] It has been shown that higher prices for cigarettes discourage smoking. Every 10 percent increase in the price of cigarettes reduced youth smoking by about seven percent and overall cigarette consumption by about four percent.[38] Thus increased cigarette taxes are proposed as a means to reduce smoking. Coupled with the federal cigarette tax of $1.01 per pack, total cigarette-specific taxes range from $1.18 per pack in Missouri to $6.86 per pack in New York City. States also charge sizable settlement payments to tobacco companies, and the federal government levies user fees to fund FDA regulatory measures over tobacco. While these charges are not cigarette-specific, tobacco companies are ultimately forced to pass on those costs to their consumers. Lastly, most jurisdictions apply sales tax to the full retail price of cigarettes. In the UK, many people now illegally import cigarettes, or buy those illegally imported, due to the increasing tax. A packet is less than half the price in some other countries, making illegal importers a large profit, while still providing comparatively very cheap cigarettes. The average price for 20 legal cigarettes is between 5.00 and 6.00, while imported packs are sold for less than 3; this is due to the fact that the large majority of the sale price of a legitimate pack is tax.

[edit] Sales

A Woolworths supermarket cigarette counter in New South Wales, Australia. Australia has recently prohibited the display of cigarettes in retail outlets, country wide.

[edit] Cigarette advertising


Main article: tobacco advertising

Before the Second World War many manufacturers gave away collectible cards, one in each packet of cigarettes. This practice was discontinued to save paper during the war and was never generally reintroduced, though for a number of years Natural American Spirit cigarettes included "vignette" cards depicting endangered animals and American historical events; this series was discontinued in 2003. On April 1, 1970 President Richard Nixon signed the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, banning cigarette advertisements on television in the United States starting on January 2, 1971. However, some tobacco companies attempted to circumvent the ban by marketing new brands of cigarettes as "little cigars"; examples included Tijuana Smalls, which came out almost immediately after the ban took effect, and Backwoods Smokes, which reached the market in the winter of 19731974 and whose ads used the slogan, "How can anything that looks so wild taste so mild." In many parts of the world tobacco advertising and even sponsorship of sporting events has been outlawed. The ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship in the EU in 2005 has prompted Formula One Management to look for races in areas that allow the tobacco sponsored teams to display their livery. As of 2007, only the Scuderia Ferrari retains tobacco sponsorship, continuing their relationship with Marlboro until 2011. In the United States, bolder advertising restrictions took effect on June 22, 2010. In some jurisdictions, such as the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Alberta, the retail store display of cigarettes is completely prohibited if persons under the legal age of consumption have access to the premises.[39] In Ontario, Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec, Canada, the display of tobacco is prohibited for everyone, regardless of age, as of 2010. This includes non-cigarette products such as cigars and blunt wraps.[40][41]

[edit] Purchase restrictions

Beginning on April 1, 1998, the sale of cigarettes and other tobacco products to people under the state purchase age has been prohibited by law in all 50 states of the United States. The age is 19 in Alabama, Alaska, New Jersey, Utah, and Nassau, Suffolk, and Onondaga counties in New York.[42][43] The intended effect of this is to prevent older high school students from purchasing cigarettes for their younger peers. Legislation was pending as of 2004 in some other states. In Massachusetts,[44] parents and guardians are allowed to give cigarettes to minors, but sales to minors are prohibited. Similar laws exist in many other countries. In Canada, most of the provinces require smokers to be 19 years of age to purchase cigarettes (except for Quebec and the prairie provinces, where the age is 18). However, the minimum age only concerns the purchase of tobacco, not use. Alberta, however, does have a law which prohibits the possession or use of tobacco products by all persons under 18, punishable by a $100 fine. Australia, New Zealand and Pakistan have a nationwide ban on the selling of all tobacco products to people under the age of 18.

Tabak-Trafik in Vienna. Since 1 January 2007, all cigarette machines in Austria must attempt to verify a customer's age by requiring the insertion of a debit card or mobile phone verification.

Since 1 October 2007, it has been illegal for retailers to sell tobacco in all forms to people under the age of 18 in three of the UK's four constituent countries (England, Wales and Scotland) (rising from 16). It is also illegal to sell lighters, rolling papers and all other tobacco-associated items to people under 18. It is not illegal for people under 18 to buy or smoke tobacco, just as it was not previously for people under 16; it is only illegal for the said retailer to sell the item. The age increase from 16 to 18 came into force in Northern Ireland on 1 September 2008. In the Republic of Ireland, bans on the sale of the smaller ten-packs and confectionery that resembles tobacco products (Candy cigarettes) came into force on May 31, 2007 in a bid to cut underaged smoking. The UK Department of Health plans to follow suit with the ten-pack ban. Most countries in the world have a legal vending age of 18. Some exceptions are Italy, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, the Netherlands and Gibraltar, where the age is 16. Since January 1, 2007, all cigarette machines in public places in Germany must attempt to verify a customer's age by requiring the insertion of a debit card. Turkey, which has one of the highest percentage of smokers in its population,[45] has a legal age of 18. Another curiosity is Japan, one of the highest tobacco-consuming nations, which requires purchasers to be 20 years of age (suffrage in Japan is

20 years old).[46] Since July 2008, Japan has enforced this age limit at cigarette vending machines through use of the taspo smart card. In other countries, such as Egypt, it is legal to use and purchase tobacco products regardless of age. Germany raised the purchase age from 16 to 18 on the 1 September 2007. Some police departments in the United States occasionally send an underaged teenager into a store where cigarettes are sold, and have the teen attempt to purchase cigarettes, with their own or no ID. If the vendor then completes the sale, the store is issued a fine.[47] Similar enforcement practices are regularly performed by Trading Standards Officers in the UK and the Garda Siochana, the police force of the Republic of Ireland.[48]

[edit] Consumption
As of 2002, approximately 5.5 trillion cigarettes are produced globally each year and are smoked by over 1.1 billion people or greater than one-sixth of the world population. While smoking rates have leveled off or declined in developed nations, they continue to rise in developing parts of the world. Smoking rates in the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006 falling from 42% to 20.8% of adults.[2] In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year.[3]
Smoking prevalence by gender (2000) Percent smoking Region Africa United States Men Women 29 35 4 22 4 26 4 8

Eastern Mediterranean 35 Europe Southeast Asia Western Pacific 46 44 60

Source: World Health Organization estimates, 2000

Leading consumers of cigarettes (1998)[49] Country Population Cigarettes consumed Cigarettes consumed

(millions) China USA Japan Russia 1248 270 126 146 1643 451 328 258 215

(billions)

(per capita) 1320 1670 2600 1760 1070

Indonesia 200

Smoking prevalence in the U.S. (2006)[50] Rank State % Rank State % Rank State % Rank State % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 KY 28.6 14 SC NV NC DE WY PA IA FL ME WI IL SD 22.3 27 22.2 28 22.1 29 21.7 30 21.6 31 21.5 32 21.5 33 21.0 34 20.9 35 20.8 36 20.5 37 20.4 38 KS GA ND VA RI MT NH NE OR NY 20.0 40 20.0 41 19.6 42 19.3 43 19.3 44 19.0 45 18.7 46 18.6 47 18.5 48 18.3 49 AZ VT DC CO 18.1 18.0 17.9 17.9

WV 25.7 15 OK MS AK IN AR LA 25.7 16 25.1 17 24.2 18 24.1 19 23.7 20 23.4 21

MA 17.8 MD 17.8 HI 17.5

WA 17.1 CT ID CA UT 17.0 16.8 14.9 9.8

MO 23.3 22 AL TN OH MI 23.3 23 22.6 24 22.5 25 22.4 26

MN 18.3 50 TX NJ 18.1 51 18.1

NM 20.2 39

[edit] Health issues

Main article: Health effects of tobacco

Nicotine, the primary psychoactive chemical in cigarettes, is addictive.[51] Cigarette use by pregnant women has also been shown to cause birth defects (which include mental and physical disability).[4] Many anti-smoking ads claim that, on average, each cigarette smoked shortens lifespan by 11 minutes[52] and half of smokers die early[53] of tobacco-related disease and lose, on average, 14 years of life.

[edit] Warning messages in packages

Dutch cigarette package with the warning "Roken is dodelijk" (smoking is deadly). Main article: Tobacco packaging warning messages

Some countries require cigarette packs to contain warnings about health. The United States was the first,[54] later followed by other countries including Canada, most of Europe, Australia,[55] India, Hong Kong and Singapore. In December 2000, Canada became the first country to enforce graphic warning on cigarette packaging.[55] And at end of December 2010 the new regulation from Ottawa is to increase size of tobacco warning to cover 3/4 of cigarette package.[56] As of November 2010, 39 countries have adopted similar legislation.[54] On February 2011, Canadian government made a regulation that enforced cigarettes packages to contain 12 new images to cover 75 percent of the outside panel of cigarette packages and 8 new health messages in the inside panel with full color. Canada is the only country in the world that uses both sides of the panel.[57] April 2011: The world's toughest laws on packages came from Australia. New Zealand, Canada and United Kingdom have considered similar policy. All of the packages should be on a bland olive green covered 75 percent of the front of a pack and all of the back with graphic health warnings. The only things that differentiate one brand and another just the brand and product name in a standard color, standard position and standard font size and style.[58]

[edit] Smoking bans


Many governments impose restrictions on smoking tobacco, especially in public areas. The primary justification has been the negative health effects of secondhand smoke.[59] Laws vary by country and locality. See:

Smoking age Smoking bans Smoking bans by country Smoking bans in private vehicles

[edit] Cigarette butt

A discarded cigarette butt, lying on dirty snow. See also: Cigarette filter

The common name for the remains of a cigarette after smoking is a "(cigarette) butt". The butt typically comprises about 30% of the cigarette's original length. It consists of a tissue tube which holds a filter and some remains of tobacco mixed with ash.

[edit] Cigarette litter


See also: Ashtray

A cigarette disposal canister, encouraging the public to dispose of their cigarettes properly.

Cigarette filters are made from cellulose acetate and are biodegradable,[60][61] though depending on environmental conditions they can be resistant to degradation. Accordingly, the duration of the degradation process is cited as taking as little as 1 month to 3 years[60] to as long as 1015 years.[61] One campaign group has suggested they're never fully biodegraded.[62] This variance in rate and resistance to biodegradation in many conditions is a factor in littering[63] and environmental damage.[64] It is estimated that 4.5 trillion cigarette butts become litter every year.[61] In the 2006 International Coastal Cleanup, cigarettes and cigarette butts constituted 24.7% of the total collected pieces of garbage, over twice as many as any other category.[65] Cigarette butts contain the chemicals filtered from cigarettes and can leach into waterways and water supplies.[66] Cellulose acetate and carbon particles breathed in from cigarette filters is suspected of causing lung damage.[67] Smouldering cigarette butts have also been blamed for triggering fires from residential fires[68] to major wildfires and bushfires which have caused major property damage and also death[69][70][71] as well as disruption to services by triggering alarms and warning systems.[72] Many governments have sanctioned stiff penalties for littering of cigarette butts; Washington State imposes a penalty of $1024.[73] Cigarette butt is one of the most commonly found litters on the street. Most high-rise littering also relates to cigarette butts.[74]

About Us Sitemap The Archives Contact Us

Subscribe RSS Email

What does cigarette smoke contain?


Is cigarette smoking really dangerous? Why is it so? Lets find out what is in cigarette smoke. Compared to non-smokers, smokers body includes:

Two times more cadmium Four times more polonium Ten times more benzene Ten times more arsenic

What is in cigarette smoke?


Cigarette smoke is a result of burning tobacco and other additives in a cigarette. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of chemicals. The smoke contains tar, which is a term used to describe the toxic chemicals. Tar is made up of over 4000 chemicals.

Some of the chemicals and poisonous gases in cigarette smoke include:


1. Acetone 2. Acetylene 3. Ammonia 4. Arsenic 5. Benzene 6. Benzoapyrene 7. Butane 8. Cadmium 9. Carbon monoxide 10. Cyanide 11. Formaldehyde 12. Lead 13. Methanol 14. Nicotine 15. Nitrogen oxide 16. Phenol 17. Propylene glycol 18. Toluene

You will be surprised to know that cigarette smoke contains almost any toxic chemical you find around your garage or surroundings. Cigarette smoke is a cocktail of poisonous gases and chemicals. Most of the chemicals are at lower levels in one cigarette. But, over a period of time, they build up at much higher levels in your body. Quit smoking today!
Cigarette smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, including 43 known cancer-causing (carcinogenic) compounds and 400 other toxins. These include nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, as well as formaldehyde, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic, and DDT. Nicotine is highly addictive. Smoke containing nicotine is inhaled into the lungs, and the nicotine reaches your brain in just six seconds. While not as serious as heroin addiction, addiction to nicotine also poses very serious health risks in the long run.

Nicotine in small doses acts as a stimulant to the brain. In large doses, it's a depressant, inhibiting the flow of signals between nerve cells. In even larger doses, it's a lethal poison, affecting the heart, blood vessels, and hormones. Nicotine in the bloodstream acts to make the smoker feel calm. As a cigarette is smoked, the amount of tar inhaled into the lungs increases, and the last puff contains more than twice as much tar as the first puff. Carbon monoxide makes it harder for red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Tar is a mixture of substances that together form a sticky mass in the lungs. Most of the chemicals inhaled in cigarette smoke stay in the lungs. The more you inhale, the better it feelsand the greater the damage to your lungs.Ask anyone with a medical lab technology degree. They will be able to tell you what damage smoking does to the lungs."

What's In Cigarette Smoke?


Cigarette smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, including 43 known cancer-causing (carcinogenic) compounds and 400 other toxins. These include nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, as well as formaldehyde, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic, and DDT. Nicotine is highly addictive. Smoke containing nicotine is inhaled into the lungs, and the nicotine reaches your brain in just six seconds. Nicotine in small doses acts as a stimulant to the brain. In large doses, it's a depressant, inhibiting the flow of signals between nerve cells. In even larger doses, it's a lethal poison, affecting the heart, blood vessels, and hormones. Nicotine in the bloodstream acts to make

the smoker feel calm. As a cigarette is smoked, the amount of tar inhaled into the lungs increases, and the last puff contains more than twice as much tar as the first puff. Carbon monoxide makes it harder for red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Tar is a mixture of substances that together form a sticky mass in the lungs. Electronic cigarettes are the best new option for smokers. Click here to see what we found out. Most of the chemicals inhaled in cigarette smoke stay in the lungs. The more you inhale, the better it feelsand the greater the damage to your lungs.

Cigarette Maker Now Lists Ingredients


For the first time, an American tobacco company has begun listing long-secret ingredients contained in its cigarettes directly on the label. Yesterday, Liggett Group Inc. introduced cartons that the company plans to begin using that list the ingredients in its L&M cigarettes, including molasses, phenylacetic acid and the oil of the East Indian mint called patchouli. The move comes as the state of Massachusetts is trying to compel disclosure of all ingredients by all cigarette makers, an effort that other major tobacco companies are fighting. Liggett, which broke with the industry by signing the first settlements ever with states and private attorneys suing it, supports the Massachusetts effort as well. "Liggett believes that its adult consumers have a right to full disclosure," Liggett head Bennett S. LeBow said in a statement. Along with blended tobacco and water, the 26-item L&M list includes high fructose corn syrup, sugar, natural and artificial licorice flavor, menthol, artificial milk chocolate and natural chocolate flavor, valerian root extract, molasses and vanilla extracts, and cedarwood oil. Less familiar additives include glycerol, propylene glycol, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid and 3-methylpentanoic acid. Some 600 ingredients are used in American cigarettes, but a Liggett spokesman said the L&M statement was a "quite exhaustive list" of every ingredient used in that brand. Ingredients in tobacco products have never been proved harmful -- especially when compared with the many toxins found in tobacco smoke itself. But activists have long pushed for disclosure of the ingredients, in part because consumers tend to be more wary of risks imposed upon them by others than of the risks they knowingly choose. The companies have provided lists of ingredients to the federal Department of Health and Human Services for more than a decade, but government officials are legally not allowed to release the information. The industry also presented a composite list of 599 additives to congressional investigators in 1994, but that was never officially made public. David Remes, an attorney who represents the four other tobacco companies challenging the state of Massachusetts, said the case comes down to the industry's right to protect its trade secrets.

Lowell Kleinman, M.D., and Deborah Messina-Kleinman, M.P.H.


drkoop.com Health Columnists Cigarette flavors have gone through many changes since cigarettes were first made. Initially, cigarettes were unfiltered, allowing the full "flavor" of the tar to come through. As the public became concerned about the health effects of smoking, filters were added. While this helped alleviate the public's fears, the result was a cigarette that tasted too bitter. Filters Don't Work Filters do not remove enough tar to make cigarettes less dangerous. They are just a marketing ploy to trick you into thinking you are smoking a safer cigarette. The solution to the bitter-tasting cigarette was easy -- have some chemists add tasteimproving chemicals to the tobacco. Unfortunately, some of these chemicals also cause cancer. But not all of the chemicals in your cigarettes are there for taste enhancement. For example, a chemical very similar to rocket fuel helps keep the tip of the cigarette burning at an extremely hot temperature. This allows the nicotine in tobacco to turn into a vapor so your lungs can absorb it more easily. Toilet Bowl Cleaner? Most people prefer to use ammonia for things such as cleaning windows and toilet bowls. You may be surprised to learn that the tobacco industry has found some additional uses for this household product. By adding ammonia to your cigarettes, nicotine in its vapor form can be absorbed through your lungs more quickly. This, in turn, means your brain can get a higher dose of nicotine with each puff. The complete list of chemicals added to your cigarettes is too long to list here. Here are some examples that will surprise you: Fungicides and pesticides -- Cause many types of cancers and birth defects. Cadmium -- Linked to lung and prostate cancer. Benzene -- Linked to leukemia. Formaldehyde -- Linked to lung cancer. Nickel -- Causes increased susceptibility to lung infections.

If you are angry that so many things have been added to the cigarettes you enjoy so much, you should be. Many of these chemicals were added to make you better able to tolerate toxic amounts of cigarette smoke. They were added without regard to your health and with the intent to keep you addicted. As the tobacco industry saying goes, "An addicted customer is a customer for life, no matter how short that life is." Make sure that you have the last laugh. Regardless of the countless chemicals in your cigarettes, quitting is always your option.

Perhaps this list of ingredients that are found in cigarettes is enough to make you want to quit smoking for good!

There are more than 4,000 ingredients in a cigarette other than tobacco. Common additives include yeast, wine, caffeine, beeswax and chocolate. Here are some other ingredients: Ammonia: Household cleaner Angelica root extract: Known to cause cancer in animals Arsenic: Used in rat poisons Benzene: Used in making dyes, synthetic rubber Butane: Gas; used in lighter fluid Carbon monoxide: Poisonous gas Cadmium: Used in batteries Cyanide: Deadly poison DDT: A banned insecticide Ethyl Furoate: Causes liver damage in animals Lead: Poisonous in high doses Formaldehiyde: Used to preserve dead specimens Methoprene: Insecticide Megastigmatrienone: Chemical naturally found in grapefruit juice Maltitol: Sweetener for diabetics Napthalene: Ingredient in mothballs Methyl isocyanate: Its accidental release killed 2000 people in Bhopal, India in 1984 Polonium: Cancer-causing radioactive element

What's in a Cigarette?
by K. H. Ginzel, M.D.
For those who still don't know let me emphatically state that cigarette smoking is a true addiction! To grasp this well-documented fact, one really doesn't have to study all the supporting scientific evidence. One simply needs to consider that no other drug is selfadministered with the persistence, regularity and frequency of a cigarette. At an average rate of ten puffs per cigarette, a one to three pack-a-day smoker inhales 70,000 to 200,000 individual doses of mainstream smoke during a single year. Ever since its large scale industrial production early in this century, the popularity of the modern cigarette has been spreading like wildfire. Here is the first, and perhaps the most significant answer to the title question: Addiction is in a cigarette. Probing into what makes a cigarette so irresistible, we find that much of the recent research corroborates earlier claims: It is for the nicotine in tobacco that the smoker smokes, the chewer chews, and the dipper dips. Hence, nicotine is in a cigarette. In contrast to other drugs, nicotine delivery from tobacco carries an ominous burden of chemical poisons and cancer-producing substances that boggle the mind. Many toxic agents are in a cigarette. However, additional toxicants are manufactured during the smoking process by the chemical reactions occurring in the glowing tip of the cigarette. The number is staggering: more than 4,000 hazardous compounds are present in the smoke that smokers draw into their lungs and which escapes into the environment between puffs. The burning of tobacco generates more than 150 billion tar particles per cubic inch, constituting the visible portion of cigarette smoke. According to chemists at R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, cigarette smoke is 10,000 times more concentrated than the

automobile pollution at rush hour on a freeway. The lungs of smokers, puffing a daily ration of 20 to 60 low to high tar cigarettes, collect an annual deposit of one-quarter to one and one-half pounds of the gooey black material, amounting to a total of 15 to 90 million pounds of carcinogen-packed tar for the aggregate of current American smokers. Hence, tar is in a cigarette. But visible smoke contributes only 5-8% to the total output of a cigarette. The remaining bulk that cannot be seen makes up the so-called vapor or gas phase of cigarette "smoke." It contains, besides nitrogen and oxygen, a bewildering assortment of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, and nitrogen oxides, to name just a few. Smokers efficiently extract almost 90% of the particulate as well as gaseous constituents (about 50% in the case of carbon monoxide) from the mainstream smoke of the 600 billion cigarettes consumed annually in the U.S. In addition, 2.25 million metric tons of sidestream smoke chemicals pollute the enclosed air spaces of homes, offices, conference rooms, bars, restaurants, and automobiles in this country. Hence, pollution is in a cigarette. The witch's brew of poisons invades the organs and tissues of smokers and nonsmokers, adults and children, born as well as unborn, and causes cancer, emphysema, heart disease, fetal growth retardation and other problems during pregnancy. The harm inflicted by all other addictions combined pales in comparison. Smoking-related illness, for example, claims in a few days as many victims as cocaine does in a whole year. Hence, disease is in a cigarette. The irony is that many of the poisons found in cigarette smoke are subject to strict regulation by federal laws which, on the other hand, specifically exempt tobacco products. "Acceptable Daily Intake," ADI, is the amount of a chemical an individual can be exposed to for an extended period without apparent detriment to health. In addition, there is the chemical burden from sidestream smoke, afflicting smokers and non-smokers alike. Based on the reported concentrations in enclosed, cigarette smokepolluted areas, the estimated intakes of nicotine, acrolein, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde peak at 200, 130, 75, 7, and 3 times the ADI, respectively. The high exposure to acrolein is especially unsettling. This compound is not only a potent respiratory irritant, but qualifies, according to current studies, as a carcinogen. Regulatory policy aims at restricting exposure to carcinogens to a level where the lifetime risk of cancer would not exceed 1 in 100,000 to 1,000,000. Due to a limited database, approximate upper lifetime risk values could be calculated for only 7 representative cigarette smoke carcinogens. The risk values were extraordinarily high, ranging from 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 16. Because of the awesome amount of carcinogens found in cigarette smoke and the fact that carcinogens combine their individual actions in an additive or even multiplicative fashion, it is not surprising that the actual risk for lung cancer is as high as one in ten. Hence, cancer is in a cigarette. Among the worst offenders are the nitrosamines. Strictly regulated by federal agencies, their concentrations in beer, bacon, and baby bottle nipples must not exceed 5 to 10 parts per billion. A typical person ingests about one microgram a day, while the smokers' intake tops this by 17 times for each pack of cigarette smoked. In 1976, a rocket fuel manufacturer in the Baltimore area was emitting dimethylnitrosamine into the surrounding air, exposing the local inhabitants to an estimated 14 micrograms of the carcinogen per day. The plant was promptly shut down. However eagerly the government tries to protect us from outdoor pollution and the carcinogenic risk of consumer products, it blatantly suspends control if the offending chemical is in, or comes from, a cigarette. Hence, hypocrisy is in a

cigarette. But there is still more in a cigarette than addiction, poison, pollution, disease, and hypocrisy. A half century of aggressive promotion and sophisticated advertising that featured alluring role models from theater, film and sport, has invested the cigarette with an enticing imagery. Imagery which captivates and seduces a growing youngster. The youngster, indispensable for being recruited into the future army of smokers, does not start to smoke cigarettes for the nicotine, but for the false promises they hold. Hence, deceit is in a cigarette. In summary, no drug ever ingested by humans can rival the long-term debilitating effects of tobacco; the carnage perpetuated by its purveyors; the merciless irreversibility of destiny once the victim contracts lung cancer or emphysema; the militant denial on the part of those who, with the support of stockholders and the sanction of governments, legally push their lethal merchandise across borders and continents killing every year two and one-half to three million people worldwide. All things added together: death is in a cigarette. K. H. Ginzel, M.D., is Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Arkansas. His work is concentrated in the area of nicotine and its effects.